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Sample records for barstow solar pilot plant

  1. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  2. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-25

    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  3. Monograph Series No. 3: 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant receiver solar absorptance measurements and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A.F.

    1986-06-01

    Solar absorptance data on Pyromark painted receiver panels at the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant located near Barstow, California are reported. Measurements were made in 1982, 1983, and 1984. Selected measurements were made in 1985 after one receiver panel was repainted with Pyromark. The results show a linear decrease in the solar absorptance with time from an original average value of 0.92 to 0.88 after 663 days. The decrease in solar absorptance correlated with the higher incident solar flux levels on the receiver panels and not with the operating temperature of the panels. Repainting of one receiver panel successfully increased the solar absorptance to a value above 0.96.

  4. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). 10-MWe Solar Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: solar-facilities design integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The results are presented of those thermal hydraulic, structural, and stress analyses required to demonstrate that the Receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant will satisfy the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life. Recommendations resulting from those analyses and supporting test programs are presented regarding operation of the receiver. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding. (LEW)

  5. Software/firmware design specification for 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladewig, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    The software and firmware employed for the operation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are completely described. The systems allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats, and include the capability of operator-commanded control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy, and interfaces to the Operational Control System, the Data Acquisition System, and the Beam Characterization System. The requirements are decomposed into eleven software modules for execution in the Heliostat Array Controller computer, one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Field Controller microprocessor, and one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Controller microprocessor. The design of the modules to satisfy requirements, the interfaces between the computers, the software system structure, and the computers in which the software and firmware will execute are detailed. The testing sequence for validation of the software/firmware is described. (LEW)

  6. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Solar Pilot Plant Phase I, detailed design report: thermal storage subsystem research experiment. CDRL Item No. 8 (Approved)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-17

    The Thermal Storage Subsystem Research Experiment is designed to give maximum information for evaluating the design, performance, and operating parameters of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. The experiment is summarized, and the experiment components detail design and integration are described. The experiment test and operation is described which is designed to collect engineering data to allow the design, performance, and operational characteristics to be specified for the Pilot Plant. Appended are: design documentation; pressure drop calculations; materials studies for thermal energy storage; flow charts for data acquisition and control; condenser detail design; instrumentation error analysis; logic diagrams for the control system; literature survey to evaluate the two-phase forced convection heat transfer; and the vaporizer performance model. (LEW)

  8. Solar Pilot Plant Phase I, detailed design report: collector subsystem research experiment. CDRL Item No. 6 (Approved)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-31

    The configurations of the experimental heliostat, power and control system, and support elements for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are described, and the analytical and experimental determination of performance parameters is discussed. A system analysis is presented, including demonstration of pointing accuracy by error analysis, and demonstration of loop performance by simulation. Engineering model test plans are given that are to evaluate subassemblies, processes, and procedures as well as provide insight into best tests for heliostat subsystem testing. Mirror module test data are analyzed. A comprehensive test plan for the experimental model is presented. Appended are: a heliostat power consumption analysis; collector subsystem research experiment detail specification; structural analysis; solar image analysis; computer and software information; breadboard test data; simulation of the heliostat control loop; mirror module reflectance measurements; plywood frame fixed focus mirror module test data; techniques for redirected image characterization; performance of a meteorological measuring system; and heliostat design data. (LEW)

  9. Pilot Plant for Solar Process Steam Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hennecke, Klaus; Hirsch, Tobias; Krüger, Dirk; Lokurlu, Ahmet; Walder, Markus

    2008-01-01

    An aluminium upgrading process will be supplied by steam directly generated in parabolic trough collectors. In this first of it’s kind installation in an industrial environment, steam at 4 bar will be fed into the existing distribution lines of the production to heat anodizing baths and storage tanks. The integration of the solar steam through separate heat exchangers in parallel to the existing system was also considered. In principle, due to the low temperatures of the baths, solar hot wate...

  10. Solar hydrogen projects. Pilot and demonstration plants. Solarwasserstoffprojekte. Pilot- und Demonstrationsprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.

    1990-12-01

    In the FRG, in Europe and all over the world there are various pilot and demonstration plants for solar hydrogen which are either being realised at the moment or in the pipeline/planning phase. A selection of these projects is described in the survey given below. The projects of the FRG are: The solar-hydrogen project of the Bavarian Solar Hydrogen Ltd.; the German-Saudi Arabian Hysolar project, the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project which is in its second phase; the German-Swiss Hypasse project, the hydrogen-house in the Emmental, the self-sufficient energy house of the FhG-ISE, and the Hawaii Wind Energy Storage Test Facilities. (orig.).

  11. Space Solar Power Concepts: Demonstrations to Pilot Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie K.; Feingold, Harvey; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of abundant, affordable power where needed is a key to the future exploration and development of space as well as future sources of clean terrestrial power. One innovative approach to providing such power is the use of wireless power transmission (WPT). There are at least two possible WPT methods that appear feasible; microwave and laser. Microwave concepts have been generated, analyzed and demonstrated. Technologies required to provide an end-to-end system have been identified and roadmaps generated to guide technology development requirements. Recently, laser W T approaches have gained an increased interest. These approaches appear to be very promising and will possibly solve some of the major challenges that exist with the microwave option. Therefore, emphasis is currently being placed on the laser WPT activity. This paper will discuss the technology requirements, technology roadmaps and technology flight experiments demonstrations required to lead toward a pilot plant demonstration. Concepts will be discussed along with the modeling techniques that are used in developing them. Feasibility will be addressed along with the technology needs, issues and capabilities for particular concepts. Flight experiments and demonstrations will be identified that will pave the road from demonstrations to pilot plants and beyond.

  12. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G. J.

    The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  13. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  14. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver-panel test-requirements document: Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-10

    Plans are presented for insolation testing of a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally the design planned for the 10 MWe pilot plant. Testing includes operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. A brief description of the pilot plant receiver subsystem is presented, followed by a detailed description of the receiver assembly to be tested at the Solar Thermal Test Facility. Major subassemblies are described, including the receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and the structural assembly. Requirements of the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. System safety measures are described. The tests, operating conditions, and expected results are presented. Quality assurance, task responsibilities, and test documentation are also discussed. (LEW)

  15. Solar pilot plant, phase I. Quarterly report No. 1, July--December 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-02-20

    Honeywell Inc. is investigating the technical and economic feasibility of generating electricity from solar energy. During the first 6 months of the program (1 July--31 December 1975), a preliminary design baseline for a 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant was generated and analyzed. Subsequently, several changes were made to improve performance and/or reduce cost. Conceptual designs and research experiments were generated for three key subsystems--collector, steam generator, and thermal storage. Limited testing was done to study the problem of removing eutectic salts from vaporizer tubes in the thermal storage subsystem. The program was on schedule at the end of 1975. Plans for the first quarter of 1976 include ordering long-leadtime items for the subsystem research experiments, continuing analysis of the conceptual designs preparatory to detailing them, and continuing engineering model experiments.

  16. Demonstration of a 100-kWth high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor pilot plant for ZnO dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, E.; Villasmil, W.; Meier, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting is a viable pathway towards sustainable and large-scale production of synthetic fuels. A reactor pilot plant for the solar-driven thermal dissociation of ZnO into metallic Zn has been successfully developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Promising experimental results from the 100-kWth ZnO pilot plant were obtained in 2014 during two prolonged experimental campaigns in a high flux solar simulator at PSI and a 1-MW solar furnace in Odeillo, France. Between March and June the pilot plant was mounted in the solar simulator and in-situ flow-visualization experiments were conducted in order to prevent particle-laden fluid flows near the window from attenuating transparency by blocking incoming radiation. Window flow patterns were successfully characterized, and it was demonstrated that particle transport could be controlled and suppressed completely. These results enabled the successful operation of the reactor between August and October when on-sun experiments were conducted in the solar furnace in order to demonstrate the pilot plant technology and characterize its performance. The reactor was operated for over 97 hours at temperatures as high as 2064 K; over 28 kg of ZnO was dissociated at reaction rates as high as 28 g/min.

  17. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  18. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  19. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  20. SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL: KINETICS OF THE PROCESS AND THE STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PILOT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORNA FALCÃO FÉLIX

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study of decontamination efficiency was carried through to evaluate the application of solar energy in water treatment in Northeast Brazil. The methodology used was the one proposed by Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS. Contaminated water samples were collected at the community of Robalo, Sergipe State, Brazil, which is characterized by poverty, social exclusion and a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The method used for pre- and post-disinfection microbiological analyses was the Colilert® QuantiTray (IDEXX one. The results show that the efficiency of the disinfection process reached 80 to 100%, however a post-treatment increase in colony counts was observed in some samples. The experimental results were treated numerically, to give disinfection kinetics, thus allowing theoretical and experimental data to be compared. This study further presents considerations for the development of an experimental pilot plant for water disinfection using SODIS.

  1. Advances in solar photoelectro-Fenton: Decolorization and mineralization of the Direct Yellow 4 diazo dye using an autonomous solar pre-pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of an autonomous solar pre-pilot plant for solar photoelectro-Fenton. • Total decolorization and 96-97% mineralization for solutions of Direct Yellow 4 diazo dye at pH 3.0. • More rapid dye decay and mineralization at 0.50 mmol dm−3 Fe2+ and maximum current of 5.0 A. • 11 aromatics, 22 hydroxylated derivatives and 9 carboxylic acids detected as intermediates. • Release of NH4+ and SO42−as main inorganic ions. - Abstract: Here, an overview on the advances in solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) is initially presented to show that it is the more potent electrochemical advanced oxidation process based on Fenton's reaction chemistry to remove organic pollutants from waters, due to the synergistic action of generated hydroxyl radicals and solar irradiation. As a novel advance for SPEF, an autonomous solar pre-pilot plant is proposed to make an energetically inexpensive process that can be viable at industrial level. The plant of 10 dm3 capacity contained a Pt/air-diffusion cell with 90.2 cm2 electrode area, coupled to a solar compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) photoreactor of 1.57 dm3 irradiation volume and to a solar photovoltaic panel that provides a maximum average current of 5.0 A. The oxidation ability of this plant was assessed by studying the degradation of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) diazo dye, which involved the predominant destruction of organics by ·OH formed from Fenton's reaction between H2O2 generated at the cathode and added Fe2+, along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes with sunlight in the CPCs photoreactor. The effect of Fe2+ and dye contents as well as current on decolorization rate, substrate decay and mineralization rate was examined. About 96-97% mineralization was rapidly attained using 0.50 mmol dm−3 Fe2+ and up to 0.32 mmol dm−3 DY4 at 5.0 A. The DY4 decay always obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Eleven aromatic products, twenty two hydroxylated derivatives and nine short

  2. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance preliminary design report. [150 MW commercial tower focus plant and 10 MW pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the 10 MWe Pilot Plant and the 150 MWe Commercial Plant are given. The Commercial Plant consists of 15 integrated collector - receiver modules. Each module contains 1325 heliostats and an internally mounted steam-generating receiver on a steel tower with an aperture height of 90 M. The Pilot Plant consists of one full-scale collector - receiver module. The two-stage sensible heat storage system utilizes a heat transfer salt medium and a hydrocarbon oil storage medium. The electric power generation system uses a conventional steam turbine-generator. The Pilot Plant is one module of the Commercial Plant, providing for one-to-one scaling in the most critical areas. (WHK)

  3. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume IV. Receiver subsystem. [10-MW Pilot Plant and 100-MW Commercial Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-11-01

    The conception, design, and testing of the receiver subsystem proposed by the McDonnell Douglas/Rocketdyne Receiver team for the DOE 10-MW Pilot Plant and the 100-MW Commercial Plant are described. The receiver subsystem consists of the receiver unit, the tower on which the receiver unit is mounted above the collector field, and the supporting control and instrumentation equipment. The plans for implementation of the Pilot Plant are given including the anticipated schedule and production plan (procurement, installation, checkout, and maintenance). Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the Pilot Plant receiver subsystem are included. (WHK)

  4. Infrared Sensor For Remote Temperature Monitoring Of Solar Thermal Central Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David W.

    1983-07-01

    At the Barstow 10MW Solar Thermal Pilot Plant, water is converted to high pressure steam by concentrated solar radiation. The design of the elements in which the boiling takes place makes them vulnerable to blockage by particulates contaminating the circulating water. Concern over the potential for heat damage to blocked boiler elements has led to the development of a remote optical monitoring system for use at the Pilot Plant. The system employs a telescope and infrared vidicon to detect the increased blackbody radiant emittance produced by an overheated element. An image is provided with spatial and thermal resolution sufficient to detect and identify a single blocked element. Design considerations for such a system are discussed, as are performance at the Pilot Plant and possible extensions of the system to more sophisticated pyrometric tasks.

  5. The serse pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Italy there are some 120 m3 of aged first cycle reprocessing aqueous wastes coming from three different campaigns which were carried out at the EUREX and ITREC pilot reprocessing plants with the MTR (materials testing reactor), CANDU (Canadian deuterium uranium) and Elk River nuclear fuel elements. The authors report a simplified chemical composition of the MCE (MTR + CANDU + Elk River) solution; the values of table I are referred to the solution which would be obtained by mixing the total amounts of the three aged wastes actually stored in four stainless steel tanks

  6. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume III. Collector subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell collector subsystem features a low-profile, multifaceted heliostat designed to provide high reflectivity and accurate angular and spatial positioning of the redirected solar energy under all conditions of wind load and mirror attitude within the design operational envelope. The heliostats are arranged in a circular field around a cavity receiver on a tower halfway south of the field center. A calibration array mounted on the receiver tower provides capability to measure individual heliostat beam location and energy periodically. This information and weather data from the collector field are transmitted to a computerized control subsystem that addresses the individual heliostat to correct pointing errors and determine when the mirrors need cleaning. This volume contains a detailed subsystem design description, a presentation of the design process, and the results of the SRE heliostat test program.

  7. The Marcoule pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marcoule spent fuel reprocessing pilot facility was built in 1960-1961 for extended testing of the PUREX process with various types of fuel under conditions similar to those encountered in a production plant. Extensive modification work was undertaken on the facility in 1983 in the scope of the TOR project, designed with the following objectives: - increase the throughput capacity to at least 5 metric tons of PHENIX equivalent fuel per year, - extend equipment and process R and D capability, - improve job safety by maximum use of remote handling facilities, - maximize waste conditioning treatments to produce waste forms suitable for direct storage, - provide a true industrial process demonstration in continuous operation under centralized control using computerized procedures. The redesigned plant is scheduled to begin operation during the second half of 1986. The proximity of the Industrial Prototypes Service and the ATALANTE radiochemical research laboratory scheduled to begin operation in 1990, will provide a synergistic environment in which R and D program may be carried out under exceptional conditions

  8. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year. PMID:24527646

  9. Radioactive waste examination pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a contact-handled radioactive waste examination pilot facility at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant determines through computerized nondestructive examination (NDE) whether transuranic waste now stored at the INEL qualifies for shipment to DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico or whether it needs further processing. As a container proceeds through the plant it is weighed, x-rayed with real-time radiography to determine actual contents, assayed to determine fissile contents, ultrasonically examined to determine container integrity, and surveyed for surface radiation and contamination. Because the facility handles transuranic waste, proper information management is essential. A microprocessor-based data management system has been developed for this purpose; a key feature is its direct communication with the computerized NDE equipment and with a mainframe computer on which the data is stored permanently. 4 references, 2 figures

  10. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CRDL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 2. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The methods and plans for the manufacture of the 10-MW collector heliostats and associated controls for the pilot plant are detailed. An in-depth description of the production, installation, and verification testing of heliostats for the pilot plant is presented. Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the pilot plant collector subsystem are included. Also, a heliostat location summary report is given. (WHK)

  11. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II, Book 3. Dynamic simulation model and computer program descriptions. CDRL item 2. [SPP dynamics simulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The mathematical models and computer program comprising the SPP Dynamic Simulation are described. The SPP Dynamic Simulation is a computerized model representing the time-varying performance characteristics of the SPP. The model incorporates all the principal components of the pilot plant. Time-dependent direct normal solar insulation, as corrupted by simulated cloud passages, is transformed into absorbed radiant power by actions of the heliostat field and enclosed receiver cavity. The absorbed power then drives the steam generator model to produce superheated steam for the turbine and/or thermal storage subsystems. The thermal storage subsystem can, in turn, also produce steam for the turbine. The turbine using the steam flow energy produces the mechanical shaft power necessary for the generator to convert it to electrical power. This electrical power is subsequently transmitted to a transmission grid system. Exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed, reheated, deaerated, and pressurized by pumps for return as feedwater to the thermal storage and/or steam generator. A master control/instrumentation system is utilized to coordinate the various plant operations. The master controller reacts to plant operator demands and control settings to effect the desired output response. The SPP Dynamic Simulation Computer program is written in FORTRAN language. Various input options (e.g., insolation values, load demands, initial pressures/temperatures/flows) are permitted. Plant performance may be monitored via computer printout or computer generated plots. The remainder of this document describes the detailed pilot plant dynamic model, the basis for this simulation, and the utilization of this simulation to obtain analytical plant performance results.

  12. Analytical evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation process in a solar pilot power plant; Evaluacion analitica y optimizacion de procesos de oxidacion avanzada en planta piloto solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vazquez, J.; Malato Rodriguez, S.; Rodriguez Fernandez-Alba, A.

    2003-07-01

    The technical feasibility mechanisms and performance of degradation of several pesticides (imidacloprid, methomyl and diuron) dissolved in water have been studies at pilot scale in two well-defined photocatalytic systems of special interest because natural UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton.Equivalent pilot-scale (made up of Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications) and field conditions used for both systems and the three pesticides allowed adequate comparison of the degree of mineralization and toxicity achieved as well as the transformation products generated en route to mineralization. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and 90% mineralisation have been attained with all pesticides tested, methomyl being the most difficult to be degraded with both treatments. First order rate constants, initial rate,time necessary for mineralizing 90% of the initial TOC and hydrogen peroxide consumption were calculated in all cases, enabling comparison both of treatments and of the selected pesticide reactivity. Complete mineralisation of TOC is not achieved even after quite a long time (more than 300 minutes). Three different bioassays (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and a Microalga) have been used for testing the progress of toxicity during treatments. All remained toxic down to very low pesticide disappearance of the pesticide. Only if treatment is maintained throughout enough mineralisation (i. e. TOC disappearance), the toxicity is reduced to below the threshold (EC 50%). Transformation products evaluated by GC-MS/AED (after two SPE procedures), LC-IT-MS and LC-IC were the same in both phototreatments. The main differences between the two processes are in the amount of transformation products (TPs) generated, not in the TPs detected which were always the same. (Author)

  13. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  14. Solar Power System SPS - A small-scale 10 kWe solar thermal pilot power plant - Phase 5. Annual report 2003; Solar Power System SPS - Projet d'une mini-centrale pilote electro-thermo-solaire de 10 kWe - Phase 5. Rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, P.-A.; Gay, B.; Favrat, D.

    2003-12-15

    This illustrated annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reports on the development of components for a 10 kW electric solar thermal mini power plant. The concentrating solar collector is designed as an extra-flat compound parabolic collector without any evacuated component. The solar collector performance measurements are described. The results obtained with this collector prototype are disappointing. Further improvements in the collector construction are needed. A computer simulation model has been developed for this purpose. In another development the instrumentation built in the pilot power plant has been modified in order to be able to characterize the thermal performance of the heat exchangers in the thermodynamical cycle, to measure the oil fraction in the refrigerant and to test the performance of the R245fa refrigerant used instead of the R123. Finally, a new pump has been developed for the circulation of the refrigerant. This pump is mounted on the same axis as the the turbine. Special technologies and materials were required.

  15. Solar CPC Pilot Plant Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigo Carmine Dye in Waters and Wastewaters Using Supported-TiO2: Influence of Photodegradation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mendes Saggioro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine (IC dye in the presence of titanium dioxide under different conditions was reported. Several factors which interfere with the photodegradation efficiency as catalyst concentration, pH, initial concentration of dye, presence of inorganic anions, temperature, and the addition of hydrogen peroxide were studied under artificial irradiation with a 125 W mercury vapor lamp. Additionally, the catalyst supported on glass spheres was used for the photocatalytic degradation of the dye present in several types of waters in a CPC solar pilot plant. The photocatalytic products, carboxylic acids, and SO42- and NH4+ were followed during IC mineralization. Formate, acetate, and oxalate were detected in real MWWTP secondary effluent. The mineralization efficiency was of 42 and 21% using in suspension and supported TiO2, respectively. In order to evaluate biological effects, Eisenia andrei earthworms were used as a model organism. No significant difference (P>0.05 of weight was observed in the earthworm submitted to different concentrations of IC and its photoproducts. The photocatalytic degradation of IC on TiO2 supported on glass spheres suffered strong influence of the water matrix; nevertheless the method has the enormous advantage that it eliminates the need for the final catalyst removal step, reducing therefore the cost of treatment.

  16. Optimization of the electro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton treatments of sulfanilic acid solutions using a pre-pilot flow plant by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, M' Hannech II B.P.2121, C.P. 93002 Tetouan (Morocco); Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); El Begrani, Mohamed Soussi; Abdelouahid, Ben Ali [Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, M' Hannech II B.P.2121, C.P. 93002 Tetouan (Morocco)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quicker degradation of sulfanilic acid by solar photoelectro-Fenton than electro-Fenton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same optimized current density, Fe{sup 2+} content and pH for both processes by CCRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of TOC, energy cost and current efficiency by response surface methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes as main by-products after electro-Fenton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photolysis of these complexes by UV irradiation of sunlight in solar photoelectro-Fenton. - Abstract: A central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the experimental variables of the electro-Fenton (EF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) degradations of 2.5 L of sulfanilic acid solutions in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Electrolyses were performed with a pre-pilot flow plant containing a Pt/air diffusion reactor generating H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In SPEF, it was coupled with a solar photoreactor under an UV irradiation intensity of ca. 31 W m{sup -2}. Optimum variables of 100 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.5 mM Fe{sup 2+} and pH 4.0 were determined after 240 min of EF and 120 min of SPEF. Under these conditions, EF gave 47% of mineralization, whereas SPEF was much more powerful yielding 76% mineralization with 275 kWh kg{sup -1} total organic carbon (TOC) energy consumption and 52% current efficiency. Sulfanilic acid decayed at similar rate in both treatments following a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The final solution treated by EF contained a stable mixture of tartaric, acetic, oxalic and oxamic acids, which form Fe(III) complexes that are not attacked by hydroxyl radicals formed from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and added Fe{sup 2+}. The quick photolysis of these complexes by UV light of sunlight explains the higher oxidation power of SPEF. NH{sub 4}{sup +} was the main inorganic nitrogen ion released in both processes.

  17. CHOOSING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Vinnikov A. V.; Denisenko E. A.; Dolobenko D. V.

    2015-01-01

    Promising is the direction and, above all, in matters of energy saving and energy efficiency of Autonomous systems of power supply, the use of renewable sources-newable energy as a major source of energy for consumers in remote areas. Here priority is given to solar energy. Since solar radiation can be change place not only in heat and electrical. The article contains three main structural schematics of electricity supply with solar power plants. The features of their work are disclosed, as w...

  18. Solar Power System SPS: a small 10 kWe pilot plant for solar thermal power production; Solar Power System SPS: projet d'une mini centrale pilote electro-thermo-solaire de 10 kWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoud, C.; Breguet, R.; Allani, Y.

    2000-07-01

    This rapport presents the second phase of the development of a concentrating solar collector, including performance optimisation and manufacturing cost reduction. This collector of the parabolic trough type is intended to be used in small units for solar thermal power production in countries with sunny arid climate, with an electric power of about 10 kW. Various technical aspects of the parabolic trough construction like mechanical rigidity, choice of the different materials and welding problems as well as the adopted solutions are described. Comments are given on the economic future of this product and potential clients.

  19. Acoustic measurement of boiling instabilities in a solar receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A. G.

    1980-11-01

    An acoustic technique was developed and used to search for boiling instabilities in the prototype receiver for the Barstow 10 MW Solar Thermal Pilot Plant. Instabilities, consisting of movements of the transition zone between regions of nucleate and film boiling, were observed. The periods of these fluctuations ranged between three and fifteen seconds with no indications of preferred frequencies. The peak to peak amplitudes of the fluctuations averaged 0.4 meters under steady state conditions at absorbed power levels between 2.0 and 3.2 MW. Transient fluctuations with amplitudes up to 2.0 meters were also seen. These transients usually lasted between 30 and 300 seconds. It was not possible to pinpoint the causes of these transients.

  20. Solar CPC pilot plant photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in waters and wastewaters using suspended and supported-TiO2. Influence of photogenerated species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Oliveira, Anabela Sousa; Pavesi, Thelma; Tototzintle, Margarita Jiménez; Maldonado, Manuel Ignacio; Correia, Fábio Verissimo; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in waters and wastewaters in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was performed under different conditions. Suspensions of the TiO2 were used to compare the degradation efficiency of BPA (20 mg L(-1)) in batch and compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactors. A TiO2 catalyst supported on glass spheres was prepared (sol-gel method) and used in a CPC solar pilot plant for the photodegradation of BPA (100 μg L(-1)). The influence of OH·, O2 (·-), and h (+) on the BPA degradation were evaluated. The radicals OH· and O2 (·-) were proved to be the main species involved on BPA photodegradation. Total organic carbon (TOC) and carboxylic acids were determined to evaluate the BPA mineralization during the photodegradation process. Some toxicological effects of BPA and its photoproducts on Eisenia andrei earthworms were evaluated. The results show that the optimal concentration of suspended TiO2 to degrade BPA in batch or CPC reactors was 0.1 g L(-1). According to biological tests, the BPA LC50 in 24 h for E. andrei was of 1.7 × 10(-2) mg cm(-2). The photocatalytic degradation of BPA mediated by TiO2 supported on glass spheres suffered strong influence of the water matrix. On real municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) secondary effluent, 30 % of BPA remains in solution; nevertheless, the method has the enormous advantage since it eliminates the need of catalyst removal step, reducing the cost of treatment. PMID:24627201

  1. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II, Book 2. Central receiver optical model users manual. CDRL item 2. [HELIAKI code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    HELIAKI is a FORTRAN computer program which simulates the optical/thermal performance of a central receiver solar thermal power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar-generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant which this program simulates consists of a field of individual sun tracking mirror units, or heliostats, redirecting sunlight into a cavity, called the receiver, mounted atop a tower. The program calculates the power retained by that cavity receiver at any point in time or the energy into the receiver over a year's time using a Monte Carlo ray trace technique to solve the multiple integral equations. An artist's concept of this plant is shown.

  2. Thermodynamic solar plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic solar plants include all techniques aiming at converting the solar radiation into high temperature heat, and then at converting this heat into mechanical or electrical energy through a thermodynamic cycle connected to a power generator. The first step, capture of the solar radiation, requires the use of optical systems and, in most cases, the use of solar concentrators which allow to reach temperatures above 250 deg. C. The hybridization with another heat generation source (fossil or biomass) allows to increase the availability of the solar facilities. The heat is then converted into electricity using classical thermodynamic cycles with efficiencies ranging from 23% to 50%, and above in the case of combined cycles. The immediate efficiency of solar-electricity conversion is comprised between 20% and 30% depending on the technology implemented, and the investment costs are evaluated between 2800 euro/kWe (20-80 MWe plant with cylindro-parabolic collectors and Rankine cycle) and 4000 euro/KWe (40-200 MWe tower plant with combined cycles) but can reach 14000 euro/kWe in the case of a 10-25 kWe parabola-Stirling decentralized plant. The electricity cost ranges from 0.16 to 0.24 euro/kWhe for a big facility and is of about 0.30 euro/kWhe in the case of a parabola-Stirling plant (to be compared with 0.04 euro/kWe in the case of a nuclear power plant). The environmental impact of solar thermal electricity is lower than 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparable to the impact of hydro or nuclear power (4 and 6 kg CO2/MWhe, respectively), but much lower than the impact of photovoltaic energy (100 kg CO2/MWhe) or coal combustion (900 kg CO2/MWhe). The time of return on energy (duration of plant operation to produce the energy needed for its fabrication) is of only 5 months and the lifetime of solar concentration facilities is estimated to 25-30 years. This article presents the state-of-the-art of solar plant technologies and their economic aspects (market penetration

  3. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation and master control subsystems and balance of plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The requirements, performance, and subsystem configuration for both the Commercial and Pilot Plant electrical power generation subsystems (EPGS) and balance of plants are presented. The EPGS for both the Commercial Plant and Pilot Plant make use of conventional, proven equipment consistent with good power plant design practices in order to minimize risk and maximize reliability. The basic EPGS cycle selected is a regenerative cycle that uses a single automatic admission, condensing, tandem-compound double-flow turbine. Specifications, performance data, drawings, and schematics are included. (WHK)

  4. Design of a uranium recovery pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering design of a pilot plant of uranium recover, is presented. The diagrams and specifications of the equipments such as pipelines, pumps, values tanks, filters, engines, etc... as well as metallic structure and architetonic design is also presented. (author)

  5. Entry tank calibration in TOR pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is the description of calibration measurements used for determining the uranium and plutonium mass entry in the fast neutron fuel reprocessing pilot plant (TOR) of Marcoule

  6. CHOOSING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnikov A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Promising is the direction and, above all, in matters of energy saving and energy efficiency of Autonomous systems of power supply, the use of renewable sources-newable energy as a major source of energy for consumers in remote areas. Here priority is given to solar energy. Since solar radiation can be change place not only in heat and electrical. The article contains three main structural schematics of electricity supply with solar power plants. The features of their work are disclosed, as well as an algorithm for calculating solar energy systems, the sequence of which is to define the required parameters, the daily energy consumption by consumers of electric power, the calculation capacity of the battery, the choice of the inverter and determining the area of solar batteries. The article reveals the conditions that affect the calculation of the PV system. It is shown that the greatest efficiency, including economic and reliability we have at combined (hybrid Autonomous system, which was carried out with both solar power and wind power and gas stations. The important matters of improving the reliability of solar systems are the introduction to the design of a new element of the base, and first and foremost, Autonomous inventors performed on a single-phase transformer with a rotating magnetic field

  7. Solar-assisted district heating systems - the SOLARIS pilot plant at Chemnitz - Status report; Solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung - Pilotanlage SOLARIS Chemnitz Statusbericht `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbaneck, T.; Schirmer, U. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Projektgruppe Solarthermie 2000

    1998-12-31

    The solar-assisted district heating in the Technology and Industrial Park SOLARIS is currently being built. The seasonal heat storage is a gravel-water tank with a volume of 8,000 cubic metre and has already been completed. The expectations have been met with respect to using a simple technology for the construction of seasonal storage and reducing costs. The initial operation is scheduled for summer 1998. Afterwards a two-year measuring programme will control and evaluate the function of the solar-assisted district heating system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermesystem im Chemnitzer Technologie- und Gewerbepark solaris befindet sich im Bau. Der saisonale Waermespeicher, ein 8000 m{sup 3} Kies-Wasser-Speicher ist fertiggestellt. Die Erwartungen in bezug auf eine einfache Technologie zum Bau von saisonalen Speichern und in bezug auf die Einhaltung des Kostenrahmens wurden erfuellt. Die Inbetriebnahme ist im Sommer 1998 geplant. Ein zweijaehriges Messprogramm soll nach Inbetriebnahme die Funktion des solar unterstuetzten Nahwaermesystems ueberwachen. (orig.)

  8. Metallography for coal liquefaction pilot plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years, four direct coal liquefaction pilot plants have been operated in the United States to evaluate several liquefaction processes. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has assisted pilot plant operators by assessing materials performance through supply and examination of corrosion samples, on-site examination of equipment, and analysis of failed pilot plant components in our laboratory. This paper describes these examinations, which have revealed chloride and polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking, water-side pitting, sulfidation, and a chloride-related acid attack. The results of these analyses have helped identify corrosion problems and make proper material selections or design changes, and the results have provided designers of demonstration and commercial plants with information useful in selecting materials for the proposed plants

  9. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  10. Wastewater Treatment on Photocatalytic Pilot Plant Unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga

    Thessaloniki : Grafima Publ, 2014 - (Liakopoulos, A.; Kungolos, A.; Christodoulatos, C.; Koutsospyros, A.), s. 177-182 ISBN 978-960-88490-5-1. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos island (GR), 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titanium dioxide * endocrine disruptors * pilot plant photoreactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  12. Fusion pilot plant scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CFFTP Pilot is representative of a class of machines that, like NPD in the CANDU development program, could test the key reactor core technologies on an integrated power reactor relevant system (materials, conditions, configuration). But in order to reduce costs, the machine would operate at reduced neutron flux relative to a power reactor, would not produce electricity, and would not test superconducting magnets. This design shows research directions towards a machine that could provide integrated nuclear testing (but not ignition physics) at a cost of about 1/3 ITER CDA. The test volume - the outboard blanket volume - would be comparable to the test port volume on ITER CDA, while the fluence and power density would be about 1/4 ITER CDA. 91 refs., 43 tabs., 45 figs

  13. Pilot plant for biohidrometallurgical production of copper

    OpenAIRE

    Conić Vesna T.; Cvetkovski Vladimir B.; Vuković Milovan D.; Cvetkovska Milena V.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, technical and technological characteristics of pilot plant for biohydrometallurgical production of copper financed by Ministry of Science and Environment Protection of Serbia, in the frame of capital providing for scientific research for the period 2006-2008 is presented. Presented within this project is the contribution and capability of the Institute for Mining and Metallurgy Bor to carry out the Fp6 IP project: 'Biotechnology for Metal Bearing Materials in Europe (BioMinE)'. ...

  14. The pilot plant for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot plant for radiation processing of food has been built in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw, during the period 1986-1990. The technical features as well as the working parameters of two electron accelerators and equipment accompanied have been presented. The legal aspects connected with food irradiation have been also performed. The system of dose control and product inspection utilized in the course of production process have been shown. 1 tab

  15. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  16. Pilot plant for biohidrometallurgical production of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conić Vesna T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, technical and technological characteristics of pilot plant for biohydrometallurgical production of copper financed by Ministry of Science and Environment Protection of Serbia, in the frame of capital providing for scientific research for the period 2006-2008 is presented. Presented within this project is the contribution and capability of the Institute for Mining and Metallurgy Bor to carry out the Fp6 IP project: 'Biotechnology for Metal Bearing Materials in Europe (BioMinE'. In the pilot plant, processes such as: microbiological leaching, pressures oxidation, chemical purification of solutions, solvent extraction and electrowining of copper were carried out. Bioleaching can treat complex copper concentrates which are either unacceptable to smelting or attract high penalties. Some of the elements penalized in smelting (for example zinc are dissolved in the bioleach process and can be recovered for sale. This may often allow an increased recovery of a few percent in the production of the copper concentrate. Bioleaching can be used in either small or large cathodic copper production from copper concentrate. Bioleaching uses conventional upstream and downstream process technology and the unit operation itself has been proven in the gold industry. For these reasons, this work describes the pilot plant for biotechnological production of copper from RTB Bor resources.

  17. About infrared scanning of photovoltaic solar plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, T.; Panouillot, P.-E.; Siikanen, S.; Athanasakou, E.; Baltas, P.; Nikopoulous, B.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is discussing about infrared scanning of PV solar plants. It is important that the performance of each solar panel and cell is verified. One new possibility compared to traditional ground-based scanning (handheld camera) is the utilization of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). In this paper results from a PV solar Plant in Western Greece are introduced. The nominal power of the solar plants were 0, 9 MW and 2 MW and they were scanned both by a ground-controlled drone and by handheld equipment. It is essential to know all the factors effecting to results and also the time of scanning is important. The results done from the drone and from ground-based scanning are compared; also results from various altitudes and time of day are discussed. The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/RPAS (Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems) will give an excellent opportunity to monitor various targets which are impossible or difficult to access from the ground. Compared to fixed-wing and helicopter-based platforms it will give advantages but also this technology has limitations. One limitation is the weight of the equipment and the short operational range and short flight time. Also valid procedures must be created for different solutions in the future. The most important thing, as in all infrared thermography applications, is the proper interpretation of results.

  18. A review on pilot plant development models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After more than 30 years, MINT has been able to produce many new findings, products and processes. Some of these have been able to penetrate local and international markets. This was achieved through a systematic commercialisation program practiced in MINT with its technological chain and MINT Technology Park program. This paper will review the development process of MINT pilot plants and compare them with a few other models from other institutions in Malaysia and abroad. The advantages and disadvantages of each model are reviewed and a discussion against MINT's model is presented. (Author)

  19. Vitrification pilot plant experiences at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one metric ton/day Vitrification Pilot Plant (VITPP) at Fernald, Ohio, simulated the vitrification of radium and radon bearing silo residues using representative non-radioactive surrogates containing high concentrations of lead, sulfates, and phosphates. The vitrification process was carried out at temperatures of 1,150 to 1,350 C. The VITPP processed glass for seven months, until a breach of the melter containment vessel suspended operations. More than 70,000 pounds of surrogate glass were produced by the VITPP. Experiences, lessons learned, and path forward will be presented

  20. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  1. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  2. Italian experience with pilot reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties recently experienced in the reprocessing technology of high-burnup power-reactor fuel elements have shown the importance of pilot plant experiments to optimize the separation processes and to test advanced equipment on a representative scale. The CNEN Eurex plant, in Saluggia (Vercelli), with a 50kg/d throughput, in operation since 1971, has completed several reprocessing campaigns on materials-testing reactor type fuel elements. Two different chemical flowsheets based, respectively, on TBP and tertiary amines, were thoroughly tested and compared. A concise comparative evaluation of the results obtained with the two schemes is given in the paper. Extensive modifications were then introduced (a new head-end cell equipped with a shear) to make the plant suitable to reprocess power reactor fuels. The experimental programme of the plant includes a joint CNEN-Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. reprocessing experiment of Candu (Pickering) type fuel elements to demonstrate a two-cycle amine-based recovery of the plutonium. Later, a stock of high-burnup fuel elements from the PWR Trino power station will be reprocessed to recover plutonium and uranium with a Purex-type flowsheet. ITREC, the second CNEN experimental reprocessing plant, at Trisaia Nuclear Centre (Matera), started active operation in 1975. In the first campaign U-Th mixed-oxide fuel elements irradiated in the Elk River reactor were processed. The special design features of ITREC make the plant highly versatile, allowing for substantial modification of equipment under remote control conditions. The plant will therefore be used mainly in the near future for advanced equipment testing. For this, a high-speed centrifugal contactor of a new type developed in Poland will be tested in the plant as a part of a joint experiment between CNEN and the Polish Ministry of Atomic Energy. Later, the plant programme will include an experimental campaign on fast-reactor fuels; a detailed study for this is in progress

  3. Italian experience with pilot reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems and difficulties recently experienced in the reprocessing technology of high burnup power reactor fuel elements have shown the importance of pilot plant experiments to optimize the separation processes and to test advanced equipment on a representative scale. The CNEN Eurex plant, in Saluggia (Vercelli), with a 50 kg/d thruput, in operation since '71, has completed several reprocessing campaigns on MTR type fuel elements. Two different chemical flowsheets based respectively on TBP and tertiary amines were thoroughly tested and compared: a concise comparative evaluation of the results obtained with the two schemes is given. Extensive modifications have then been introduced (namely a new headend cell equipped with a shear) to make the plant suitable to reprocess power reactor fuels. The experimental program of the plant includes a joint CNEN-AECL reprocessing experiment on CANDU (Pickering) type fuel elements to demonstrate a two cycle, amine based recovery of the plutonium. Later, a stock of high burnup fuel elements from the PWR Trino power station will be reprocessed to recover Pu and U with a Purex type flowsheet. ITREC, the second CNEN experimental reprocessing plant located at Trisaia Nuclear Center (Matera), started active operation two years ago. In the first campaign Th-U mixed oxide fuel elements irradiated in the Elk River reactor were processed. Results of this experiment are reported. ITREC special design features confer a high degree of versability to the plant allowing for substantial equipment modification under remote control conditions. For this reason the plant will be principally devoted in the near future to advanced equipment testing. Along this line high speed centrifugal contactor of a new type developed in Poland will be tested in the plant in the frame of a joint experiment between CNEN and the Polish AEC. Later on the plant program will include experimental campaign on fast reactor fuels; a detailed study on this program is in

  4. Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

  5. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives

  8. Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem raised by pilot- plant investigations is to devise a method for bridging the gap between developmental work in the laboratory and the practical applications of this work. How can the knowledge acquired in the laboratory be passed on to manufacturers or processors? The following questions are pertinent: (a) Is the pilot plant regarded as an immediate precursor of commercial plants? (b) How is a 100-fold increase in product handling realized? (c) How is commercial interest increased? (d) Who carries the final responsibilities for the programme of the pilot plant? (e) What technical facilities are needed, and (f) How the pilot plant should be organized to keep a constant flow of information between interested parties. All these aspects are discussed on the basis of a planned pilot plant for food irradiation in the Netherlands. (author)

  9. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  10. Pilot plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double stage gas irradiation (2 electron accelerators, 50 kW/700 keV each) is the main technological principle employed in the Polish pilot plant (20,000 Nm3/h) constructed at EPS Kaweczyn (low/medium sulphur coal). The pilot plant design is described in this paper. (author)

  11. A PILOT PLANT FOR THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Manure and Putreseible garbage are some of the main sources of pathogenic germs in countryside’s. On the other hand, demand for fertilizer and energy increases in rural areas every day. To study Potential of cow manure for these requirements a 16,5m3 pilot plant was designed and constructed as fermentation tank near animal husbandry of karaj Agriculture Faculty. Some 260kg cow manure and water with the ratio of 4 and 7 was fed to fermentation tank every day. Average daily biogas production was 3.4m3, which was burned successfully in a gas range. Gas production was reduced by 86% during coldest winter days. Design for control of gas pressure and reservation of excessive gas was successful. Concentration of nitrate in sludge increased by 1.6 folds compared to row material. Some bacteria and Parasites were reduced drastically.

  12. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions'' (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.'' This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  15. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H. [MCFC Research Association, Mie (Japan); Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  16. Temperature Effect to Solar Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Modestas Pikutis

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of different efficiency photovoltaic cells, which are used in solar power plants. All of these different photovoltaic cells are affected by different environment conditions. Maximum power point tracking is the main way to increase solar power plant efficiency. Mostly systems of maximum power point tracking are slow or inaccurate, that means the system cannot stay in maximum power point in solar power plant. This is the main reason why mostly of solar power plants are working n...

  17. Solar bowl component efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hair, E.A.; Green, B.L. (College of Engineering, Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory has published two volumes on the economic evaluation of various proposed configurations and plant sizes for the four solar thermal technologies. These are the latest in a series of publications sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) on plant and operational costs and are more complete in that they include calculations of electrical output. These latest Battelle volumes use the 1976 solar data from Barstow, Calif., and by calculating or estimating the energy conversion efficiency of each element in the process from sun to electricity predict the output and cost of electricity from different plant sizes for each of the four technologies. In this paper a comparison is presented of the component efficiencies developed by Battelle and those of the solar bowl at Crosbyton, Tex.

  18. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  19. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  20. Terrestrial Solar Thermal Power Plants: On the Verge of Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Zarza, E.

    2004-12-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) with optical concentration technologies are important candidates for providing the bulk solar electricity needed within the next few decades, even though they still suffer from lack of dissemination and confidence among citizens, scientists and decision makers. Concentrating solar power is represented nowadays at pilot-scale and demonstration-scale by four technologies, parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel reflector systems, power towers or central receiver systems, and dish/engine systems, which are ready to start up in early commercial/demonstration plants. Even though, at present those technologies are still three times more expensive than intermediate-load fossil thermal power plants, in ten years from now, STPP may already have reduced production costs to ranges competitive. An important portion of this reduction (up to 42%) will be obtained by R&D and technology advances in materials and components, efficient integration schemes with thermodynamic cycles, highly automated control and low-cost heat storage systems.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Strategic Plan is to provide decision makers, project participants, and the public with a high-level overview of the objectives, issues, and strategiesthat impact a decision on the suitability of WIPP as a permanent, safe disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste that has resulted from defense activities. This document is a component of an integrated planning process and is a key management tool that is coordinated and consistent with the Secretary's Disposal Decision Plan and the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Five-Year Plan. This documentsupports other US Department of Energy (DOE) planning efforts, including the TRU Waste Program. The WIPP Strategic Plan addresses the WIPP Program Test Phase, Disposal Decision, Disposal Phase, and Decommissioning Phase (decontamination and decommissioning). It describes the actions and activities that the DOE will conduct to ensure that WIPP will comply with applicable, relevant, and appropriate requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of New Mexico, and other applicable federal and state regulations. It also includes the key assumptions under which the strategy was developed. A comprehensive discussion of the multitude of activities involved in the WIPP Program cannot be adequately presented in this document. The specific details of these activities are presented in other, more detailed WIPP planningdocuments

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the open-quotes Disposal Room Model,close quotes describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized

  3. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) was authorized by Public Law 96-164 to provide a research and development facility for demonstrating the safe permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes from national defense activities and programs of the United States exempted from regulations by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico near Carlsbad, was constructed to determine the efficacy of an underground repository for disposal of TRU wastes. In accordance with the 1981 and 1990 Records of Decision (ROD), the development of the WIPP was to proceed with a phased approach. Development of the WIPP began with a siting phase, during which several sites were evaluated and the present site selected based on extensive geotechnical research, supplemented by testing. The site and preliminary design validation phase (SPDV) followed the siting phase, during which two shafts were constructed, an underground testing area was excavated, and various geologic, hydrologic, and other geotechnical features were investigated. The construction phase followed the SPDV phase during which surface structures for receiving waste were built and underground excavations were completed for waste emplacement

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Barstow Marine Corps Logistics Base, Operable Units 3 and 4, Barstow, CA, June 3, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLB Barstow (also referred to as the Base) is within the central Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County, California. This report provides a brief overview of the assessments conducted at CAOC 20, analytical results from soil sampling, and a general summary of water quality risk and uncertainties as related to water quality protection. Potential sources of contamination at this CAOC include the one low-level radiological disposal well and 31 nonradiological waste disposal wells

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  12. Rosemary Shingobe Barstow, Ojibwe Language Instructor. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students introduces Rosemary Shingobe Barstow, a Native American Ojibwe language instructor and bilingual education consultant. A teacher's guide following the bibliography contains suggested activities and worksheets, objectives, directions for teachers, vocabulary list, resource list, and an evaluation…

  13. Solar thermionic power plant. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.

    It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant SEPP can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a TDC constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. At the 25 percent conversion efficiency achieved by a laboratory test model, a reduction in the cost per unit power of 8-12 per cent is expected. The spectral behavior and work functions of the working surface of the thermionic electrodes were investigated

  14. Experience of a predictive adaptive controller on pilot and industrial plants with transport phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, João M.; Rato, Luís; Silva, Rui Alexandre Nunes Neves

    2007-01-01

    The existing experience on using MUSMAR, a predictive adaptive controller, on industrial and large scale pilot plants with transport phenomena is discussed. The processes to control have been selected because their dynamics depends not only on time, but also on space, being therefore described by partial differential equations, and implying increase difficulties for the controller. Case studies on an industrial boiler, an arc-welding machine, a distributed collector solar field and ...

  15. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  16. Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

  17. Overview of Recent Results of the Solar Two Test and Evaluations Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.; Pacheco, J.E.

    1999-01-14

    The Solar Two project is a collaborative, cost-shared project between eleven US industry and utility partners and the U.S. Department of Energy to validate the molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, comprises 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam generator system that use molten nitrate salt as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powers a 10 MWe, conventional Rankine cycle turbine. This paper describes the test plan and evaluations currently in progress at Solar Two and provides some recent results.

  18. Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and ena...

  19. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  20. The Marstal Central Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Jochen, Dahm

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant in Marstal is running since 1996 and has been monitored since. The resulting data from the plant is analysed and the plant performance evaluated. A TRNSYS-model (computersimulation) id prepared and validated based on the measured data from the plant. Acceptable good...

  1. Advances in froth treatment pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelfantook, W.E. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    Bench-scale studies have been performed to find ways to produce diluted bitumen containing less than 1 per cent water. The studies showed that using diluents of high paraffin concentration and elevated solvent ratios could yield very dry diluted bitumen. The laboratory studies led to a series of pilot studies in froth treatment conducted at the facilities of the Canadian Oilsand Network for Research and Development (CONRAD). The pilot studies focused on defining the operating envelope for the Paraffin Froth Treatment Process and establishing the process` response to solvent ratio and temperature. Many different solvent materials were tested to determine their impact on process performance. The work has been part of a development plan for Oilsand leases north of Fort McMurray.

  2. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  3. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  4. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  5. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF CRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of using liquefied-gas solvents in a pilot plant study to extract oil from mill scale (a steel mill by-product) and bleaching clay (a vegetable oil filtering media). The process, operated on a semi-batch cycle, involved two extractors and a solvent recove...

  6. Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed

  7. Pilot plant for the radioactive decontamination of spent oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the operation parameters obtained in the laboratory of oil storage are presented, as well as the operations which shape the pilot plant, the design criteria and the basic design of the core equipment of the developed process. Finally, the comparative results obtained the decontamination process of oil are given as well as laboratory scale. (Author)

  8. 2004 Alaska highway invasive plants pilot survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We investigated the distribution and abundance of non-native invasive plants along a section of the Alaska Highway adjacent to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, 20...

  9. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  10. Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Azeemuddin; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gilani, Syed I.

    2013-06-01

    Solar chimney power plant is a sustainable source of power production. The key parameter to increase the system power output is to increase its size but the plant cannot operate during night hours. This study deals with simulation work to validate results of pilot plant at Manzanares and include the effects of waste heat from a gas turbine power plant in the system. The effects show continuous night operation, a 38.8 percent increase in power at 1000 W/m2 global solar irradiation at daytime and 1.14 percent increase in overall efficiency.

  11. Identification of Radioactive Pilot-Plant test requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Riebling, E.F.

    1995-05-09

    Radioactive Pilot-Plant testing needs and alternatives are evaluated for enhanced Sludge Washing and High and Low-Level Vitrification efforts. Also investigated was instrument and equipment testing needs associated with the vitrification and retrieval process. The scope of this document is to record the existing March 1994 letter report for future use. A structured Kepner-Trego{trademark} decision analysis process was used to assist analysis of the testing needs. This analysis provided various combinations of laboratory and radioactive (hot) and cold pilot testing options associated with the above need areas. Recommendations for testing requirements were made.

  12. TREATMENT OF POME BY PILOT PLANT ANAEROBIC FLUIDISED BED REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al-Mamun; Azni Idris

    2010-01-01

    A pilot scale anaerobic fluidised bed reactor (AnFBR) of 2000 L capacity was studied to determine its performance to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME). The pilot plant was operated at ambient temperature with diluted POME as substrate. It took 17 days for the start-up of the reactor with pre-seeded sand media. The AnFBR was capable to remove a large portion of organics at relatively shorter retention time. Maximum and minimum COD removal efficiency of 85% and 65% were attained at a ...

  13. Identification of Radioactive Pilot-Plant test requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive Pilot-Plant testing needs and alternatives are evaluated for enhanced Sludge Washing and High and Low-Level Vitrification efforts. Also investigated was instrument and equipment testing needs associated with the vitrification and retrieval process. The scope of this document is to record the existing March 1994 letter report for future use. A structured Kepner-Trego trademark decision analysis process was used to assist analysis of the testing needs. This analysis provided various combinations of laboratory and radioactive (hot) and cold pilot testing options associated with the above need areas. Recommendations for testing requirements were made

  14. FGD Franchising Pilot Project of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhixuan; Pan Li; Zhang Jingyi; Wang Ying

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the national policy on enhancing environmental protection,the five major power generation companies are required to carry out flue gas desulphurization(FGD) franchising pilot project in thermal power plants. This paper introduces the development of this pilot project, including the foundation ,purpose ,objects ,demands and procedures. It also discusses some main problems encountered during implementation, involving the understanding, legislation, financing, taxation, pricing and management of franchise.At the end,it puts forward some suggestions and countermeasures with regard to laws,regulations,taxation policy and electricity pricing policy.

  15. Pilot plant: A shortened path to fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous fusion reactor studies have focused on the characteristics of fusion reactors in a mature, commercial market, on full-scale ''demonstration reactors'' as commercial prototypes, and on other engineering development facilities. The projected large size and high capital cost of the development facilities present significant practical impediments to the development of fusion as a commercial power source. In other technologies, ''pilot plants'' have been constructed in advance of full-scale facilities. Such plants have had the characteristics of small size, low capital cost, and a limited set of objectives, while still having the integrated performance deemed necessary to gain experience with the operating characteristics of the new technology. A range of possible tokamak fusion pilot plants is considered, having as the primary objective providing requisite fusion power experience to an electric utility prior to construction of a full-scale demonstration reactor. Two approaches are explored, having the characteristics of either net electricity production or only the production of high-grade heat. The effects of choices such as mode of plasma heating and normal versus superconducting coils are also examined. Since tokamak scaling laws do not seem to permit simply ''miniaturizing'' the DEMO, fusion pilot plant designs incorporate only certain essential features of a power plant, while leaving the development of other features to complementary, specialized facilities. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig

  16. Stress corrosion studies in solvent refined coal liquefaction pilot plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; Allen, M.D.; Lawrence, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    Coal liquefaction plants with 6000 ton/d capacity are currently being planned by DOE as a step toward commercial production of synthetic fossil fuels. These plants will demonstrate the large-scale viability of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process, which has been used since 1974 in two operating pilot plants: a 50-ton/d unit at Fort Lewis, Washington, and a 6-ton/d plant in Wilsonville, Alabama. Experience in these plants has shown that austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking associated with residual stresses from cold working or welding. The corrodents responsible for the cracking have not yet been positively identified but are suspected to include polythionic acids and chlorides. To screen candidate materials of construction for resistance to stress corrosion cracking, racks of stressed U-bend specimens in welded and as-wrought conditions have been exposed at the Wilsonville and Fort Lewis SRC pilot plants. These studies have identified alloys that are suitable for critical plant applications.

  17. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plants is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. The new Uraphos process and the mobile pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is currently separated from phosphoric acid by solvent extraction processes. By far the most frequently used reagent is a synergetic mixture of TOPO and D2EHPA. Urangesellschaft mbH and Chemische Fabrik Budenheim have jointly developed a solvent extraction process, called the Uraphos process, to extract uranium from phosphoric acids of up to 40% P2O5 using a tertiary amine as extraction reagent. In 1982 Urangesellschaft mbH constructed a pilot plant to be continuously operated on 200 L/h of phosphoric acid to demonstrate the feasibility of the Uraphos process. This pilot plant is completely enclosed in standard 20 ft containers so that it could be easily transported to anywhere in the world either by car, train or ship. From June to December 1982 the Uraphos pilot plant was operated at the phosphoric acid plant of Chemie Linz AG, Austria. Despite the relatively low uranium content of 65 ppm U in the phosphoric acid produced there, the test campaign was a full success, e.g. an overall uranium recovery could be maintained at a level of over 90%. The final uranium product, a uranium-diuranate with approx. 82% U3O8, produced during the demonstration campaign in Linz immediately met the standards for uranium concentrates set forth by Allied Chemical. (author)

  19. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum F. HVAC systems energy analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facilities proposed to be constructed in southeastern New Mexico. This report analyzes a total of ten WIPP structures to determine the most energy and economic efficient means of providing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning services. Additional analyses were performed to determine the merits of centralized versus dispersed refrigeration and heating facilities, and of performing supplemental domestic hot water heating with solar panels

  20. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  1. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon;

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  2. New "wet type" electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Erdal; Ünal, Suat; Doğan, Alişan; Letournel, Eric; Pellizzari, Fabien

    2016-02-01

    We describe a new pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by a high energy electron beam. The special feature of this pilot plant is a uniquely designed reactor called VGS® (VIVIRAD Gas Scrubber, patent pending), that allows oxidation/reduction treating flue gas in a single step. The VGS® process combines a scrubber and an advanced oxidation/reduction process with the objective of optimizing efficiency and treatment costs of flue gas purification by electron accelerators. Promising treatment efficiency was achieved for SOx and NOx removal in early tests (99.2% and 80.9% respectively). The effects of various operational parameters on treatment performance and by-product content were investigated during this study.

  3. Assessing compliance of the waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 13, 1998 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined (with conditions) that the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant met EPA's radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR 191 and 194. DOE demonstrated compliance with the radioactive waste disposal numerical containment requirements through the use of performance assessment simulating potential releases over a 10,000 year simulation. In addition to EPA's role in the development and implementation of regulations, EPA conducted an independent review of DOE's performance assessment, including conceptual models, computer codes, input parameters, scenario screening and documentation. EPA's review identified inadequacies that DOE addressed. EPA then directed DOE to conduct an additional set of calculations in the Performance Assessment Verification Test (PAVT). The PAVT predicted releases that were greater than the releases predicted in DOE's original calculations, but they did not violate EPA's containment requirements. This demonstrated that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a robust system that can contain radionuclides as required

  4. Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Parish pilot plant samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R.G.; Kopfler, F C; Condie, L W; Pereira, M. A.; Meier, J. R.; Ringhand, H P; Robinson, M; Casto, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat ...

  5. Technical Integration of SMART Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Park, P. H.; Noh, P. C. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using the thermal-hydraulic integral test facility, VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents), which has been constructed to simulate the SMART-P. The VISTA facility is an integral test facility including the primary and secondary systems as well as safety-related Passive Residual heat removal (PRHR) systems. The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements.

  6. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO3 Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90 degrees C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO4) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated

  7. Solar tower and farming plants compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives an abbreviated version of a study under the guidance of the DLR, comparing solar tower and farming plants (channel collectors) for electricity generation, in respect of technical and economical aspects. The comparison considers various influencing factors such as for instance: Meteorological conditions, characteristic technical differences, unit size, and permits conclusions, which are important for the development and construction of future plants. (orig.)

  8. Technical Proposal Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-03-28

    The proposed Salton Sea Geothermal Power Pilot Plant Program comprises two phases. The objective of Phase 1 is to develop the technology for power generation from high-temperature, high-salinity geothermal brines existing in the Salton Sea known geothermal resources area. Phase 1 work will result in the following: (a) Completion of a preliminary design and cost estimate for a pilot geothermal brine utilization facility. (b) Design and construction of an Area Resource Test Facility (ARTF) in which developmental geothermal utilization concepts can be tested and evaluated. Program efforts will be divided into four sub-programs; Power Generation, Mineral Extraction, Reservoir Production, and the Area Resources Test Facility. The Power Generation Subprogram will include testing of scale and corrosion control methods, and critical power cycle components; power cycle selection based on an optimization of technical, environmental and economic analyses of candidate cycles; preliminary design of a pilot geothermal-electric generating station to be constructed in Phase 2 of this program. The Mineral Extraction Subprogram will involve the following: selection of an optimum mineral recovery process; recommendation of a brine clean-up process for well injection enhancement; engineering, construction and operation of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities; analysis of facility operating results from environmental, economical and technical point-of-view; preliminary design of mineral recovery and brine clean-up facilities of sufficient size to match the planned pilot power plant. The Reservoir Production Subprogram will include monitoring the operation and maintenance of brine production, handling and injection systems which were built with private funding in phase 0, and monitoring of the brine characteristics and potential subsidence effects during well production and injection. Based on the above, recommendations and specifications will be prepared for production and

  9. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  10. The design of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  16. Solar energy applications at Army ammunition plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, A. P.; Moy, S. M.

    1982-06-01

    The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide hot air for dry-houses, provide domestic hot water and heat for administration buildings, and provide hot water for manufacturing processes such as metal cleaning, phosphating, and X-ray film processing. Use of the flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, or solar ponds with the possible addition of a heat pump, offers reasonably economical means of applying solar technology to AAP needs.

  17. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transportation system - dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of a first-of-a-kind transportation system. The total transport package includes a specially designed trailer, lightweight tractor, and type B container. In the development effort, the DOE has been exceptionally sensitive to public concerns and the need for safety in the transport of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Measures taken in the development of the transport system exceed all existing requirements and, in the interest of public safety, incorporate all precautionary measures possible

  18. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant status and related socioeconomic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations

  19. Operations Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, Revision 4 of the Operations Program Plan, has been developed as the seven-year master plan for operating of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Subjects covered include public and technical communications; regulatory and environmental programs; startup engineering; radiation handling, surface operations, and underground operations; waste certification and waste handling; transportation development; geotechnical engineering; experimental operations; engineering program; general maintenance; security program; safety, radiation, and regulatory assurance; quality assurance program; training program; administration activities; management systems program; and decommissioning. 243 refs., 19 figs., 25 tabs. (SM)

  20. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation's transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  1. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Revision 4 of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), WIPP-DOE-069, identifies and consolidates existing criteria and requirements which regulate the safe handling and preparation of Transuranic (TRU) waste packages for transportation to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This consolidation does not invalidate any existing certification of TRU waste to the WIPP Operations and Safety Criteria (Revision 3 of WIPP-DOE--069) and/or Transportation: Waste Package Requirements (TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging [SARP]). Those documents being consolidated, including Revision 3 of the WAC, currently support the Test Phase

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  3. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fish frames using pilot plant scale systems

    OpenAIRE

    Himonides, Aristotelis T.; Taylor, Anthony K. D.; Morris, Anne J.

    2011-01-01

    Papain was used to hydrolyse fish frames under controlled conditions at a batch-pilot plant scale-process, for the pro-duction of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH). Mass balance calculations were carried out so that the rate of hydrolysis, rate of protein solubilisation and yields could be estimated. Almost complete hydrolysis could be achieved in 1 hour, at 40°C, with no pH adjustment, at 0.5% (5 g·kg−1) enzyme to substrate ratio (E/S, were S is Kjeldahl protein) using whole fish frames (inclu...

  7. Black and White Oils Partial Oxidation on Pilot Plant Unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Lederer, J.; Nečesaný, F.; Nečesaný, F., jr.; Poslední, W.; Tukač, V.; Veselý, Václav

    Prague: Czech Society of Industrial Chemistry, 2014 - (Kalenda, P.; Lubojacký, J.), s. 20-25 ISBN 978-80-86238-64-7. [mezinárodní chemicko-technologická konference /2./. Mikulov (CZ), 07.04.2014-09.04.2014] Grant ostatní: UniCRE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0071 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrocarbon oil * partial oxidation * pilot plant Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.icct.cz

  8. Plant substrate as a vehicle for trituration: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mariani Verginelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Lactose and hydroalcoholic solutions are not the proper substances to study the High Dilution (HD effects using plant models. Plant substrate can not be considered an inert vehicle, but it is not harmful to plants. Aim: In this pilot study we verify the possibility to use plant substrate as a trituration vehicle to prepare substances to be used in plants. Methods: We used a partially dried commercial plant substrate (12% humidity as the vehicle to prepare a set of trituration, having NaCl as the initial active substance. Triturations were performed using a ball mill, with a mass dilution rate of 1:18 (set A and 1:100 (set B, up to the 7th trituration, that is, each set contained 8 groups: A0 to A7 and B0 to B7. For each group, the triturated substrate was mixed with a fresh one in a mass ratio of 1:1. After homogenization, 18 seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus were sown in plastic trays (31 ml cell, for each group and kept in a green house exposed to natural thermal and light variations. After 4 weeks we determine the germination rate and number of mature cotyledon. Then 5 plants from each group were selected at random to determine the following parameters: averaged leaf area, length, fresh and dry mass and pigments amount (chlorophyll a and b, carotenes. Results: Groups A0 and B0 (higher saline concentration showed those typical effects of saline stress: lower germination ratio, immature cotyledons, smaller and shorter leaves, higher water content and less pigments. All the others groups showed similar results, for all parameters, except pigments amount. The chlorophyll to carotene ratio (CCr showed an unexpected but interesting behavior (figure 1.Both sets showed an initial CCr growing (as expected due the saline ratio decrease, but followed by an unexpected decrement. Set B (the higher mass dilution rate, 1:100 showed a slower change, compared to set A. When we sort the results in order of saline amount we observe two peaks (figure

  9. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  10. Reverse osmosis pilot plant experience in reprocessing plant for treatment of delay tank solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverse osmosis (RO) technology will help in achieving ALARA concept, which will be beneficial for the environment. In present study, the removal of alpha activity, beta activity, nitrate and total dissolve salt (TDS) are investigated from delay tank solution utilizing RO pilot plant

  11. Plant response to solar ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    Plant reactions and mechanisms of reaction to solar UV radiation are reviewed, along with characteristics of plants which enhance UV tolerance. Wavelength regions to which proteins are particularly sensitive are examined and the possibility of synergistic effects from photoreactions to multiple wavelengths is considered, along with available evidence of nonadditive plant spectral responses to UV radiation. Decreases in atmospheric ozone content are explored in terms of UV wavelengths which would increase with the ozone decreases, particularly for UV-B, which depresses photosynthesis and would increase 1% with a 16% reduction of stratospheric ozone. Higher elevations are projected to display effects of increased UV incident flux first, and global distributions of UV increases due to atmospheric inhomogeneity and water surface clarity are examined. Finally, the response of plant nucleic acids, DNA, chlorophyll to enhanced UV are described, along with repair, avoidance, and optical mechanisms which aid plant survival

  12. Experimental modelling of a pilot lignocellulosic pellets stove plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale stoves, producing heat and hot water, are suited for domestic purposes. In order to optimise their efficiency when using lignocellulosic pellets, an important task is to do research on their real performance. The general behaviour depends on many operational factors (air flow and humidity, pressure, etc), dimension and pellet characteristics (moisture, size, raw material, density, friability, etc). In this paper, the first results and general performance of a 24 kW pellet fixed bed stove pilot plant are presented. The plant has been designed to study pellet combustion in the laboratory. The main targets are to reduce emissions of pollutants and to improve energy efficiency. Different situations can be simulated and tested due to its flexible design. Temperatures, pressures, flows and emissions are measured and analysed. An extensive study of different load conditions is presented through the application of both an experiment design technique and the later statistical analysis of the results. Fuel characterisation is also presented. (Author)

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED)

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  15. EIR solar heating plant OASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a corrosion surveillance program of the EIR solar heating unit, OASE, the coolant of the flat collector circuit is controlled and material samples mounted in a circuit by-pass are tested periodically. The results of the first year of surveillance have been evaluated and interpreted. Furthermore water-ethyleneglycol mixtures without and with corrosion inhibiting additives have been tested. Only the ethyleneglycol and inhibitor contents may be controlled by means of pH and electrical conductivity tests. The metal content in the coolant as a corrosion indicator is not recorded by pH or electrical conductivity readings - they must be determined by chemical analysis. Samples of different materials used in the coolant circuit, mounted in a test by-pass of the circuit and taken out every year for testing give information on the corrosion behaviour of these materials under service conditions. Corrosion can be prevented or reduced by adding inhibitors to the coolant. The optimum inhibitor composition for the concerned material combinations and for the coolant must be determined in laboratory tests. The inhibitor composition used in the flat collector circuit proved not to be the optimum: corrosion on the aluminium of the rollbond absorber plate was not prevented. (Auth.)

  16. Guidebook on design, construction and operation of pilot plants for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and operation of a pilot plant are often important stages in the development of a project for the production of uranium concentrates. Since building and operating a pilot plant is very costly and may not always be required, it is important that such a plant be built only after several prerequisites have been met. The main purpose of this guidebook is to discuss the objectives of a pilot plant and its proper role in the overall project. Given the wide range of conditions under which a pilot plant may be designed and operated, it is not possible to provide specific details. Instead, this book discusses the rationale for a pilot plant and provides guidelines with suggested solutions for a variety of problems that may be encountered. This guidebook is part of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing being prepared by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management. 42 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Electron beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater: Operation of pilot plant and industrial plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant. Installation of the EB pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000m3/day each, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Korean Government. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for Pan Asia Paper Co. Cheongwon Mill, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be reused in paper producing process. The method for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater and other technologies are developed with the joint works with Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC) of Russian Academy of Sciences. (author)

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support the construction and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP facility is designed to receive, inspect, emplace, and store unclassified defense-generated transuranic wastes in a retrievable fashion in an underground salt medium and to conduct studies and perform experiments in salt with high-level wastes. Upon the successful completion of these studies and experiments, WIPP is designed to serve as a permanent facility. The first chapter of this report provides a summary of the location and major design features of WIPP. Chapters 2 through 5 describe the site characteristics, design criteria, and design bases used in the design of the plant and the plant operations. Chapter 6 discusses radiation protection: Chapters 7 and 8 present an accident analysis of the plant and an assessment of the long-term waste isolation at WIPP. The conduct of operations and operating control and limits are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10. The quality assurance programs are described in Chapter 11

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support the construction and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP facility is designed to receive, inspect, emplace, and store unclassified defense-generated transuranic wastes in a retrievable fashion in an underground salt medium and to conduct studies and perform experiments in salt with high-level wastes. Upon the successful completion of these studies and experiments, WIPP is designed to serve as a permanent facility. The first chapter of this report provides a summary of the location and major design features of WIPP. Chapters 2 through 5 describe the site characteristics, design criteria, and design bases used in the design of the plant and the plant operations. Chapter 6 discusses radiation protection; Chapters 7 and 8 present an accident analysis of the plant and an assessment of the long-term waste isolation at WIPP. The conduct of operations and operating controls and limits are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10. The quality assurance programs are described in Chapter 11

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support the construction and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP facility is designed to receive, inspect, emplace, and store unclassified defense-generated transuranic wastes in a retrievable fashion in an underground salt medium and to conduct studies and perform experiments in salt with high-level wastes. Upon the successful completion of these studies and experiments, WIPP is designed to serve as a permanent facility. The first chapter of this report provides a summary of the location and major design features of WIPP. Chapters 2 through 5 describe the site characteristics, design criteria, and design bases used in the design of the plant and the plant operations. Chapter 6 discusses radiation protection; Chapters 7 and 8 present an accident analysis of the plant and an assessment of the long-term waste isolation at WIPP. The conduct of operations and operating controls and limits are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10. The quality assurance programs are described in Chapter 11

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support the construction and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP facility is designed to receive, inspect, emplace, and store unclassified defense-generated transuranic wastes in a retrievable fashion in an underground salt medium and to conduct studies and perform experiments in salt with high-level wastes. Upon the successful completion of these studies and experiments, WIPP is designed to serve as a permanent facility. The first chapter of this report provides a summary of the location and major design features of WIPP. Chapters 2 through 5 describe the site characteristics, design criteria, and design bases used in the design of the plant and the plant operations. Chapter 6 discusses radiation protection; Chapters 7 and 8 present an accident analysis of the plant and an assessment of the long-term waste isolation at WIPP. The conduct of operations and operating controls and limits are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10. The quality assurance programs are described in Chapter 11

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support the construction and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP facility is designed to receive, inspect, emplace, and store unclassified defense-generated transuranic wastes in a retrievable fashion in an underground salt medium and to conduct studies and perform experiments in salt with high-level wastes. Upon the successful completion of these studies and experiments, WIPP is designed to serve as a permanent facility. The first chapter of this report provides a summary of the location and major design features of WIPP. Chapters 2 through 5 describe the site characteristics, design criteria, and design bases used in the design of the plant and the plant operations. Chapter 6 discusses radiation protection; Chapters 7 and 8 present an accident analysis of the plant and an assessment of the long-term waste isolation at WIPP. The conduct of operations and operating controls and limits are discussed in Chapters 9 and 10. The quality assurance programs are described in Chapter 11

  3. Development of a continuous rotating cone reactor pilot plant for the pyrolysis of polyethene and polypropene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot plant for the high-temperature pyrolysis of polymers to recycle plastic waste to valuable products was constructed based on the rotating cone reactor (RCR) technology. The RCR used in this pilot plant, termed the continuous RCR ([C]RCR) was an improved version of the bench-scale RCR ([B]RCR)

  4. CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH AMMONIA: UTILITY PILOT PLANT OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes work to demonstrate, on a utility pilot plant scale, the performance, reliability, and practicability of reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from steam boilers by reduction of NOx with ammonia over a platinum catalyst. A utility pilot plant treating a sl...

  5. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  6. TREATMENT OF POME BY PILOT PLANT ANAEROBIC FLUIDISED BED REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot scale anaerobic fluidised bed reactor (AnFBR of 2000 L capacity was studied to determine its performance to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME. The pilot plant was operated at ambient temperature with diluted POME as substrate. It took 17 days for the start-up of the reactor with pre-seeded sand media. The AnFBR was capable to remove a large portion of organics at relatively shorter retention time. Maximum and minimum COD removal efficiency of 85% and 65% were attained at a loading rate of 4.0 and 13.8 kgCOD/m3.d. BOD and TSS removal rates varied within the range of 64% - 91% and 68% - 89%, respectively. The AnFBR exhibited low sludge production with lower sludge volume indices (SVI. Maximum and minimum effluent indices for the effluent were 35 mL/g and 11 mL/g, respectively. Low SVI values indicated that, anaerobic fluidised bed reactors generate less sludge with fast settling properties. Promising performance at ambient temperature and for detention time shorter than the present practices supported the possibility of AnFBR to treat POME to meet the new requirement set by the DOE Malaysia.

  7. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP) - operation of the pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG developed the process of hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed for generation of SNG. On basis of test results obtained in a semi-technical pilot plant of a through-put of 250 kg/h dried coal a large pilot plant was erected processing 10 t/h dried brown coal. This plant was on stream for about 14700 h, of which about 7800 h were with gasifier operation; during this time about 38000 t of dried brown coal of the Rhenish district were processed containing 4 to 25% of ash. At pressures of 60 to 120 bar and temperatures of 800 to 9350C carbon conversion rates up to 81 percent and methane amounts of 5000 m3 (STP)/h were reached. The decisive parameter for methane generation was the hydrogen/coal-ratio. Even at high moisture contents, usually diminishing the methane yield from the coal essentially, by high hydrogen/coal-ratios high methane yields could be obtained. The gasifier itself caused no troubles during the total time operation. Difficulties with the original design of the residual char cooler could be overcome by change-over from water injection to liquid carbon dioxide. The design of the heat recovery system proved well. Alltogether so the size increasement of the gasifier from the semi-technical to the large pilot plant as well as the harmonization of gas generation and gas refining was proved. (orig.) With 20 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs

  8. Sociocultural analysis for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the potential or perceived sociocultural impact due to the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, a discussion-type survey was conducted in August and September of 1979. During those two months four researchers conducted probing-type discussions with nearly 200 Carlsbad area residents. The results of those discussions were analyzed for inclusion in the WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement. The impacts on sociocultural aspects perceived by the residents included both positive and negative impacts. The most frequently mentioned positive impacts were new jobs, increased activity in business sectors and the housing industry, and new residents to the area. Negative impacts included perceived inflation or price increases, strained services and community infrastructure, attraction of transient construction workers, safety and health risks, and unequal distribution of benefits and costs. 2 tables

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste compositions and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the final state of collapse of various types of contact-handled waste drums are required to assess of the performance of the waste storage areas in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. To provide data for calculations, tests must use simulated, instead of actual waste. Data on the contents of the principal categories of contact-handled transuranic waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were used to define standard compositions of simulated waste. Categories of baseline waste will be created by mixing appropriate amounts of the simulants together. Selection of materials is discussed. Methods for estimating the consolidation characteristics of simulated waste are also described. Theoretical solid densities, theoretical solid compressibilities, and initial void volumes of various waste components are estimated, and a method for estimating consolidation curves in the absence of experimental data is described. 9 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP). EPA's regulatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will contain transuranic (TRU) waste that has resulted from the United States' nuclear weapons programs. As independent regulator of the WIPP, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has the responsibilities of promulgating public health and environmental standards, determining if the WIPP meets the standards, certifying compliance of the WIPP, and periodically, re-evaluating the WIPP to assure continued compliance for meeting these standards. EPA has been successful in finalizing the Radioactive Waste Disposal Standards, proposing the Compliance Criteria, and implementing a process for achieving acceptance through the public participation process in the WIPP rulemaking. EPA has incorporated four guiding principles that are implemented in the regulatory process: the principles of protection, good science, consultation, and commitment. EPA will continue to regulate the WIPP efficiently and effectively to always protect the public health and the environment. (author)

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated

  13. Data qualification for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico, has been the subject of scientific and engineering investigations for more than twenty years. Data from these investigations are now being used as part of the process to certify compliance of the WIPP with the governing regulations. Some of these data were collected prior to the development and implementation of the quality assurance (QA) standards that are now being applied in the WIPP compliance certification process, and are considered ''existing data'' within the current QA program. This paper discusses the process for qualification of existing data (QED) defined for the WIPP project, the implementation of that process, and some of the results. This process incorporates many lessons learned, and should be useful to others in the radioactive waste management system who are dealing with ''existing data.''

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP

  15. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described

  16. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  17. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab

  18. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  19. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period

  2. Summary of the Solar Two Test and Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACHECO,JAMES E.; REILLY,HUGH E.; KOLB,GREGORY J.; TYNER,CRAIG E.

    2000-02-08

    Solar Two was a collaborative, cost-shared project between eleven US industry and utility partners and the U. S. Department of Energy to validate molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, was comprised of 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam generation system. Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powered a 10 MWe, conventional Rankine cycle turbine. Solar Two operated from June 1996 to April 1999. The major objective of the test and evaluation phase of the project was to validate the technical characteristics of a molten salt power tower. This paper describes the significant results from the test and evaluation activities.

  3. Solar diffusion in California: a pilot study. Consultant report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.M.; Leonard-Barton, D.; Avi-Itzhak, T.; Rosa, E.; Adhikarya, R.

    1979-10-01

    Solar system owners and their neighbors in the San Francisco Bay Area were studied. The study determined the level of homeowner awareness about residential solar energy systems, described characteristics of consumers purchasing solar equipment (e.g. whether they represent identifiable market segments), identified major channels of communication through which solar information is effectively used, determined remaining barriers to solar use, identified needed incentives to accelerate commercialization, and assessed public attitudes toward various state and Federal government actions to increase the rate of solar energy use statewide. Issues and questions explored are being used in the development of a statewide survey of 700 homeowners in California to determine if these findings apply to residents throughout the state.

  4. The working of RVNRL pilot plant of Rubber Board and it's safety devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant for producing radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was established at Rubber Board, India in 1992. Irradiation is done by a batch process in the plant. The plant has a versatile safety system for safety of operators and people working in and around the plant

  5. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant no-migration variance petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been built to be a mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense programs of the U.S. government. This waste generally consists of rags, clothing, laboratory equipment, and other items that are contaminated with TRU elements in excess of 100 nCi/g. Construction of the WIPP facility is essentially complete, and the plant is undergoing final checkout and startup in anticipation of beginning a series of experimental evaluations aimed at gathering data and operating experience. One significant conclusion that will come out of these experiments is whether or not it is necessary to treat these wastes prior to disposal. One issue associated with the lack of treatment technology and capacity for these wastes is related to compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and involve those radioactive wastes that are cocontaminated with hazardous wastes. These so-called radioactive mixed wastes are subject to dual regulation under the Atomic Energy Act and RCRA. In specifying the concept of no disposal of untreated hazardous waste, Congress included language in the statute that allows disposal if the operator can demonstrate that the water will not migrate from the disposal unit for as long as the wastes are hazardous. This demonstration is submitted to the administrator of the EPA in the form of a petition, referred to as a no-migration variance petition. The WIPP no-migration variance petition was submitted to the EPA in March of 1989

  6. Safeguards aspects during decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that nuclear installations have to be safeguarded during operation. The safeguards systems applied differ among states, but the basic requirements of safety, security, material control and accountancy as well as international obligations are almost identical in all nonuclear-weapons states. In Germany, the decommissioning of facilities will also be safeguarded at least by Euratom and domestic authorities. In this paper, the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK), a pilot reprocessing plant, serves as an example. The facility was commissioned in 1971 and was shut down at the end of 1990. During 31 campaigns, fuel elements from different reactors were reprocessed. The total throughput amounted to ∼210 tons of uranium and 110 kg of plutonium. The international safeguards approach [Euratom and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) obligations] for decommissioning of this plant has already been published. Based on the legal requirements in Germany, a concept for decommissioning has been developed. The safeguards system for radioactive waste described in this paper is part of this concept. 1 ref

  7. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rongrong Zhai; Yongping Yang; Yong Zhu; Denggao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution...

  8. Optimal concentration and temperatures of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Ronan K.; Smith, William

    2012-01-01

    Using simple, finite-time, thermodynamic models of solar thermal power plants, the existence of an optimal solar receiver temperature has previously been demonstrated in literature. Scant attention has been paid, however, to the presence of an optimal level of solar concentration at which the conversion of incident sunlight to electricity (solar-to-electric efficiency) is maximized. This paper addresses that gap. The paper evaluates the impact, on the design of Rankine-cycle solar-trough and ...

  9. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation

  10. Controller Design Based on Nonlinear Separation Control Method for OTEC Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Uehara, Haruo

    An OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) pilot plant consists of two parts; an OTEC system of main part and a heat reservoir system of sub part. The nonlinear separation control method was applied to the controller design for the OTEC pilot plant. The nonlinear separation models were constructed for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system. The controller for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system was designed by using the both nonlinear separation models. A detail simulation study showed that the multi-layer controller for the OTEC pilot plant brought a satisfactory control performance by comparing a conventional PI control.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  13. Mapping of cavitational activity in a pilot plant dyeing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2015-11-01

    A large number of papers of the literature quote dyeing intensification based on the application of ultrasound (US) in the dyeing liquor. Mass transfer mechanisms are described and quantified, nevertheless these experimental results in general refer to small laboratory apparatuses with a capacity of a few hundred millilitres and extremely high volumetric energy intensity. With the strategy of overcoming the scale-up inaccuracy consequent to the technological application of ultrasounds, a dyeing pilot-plant prototype of suitable liquor capacity (about 40 L) and properly simulating several liquor to textile hydraulic relationships was designed by including US transducers with different geometries. Optimal dyeing may be obtained by optimising the distance between transducer and textile material, the liquid height being a non-negligible operating parameter. Hence, mapping the cavitation energy in the machinery is expected to provide basic data on the intensity and distribution of the ultrasonic field in the aqueous liquor. A flat ultrasonic transducer (absorbed electrical power of 600 W), equipped with eight devices emitting at 25 kHz, was mounted horizontally at the equipment bottom. Considering industrial scale dyeing, liquor and textile substrate are reciprocally displaced to achieve a uniform colouration. In this technology a non uniform US field could affect the dyeing evenness to a large extent; hence, mapping the cavitation energy distribution in the machinery is expected to provide fundamental data and define optimal operating conditions. Local values of the cavitation intensity were recorded by using a carefully calibrated Ultrasonic Energy Meter, which is able to measure the power per unit surface generated by the cavitation implosion of bubbles. More than 200 measurements were recorded to define the map at each horizontal plane positioned at a different distance from the US transducer; tap water was heated at the same temperature used for dyeing tests (60

  14. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  15. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time...... of impurities (0.002 M Al2F6; 50 g quartz/L; 0.02 M Al3+, and 0.040 M Mg2+) were investigated. In addition, slurry from a full-scale wet FGD plant, experiencing formation of flat shaped crystals and poor gypsum dewatering properties, was transferred to the pilot plant to test if the plant would now start...... to produce low quality gypsum. The crystals formed in the pilot plant, on the basis of the full-scale slurry did, however, show acceptable filtration rates and crystal morphologies closer to the prismatic crystals from after pilot plant experiments with demineralized water. The gypsum slurry filtration rates...

  16. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m2 of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR section 268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance

  17. The waste isolation pilot plant project: a changing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) repository that has been developed to demonstrate the safe and permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a deep geologic site. It is located in 650 m below the surface in a bedded salt formation, and is designed to hold approximately 175,500 cubic meters of waste. Compliance with the regulations has become the principal focus for the Project. The scientific baseline is an important and integral part of the CCA, as it provides the foundation for conducting total system performance assessment calculations for comparison with applicable standards. The activities required to support the scientific baseline are being pursued in parallel to minimize the time required to collect, analyze, interpret and fully incorporate the results into the CCA. The DOE has shifted its approach to demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations from a paradigm of a series of broad investigations to a new paradigm of highly focused activities conducted in parallel. The success of this approach will be assessed by the EPA when the application is critically reviewed

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  19. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-26

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act of 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources reports on the Bill S. 1272 and recommends passage of the bill as amended by the Committee. S. 1272 as amended withdraws 10,240 acres of land in Eddy county, New Mexico for the exclusive use of the Department of Energy (DOE) for construction, operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning control of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The lands, currently managed by the Department of the Interior, would be permanently withdrawn and transferred to the control of DOE. The bill sets forth specific instructions to the Secretary of Energy to preserve the ecology of these lands and mandates compliance with standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for storage and disposal of transuranium radioactive waste as set forth in 40 C.F.R. Part 191. In addition to the section-by-section analysis of the bill, a cost estimate from the Congressional Budget Office and copies of communications received by the Committee from DOE and the Department of the Interior setting forth executive recommendations relating to the bill are included

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Draft Supplement Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this supplement to the 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in order to assess the environmental impacts that may occur from the continued development of the WIPP as a minced geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) waste. Since the publication of the FEIS in October 1980, new data collected at the WIPP have led to changes in the understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the area and their potential implications for the long-term performance of the WIPP. In addition, there have been changes in the FEIS Proposed Action and new regulatory requirements. This supplement to the FEIS (SEIS) evaluates the environmental consequences of the Proposed Action as modified since 1980 in light of new data and assumptions. The new information pertains mainly to the geologic and hydrologic systems at the WIPP site and their effect on the long-term performance of the WIPP. The SEIS includes new data indicating that: the permeability of the Salado Formation, the geologic formation in which the WIPP underground facilities are located, is lower than previously believed; the moisture content of the Salado Formation and the consequent brine inflow is higher than previously believed; a higher transmissivity zone is present in the Rustler Formation in the southeastern portion of the WIPP site; and ''salt creep'' (convergence) in the repository occurs faster than previously believed. 50 figs., 92 tabs

  3. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO2 [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits

  4. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  5. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project's present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ''confirmatory'' and monitoring nature

  6. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

  7. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  8. Groundwater monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GPM) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES ampersand H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water quality sampling and water level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and develop facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated waste in a geologic repository. Water quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. The water quality of a well is sampled while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. Stabilization of serial sampling parameters determined if a representative sample is being obtained, Representative samples are sent to contract laboratories and analyzed for general chemistry, major cations and anions, and radionuclides. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies

  10. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191, and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996, the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP's compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal

  11. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included

  13. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, 'Environmental Standards for Management and Storage'; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. 300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. 2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  15. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procedes de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinacion del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procedes de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase

  16. Twenty years of WAK reprocessing pilot plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration pertaining to the construction of a German pilot facility for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel goes back to 1950s. In 1960, the Hoechst AG presented a project study of a prototype plant to the federal ministry responsible. In accordance with a recommendation by the German Nuclear Commission, the construction of a small facility was included in the German nuclear program for the years 1963-1967. As early as in the summer of 1964, a preproject had been drawn up. The PUREX process already used abroad was selected, and 35 t uranium was set as the annual throughput. The design assumed a two cycle PUREX process with a mechanical headend, consistent recycling of process solution and waste minimization. The construction was completed in 1969, and the hot operation of the WAK began with the reprocessing of the fuel from the Karlsruhe research reactor FR-2. From 1971 to the end of 1990, the WAK reprocessed 208t of uranium in 31 campaigns. The operation of the WAK ceased at the end of December, 1990. The summary of 20 years of reprocessing, the essential operational and facility improvement and others are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  18. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NOx abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NOx emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NOx from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr-1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NOx concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NOx concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NOx concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  19. US firm signs deal to build world's biggest solar plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2009-11-01

    Energy company First Solar has announced plans to build a 2GW photovoltaic power plant in the Gobi desert. It signed a memorandum of understanding with the Chinese government in September to build the plant, which will be constructed outside the city of Ordos in Inner Mongolia. When operational in 2019, the facility will occupy an area of 65km2 and generate as much energy as a large fossil-fuel plant, dwarfing any solar plant currently operating or under construction.

  20. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included. (DC)

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  2. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps from three seismic reflection surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Data interpretations will be the subject of subsequent reports

  3. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included

  4. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  5. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  6. Solar hydrogen energy pilot project for Libya, SHEPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the first stage of the SHEPL project which includes technical and economic analysis of the main project components. These are Photovoltaics power generation of one MW, electrolysis plant for hydrogen production, fuel cells power plant to generate electricity at night time, sea water desalination plant, and other required facilities. The project is intended to supply a small community of twenty families with all its energy and water requirements, to be completely independent from local utilities. (authors)

  7. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  8. Simulation of a sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A sloped solar chimney power plant in Lanzhou, China is investigated. → The configuration sizes are designed separately. → The system has high periodicity and stability but low efficiency. → The sloped solar chimney power system is of high value for Northwest China. -- Abstract: Solar chimney power system is one large-scale utilization style of solar energy, which has drawn high attentions worldwide. Though scholars all over the world have made many researches on the solar chimney power system, reports of sloped solar chimney power system are still few. A sloped solar chimney power plant, which is expected to provide electric power for remote villages in Northwest China, has been designed for Lanzhou City in this paper. The designed plant, in which the height and radius of the chimney are 252.2 m and 14 m respectively, the radius and angle of the solar collector are 607.2 m and 31o respectively, is designed to produce 5 MW electric power on a monthly average all year. The performances, such as the airflow temperature increase, pressure, the airflow speed, system efficiency and solar collector efficiency, of the built sloped solar chimney power plant are simulated and presented. Simulation results show that parameters of the sloped solar chimney power plant are symmetrical and stable; the power plant has better performances in spring and autumn days; the overall efficiency of the power plant is low. Considering the abundant solar radiation, environmental friendliness, easy management and low population density, the sloped solar chimney power system is of high value to Northwest China.

  9. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  10. The Design of Concentrated Solar Power Plants for Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Huili Zhang; Jan Baeyens; Jan Degreve

    2015-01-01

    The Croatian electricity demand exceeds domestic production and about 30 % of additional power is covered from imports. The Croatian government is planning to add domestic production capacity, using natural gas and coal as the main fuel. Due to the attractive solar irradiation in Croatia, these new projects offer the possibility to build these thermal power plants as hybrid plants by adding solar energy within the production. The present paper will investigate the potential of solar energy in...

  11. Concentrating solar power plants - how to achieve competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Dersch, J.; Milow, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany); Tellez, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain); Ferriere, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Font-Romeu (France); Langnickel, U. [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany); Steinfeld, A. [ETH Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland); Karni, J. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Zarza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technologicas, Tabernas (Spain); Popel, O. [Inst. for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Electricity from solar thermal power plants is environmentally friendly. Though the costs of this kind of solar electricity are lower than those from photovoltaic cells, they cannot compete with the generation costs from fossil power plants today. The ECOSTAR study shows that it is possible to overcome this drawback. This study was partly financed by the European Union. Seven different solar thermal technologies for electricity production have been investigated within the study. (orig.)

  12. Integrated Solar-Thermal Power Plants: TPP Bitola Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso; Stefanov, Goce; Sarac, Vasilija

    2016-01-01

    The potentials for usage of the solar energy as a renewable energy source, whether by its conversion only into heat, indirect conversion into electricity using a prior generated thermal energy, or direct conversion of solar energy into electric energy using the photoelectric effect, are enormous. This paper presents a study for the development of an integrated solar-thermal power plant (ISTPP) for repowering the existing goal-fired TPP Bitola. In the proposed plant, firstly sol...

  13. Solar thermal power plants for the Spanish electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, M.; Kronshage, S.; Schillings, C.; Trieb, F. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und Raumfahrt DLR, Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Stuttgart (Germany); Rueda, F. [Iberinco, Madrid (Spain); Zarza, E. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), 04200 Tabernas/Almeria (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Solar thermal power plants are at present the cheapest technology for solar electricity production. At good sites levelised electricity costs (LEC) of 11 Ct/kWh have been achieved in commercially operated power plants. Economy of scale and further technical improvements will reduce the LEC for future projects. On the 27th of March 2004 in Spain the existing feed in law has been modified in order to support the erection of solar thermal power plants and thus make use of the huge solar potential of Spain. A payment of approx. 21 Ct/kWh, guaranteed for the first 25 years of operation, makes the erection and operation of solar thermal power plants very profitable for possible investors on the Spanish peninsula. This paper will present the present situation in Spain and the planned power plant projects. For one specific project the set-up is presented in more detail. (orig.)

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ''near-reference'' with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed

  15. Concentrated solar power plants: Review and design methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huili; Degrève, Jan; Caceres, Gustavo; Baeyens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are gaining increasing interest, mostly as parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or solar tower collectors (STC). Notwithstanding CSP benefits, the daily and monthly variation of the solar irradiation flux is a main drawback. Despite the approximate match between hours of the day where solar radiation and energy demand peak, CSPs experience short term variations on cloudy days and cannot provide energy during night hours unless incorporating thermal energy s...

  16. Economic Study of Solar Thermal Plant based on Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Cabané Fernández, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to carry out an economic analysis of solar thermal plant based on gas turbines. Throughout the project , there is a brief overview of different technologies used today in CSP without going into greater depth in most of them, but emphasizing solar tower technology with solar hybrid gas turbines. Having explained the reason why this technology has been chosen, possible configurations currently found in the solar panorama will be considered. Then, ...

  17. The Former Miss Barstow with every Tom, Dick and Harry in a doll's house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Newton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Julie Holledge, panel chairperson and member of the International Ibsen Committee, invited myself along with 3 others to participate in the Inaugural Artists’ Keynote Panel: Applied Ibsen on Four Continents: The Artists’ Intentions. My presentation focused on “The Former Miss Barstow with every Tom, Dick and Harry in a doll’s house.” This was an adaptation of Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House” produced and staged in Los Angeles, California, 1987.  For the XIIIth International Ibsen Conference at the University of Tromsø, Norway, I projected images; a few found on the internet, and many from the production itself, as well as a video clip shown streaming live from YouTube. The article describes the social context of the 80s, analyzes the reinterpretation of Ibsen’s characters, and sets out to explain the symbology of the sets and costumes. I also touch on the differences between this production and Ibsen’s original in four important aspects. These would be the macaroons, the Tarantella, the silk stockings and the end of the play. Finally, I explain my decision to upload this version of “A Doll’s House,’ scene by scene, to my page on YouTube. Having shown films and videos for many years at festivals around the globe, I was looking for a way to step outside that box and reach an international audience just beyond my keyboard. In all of these ways, the goal has been to illuminate the ways in which an artist takes Ibsen’s text and applies it to the specific social context of their time and culture.

  18. Solar Thermal Power Plants with Parabolic-Trough Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L.; León, J.

    2004-12-01

    Parabolic-trough collectors (PTC) are solar concentrating devices suitable to work in the 150°C- 400°C temperature range. Power plants based on this type of solar collectors are a very efficient way to produce electricity with solar energy. At present, there are eight commercial solar plants (called SEGS-II, III,.. IX) producing electricity with parabolic-trough collectors and their total output power is 340 MW. Though all SEGS plants currently in operation use thermal oil as a heat transfer fluid between the solar field and the power block, direct steam generation (DSG) in the receiver tubes is a promising option to reduce the cost of electricity produced with parabolic- trough power plants. Most of technical uncertainties associated to the DSG technology were studied and solved in the DISS project and it is expected that this new technology will be commercially available in a short term. In Spain, the Royal Decree No. 436/204 (March 12th , 2004) has defined a premium of 0,18€/kWh for the electricity produced by solar thermal power plants, thus promoting the installation of solar thermal power plants up to a limit of 200 MW. Due to the current legal and financial framework defined in Spain, several projects to install commercial solar power plants with parabolic-trough collectors are currently underway.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  20. Summarizing Ten Years Operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years ago this month, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) received the first shipment of Transuranic (TRU) waste for permanent isolation from the biosphere. Twenty years of planning, site characterization studies, licensing and permitting went into that first shipment. Now, after ten operating years, WIPP has demonstrated that deep geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is not only feasible, it has also shown that it can be accomplished safely and efficiently. This paper presents the lessons learned from ten years of operations. It describes the issues of keeping the pipeline full, so that disposal operations progress smoothly. Balancing the various generator site's waste removal priorities (risk reduction) with characterization and transportation resources requires constant communication between WIPP and the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste complex. The paper describes the changes that had to be made to authorize Remote Handled (RH) TRU waste operations, and the difficulty in balancing CH and RH waste receipt rates to avoid losing disposal capacity. As a licensed and permitted facility, all WIPP operations are in a constant state of oversight. This oversight is spread across numerous organizations and effectively results in competition. The WIPP project is one of the most scrutinized operations in the DOE and substantial resources are needed to satisfy the information requirements resulting from the oversight. Finally, the paper looks to the next ten years of WIPP operations. With a freshly re-permitted and re-licensed regulatory regime, and with the easily characterized waste streams already emplaced, the goal will be to keep the pipeline filled. New and more difficult waste streams will make the road to WIPP disposal more challenging. (authors)

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New Mexico Administrative Code), 'Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,'specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  2. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) integrated project management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project of the Department of Energy (DOE), tasked with the mission of demonstrating the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes. This unique project was authorized by Congress in 1979 in response to the national need for long-term, safe methods for disposing of radioactive by-products from our national defense programs. The WIPP was originally established in December of 1979, by Public Law 96-164, DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980. Since the inception of the WIPP Project, work has continued to prepare the facility to receive TRU wastes. Studies continue to be conducted to demonstrate the safety of the WIPP facility in accordance with federal and state laws, state agreements, environmental regulations, and DOE Orders. The objectives of implementing an integrated project management system are to assure compliance with all regulatory and federal regulations, identify areas of concern, provide justification for funding, provide a management tool for control of program workscope, and establish a project baseline from which accountability and performance will be assessed. Program management and project controls are essential for the success of the WIPP Project. The WIPP has developed an integrated project management system to establish the process for the control of the program which has an expected total dollar value of $2B over the ten-year period from 1990-2000. The implementation of this project management system was motivated by the regulatory requirements of the project, the highly public environment in which the project takes place, limited funding and resources, and the dynamic nature of the project. Specific areas to be addressed in this paper include strategic planning, project organization, planning and scheduling, fiscal planning, and project monitoring and reporting

  3. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text

  4. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP)

  7. Large pilot plant alternatives for scaleup of the catalytic coal gasification process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    This is the final report for US Department of Energy Contract No. EX-76-C-01-2480, Scaleup Requirements of the Exxon Catalyzed Coal Gasification Process. The objective was to develop the information necessary to determine if an existing DOE large pilot plant could be used to obtain the scaleup data necessary to design and construct a Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) pioneer plant with acceptable risk. A pioneer plant is a stand-alone facility, whose primary function is to operate as a profitable commercial venture. The pioneer plant would contain all equipment of full commercial size, as defined by the requirements for an optimum-sized commercial plant. However, the pioneer plant could have a single train of equipment in some or all of the plant sections. The three tasks contained in this contract are discussed: study design and cost estimate for a grass-roots large pilot plant; selection of the preferred existing pilot plant; and study design and cost estimate for revamp of the preferred existing pilot plant.

  8. INDITEP: The first pre-commercial DSG solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarza, Eduardo; Rojas, M' a Esther; Gonzalez, Lourdes [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Apartado P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Caballero, Jose M' a [INITEC Energia, Principe de Vergara 120, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Rueda, Fernando [Iberdrola Ingenieria consultoria, Avda. de Burgos, 8B, Edif. Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the first solar power plant using Direct Steam Generation (DSG) in a parabolic-trough solar field. Experience and know-how in the DSG process acquired during the DISS project were applied in designing the solar field of this plant. The 5-MWe plant is composed of a DSG parabolic-trough solar field connected to a superheated steam Rankine power cycle. The solar field produces 410{sup o}C/70-bar superheated steam. Detail engineering of this plant is currently underway within the framework of the INDITEP project, which is promoted by a German-Spanish consortium with the financial support of the European Commission (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2001-00540). The main design objective is to assure high operational flexibility and reliability. This is the reason why a robust superheated steam turbine has been selected, though the efficiency of its power block is modest. (author)

  9. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...

  10. Optimal concentration and temperatures of solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Efficiency is strongly influenced by receiver and condenser thermal resistances. ► Optimal receiver temperatures are much higher for molten salts than direct steam. ► Optimal concentrations are much higher for molten salts than direct steam. - Abstract: Using simple, finite-time, thermodynamic models of solar thermal power plants, the existence of an optimal solar receiver temperature has previously been demonstrated in literature. Scant attention has been paid, however, to the presence of an optimal level of solar concentration at which solar-to-electric efficiency is maximised. This paper addresses that gap. A simple mathematical model is developed to assess the influence of key system temperatures, thermal conductances and the receiver irradiance (radiation striking unit receiver area) upon the optimal receiver temperature and solar-to-electric efficiency of Rankine-cycle, solar-trough and solar-tower, direct-steam and molten-salts, power plants. The analysis shows that, as the thermal resistance of the solar receiver and condenser increases, the optimal receiver temperature increases whilst the optimal receiver irradiance decreases. The optimal level of receiver irradiance, for solar thermal plants employing a service fluid of molten salts, is found to occur within a range of values achievable using current solar tower technologies. The efficiency trade-off involved in using molten salts rather than direct steam is investigated. The optimal receiver temperatures calculated suggest the use of sub-critical Rankine cycles for solar trough plants, but super-critical Rankine cycles for solar tower plants, if the objective is to maximise solar-to-electric efficiency.

  11. Summary of uranium refining and conversion pilot plant at Ningyo-toge works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Ningyo-toge works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the construction of the uranium refining and conversion pilot plant was completed, and the operation will be started after the various tests based on the related laws. As for the uranium refining in Japan, the PNC process by wet refining method has been developed since 1958. The history of the development is described. It was decided to construct the refining and conversion pilot plant with 200 t uranium/year capacity as the comprehensive result of the development. This is the amount sufficient to supply UF6 to the uranium enrichment pilot plant in Ningyo-toge. The building for the refining and conversion pilot plant is a three-story ferro-concrete building with the total floor area of about 13,000 m2. The raw materials are the uranium ore produced in Ningyo-toge and the yellow cakes from abroad. Uranyl sulfate solution is obtained by solvent extraction using an extraction tower or a mixer-settler. The following processes are electrolytic reduction, precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride, filtration, drying, dehydration and UF6 conversion. The fluorine for UF6 conversion is produced by the facility in the plant. The operation of the pilot plant will be started in the latter half of the fiscal year 1981, the batch operation is carrried out in 1982, and the continuous operation from 1983. (Kako, I.)

  12. Optimising Solar Photo catalytic Mineralization of Pesticides at Solar Pilot by Adding Inorganic Oxidising Species; Application to the Recycling of Pesticide Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on optimising the use of additional oxidants in the photo catalytic degradation of a complex mixture of ten commercial pesticides. The CPC solar pilot plant used for the tests has 8.9 m2 of collector surface and a total volume of 247 L. Same TOC quantities of each pesticide were added to achieve the desired initial TOC concentration in all the experiments (from 5 to 100 mg of TOC per litre). Experiments were performed with H2O2 and S2OS8-2, but only peroxydisulphate was chosen for optimisation, because better results have been obtained with it. In addition to the consumption of the oxidant under different experimental conditions, the effect of peroxydisulphate and TOC concentrations was also evaluated. The mechanism of peroxydisulphate action is discussed with these results. The effect of reusing water and catalysts has also been studied. The results obtained from these experiments have been used to decide the dimensions and operating conditions of a solar photo catalytic plant, the final objective of which is the treatment of rin sates produced by washing pesticide containers. (Author) 37 refs

  13. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam - start up and two stage irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam has been built at Power Plant Kaweczyn, near Warsaw. The irradiation part of the pilot plant was put into operation in 1991 and the complete installation in spring 1992. The starting tests consisted of studying the components reliability and influence of the two-stage irradiation process on efficiency of NOx removal. The results have shown that the two-stage irradiation leads to remarkable energy savings and retains high NOx removal. The mathematical models of the double and triple irradiation process are discussed. (author)

  14. Studies of alpha activities in and around a mineral separation pilot plant with CR-39 foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR) in a mineral separation pilot plant in Bangladesh was investigated with CR-39 foils. Inside the plant the clean floor near the west entrance has an activity of 0.051 ± 0.003 working level, non-conductor sand in a box has 0.345±0.007 working level, a zircon drum has 0.202 ±0.007 working level and garnet stock (monazite, zircon etc. mixture) has 2.537±0.076 working level. Outside the pilot plant, the centre of the raw sand stock has α-activities of 0.486 ±0.013 working level. In a rice field on the eastern side of pilot plant the α-activity was 0.116±0.006 working level. (author)

  15. Research and Development on PFBC—CC in China and Jiawnag Pilot plant Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingshengCai; MingyaoZhang

    1994-01-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion(PFBC)is recognized as an advanced coal-fired technology which can improve efficiency in combined cycle sceme and reduce environmental pollution.Progressive status on PFBC-CC in China is preseted in this paper.Test results on a 1 MWt bench scale experimental PFBC facility is reviuewed briefly.Based on retrofitting of an old steam power plant located at Jiawang,a project to construct a PFBC-CC pilot plant is under way ,Designed capacity of the pilot plant is about 15 MWe ,3MWe from gas cycle and 12 MWe from steam cycle.The system configuration,main design parameters,estimated technical performance as well as construction schedule of the pilot plant are described.The bright future for PFBC-CC in China is also indicated.

  16. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  17. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  18. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  19. Dismantling of an alpha contaminated hot cell at the Marcoule Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the remodeling of Marcoule Pilot Plant, the cell 82: old unit for plutonium solution purification by extraction, was dismantled. About 42 tons of wastes were evacuated. Some wastes wen decontaminated by mechanical means other wastes with higher residual activity were stored for subsequent processing. The operation shows that dismantling of a hot cell is possible even if incorporated in an operating plant

  20. Performance and Model Calibration of R-D-N Processes in Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Sota, A.; Larrea, L.; Novak, L.;

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the first part of an experimental programme in a pilot plant configured for advanced biological nutrient removal processes treating domestic wastewater of Bilbao. The IAWPRC Model No.1 was calibrated in order to optimize the design of the full-scale plant. In this first phas...

  1. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L. [Rocky Mountain Peace Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  2. Experimental Fact-Finding in CFB Biomass Gasification for ECN's 500 kWth Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.; Drift, van der A.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors an

  3. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb2Te3 based back contact. - Highlights: ► Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ► 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ► Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb2Te3 back contacts ► High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  4. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a

  5. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-05-15

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project

  6. A Dynamic Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment Tool - 12490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment (PA) methodology comprises a toolbox used to demonstrate regulatory compliance of the repository after facility closure. The PA framework rests upon an extensive suite of computational codes. In some cases, significant alteration of code inputs is a tedious and difficult task. Due to the nature of the application for which they are used, PA codes used in support of WIPP regulatory compliance demonstration must satisfy stringent quality assurance requirements. Consequently, many of the coding practices used during original code development are still implemented today. A more efficient workflow configuration has the potential to alleviate difficulties associated with extensive code input modifications. Here, this potential is assessed via an implementation of a more flexible scientific workflow system for a subset of the codes used in WIPP PA. The scientific workflow approach taken here for a dynamic PA system enables users from disparate backgrounds to dramatically shorten the time between hypothesis and analysis by decreasing the amount of a priori knowledge, from a range of disciplines, needed to execute the code. Having smaller iteration times allows for more ideas to be tested and explored, which leads to safer and more optimized systems. Note that these high-level, dynamic tools are intended only for initial scoping studies on the personal computer of a researcher. Full, regulatory compliance calculations may occur only within a qualified computing environment. However, the WIPP PA tools here may guide future research and indicate regions of the analysis space that are worth further study. This next generation of PA software provides the ability to perform scoping investigations of repository performance quickly and easily, and has an accessible and useful interface to a variety of users, such as fuel cycle systems designers, domain experts such as repository modelers, and policy makers. The purview

  7. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  8. The pilot and demonstration SOLRIF project (Solar Roof Integration Frame)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building integration technologies for photovoltaic systems are, beside cell and module improvements, one of the most important aspects to reduce the price of solar electricity. But beside costs, there are other relevant requirements such as the architectural and aesthetical appearance of the building itself. SOLRIF is a new photovoltaic (PV) system for inclined roofs, which meets the aspects described above. Combined with any solar panel, SOLRIF forms a sealed roofing layer, like standard roofs with tiles, while generating electricity at the same time and offering a sustainable solution without greenhouse gases at zero operating costs. This new system is suitable for almost any type of inclined roofs in existing or new buildings and meets high aesthetical demands too. The innovative design is optimised in view of economical, ecological and functional aspects. The SOLRIF system consists of any type of PV laminate and four especially designed aluminium profiles, which replace the conventional framing of standard PV laminates. SOLRIF is independent of the size and makes of the PV laminates and is therefore suited to different products. During the two years project time 6 installations with a total amount of over 100 kW nominal power have been realised in Switzerland. Further approximately 150 kWp have been installed in Germany since the beginning of 2000. In advance, two test installations, one in Switzerland and one in the Netherlands were built. Several tests were done with the test installations in order to gain experiences at different locations. Improvements were done concerning the side finishing and on the profiles to reduce the material. The experiences with the installation and operation of SOLRIF elements are very positive. The product has reached a high quality level and has proved its proper function. (author)

  9. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors

  10. Optimal offering strategy for a concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are becoming economically viable. ► CSP production is positively correlated with the demand. ► CSP plants can be made dispatchable by using molten salt storage facilities. ► Integrating CSP plants in a market constitutes a relevant challenge. -- Abstract: This paper provides a methodology to build offering curves for a concentrating solar power plant. This methodology takes into account the uncertainty in the thermal production from the solar field and the volatility of market prices. The solar plant owner is a price-taker producer that participates in a pool-based electricity market with the aim of maximizing its expected profit. To enhance the value of the concentrating solar power plant, a molten salt heat storage is considered, which allows producing electricity during periods without availability of the solar resource. To derive offering curves, a mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed, which is robust from the point of view of the uncertainty associated with the thermal production of the solar field and stochastic from the point of view of the uncertain market prices.

  11. Managing Process Hazards in Lab-Scale Pilot Plant for Safe Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanida Abdul Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the OSHA Laboratory and Hazards Communication Standards, incidents which result in injuries and property loss continue to occur in the research and teaching locations. Application of Process Hazard Analysis (PHA of OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM to laboratory pilot plant operations has the potential to further reduce risk associated with this location. However, a major challenge is unavailability of the easy and effective system to comply with PHA requirements. This study presents a system to manage the implementation of PHA in pilot plant namely Process Hazards Management for Lab Scale Pilot Plant (PHM-LabPP. It provides organized strategies to manage and track information, documents, recommendations and corrective actions related to the process hazards. Application of PHM-LabPP at High Gravitational Natural Gas pilot plant as a case study is examined and discussed. The implementation of this system could help end users to overcome inadequate of managing and controlling process hazards in pilot plant that had contributed to numbers of accidents.

  12. Exploring of energy efficiency on monocrystalline silicon solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents the basic information on monocrystalline-silicon solar power plant of 2 kW, set up on the roof of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Republic of Serbia. Beside this, the main properties of the equipment for exploring energy efficiency have been analyzed in dependence on weather conditions (inverter, communication system, automatic weather station etc.) This paper includes theoretical and experimental results on energy efficiency of above mentioned solar plant starting from November 2012 and ending in April 2013. During this analyze, the following factors has been taken into account: intensity of solar radiation, temperature, wind speed, air humidity, produced electric energy, CO2 emissions, financial output. : key words: solar energy, solar power plants, energy efficiency, PV systems, PVGIS

  13. Technical Description Lillgrund Wind Power Plant. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppsson, Joakim; Larsen, Poul Erik; Larsson, Aake (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Lillgrund offshore wind power plant comprises 48 wind turbines, each rated at 2.3 MW, bringing the total wind farm capacity to 110 MW. The Lillgrund offshore wind power plant is located in a shallow area of Oeresund, 7 km off the coast of Sweden and 7 km south from the Oeresund Bridge connecting Sweden and Denmark. An average wind speed of around 8,5 m/s at hub height, combined with a relatively low water depth of 4 to 8 meters makes it economically feasible to build here. Vattenfall Vindkraft AB is the owner and operator of Lillgrund offshore wind power plant. Lillgrund is a Swedish pilot project supported by the Swedish Energy Agency. The bidding process was completed during 2005 and the offshore power plant was constructed in the period 2006 to 2007. The wind farm was constructed on time and has now been successfully operational since December 2007. There is, however, always potential for improvement and the aim of this report has been to determine and highlight these areas. It is worth noting out that only the electrical system and the foundations are tailor made at offshore wind power plants. The wind turbines are more or less standard products with none or very limited possibilities for project specific design changes. Geotechnical investigations are expensive and it can be difficult to balance the risks as well as the benefits of this expense in the early phases of a large infrastructure project. As a whole, the geotechnical surveys at Lillgrund proved to be useful. They identified potential issues, such as the fact that extra excavation was required for two of the foundations. It also revealed the location of a small number of boulders that would have to be removed. Vattenfall requested a complete study of the electrical system for Lillgrund to be delivered with the bids. That request was not met. Instead Siemens Wind Power began a complete electrical system study after being awarded the Contract. The electrical system study was completed during the

  14. Thermal analysis of solar biomass hybrid co-generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushika, N. D.; Mishra, Anuradha; Chakravarty, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    This article describes a co-generation plant based on the biogas being produced from the waste of distillery plant and highlights the possible configuration in which the plant can be hybridized with auxiliary solar energy source having the advantage of using financial incentives in several countries. In hybridization, the solar heat is used for heating the boiler feed water. The solar heat-generating unit consists of line focus parabolic trough collector, heat transportation system and heat delivery unit such as heat exchanger. The simulation model of heat and mass transfer processes in the solar field as well as the balance of the system is developed to investigate the technological feasibility of the concept in terms of plant yield and matching of subsystems.

  15. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  16. Operation result of 40kW class MCFC pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, H.; Hatori, S.; Hosaka, M.; Uematsu, H. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. developed unique Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) system based on our original concept. To demonstrate the possibility of this system, based on MCFC technology of consigned research from New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan, we designed 40kW class MCFC pilot plant which had all equipments required as a power plant and constructed in our TO-2 Technical Center. This paper presents the test results of the plant.

  17. Construction Package No. 2. Final Earthwork and Roadwork (RADL Item 7-28)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The final earthwork, aggregate surfacing, roadwork and paving for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. The work consisted of applying weed killer to surfaces to be paved, constructing bituminous pavements, restoring existing compacted aggregate base roadways, and stripping and removing existing grade from the core area for compacted aggregate surfacing.

  18. Solar power plant and sustainable rural development in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec, Štefan; Papler, Drago

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates potentials and opportunities in the development of solar power plants in rural areas in Slovenia as a supplementary or as an entrepreneurial activity to generate incomes and sustainable rural development. The focus is on agricultural household buildings. The estimated viability of the solar power plant investment is sensitive to the size of the surface areas of the buildings, flows of investment costs and revenues, including revenues from economic policy measures, and ...

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Plant for the 'Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of a solar photovoltaic plant for the 'Eftimie Murgu' University, with an estimation of the yearly medium energy production. The substantiation of the plant designed is based on the many years measurements obtained in the laboratory for monitoring the solar photovoltaic energy of the university and the favorable conditions of promoting the energy production from renewable sources, assured in the new legislation.

  20. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Williams, Thomas A. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  1. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  2. Analysis of metallurgical failures in the solvent-refined-coal pilot plant at Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Baylor, V.B.; Barnett, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    The six-ton/day Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) pilot plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, has produced coal-derived liquid and solid fuels since 1973. During the past four years engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have worked with pilot plant personnel to assess the performance of materials in the pilot plant. One aspect of this assistance has been failure analysis services, both on site and at ORNL. Corrosion mechanisms that have been observed include sulfidation, chloride stress-corrosion cracking, polythionic acid stress-corrosion cracking, erosion, and chloride-related general corrosion. The information gained from this failure analysis work is assisting engineers and designers in selecting materials for future coal liquefaction systems.

  3. Pilot plant test data on the NOXSO flue gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOXSO Corporation, MK-Ferguson, W.R. Grace and Co., and Ohio Edison are conducting a Proof-of-Concept (POC) test of the NOXSO flue gas treatment system at Ohio Edison's Toronto Station. The project is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), the Ohio Coal Development Office and the aforementioned project team. The pilot plant treats flue gas from either Unit 10 or 11 at Toronto containing 2300 ppm SO2 and 350 ppm NOx. The pilot plant treats a volume of flue gas equivalent to 5 MW of power productions, which makes the pilot plant roughly 1/20 the size of a commercial process module. This paper covers the design of the pilot test facility. Included is a review of previous NOXSO test programs and the pertinent data from these tests that was used to design the pilot plant. Finally, an overview of the full-scale demonstration of the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison's Niles Station is presented

  4. Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society solar energy pilot study. First follow-up report, October 1979, pilot country: United States; co-pilot countries: Denmark and France. CCMS report No. 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    During 1973 to 1978, over twenty nations participated in the NATO/CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study, whose objective was to promote and accelerate the use of solar heating and cooling of buildings. The activities in this information exchange included (1) the regular reporting of national solar heating and cooling programs, (2) the development of a format for reporting the performance of solar heating and cooling systems, (3) the exchange of system performance reports, (4) the establishment of two specialized working groups for solar-assisted low energy dwellings and passive solar applications. At the conclusion of the pilot study in 1978, the participants formulated recommendations for continued action at the international level, as well as for action at the national level. This report describes the progress made in implementing those recommendations. In addition to detailing the steps taken to continue collaboration in various efforts initiated within the Solar Energy Pilot Study, the report contains papers on the 1979 status of the solar heating and cooling programs in seventeen CCMS countries.

  5. Structural Health Monitoring for Concentrated Solar Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Muñoz, Carlos Quiterio; Trapero Arenas, Juan Ramón; García Márquez, Fausto Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is being one of the options to cover the demand due to the environmental restrictions. One of the most relevant renewable energy sources is the solar energy, where the concentrated solar power is nowadays the source that is getting more importance. The correct performance of solar receiver is crucial because its failure can result in significant costs and availability of the energy service. Non-destructive testing is broadly used in structural health monitoring systems in ord...

  6. Continued oversight of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed environmental standards applicable to the disposal of defence-related transuranic wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). By statute, EPA also serves as the regulator and implements these standards at WIPP, which has been in operation since 1999. The general environmental standards are set forth in the Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (US NARA, 1985). These standards are implemented by site-specific compliance criteria at 40 CFR 194 (US NARA, 1996). The repository waste area is ∼650 meters below ground surface in a thick bedded salt formation that dips from west to east at ∼1 deg.. WIPP is located in the Chihuahuan Desert of south-eastern New Mexico, where the annual precipitation averages between 25 and 40 centimetres and there is high evapotranspiration. Much of the area around WIPP is federal land, managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and the area is sparsely populated. The transuranic waste disposed of at WIPP consists of materials such as radioactive sludges, soils and laboratory materials (e.g. chemical mixtures, contaminated glove boxes, paper and glass). Wastes are typically not treated unless necessary for shipping purposes (e.g. to limit hydrogen build-up). The waste is contaminated with plutonium, americium and other radionuclides, including some caesium and strontium. Transuranic waste is defined as waste with radionuclides heavier than uranium containing more than 3 700 Bq (100 nanocuries) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste; isotopes must have half-lives greater than 20 years. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act limits the total disposal volume to ∼177 000 cubic meters (6.2 million cubic feet) and creates two categories of waste based on operational

  7. Pilot plant for electron beam SO2 and NOx removal from combustion flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish pilot plant for electron beam flue gas treatment was built in Electro-power Station Kaweczyn. The flue gas flow capacity is equal to 20000 Nm3/h. The applied technology allows simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. The process is dry and by product can be used as fertilizer. In the report construction of the pilot plant is described. The preliminary results of investigations proved high efficiency of acidic pollutants removal from flue gases. (author). 23 refs, 6 tabs, 24 ills

  8. Radioactivity of waste materials produced from the Inchass uranium extraction pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant was constructed at Inchass, Cairo for uranium processing from conventional ore materials consists of 4 rubber lined leaching tanks fitted with the required impellers beside having procured two columns ion-exchange unit from Permutite Company LTD of London and a mixer settler from Henkel USA. The capacity of this unit is 100 kg yellowcake per year. The aim of this work is to study the radioactivity of wastes produced from the pilot plant. Uranium ore, dust, airborne material, solid waste (tailings) and liquid effluents have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry

  9. Verification of criticality Safety for ETRR-2 Fuel Manufacturing pilot Plant (FMPP) at Inshas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criticality safety of the fuel manufacturing pilot plant (FMPP) at inshas is studied and analyzed during normal and abnormal operation conditions. the multiplication factor during all stages of the manufacturing processes is determined. several accident scenarios were simulated and the criticality of these accidents were investigated. two codes are used in the analysis : MCNP 4 B code, based on monte Carlo method, and CITATION code , based on diffusion theory. the results are compared with the designer calculations and satisfactory agreement were found. the results of the study indicated that the safety of the fuel manufacturing pilot plant is confirmed

  10. Development of a computer systems for operational data acquisition of uranium isotopic enrichment pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant for uranium enrichment using the jet nozzle process was transfered from Federal Republic of Germany to Brazil, to train Brazilian technicist in its operation and to improve the process. This pilot plant is monitored by a data acquisition system and the possibility of faulty events would cause serious dificulties, as far as maintenance is concerned (for instance, unvailable special components). It is described the development of a new system, which is proposed in order to minimize difficulties with maintenance that utilizes in the assembling integrated circuits of large scale of integration. It is controlled by a microcomputer. (Author)

  11. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power needs to be explored. This paper deals with the evaluation method of solar contribution based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of thermoeconomics with a case of 600 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant. In this study, the feasibility of the method has been carried out. The contribution of this paper is not only to determine the proportion of solar energy in overall electric power, but also to assign the individual cost components involving solar energy. Therefore, this study will supply the theoretical reference for the future research of evaluation methods and new energy resource subsidy.

  12. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results:Weatherford, Oklahoma.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Arora, H. (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Karori, Saqib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Pathan, Sakib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona)

    2007-05-01

    Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc. (NCS), under a contract with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), designed and operated pilot scale evaluations of the adsorption and coagulation/filtration treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The pilot evaluation was conducted at Well 30 of the City of Weatherford, OK, which supplies drinking water to a population of more than 10,400. Well water contained arsenic in the range of 16 to 29 ppb during the study. Four commercially available adsorption media were evaluated side by side for a period of three months. Both adsorption and coagulation/filtration effectively reduced arsenic from Well No.30. A preliminary economic analysis indicated that adsorption using an iron oxide media was more cost effective than the coagulation/ filtration technology.

  13. Thermal performance of solar district heating plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Bava, Federico

    2014-01-01

    collectors mounted on the ground, shows measured yearly thermal performances of the solar heating plants placed in the interval from 313 kWh/m² collector to 493 kWh/m² collector with averages for all plants of 411 kWh/m² collector for 2012 and 450 kWh/m² collector for 2013. Theoretical calculations show that...... for temperature levels higher than about 55°C the thermal performance of a solar collector field based on concentrating tracking solar collectors is higher than the thermal performance of a solar collector field based on flat plate collectors. It is estimated that there are potentials for further...... recommended by parallel theoretical and experimental approach to investigate in detail the thermal performance of differently designed solar collector fields in such a way that their thermal performance can be determined by theoretical calculations in the future. This will be useful in connection with...

  14. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah, and Barstow, California: suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, L. Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades, the paradigm of large-magnitude (~250 km), northwest-directed (~N70°W) Neogene extensional lengthening between the Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nevada at the approximate latitude of Las Vegas has remained largely unchallenged, as has the notion that the strain integrates with coeval strains in adjacent regions and with plate-boundary strain. The paradigm depends on poorly constrained interconnectedness of extreme-case lengthening estimated at scattered localities within the region. Here we evaluate the soundness of the inferred strain interconnectedness over an area reaching 600 km southwest from Beaver, Utah, to Barstow, California, and conclude that lengthening is overestimated in most areas and, even if the estimates are valid, lengthening is not interconnected in a way that allows for published versions of province-wide summations. We summarize Neogene strike slip in 13 areas distributed from central Utah to Lake Mead. In general, left-sense shear and associated structures define a broad zone of translation approximately parallel to the eastern boundary of the Basin and Range against the Colorado Plateau, a zone we refer to as the Hingeline shear zone. Areas of steep-axis rotation (ranging to 2500 km2) record N-S shortening rather than unevenly distributed lengthening. In most cases, the rotational shortening and extension-parallel folds and thrusts are coupled to, or absorb, strike slip, thus providing valuable insight into how the discontinuous strike-slip faults are simply parts of a broad zone of continuous strain. The discontinuous nature of strike slip and the complex mixture of extensional, contractional, and steep-axis rotational structures in the Hingeline shear zone are similar to those in the Walker Lane belt in the west part of the Basin and Range, and, together, the two record southward displacement of the central and northern Basin and Range relative to the adjacent Colorado Plateau. Understanding this province

  15. The Design of Concentrated Solar Power Plants for Dubrovnik (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian electricity demand exceeds domestic production and about 30 % of additional power is covered from imports. The Croatian government is planning to add domestic production capacity, using natural gas and coal as the main fuel. Due to the attractive solar irradiation in Croatia, these new projects offer the possibility to build these thermal power plants as hybrid plants by adding solar energy within the production. The present paper will investigate the potential of solar energy in the Southern Croatian region, and its possible contribution in a hybrid set-up. The paper assesses the required input data and presents a hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (CSP& design. The results demonstrate the potential of adding a CSP in a hybrid power plant in Southern Croatia.

  16. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J. E.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.; Burgess, T.; Dix, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Gerrity, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Kastner, R.; Kessel, C.; Malang, S.; Minervini, J.; Neilson, G. H.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Prager, S.; Sawan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Sternlieb, A.; Waganer, L.; Whyte, D.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2011-10-01

    A potentially attractive next-step towards fusion commercialization is a pilot plant, i.e. a device ultimately capable of small net electricity production in as compact a facility as possible and in a configuration scalable to a full-size power plant. A key capability for a pilot-plant programme is the production of high neutron fluence enabling fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) research. It is found that for physics and technology assumptions between those assumed for ITER and nth-of-a-kind fusion power plant, it is possible to provide FNST-relevant neutron wall loading in pilot devices. Thus, it may be possible to utilize a single facility to perform FNST research utilizing reactor-relevant plasma, blanket, coil and auxiliary systems and maintenance schemes while also targeting net electricity production. In this paper three configurations for a pilot plant are considered: the advanced tokamak, spherical tokamak and compact stellarator. A range of configuration issues is considered including: radial build and blanket design, magnet systems, maintenance schemes, tritium consumption and self-sufficiency, physics scenarios and a brief assessment of research needs for the configurations.

  17. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  18. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and validat

  19. Research and development on a distributed type solar thermal power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, I.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Taki, T.; Sato, S.

    1983-12-01

    The R&D on a solar thermal power generation system of the plane parabolic type within the framework of the Japanese Sunshine Project is described. This system realizes high concentration of solar energy with a special concentrator module which combines 100 flat plate mirror heliostats of the central tower system with 5 parabolic troughs of the distributed system. A molten salt (KCl-LiCl) type thermal storage unit is used to superheat saturated steam supplied by accumulators to 300-350 C for 90 minutes after 5 hours of heat storage. Specifications and hydrodynamic characteristics for a 1000 kWe pilot plant in Nio, Kagawa, Japan, constructed in 1980 are given.

  20. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental ...

  2. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    López, Félix A.; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato Ortega, Belén

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550 °C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C5–C24 compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼43 MJ kg−1) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuel...

  3. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  4. Developments in the pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.; Gnutek, R.; Kaptein, J.; Nannan, N.R.; Oyarzun, B.; Trapp, C.; Colonna, P.; Van Dijk, E.; Gross, J.; Bardow, A.

    2011-01-01

    N.V. Nuon (part of the Vattenfall Group) operates an IGCC in Buggenum and is developing a multi-fuel IGCC with CO2 capture and storage (Nuon Magnum) in Eemshaven, the Netherlands. In order to prepare for large-scale application of CO2 capture and storage, a CO2 capture pilot plant is constructed at

  5. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens; Nielsen, P.H.; Jansen, J.l.C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations...

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  7. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  8. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  9. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries. PMID:19603700

  10. Retrieval of canistered experimental waste at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the suitability of bedded salt for nuclear waste disposal, an extensive experimental program will be implemented at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In order to evaluate experimental results, it will be necessary to recover certain of these experiments for postmortem examination and analysis. This document describes the equipment and procedures used to effect recovery of one category of WIPP experiments

  11. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum A. Design calculations for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. The following categories are discussed: general nuclear calculations; radwaste calculations; structural calculations; mechanical calculations; civil calculations; electrical calculations; TRU waste surface facility time and motion analysis; shaft sinking procedures; hoist time and motion studies; mining system analysis; mine ventilation calculations; mine structural analysis; and miscellaneous underground calculations

  12. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps from three seismic reflection surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Data interpretations will be the subject of subsequent reports. (LK)

  13. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume I contains the following attachments for Module II: waste analysis plan; quality assurance program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experiment Waste Characterization Program(QAPP); WIPP Characterization Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Plan)(SAP); and no migration Determination Requirement Summary (NMD)

  14. Long-term climate variability at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Southeastern New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Because changes in climate during the next 10,000 years (10 ka) may affect performance of the repository, an understanding of long-term climate variability is essential for evaluating regulatory compliance

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Sever...

  16. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations

  17. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum A. Design calculations for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The design calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. The following categories are discussed: general nuclear calculations; radwaste calculations; structural calculations; mechanical calculations; civil calculations; electrical calculations; TRU waste surface facility time and motion analysis; shaft sinking procedures; hoist time and motion studies; mining system analysis; mine ventilation calculations; mine structural analysis; and miscellaneous underground calculations.

  18. Solar repowering of Soma-A thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Solar repowering of the Soma-A TPP is investigated using Thermoflex simulations. ► Full and part load operations for steam generation and feed water heating examined. ► 14% Power increment at full load and 14% CO2 decrement at part load is achieved. ► The payback time is found for different scenarios of CO2 and electricity price. - Abstract: In this study, solar repowering of the Soma-A thermal power plant in Turkey is investigated using simulations. The Soma A thermal power plant began operation in 1957 and has served until 2010. In the current situation the installed capacity of the power plant is 44 MWel with two units. In the simulations full load and part load operations are considered and compared for three different cases: (1) current case; (2) solar steam generation; and, (3) solar feed water heating. Economic analyses are performed by using the simple payback method. According to the results, solar repowering of Soma A thermal power plant with parabolic trough type collectors can result in 14% power increment at full load operation of the boiler and 14% CO2 decrement at part load operation of the boiler. However, the economic analysis predicts that the payback time of solar repowering is approximately 10 years for a CO2 price per ton of 100 USD and unit electricity selling price of 0.24 USD/kW h.

  19. Solar photo-Fenton process on the abatement of antibiotics at a pilot scale: Degradation kinetics, ecotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessment and removal of antibiotic resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Varela, A R; Kyriakou, S; Manaia, C M; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-11-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar photo-Fenton), for the degradation of antibiotics at low concentration level (μg L(-1)) in secondary treated domestic effluents at a pilot-scale. The examined antibiotics were ofloxacin (OFX) and trimethoprim (TMP). A compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant was used for the photocatalytic experiments. The process was mainly evaluated by a fast and reliable analytical method based on a UPLC-MS/MS system. Solar photo-Fenton process using low iron and hydrogen peroxide doses ([Fe(2+)](0) = 5 mg L(-1); [H(2)O(2)](0) = 75 mg L(-1)) was proved to be an efficient method for the elimination of these compounds with relatively high degradation rates. The photocatalytic degradation of OFX and TMP with the solar photo-Fenton process followed apparent first-order kinetics. A modification of the first-order kinetic expression was proposed and has been successfully used to explain the degradation kinetics of the compounds during the solar photo-Fenton treatment. The results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial wastewater toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba) and the water flea Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of the treated samples, expressed as root growth inhibition, was higher compared to that observed on the inhibition of seed germination. Enterococci, including those resistant to OFX and TMP, were completely eliminated at the end of the treatment. The total cost of the full scale unit for the treatment of 150 m(3) day(-1) of secondary wastewater effluent was found to be 0.85 € m(-3). PMID:22901406

  20. Modernization and enlarging of the Marcoule pilot plant for R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the pilot plant is the testing of process and equipment in actual conditions with spent fuels on a half-industrial scale and for a significant time. From 1963 to 1983 more than 11t of spent fuels (mainly from fast reactors) were reprocessed. Since 1983 is modernized and enlarged and the new plant of the TOR project (treatment of oxides from fast reactors) are described

  1. Anthocyanin Characterization of Pilot Plant Water Extracts of Delonix regia Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Gaydou, Emile M.; Georges Agbo N’zi; Augustin Adima; Paul Lozano; Emmanuelle Meudec; Lozano, Yves F.; Felix Adje

    2008-01-01

    Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various under-utilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extract...

  2. Study of the thermal decomposition of petrochemical sludge in a pilot plant reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Conesa Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Moltó Berenguer, Julia; Ariza, José; Ariza, María; García Barneto, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The pyrolysis of a sludge produced in the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 350, 400, 470 and 530 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids and chars) are presented, with a thermogravimetric study of the char produced and analysis of main components of the liquid. In the temperature range studied, the compos...

  3. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes A. Barcia; Rogelio Peón Menéndez; Juan Á. Martínez Esteban; Miguel A. José Prieto; Juan A. Martín Ramos; F. Javier de Cos Juez; Antonio Nevado Reviriego

    2015-01-01

    Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF) system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in t...

  4. Double stage dry-wet-fermentation - start-up of a pilot biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) has developed a double stage dry-wet fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Originally designed for treatment of organic wastes, this process allows using a wide variety of solid biodegradable materials. The dividing of hydrolysis and methanation in this process, allows an optimization of the different steps of biogas generation separately. The main advantages of the process are the optimum process control, an extremely stable process operation and a high gas productivity and quality. Compared to conventional processes, the retention times within the percolation stage (hydrolysis) are reduced considerably. In cooperation with the engineering and consulting company GICON, the technology was qualified further to an industrial scale. In 2007 a pilot plant, and, simultaneously, an industrial plant were built by GICON based on this double stage technology. Based on practical experience from the operation of laboratory fermentation plants, the commissioning of the pilot plant was planned, controlled and monitored by our institution. The start-up of a biogas plant of this type focuses mainly on the inoculation the of methane reactor. The growth of microbial populations and generation of a stable biocenosis within the methane reactor is essential and affects the duration of starting period as well as the methanation efficiency a long time afterwards. This paper concerns with start-up of a pilot biogas plant and discusses particular occurrences and effects during this period. (author)

  5. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

    1984-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

  7. Solar thermodynamic power plants. The new generation is coming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents three main parts. The first part deals with the historical aspects of the thermodynamic solar energy and the sudden interest on the technology with the construction of a new power plants in Nevada. The second part presents the three techniques to concentrate the solar energy in order to produce electric power: the parabolic mirrors, the central receiver system and the cylinder-parabola concentrators. The last part takes stock on the 15 world projects. (A.L.B.)

  8. Calculation of the characteristics of solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, S. A.; Akbarov, R. Iu.; Pirmatov, I. I.

    A general scheme is developed for calculating the shading of heliostats in solar power plants, with reference both to solar furnaces and to tower systems. Results are presented on the relationship between the filling of the middle of a concentrator and the time of year and time of day under clear-sky conditions, and to the relationship between the light energy power incident on circles in focal planes 30 and 40 cm in diameter and the turn angle of the heliostat.

  9. Pilot plant UF6 to UF4 test operations report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FMPC site includes a plant designed for the reduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). Limited operation of the upgraded reduction facility began in August 1984 and continued through January 19, 1986. A reaction vessel ruptured on that date causing the plant operation to be shut down. The DOE conducted a Class B investigation with the findings of the investigation board issued in preliminary form in May 1986 and as a final recommendation in July 1986. A two-phase restart of the plant was planned and implemented. Phase I included implementing safety system modifications, changing reaction vessel temperature control strategy, and operating the reduction plant under an 8-week controlled test. The results of the test period are the subject of this report. 41 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Optimization of an UF pilot plant for the treatment of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crossflow filtration process has been developed to treat the Harwell site low level active liquid waste. A pilot plant was then constructed and operated to determine the α and βγ removal from the effluent. The unit has been used to assess the long term performance of ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes. The reliability of the pilot plant equipment has also been demonstrated over periods of between 6,000-10,000 operating hours. Tests have shown that the process gives optimum α removal at pH5 down to 1.5 mBq/ml and that addition of copper ferrocyanide and zirconium phosphate to the effluent can significantly improve βγ removal. Direct electrical Membrane Cleaning has been shown on a laboratory scale to enhance crossflow filtration performance at conductive UF and microfiltration membranes by improving their performance at reduced crossflow velocites. Pilot scale units based on Tech Sep M4 and MA1/S sintered stainless steel membranes have been designed and constructed for longer term evaluation in the UF pilot plant. Tests on the former have recently begun. (author)

  11. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO2 emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO2 emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO2. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO2 can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  12. Central receiver solar thermal power system, phase 1. Progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The program objective is the preliminary design of a 10 MWe pilot solar power plant supported by major subsystem experiments. Progress is reported on the following task elements: 10 MWe pilot plant; collector subsystem design and analysis; receiver subsystem requirements; receiver subsystem design; thermal storage subsystem; electrical power generation subsystem; and pilot plant architectural engineering and support. (WDM)

  13. Recovery of glass from the inert fraction refused by MBT plants in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nilmara; Garrinhas, Inés; Maximo, Angela; Belo, Nuno; Roque, Paulo; Carvalho, M Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Selective collection is a common practice in many countries. However, even in some of those countries there are recyclable materials, like packaging glass, erroneously deposited in the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW). In the present paper, a solution is proposed to recover glass from the inert reject of Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plants treating MMSW aiming at its recycling. The inert reject of MBT (MBTr) plants is characterized by its small particle size and high heterogeneity. The study was made with three real samples of diverse characteristics superimposed mainly by the different upstream MBT. One of the samples (VN) had a high content in organics (approximately 50%) and a particle size smaller than 16 mm. The other two were coarser and exhibited similar particle size distribution but one (RE) was rich in glass (almost 70%) while the other (SD) contained about 40% in glass. A flowsheet was developed integrating drying, to eliminate moisture related with organic matter contamination; magnetic separation, to separate remaining small ferrous particles; vacuum suction, to eliminate light materials; screening, to eliminate the finer fraction that has a insignificant content in glass, and to classify the >6mm fraction in 6-16 mm and >16 mm fractions to be processed separately; separation by particle shape, in the RecGlass equipment specifically designed to eliminate stones; and optical sorting, to eliminate opaque materials. A pilot plant was built and the tests were conducted with the three samples separately. With all samples, it was possible to attain approximately 99% content in glass in the glass products, but the recovery of glass was related with the feed particle size. The finer the feed was, the lower the percentage of glass recovered in the glass product. The results show that each one of the separation processes was needed for product enrichment. The organic matter recovered in the glass product was high, ranging from 0.76% to 1

  14. Pilot scale study - processing of palm empty fruit bunch into animal feed at sterifeed pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5-1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  15. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  16. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.

    2014-12-01

    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  17. Pilot Plant Studies for CO2 Capture from Waste Incinerator Flue Gas Using MEA Based Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental study of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from waste incinerator flue gas is presented. A specific pilot plant has been achieved based on absorption/desorption process using Monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent. Several experiments have been carried out at laboratory and industrial site. The pilot is fully instrumented to establish precise balances. Laboratory experiments allow to measure overall mass transfer coefficient KGaw for several pilot operating conditions. Long laboratory and industrial runs provide an estimation of MEA chemical resistance against waste incinerator flue gas. The experiments also allowed the analysis of NO2 and SO2 absorption through the solvent as well as the accumulation of Heat Stable Salts (HSS) for a full scale CO2 capture unit fed by a waste incinerator flue gas. (authors)

  18. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  19. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Allani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS. This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System that integrates the parabolic trough into a fossil fired combined cycle, which allows a larger exergy potential of the fuel to be converted. b the HSTS (Hybrid Solar Tower System which uses high concentration optics (via a power tower generator and high temperature air receivers to drive the combined cycle power plant. In the latter case, solar energy is used at a higher exergy level as a heat source of the topping cycle. This paper presents the results of a thermoeconomic investigation of an ISCCS envisaged in Tunisia. The study is realized in two phases. In the first phase, a mixed approach, based on pinch technology principles coupled with a mathematical optimization algorithm, is used to minimize the heat transfer exergy losses in the steam generators, respecting the off design operating conditions of the steam turbine (cone law. In the second phase, an economic analysis based on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC approach was carried out for the configurations, which provided the best concepts during the first phase. A comparison of ISCCS with pure fossil fueled plants (CC+GT is reported for the same electrical power load. A sensitivity analysis based on the relative size of the solar field is presented.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  20. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  1. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  2. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well

  3. Biofuels 2.0 move to pilot plant; Les biocarburants 2.0 passent au pilote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L

    2010-02-15

    The second generation of biofuels, which use the non-energy parts of plants, do not compete with the food industry. These biofuels have been tried and tested at the laboratory but challenges are occurring with the transition to industrial plants. Demonstrators and prototypes are developing in Germany, Japan, USA and France and bet on two different processes, the biochemical way (enzymatic reaction and fermentation) and the thermochemical way (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis). Research is in progress on a possible third generation of biofuels which will use micro-algae. The interest of this third way is triple: no competition with the food industry, no land use (production in bioreactors), and enhanced CO{sub 2} capture. (J.S.)

  4. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  5. Comparative study on solar tower and farm plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was directed at identifying, demonstrating and interpreting shared features and differences of tower and farm concepts for solar power generation. The tools used are the SOLERGY calculation code, input/output characteristics, monthly and annual efficiencies and typical daily courses of plant outputs. Major results involve the dependence from meteorological conditions, plant configuration, operating mode, and the technology used. In conclusion, the author evaluates power generation costs and their development. (BWI)

  6. Biofuels 2.0 move to pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second generation of biofuels, which use the non-energy parts of plants, do not compete with the food industry. These biofuels have been tried and tested at the laboratory but challenges are occurring with the transition to industrial plants. Demonstrators and prototypes are developing in Germany, Japan, USA and France and bet on two different processes, the biochemical way (enzymatic reaction and fermentation) and the thermochemical way (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis). Research is in progress on a possible third generation of biofuels which will use micro-algae. The interest of this third way is triple: no competition with the food industry, no land use (production in bioreactors), and enhanced CO2 capture. (J.S.)

  7. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years.

  8. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years

  9. Numerical Study of a Solar Chimney Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dhahri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a numerical analysis on the performance of a solar chimney power plant using steady state Navier-Stokes and energy equations in cylindrical coordinate system. The fluid flow inside the chimney is assumed to be turbulent and simulated with the k-ε turbulent model, using the FLUENT software package. Numerical simulations were performed using the Spanish prototype as reference. The computed results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of Manzanares power plant. Besides, a theoretical model was proposed taking into account the kinetic energy difference within the solar collector. The effects of the main geometrical parameters of the collector and the solar radiation intensity on the air mass flow rate and the temperature rise in the collector have been investigated. The fluid and ground temperature distributions were also presented and analyzed.

  10. The seed of change in society. Diffusion of solar cell systems in housing by means of pilot projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central question in this thesis is: in what way can pilot projects contribute to the diffusion of new sustainable technologies, in particular solar cell systems in housing units. The reason for this is, in the first place, that trials, demonstration projects, practical experiments and market introduction projects are often launched by firms and subsidised by the state. The objective of such projects, referred to here as pilot projects, is in general to prepare the market introduction of new technologies. However, these projects are often realised and financed without much information being available on how they operate: about how they could prepare the market launch and how this function could be optimised. The second reason is that since the end of the 1980s the expectations in the Netherlands in respect of solar cell systems (PV systems) connected to the electricity grid have been high. These systems could have great advantages for the environment and after 2010 could be the most important source of sustainable energy. The government sees housing as the most promising market segment for these systems. It is recognised that certain major bottlenecks have to be solved before a large-scale diffusion is possible. According to the niche approach, the basic starting point of this thesis, this means that the existing social-technological regime needs to change: the rules and infrastructure according to which the existing technologies are, as it were, considered self-evident, and which hinder the introduction of new technologies. Subsidised pilot projects form a protected market niche that can stimulate a change in the regime by learning and by the social embedding of the learning experiences. According to this approach, a protected market niche is a necessary component of state-supported innovation policy if market niches do not arise spontaneously. It is, however, a limited instrument since the ultimate impact on existing regimes depends mainly on external factors

  11. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  12. Development of pilot model of virtual nuclear power plant and its application to radiation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Virtual Reality (VR) technique, a real model for radiation controlled area in nuclear power plant was developed and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose a pilot model with an dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs a series of security checking process initially. If he(she) enters the controlled area and approaches radiation hazard area, the alarms with warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones it has proven that it showed a sufficient performance. Therefore this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures photographic data, on-line dose program

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

  16. Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H2O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Debugging and application of russian three-joint manipulator in the pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyze lots of malfunctions fully which exist and engender in system debugging and full-scale application of 11 Russian three-joint manipulators in the Pilot Plant, meanwhile take the relevant methods and means to prevent the common malfunctions and ensure Russian three-joint manipulators working normally. At the last, it summarize the disposals when Russian three-joint manipulators have malfunctions in order that maintenance personnel can find out and maintain malfunctions well and quickly. (authors)

  18. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS. PMID:27118014

  19. A pilot plant for removing chromium from residual water of tanneries.

    OpenAIRE

    Landgrave, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technical process for removing trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via precipitation. This process can be considered an alternative that avoids a remediation procedure against the metal presence in industrial wastes. This process was verified in a treatment pilot plant located in León, México handling 10 m3/day of three types of effluents. The effluent streams were separated to facilitate the elimination of pollutants from each one. The process...

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  1. Dose distribution measurements in reaction vessel of pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concise description of fast electrons interaction with matter, useful for dosimetric methods applied for the gas phase, is presented. The polymer film dosimeters (PVC and CTA foils) for the spatial dose distribution inside the process vessel of pilot plant facility at EPS Kaweczyn was used. Complementary measurements using an original method of EB induced fluorescence of thr air were also performed. The agreement between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted results is satisfactory. (author)

  2. Data used in preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the data available as of August 1990 and used by the Performance Assessment Division of Sandia National Laboratories in its December 1990 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Parameter values are presented in table form for the geologic subsystem, engineered barriers, borehole flow properties, climate variability, and intrusion characteristics. Sources for the data and a brief discussion of each parameter are provided. 101 refs., 72 figs., 21 tabs

  3. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Dis...

  4. Removal of actinides from nuclear reprocessing wastes: a pilot plant study using non-radioactive simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes generated at the ICPP contain small amounts of actinides, primarily Pu and Am. Removal of these actinides reduces the long term storage hazards of the waste. The development of a flowsheet to remove trivalent actinides is discussed in this paper. Pilot plant studies used actinide simulants. As a result of these studies, the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) was selected as the better measure of pulse column separation efficiency

  5. The Gorleben situation. Radwaste interim storage facility, conditioning pilot plant, exploration mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radwaste interim storage facility has been in operation since 1983, the conditioning pilot plant is under construction, and exploration work is well under way in the mine for preparing the site for service as a radwaste repository. The name Gorleben practically has become a synonym term for ultimate radwaste disposal strategy, and for determined opposition against atomic energy. Dagmar Roehrlich has been on site on behalf of Energie Spektrum and reports the current situation. (orig.)

  6. Fiscal 1997 report of the development of high efficiency waste power generation technology. No.2 volume. Pilot plant verification test; Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu (pilot plant jissho shiken). 1997 nendo hokokusho (daini bunsatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As to a high efficiency waste power generation system using general waste as fuel, the details of the following were described: design/construction management and operational study of pilot plant, design/manufacture/construction of pilot plant, and study of an optimal total system. Concerning the construction management and operational study, the paper described the application for governmental/official inspection procedures and taking inspection, process management of pilot plant, site patrol, safety management, management of trial run of pilot plant, drawing-up of a verification test plan and test run, etc. Relating to the design/manufacture/construction of pilot plant, an outline of the pilot plant was described. The paper also stated points to be considered in design of furnace structure and boiler structure, points to be considered of the verification test, etc. As to the study of an optimal total system, the following were described: survey of waste gasification/slagging power generation technology, basic study on RDF production process, survey of trends of waste power generation technology in the U.S., etc. 52 refs., 149 figs., 121 tabs.

  7. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described

  8. Scale-up analysis and critical issues of an experimental pilot plant for edible film production using agricultural waste processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Sarghini; Prospero Di Pierro; Antonio Veneruso; Paolo Masi

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed to test a multifunctional experimental pilot plant with a reduced environmental impact that is able to process agricultural (fennel) and food production (liquid whey) waste. The pilot plant, using different thermal and filtration process parameters, is able to recover pectin and whey proteins in a single processing unit in order to produce edible films. An innovative feature of the proposed configuration is related to the possibility of coupling different types of was...

  9. Effect of solar-radiation density and angular size of radiation source on efficiency of solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasina, E.A.; Nevezhin, O.A.; Rubanovich, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    The example of a solar thermoemission power plant is used for the analysis of certain features of solar-power-plant operating regimes for various radiation densities and angular sizes of the radiation source. The calculations are performed both on the assumption of exact pointing of the collector optical axis at the radiation source and with allowance for error. Results are reported for plant-efficiency optimization calculations, together with data on the permissible error angles of the solar tracking system.

  10. LEU fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a Material Testing Reactor type (MTR) fuel element facility, for producing the specified fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant uses uranium hexafluoride (UF6, 19.75% U235 by wt) as a raw material which is processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection and test plan to produce the final specified fuel elements. Radiological safety aspects during design, construction, operation, and all reasonably accepted steps should be taken to prevent or reduce the chance of accidents occurrence. (author)

  11. Anthocyanin Characterization of Pilot Plant Water Extracts of Delonix regia Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile M. Gaydou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia.

  12. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modelling tools developed may be applicable to other...... wet FGD plants....

  13. Anthocyanin characterization of pilot plant water extracts of Delonix regia flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adje, Felix; Lozano, Yves F; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Lozano, Paul; Adima, Augustin; N'zi, Georges Agbo; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-01-01

    Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia. PMID:18596650

  14. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    /kWhe , which achieved the Phase 2 Go/No Go target of less than 0.12¢/kWhe. Abengoa Solar has high confidence that the primary risk areas have been addressed in the project and a commercial plant utilizing molten salt is economically and technically feasible. The strong results from the Phase 1 and 2 research, testing, and analyses, summarized in this report, led Abengoa Solar to recommend that the project proceed to Phase 3. However, a commercially viable collector interconnection was not fully validated by the end of Phase 2, combined with the uncertainty in the federal budget, forced the DOE and Abengoa Solar to close the project. Thus the resources required to construct and operate a molten salt pilot plant will be solely supplied by Abengoa Solar.

  15. Some recent improvements in a uranium processing pilot-plant at the Ningyo-toge mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1964 the uranium processing plant at the Ningyo-toge mine has been modified and extended. In 1970 an ammonium diuranate (ADU) producing process was added to the plant, and a pilot plant with an ore-processing capacity of 50t/d was brought into operation. As a result of this operation the process which produces high-purity ADU was confirmed. An electrolytic reduction plant for the pilot operation was constructed by the Asahi Chemical Industry Co. in 1972. Experiments on the reduction of uranyl chloride solution were carried out with good results. Hydrofluorination facilities were added to the plant in 1974 and experiments on the hydrofluorination of UCl4 started. The experiments also studied the characteristics of hydrated UF4. Preliminary experiments on dehydration from hydrated UF4 were carried out to determine the dehydration conditions and the properties of the UF4 in the laboratory at the Tokai Works, PNC. The results of these dehydration experiments and UF4 conversion tests were excellent. (author)

  16. Future-oriented computerized information system for power plant process control in a pilot project at Philippsburg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivation for the pilot project at Philippsburg nuclear power plant resulted from the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. The primary task embraces an efficient computer-aided reduction of information when a fault occurs based on a process engineering analysis of the information accrued. Accompanying this are a consolidation and evaluation of the information available in the control room. In this pilot project the new tasks of status monitoring, information reduction and operationalcontrol have been realized for the first time using a computer-aided process information system. In addition to the existing control computer, an information computer with approximately 1200 analogue and about 10000 binary signals has been installed. The installation of the system was completed in 1984 and in the meantime initial operational experience has become available. (orig.)

  17. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  18. Performance of a 50MW concentrating solar power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Artola, Juany María

    2010-01-01

    The following document is the written memory of an engineering final thesis. The aim of this project is to study and simulate the viability of introducing a 50 MW solar power plant in the locality of Barletta, Italy. The thesis is divided in two main parts: The first theoretical one which talks about solar energy and explains the two main processes with which profit can be taken from the sun: photovoltaic energy and thermal energy. It concentrates on the CSP technology to provide the re...

  19. Solar enriched methane production: Assessment of plant potentialities and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Piemonte

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crucial environmental issue due to fossil fuel use in our society and industries and more and more perceived by the communities is stimulating the development of innovative technologies with the scope of reducing GHGs and pollutants emissions, improving plants efficiency and exploiting renewable energy sources. The idea proposed in the present work links this context: a novel hybrid plant for the production of a mixture of methane and hydrogen (20%vol, called enriched-methane, from a steam reforming reactor whose heat duty is supplied by a concentrating solar power (CSP plant by means of a molten salt stream is here conceived, modelled and assessed. The enriched-methane mixture can be applied in methane internal combustion engines (ICE reducing CO, CO2, unburned emissions and improving engine efficiency. Moreover, the residual sensible heat of solar-heated molten salt stream can be used to generate medium-pressure steam and to produce electricity by a steam-turbine. Therefore, the plant proposed is co-generative, producing both hydrogen and electricity from a solar source. The behaviour of methane steam reforming reactor is simulated by means of a 2D mathematical model and the design of a cogenerative solar plant is proposed, evaluating its potentialities in terms of MWh of electricity produced and number of vehicles fed by enriched-methane. A single CSP module (surface requirement = 1.5 hectares coupled with a 4-tubes-and-shell shaped reactor is able to produce 686 tons/year of hydrogen, equivalent to 3.430 tons/year of 20%vol H2-CH4 mixture and 3.097 MWh/year of clean electricity.

  20. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  1. Surface water and wastewater treatment using a new tannin-based coagulant. Pilot plant trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Solera-Hernández, C

    2010-10-01

    A new tannin-based coagulant-flocculant (Tanfloc) was tested for water treatment at a pilot plant level. Four types of water sample were treated: surface water (collected from a river), and municipal, textile industry (simulated by a 100 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an acid dye), and laundry (simulated by a 50 mg L(-1) aqueous solution of an anionic surfactant) wastewaters. The pilot plant process consisted of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration. The experiments were carried out with an average coagulant dosage of 92.2 mg L(-1) (except in the case of the surface water for which the dosage was 2 mg L(-1)). The efficacy of the water purification was notable in every case: total turbidity removal in the surface water and municipal wastewater, about 95% dye removal in the case of the textile industry wastewater, and about 80% surfactant removal in the laundry wastewater. Filtration improved the removal of suspended solids, both flocs and turbidity, and slightly improved the process as a whole. The efficiency of Tanfloc in these pilot studies was similar to or even better than that obtained in batch trials. PMID:20580152

  2. A pilot plant as the next step toward an MFE Demo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of Demo goals and of prerequisites for Demo readiness motivate an examination of a pilot plant: an intermediate facility designed to substantially narrow the technical gap to Demo in a next step. A pilot plant would: 1) test internal components and tritium breeding in a steady-state fusion environment, 2) prototype a maintainable design and maintenance scheme for a power plant, and 3) generate net electricity. Preconceptual designs based on the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST), and compact stellarator (CS) have been developed in order to compare their relative merits as fusion systems. Any of them would take a large step toward Demo in key performance metrics, e.g. engineering gain QENG (≥1), neutron wall load (> 1 MW/m2 ), tritium breeding ratio (> 1), pulse length (106 -107 s), blanket lifetime fluence (≥ 3 MW-yr/m2), plant lifetime (6-20 MW-yr/m2), and availability (10-30%), but they differ in their associated risks. (author)

  3. OPTIMASI PROSES DEASIDIFIKASI DALAM PEMURNIAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH SKALA PILOT PLANT [Optimization of Deacidification Process in Red Palm Oil Purification on Pilot Plant Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Rai Widarta1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacidification is one of the steps in palm oil refining process which aims to separate free fatty acids formed during post-harvest handling. It is carried out using alkali solution such as NaOH (sodium hydroxide. Carotenoids in palm oil are affected by this step. Therefore, deacidification has to be controlled to minimize the destruction of carotenoids during processing. The objective of this research was to improve deacidification process in pilot plant scale so that the process can produce lower level of free fatty acids (FFA and higher recovery of carotene in high yield neutralized red palm oil (NRPO. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of crude palm oil (CPO such as moisture content, FFA and carotene contents, saponification number, iodine value, peroxide value, and color were determined before processing. Degumming was performed before deacidification process. The 17.5% excess of NaOH was obtained from the pilot plant scale deacidification trial. The optimization of deacidification time and temperature was carried out by using central composite design (CCD. Response surface method (RSM was used to observe the influence of treatments on the FFA level reduction, carotene recovery, and NRPO yield. The result showed that the optimum deacidification condition was at 61 ± 2°C in 26 minutes, and at the 16°Be NaOH strength with 17.5% excess of NaOH. In this optimum condition, the process achieved 96.35% of FFA reduction, 87.30% of carotene recovery, and 90.16% of NRPO yield.

  4. Thermoeconomic Analysis and Multiobjective Optimization of a Solar Desalination Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar desalination plant consisting of solar parabolic collectors, steam generators, and MED unit was simulated technoeconomically and optimized using multiobjective genetic algorithm. A simulation code was developed using MATLAB language programming. Indirect steam generation using different thermal oils including THERMINOL VP1, THERMINOL66, and THERMINOL59 was also investigated. Objective function consisted of 17 essential parameters such as diameter of heat collector element, collector width, steam generator pinch, approach temperatures, and MED number of effects. Simulation results showed that THERMINOL VP1 had superior properties and produced more desalinated water than other heat transfer fluids. Performance of the plant was analyzed on four characteristic days of the year to show that multiobjective optimization technique can be used to obtain an optimized solution, in which the product flow rate increased, while total investment and O&M costs decreased compared to the base case.

  5. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  6. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  7. Combined electron-beam and biological treatment of dyeing complex wastewater. Pilot plant experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot plant (output 1000 m3 day-1) with ELV electron accelerator (energy 1 MeV, beam power 40 kW) is in operation from October 1998. Combined electron-beam and biological treatment was used for purification of dyeing complex wastewater under continuous flow conditions. The main results of pilot-scale experiments consisted in the fact that decrease in total content of pollutants after biological treatment was substantially influenced by preliminary electron-beam treatment (mainly, because of radiolytic conversions of terephthalic acid being a main pollutant of the wastewater). Equal purification degree corresponded to 17 h of bio-treatment without preliminary irradiation and about 8 h of bio-treatment with preliminary electron-beam treatment at absorbed dose 1-2 kGy

  8. Water recovery in a concentrated solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aikifa; Higgo, Alex R.; Alobaidli, Abdulaziz; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-05-01

    For CSP plants, water consumption is undergoing increasing scrutiny particularly in dry and arid regions with water scarcity conditions. Significant amount of water has to be used for parabolic trough mirror cleaning to maintain high mirror reflectance and optical efficiency in sandy environment. For this specific purpose, solar collectors are washed once or twice every week at Shams 1, one of the largest CSP plant in the Middle East, and about 5 million gallons of demineralized water is utilized every year without further recovery. The produced waste water from a CSP plant contains the soiling i.e. accumulated dust and some amount of organic contaminants, as indicated by our analysis of waste water samples from the solar field. We thus need to develop a membrane based system to filter fine dust particulates and to degrade organic contaminant simultaneously. Membrane filtration technology is considered to be cost-effective way to address the emerging problem of a clean water shortage, and to reuse the filtered water after cleaning solar collectors. But there are some major technical barriers to improve the robustness and energy efficiency of filtration membranes especially when dealing with the removal of ultra-small particles and oil traces. Herein, we proposed a robust and scalable nanostructured inorganic microporous filtration copper mesh. The inorganic membrane surface wettability is tailored to enhance the water permeability and filtration flux by creating nanostructures. These nanostructured membranes were successfully employed to recover water collected after cleaning the reflectors of solar field of Shams 1. Another achievement was to remove the traces of heat transfer fluid (HTF) from run-off water which was collected after accidental leakage in some of the heat exchangers during the commissioning of the Shams 1 for safe disposal into the main stream. We hope, by controlling the water recovery factor and membrane reusability performance, the membrane

  9. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  10. Pilot plant experience of ultrafiltration membrane technology for removal of activity from fuel pond water in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafiltration membrane technology has been applied for removal of alpha and beta activity from fuel pond water. Pilot plant scale results showed that 12000 liters of fuel pond water was successfully treated and DF of 4 and 5 was obtained with respect to alpha and beta respectively. The final product obtained from UF has turbidity in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 (feed turbidity :0.3 NTU). Based on the same results, application can be proposed for the treatment of FHA water which could eliminate the use of ion-exchange columns for this purpose and provide a clean technology for treating FHA water. (author)

  11. Forecasting of efficiency of solar and solar-fuel power plants with Stirling engines in the conditions of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accounting method of electricity generation by solar power plant with Stirling engine (SPP) with taking into account of real duration of solar radiance is worked out. The calculation of SPP productivity on the basis of many years observations in Tashkent is done. The fuel economy while SPP is working at combined solar-fuel regime is estimated. author). 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Nuclear power plant control room task analysis. Pilot study for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this nuclear plant task analysis pilot study: to demonstrate the use of task analysis techniques on selected abnormal or emergency operation events in a nuclear power plant; to evaluate the use of simulator data obtained from an automated Performance Measurement System to supplement and validate data obtained by traditional task analysis methods; and to demonstrate sample applications of task analysis data to address questions pertinent to nuclear power plant operational safety: control room layout, staffing and training requirements, operating procedures, interpersonal communications, and job performance aids. Five data sources were investigated to provide information for a task analysis. These sources were (1) written operating procedures (event-based); (2) interviews with subject matter experts (the control room operators); (3) videotapes of the control room operators (senior reactor operators and reactor operators) while responding to each event in a simulator; (4) walk-/talk-throughs conducted by control room operators for each event; and (5) simulator data from the PMS

  13. A pilot plant study on reclamation of sewage effluent by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant was developed for the reclamation and reuse of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The plant system consists of sand filtration, gamma-irradiation, ozonation and ion-exchange. Gamma-irradiation showed effective organic contaminant decomposition and this resulted in the reduction of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), color, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and total organic carbon (TOC). Ion-exchange significantly removed inorganic ions, and thus reduced total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The average reduction in color, CODCr, BOD5, TOC, TN and TP, which was obtained after 12 operations, was 64, 52, 67, 61, 95 and 92%, respectively. Irrespective of applied radiation dose, the treated water fully satisfied the quality requirements of household water that can be used for all home uses except for drinking and human contact uses. (author)

  14. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ''green'' material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ''green'' soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction

  15. TAMARA - an uranium extraction pilot plant for demonstration of computerized process-control in reprocessing. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uranium extraction pilot plant with in-line instrumentation is described. The plant was constructed in the course of the development and demonstration of a computer-based control of nuclear fuel reprocessing processes and is connected with the process computer system CALAS. The results gained until now are presented and discussed, and the future work suggested is mentioned. (orig.)

  16. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  18. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  19. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Hu; Kaiyu Tan; Yongping Yang; Yong Zhu; Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas) and clean energy (solar). In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG) technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been ...

  20. Pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of screenings from wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Le Hyaric, R.; Canler, J.P.; Barillon, B.; Naquin, P.; Gourdon, R.

    2010-01-01

    he anaerobic digestion of screenings from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was studied in a 90 L pilot-scale digester operated at 35 degrees C under semi-continuous conditions. In the first 4 weeks, a dry solids residence time of 28 days was applied, but the installation of inhibitory conditions was observed. Feeding was therefore suspended for 4 weeks to allow the digester to recover from inhibition, and then progressively increased up to a constant load of 6 kg of raw waste per week, ...

  1. Pilot plant experiments for the denitration and mercury separation from the HEWC solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process development for the elimination of mercury and nitrates from the HEWC (high-enriched waste concentrates) solutions has been achieved. This process is based on the reduction of mercury to metal with formaldehyde. The pilot plant which has enabled to test the developed process is described as well as the experiments. The residual mercury concentration is of 25 mg/1 but the mechanism of the reduction is not yet known. During the denitration the nitrous vapors production calls for an oversized absorption column. The control instruments and the analytical methods are also described. (AF)β

  2. From science to compliance: Geomechanics studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) testifies to the nearly ideal characteristics of bedded salt deposits in southeast New Mexico. The WIPP history includes decades of testing and scientific investigations, which have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of salt's mechanical deformational and hydrological properties over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Comprehensive evaluation of salt's favorable characteristics helped demonstrate regulatory compliance and ensure isolation of radioactive waste placed in a salt geological setting

  3. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  4. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Wang; Qaisar Mahmood; Jiang-Ping Qiu; Yin-Sheng Li; Yoon-Seong Chang; Li-Na Chi; Xu-Dong Li

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and...

  5. Project and design of apparatus and equipment of pilot plant experimental bituminization line PS 44 EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications are described made in the design of major components of the pilot plant experimental bituminization line involving: the mixing equipment, the film rotor evaporator, the calciner, and various transport mechanisms for handling drums and containers. The difficulty and complexity of the problem which Kralovopolska strojirna Brno, the end supplier of the bituminization line, will have to tackle is evident mainly from the case of bridge cranes, which feed the line, and the full-portal gantry crane which handles the containers and drums at regional sites of radioactive waste disposal. (Z.M.)

  6. HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of the sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second sequential operation of the HTGR fuel reprocessing cold-dry head-end pilot plant equipment has been successfully completed. Twenty standard LHGTR fuel elements were crushed to a size suitable for combustion in a fluid bed burner. The graphite was combusted leaving a product of fissile and fertile fuel particles. These particles were separated in a pneumatic classifier. The fissile particles were fractured and reburned in a fluid bed to remove the inner carbon coatings. The remaining products are ready for dissolution and solvent extraction fuel recovery

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  8. Perspective of the Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEART,WENDELL D.

    1999-09-03

    In 1975 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was asked by the predecessor to the Department of Energy to assume responsibility for the scientific programs necessary to assure the safe and satisfactory development of a geologic repository in the salt beds of southeast New Mexico. Sandia has continued in the role of Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to the present time. This paper will share the perspectives developed over the past 25 years as the project was brought to fruition with successful certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 13, 1998 and commencement of operations on April 26, 1999.

  9. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included

  10. Mill tailings disposal and environmental monitoring at the Ningyo-Toge uranium processing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tailings from the uranium processing pilot plant with a maximum ore processing capacity of 50 t/d are transferred to a tailings dam. The overflow from the dam is chemically treated and through settling ponds, sand filters to be discharged into a river. The concentrations of U, 226Ra, pH, S.S., COD, Fe, Mn, Cl and F were monitored periodically and they were all below the control values. The results of monitoring on the river bed and rice paddy soil showed no signs of accumulation of U and 226Ra in it

  11. Preliminary experience with material testing at the oxyfuel pilot plant at Schwarzepumpe

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Pamela; Hjörnhede, Anders; Montgomery, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Several material related issues may arise from oxyfuel combustion of coal due to the presence of CO2   but also as an effect of the partial recirculation of the flue gas. Two examples are increased corrosion and carburisation which may limit steam data, hence limiting the efficiency. A number of corrosion tests, in both conventional air-firing and oxyfuel mode, have been made in Vattenfalls 30 MW oxyfuel pilot plant located in Schwarze Pumpe, Germany. Internally cooled corrosion probes, equip...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal from flue gas by electron beam treatment - Pilot plant tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from coal combustion belong to aliphatic, chlorinated, aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and but as the most dangerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered. Many of them are involved in the formation of photochemical smog and depletion of stratospheric ozone. Some PAHs are mutagenic, carcinogenic or both. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at coal-fired power station were performed to estimate the influence of electron beam on PAHs concentration in flue-gas. The influence of electron beam dose on the global toxicity of flue gas components has been analyzed. The concentrations of PAHs decreased after irradiation. (author)

  13. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  14. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter

  15. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms

  16. Resource conversation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II contains attachments for Module II and Module III. Attachments for Module II are: part A permit application; examples of acceptable documentation; Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program; inspection schedule and monitoring schedule; inspection log forms; personnel training course outlines; hazardous waste job position training requirements; contingency plan; closure plan; and procedures for establishing background for the underground units. One attachment, facility process information, is included for Module III. Remaining attachments for this module are in Volume III

  17. Mobile pilot-plant for the production of environmentally clean steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment flow sheet has been developed for a mobile pilot-plant (MPP) to produce environmentally clean steam. The unit consists of a single-stage heat transformer (SSHT) coupled to a mechanical vapour recompression system (MVR) with a nominal output capacity of 260 kg/h of saturated steam at 3 bar absolute pressure for a liquid feed at a temperature of 80oC. It is proposed to have the unit on skids to be transported by a pickup truck or lorry to various industrial locations for demonstration and training purposes, in order to acquaint industrialists with an environmentally clean and energy-efficient technology. (author)

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  19. Elimination of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants : Ozonation or activated carbon? Conclusions of a one-year pilot project

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas; Magnet, Anoys; Thonney, Denis; Chèvre Rossi, Nathalie; de Alencastro, Felippe; Kienle, Cornelia; Abegglen, Christian; Barry, David Andrew; Rossi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Many organic micropollutants present in wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To reduce the release of these substances into the aquatic environment, advanced treatments are necessary and may be soon mandatory in Switzerland. Two advanced treatments were tested in pilot systems over more than one year at the municipal WWTP of Lausanne, Switzerland. The first pilot involves the ozonation of the effluent to oxi...

  20. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain

  1. Chemical energy storage system for Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) solar thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating period, and/or allow a higher fraction of power production to occur during high-valued peak demand periods. Higher energy storage densities make chemical energy storage a potentially attractive option. The results of the evaluation indicated that a system based on the reversible reaction, CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2, could be technically and economically feasible for this application, but many technical and economic issues must be resolved

  2. A solar power plant for Curtin University Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Curtin University, Sarawak Malaysia (Curtin Sarawak) is the first and largest offshore campus of Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia, and the first foreign university to be established in East Malaysia in partnership with the Sarawak State Government. Today's major concern of Curtin is its monthly electrical energy consumption and the electricity bill since its monthly energy consumption exceeds 0.3 Million kWh, and the corresponding electricity bill surpasses RM 95000. Such a situation necessitates Curtin to curtail the heavy energy consumption with immediate effect. Introducing Renewable Energy Source such as PV Solar Systems is a cost-effective and environmental friendly solution to reduce the exponential increase in energy consumption charges of Curtin. Hence, this paper proposes a 90 kW solar power plant for Curtin Sarawak.

  3. Use of Pilot Plants for Developing Used Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EnergySolutions and its teaming partners are working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop processes, equipment and facilities for recycling used nuclear fuel (UNF). Recycling significantly reduces the volume of wastes that ultimately will be consigned to the National Geologic Repository, enables the re-use in new fuel of the valuable uranium and plutonium in the UNF, and allows the long-lived minor actinides to be treated separately so they do not become long term heat emitters in the Repository. A major requirement of any new UNF recycling facility is that pure plutonium is not separated anywhere in the process, so as to reduce the nuclear proliferation attractiveness of the facility. EnergySolutions and its team partner the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have developed the NUEX process to achieve this and to handle appropriately the treatment of other species such as krypton, tritium, neptunium and technetium. NUEX is based on existing successful commercial UNF recycling processes deployed in the UK, France and imminently in Japan, but with a range of modifications to the flowsheet to keep some uranium with the plutonium at all times and to minimize aerial and liquid radioactive discharges. NNL's long-term experience in developing the recycling and associated facilities at the Sellafield site in the UK, and its current duties to support technically the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield provides essential input to the design of the US NUEX-based facility. Development work for THORP and other first-of-kind nuclear plants employed miniature scale fully radioactive through large scale inactive pilot plants. The sequence of development work that we have found most successful is to (i) perform initial process development at small (typically 1/5000) scale in gloveboxes using trace active materials, (ii) demonstrate the processes at the same small scale with actual irradiated fuel in hot cells and (iii) demonstrate

  4. Pilot studies on management of ageing of nuclear power plant components: Results of Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate cooperation between the IAEA Member States and thus to enhance the safety and reliability of operating nuclear plants the IAEA has initiated pilot studies on the management of ageing of four representative plant components: the primary nozzle of the reactor pressure vessel, a motor operated valve, the concrete containment building and instrumentation and control cables. Phase 1 of the studies has been completed and its results are presented in this report. The report documents current understanding of ageing and methods for monitoring and mitigation of this ageing for the above components, identifies existing knowledge and technology gaps and defines follow-up work to deal with these gaps. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Numerical evaluation of the Kalina cycle for concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish

    Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. One of the key challenges currently faced by the solar industry is the high cost of electricity production....... These costs may be driven down by developing more cost-effective plant components and improving the system designs. This thesis focuses on the power cycle aspect of the concentrating solar power plants by studying the use a Kalina cycle with ammonia-water mixtures as the cycle working fluid. The potential...... of using a Kalina cycle is evaluated with a thermoeconomic optimization with a turbine inlet temperature of 500 C for a central receiver solar power plant with direct vapour generation, and 370 C for a parabolic trough solar power plant with Therminol VP-1 as the solar field heat transfer fluid. No thermal...

  6. System Study for a Tens MWe Size Coal—Fired MHD Retrofit Pilot Power Plant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingshengCai; JamesN.Chapman; 等

    1993-01-01

    System analysis is made in this coal-fired MHD/steam combined cycle pilot power plant in the size range tens of MWe.System performance are presented of such plants with three sizes:one 12 MWe unit,two 12 MWe units and one 50MWe unit which are considered as retrofits to the existing Beijing No.3 Heat and Power Plant.Parametric studies are performed for the 212MWe units and the optimum system parameters are obtained.

  7. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 oC for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  8. Study in pilot plant of the Itataia phosphoro-uraniferous ore (CE,Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot plant data have been obtained for the physical treatment studies of the Itataia, phosphoro-uraniferous ore body located in the state of Ceara-Brazil. Due to the presence of the silic-carbonated gangue, which turns the ore complex, the pilot plant operation comprised 1200 hours. From the results obtained, it was possible to establish a basic flowsheet for the concentration process. Such process includes a grinding step (-65) followed by a cyclone disliming (d50 = 10μ). The cyclone underflow feeds the flotation step. The conventional flotation process, which envolves the direct phosphate flotation followed by cleaning steps, was not efficient due to the presence of the carbonated gangue. In fact, the presence of silicates and carbonates in the gangue required that the flotation would be carried out in two steps. The silicated gangue is eliminated in the first flotation and a phosphate concentrate with significant amount of carbonates is obtained. This concentrate is fed to the second flotation step, termed reverse flotation, where the calcite is floated and the apatite is depressed. (Author)

  9. Study in pilot plant of the Itataia phosphoro-uraniferous ore - CE (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot plant data have been obtained for the physical treatment studies of the Itataia, phosphoro-uraniferous ore body located in the state of Ceara-Brazil. Due to the presence of the silic-carbonated gangue, which turns the ore complex, the pilot plant operation comprised 1200 hours. From the results obtained, it was possible to stablish a basic flowsheet for the concentration process. Such process includes a grinding step followed by a cyclone disliming (d 50=10μm). The cyclone underflow feeds the flotation step. The conventional flotation process, which envolves the direct phosphate flotation followed by cleaning steps, was not efficient due to the presence of the carbonated gangue. In fact, the presence of silicates and carbonates in the gangue required that the flotation would be carried out in two steps. The silicated gangue is eliminated in the first flotation and a phosphate concentrate with significant amount of carbonates is obtained. This concentrate is fed to the second flotation step, termed reverse flotation, where the calcite is floated and the apatite is depressed. (Author)

  10. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  11. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals

  12. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  13. Scale-up analysis and critical issues of an experimental pilot plant for edible film production using agricultural waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sarghini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to test a multifunctional experimental pilot plant with a reduced environmental impact that is able to process agricultural (fennel and food production (liquid whey waste. The pilot plant, using different thermal and filtration process parameters, is able to recover pectin and whey proteins in a single processing unit in order to produce edible films. An innovative feature of the proposed configuration is related to the possibility of coupling different types of waste treatment, obtaining a final product with a higher economical value, combining the two processing lines. Although an edible film production procedure based on pectin extracted from fennel matrix and whey proteins has already been published in literature, the scale-up process highlighted several critical issues, in particular related to the fennel matrix. Nonetheless, the pilot plant configuration allowed an edible film to be produced that is suitable for use as a direct coating to improve the shelf-life of food products.

  14. Pilot plant studies on denitrification of low level radioactive effluent using bio-degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the radioactive effluents generated in nuclear installations contain significant amount of nitrate because of the use of nitric acid in uranium metal extraction, fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing plants. The radioactive effluent is normally provided treatment for retention of radioactivity to meet the regulatory requirement. The effluent being discharged to the environment after dilution should also meet the regulatory limit of 44.2 ppm set by Central Pollution Control Board (Handbook of Environment Laws) for nitrates. Laboratory scale studies on biodegradation of nitrates in the low level radioactive effluent waste from fuel processing plant received at Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Trombay have been completed successfully. The results obtained indicated that nitrate concentration upto 2000 ppm nitrate could be biodegraded to below permissible limit. To scale up the experiment, a pilot plant of 2.5 m3/d capacity was set up at ETP, Trombay in the year 2005. The plant is being operated continuously since last more than two years with actual effluent to optimize engineering scale parameters. The optimized value for pH was found to be 7-8.5, N:C ratio 1:1.7 and the maximum nitrate concentration that could be biodegraded below permissible discharge limit was found to be 3000 ppm. (author)

  15. Results of u-bend stress-corrosion-cracking specimen exposures in coal-liquefaction pilot plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; Allen, M.D.; Howell, M.; Newsome, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Pilot plants with capacities of up to 600 tons/d are currently demonstrating the engineering feasibility of several coal liquefaction processes including Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal. These plants are the first step toward commercial production of synthetic fuels. Among other factors, development of the technology depends on reliable materials performance. A concern is the application of those austenitic stainless steels necessary for general corrosion resistance, because they are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This cracking results from tensile stresses in combination with offensive agents such as polythionic acids, chlorides, and caustics. To screen candidate construction materials for resistance to stress corrosion cracking, we exposed racks of stressed U-bend specimens in welded and as-wrought conditions at four coal liquefaction pilot plants. Results from exposures through June 1980 were described in a previous report for exposures in the SRC plants. This report summarizes the on-site test results from June 1980 through October 1981 for the two SRC pilot plants and the H-Coal and Exxon coal liquefaction pilot plants.

  16. Experiences with a small scale Solar/Wind pilot installation for basic electrification in the chilean altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapiain, Raul; Ovalle, Ricardo; Torres, Ariel; Brockmeyer, Ricarda; Schmidt, Reinhold [Centro de Energias Renovables/Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica, (Chile); Meer, Andreas V. [Solar Institute, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Basic rural electrification programmes are already carried out in the rural areas of northern Chile by local communities and local governments using photovoltaic systems. Solar Home Systems, 12 VDC are installed for individual households while systems for schools, public lighting etc. are realized with bigger systems, 220 VAC. Within a cooperation with the Solar Institute of the Fachhochschule Juelich, Germany, the Renewable Energy Center of the University of Tarapaca designed, installed and evaluated the first solar/wind hybrid installation for basic electrification in northern Chile, realized in Colpitas, a typical small village in the chilean altiplano. The following paper presents results and experiences of this first pilot installation. [Espanol] Ya se estan llevando a cabo programas de electrificacion rural basica en las areas rurales del Norte de Chile por las comunidades y los gobiernos locales, usando sistemas fotovoltaicos. Se instalan Sistemas Domesticos Solares de 12VDC para casas-habitacion individuales, mientras que los sistemas para escuelas, alumbrado publico, etc., se ejecutan con sistemas mas grandes de 220VAC. Con la coperacion del Instituto Solar de la Fachhochschule en Julich, Alemania, el Centro de Energia Renovable de la Universidad de Tarapaca, diseno, instalo y evaluo, la primera instalacion hibrida solar/viento para electrificacion basica en el Norte de Chile, realizado en Colpitas, un pueblo tipico pequeno del altiplano chileno. El siguiete articulo presenta los resultados y experiencias de esta primera instalacion piloto.

  17. Experience with in-operation physical inventory-taking (PIT) in Japan's Uranium Enrichment Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a stable energy supply in Japan it is necessary to produce domestically a reasonable amount of low enriched uranium. This led to the construction of the first-stage gas-centrifuge cascade (OP-1) in the Uranium Enrichment Pilot Plant, Ningyo Toge Works, PNC, in July 1979, followed by the second-stage cascade (OP-2) in October 1981. Although the pilot plant involves a variety of sensitive information, it is essential to provide it with adequate safeguards measures and physical protection systems to follow the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. This paper describes the development of materials accountancy in the pilot plant, stressing the in-operation PIT, i.e. the physical inventory-taking while the plant is in operation. According to INFCIRC-153, all nuclear material handling facilities must close their material balances at least once a year. For closing material balances, the temporary suspension of facility operations is required, but for the economical production of low enriched uranium, continuous operation for an extended period of time is essential. Thus, it is necessary to develop in-operation PIT. Therefore, PNC tentatively carried out in-operation PIT at the end of 1981 by using OP-1. The simultaneous changeover in the feed, product and tail lines, which was necessary for conducting the in-operation PIT, took only three minutes. The material balance period for this PIT started at the beginning of 1981 and continued to the end of that year. The material balance areas (MBA) consisted of the storage MBA (inventory KMP-A and B) and the process MBA (inventory KMP-C and F). After measuring weights, volumes, temperatures, pressures etc., the inventories of the storage and process MBAs were calculated, followed by evaluation of the amounts of MUFs and σsub(MUF). As a result, the value of MUF per annual throughput was 0.05% which is far lower than the expected MUF value of 0.2% specified by the IAEA

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of an idealised solar tower thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the real solar tower thermal power system, it is widely acknowledged that the thermodynamic irreversibility, such as convective and radiative loss on tower receiver, and thermal resistance in heat exchangers, is unavoidable. With above factors in mind, this paper presents an ideal model of the solar tower thermal power system to analyze the influence of various parameters on thermal and exergy conversion efficiencies, including receiver working temperature, concentration ratio, endoreversible heat engine efficiency and so forth. And therefore the variation of maximum thermal conversion efficiency in terms of concentration ratio and endoreversible heat engine efficiency could be theoretically obtained. The results indicate that raising the receiver working temperature could initially increase both thermal and exergy conversion efficiencies until an optimum temperature is reached. The optimum temperature would also increase with the concentration ratio. Additionally, the concentration ratio has a positive effect on the thermal conversion efficiency: increasing the concentration ratio could raise the conversion efficiency until the concentration ratio is extremely high, after which there will be a slow drop. Lastly, the endoreversible engine efficiency also has significant influence on the thermal conversion efficiency, it will increase the thermal conversion efficiency until it reaches the maximum and optimum value, and then the conversion efficiency will drop dramatically. - Highlights: • Built an idealized thermodynamic model for solar tower thermal power plants. • Analyze the influence of various parameters on thermal and exergy efficiencies. • The optimum temperature would increase with the concentration ratio. • The endoreversible engine efficiency would have an optimum value

  19. Optimisation of a wet FGD pilot plant using fine limestone and organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jan; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2001-01-01

    The effects of adding an organic acid or using a limestone with a fine particle size distribution (PSD) have been examined in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant. Optimisation of the plant with respect to the degree of desulphurisation and the residual limestone content of the gypsum......, but the residual limestone content in the gypsum increased to somewhere between 19 and 30 wt%, making this pH range unsuitable for use in a full-scale plant. The investigations have shown that both the addition of organic acids and the use of a limestone with a fine PSD can be used to optimise wet FGD......-7 mM were employed. The overall degree of desulphurisation in the plant increased from 83% at 0 mM to 90% at 3 mM and the residual limestone level was reduced from 4.6 to 1.4 wt%. Increasing the slurry concentration of adipic acid above 3 mM gave only a slightly higher degree of desulphurisation. The...

  20. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m2 per hour. Comparing

  1. Solar photocatalytic treatment of trimethoprim in four environmental matrices at a pilot scale: transformation products and ecotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Osorio, V; Perez, S; Petrovic, M; Zapata, A; Malato, S; Barceló, D; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-07-15

    The pilot-scale solar degradation of trimethoprim (TMP) in different water matrices (demineralized water: DW, simulated natural freshwater: SW; simulated wastewater: SWW; and real effluent: RE) was investigated in this study. DOC removal was lower in the case of SW compared to DW, which can be attributed to the presence of inorganic anions which may act as scavengers of the HO·. Furthermore, the presence of organic carbon and higher salt content in SWW and RE led to lower mineralization per dose of hydrogen peroxide compared to DW and SW. Toxicity assays in SWW and RE were also performed indicating that toxicity is attributed to the compounds present in RE and their by-products formed during solar Fenton treatment and not to the intermediates formed by the oxidation of TMP. A large number of compounds generated by the photocatalytic transformation of TMP were identified by UPLC-QToF/MS. The degradation pathway revealed differences among the four matrices; however hydroxylation, demethylation and cleavage reactions were observed in all matrices. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that TMP degradation products have been identified by adopting a solar Fenton process at a pilot-scale set-up, using four different aqueous matrices. PMID:22647240

  2. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  3. Aerosols attenuating the solar radiation collected by solar tower plants: The horizontal pathway at surface level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Thierry; Ramon, Didier; Dubus, Laurent; Bourdil, Charles; Cuevas-Agulló, Emilio; Zaidouni, Taoufik; Formenti, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Aerosols attenuate the solar radiation collected by solar tower plants (STP), along two pathways: 1) the atmospheric column pathway, between the top of the atmosphere and the heliostats, resulting in Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) changes; 2) the grazing pathway close to surface level, between the heliostats and the optical receiver. The attenuation along the surface-level grazing pathway has been less studied than the aerosol impact on changes of DNI, while it becomes significant in STP of 100 MW or more. Indeed aerosols mostly lay within the surface atmospheric layer, called the boundary layer, and the attenuation increases with the distance covered by the solar radiation in the boundary layer. In STP of 100 MW or more, the distance between the heliostats and the optical receiver becomes large enough to produce a significant attenuation by aerosols. We used measured aerosol optical thickness and computed boundary layer height to estimate the attenuation of the solar radiation at surface level at Ouarzazate (Morocco). High variabilities in aerosol amount and in vertical layering generated a significant magnitude in the annual cycle and significant inter-annual changes. Indeed the annual mean of the attenuation caused by aerosols over a 1-km heliostat-receiver distance was 3.7% in 2013, and 5.4% in 2014 because of a longest desert dust season. The monthly minimum attenuation of less than 3% was observed in winter and the maximum of more than 7% was observed in summer.

  4. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software tool. The results indicate that the estimated efficiency and the expected specific capital cost of the power block are very important criteria in choosing the best steam turbine size of a CSP plant. For capacity sizes of 10kWe up to 50MWe, the steam turbine efficiency increases and the steam turbine expected specific capital cost of the power block decreases at a high rate, whereas for larger sizes they remain almost constant. Thus, there is significant efficiency gains to be realized and large cost savings in increasing the turbine size up to 50MWe. Finally, although the cost of electricity of a CSP plant with capacities greater than 1MWe is significantly reduced to less than 1US$/kWh, currently such technology can only become economically viable through supporting schemes.

  5. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  6. Pilot uranium lysimeter studies at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field lysimeter test facility has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant to evaluate land burial of wastes containing depleted uranium. The principal objective in the construction of such a facility is to provide a means for monitoring waste leachate characteristics over time, in particular uranium concentrations in leachate. The design of the field lysimeter test facility allows, via the portals along the side walls of the lysimeter, the collection of leachate as a function of depth in the lysimeter. The methodology to collect leachate from within the field lysimeter has not been clearly defined. Thus, before wastes were loaded into the field lysimeter facility, a pilot lysimeter study was initiated to test several design concepts for the collection of in situ leachate. The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility and quality assurance of proposed instrumentation used to monitor leachate generation and characteristics in the full-scale field lysimeter. Secondary objectives included gaining experience in the handling/packing of wastes, installation/operation of the leachate collection devices, and waste leachate characterization

  7. Pilot uranium lysimeter studies at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Hyder, L.K.; Howard, S.C.; Cline, J.E.; Clapp, R.B.

    1993-08-01

    A field lysimeter test facility has been constructed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant to evaluate land burial of wastes containing depleted uranium. The principal objective in the construction of such a facility is to provide a means for monitoring waste leachate characteristics over time, in particular uranium concentrations in leachate. The design of the field lysimeter test facility allows, via the portals along the side walls of the lysimeter, the collection of leachate as a function of depth in the lysimeter. The methodology to collect leachate from within the field lysimeter has not been clearly defined. Thus, before wastes were loaded into the field lysimeter facility, a pilot lysimeter study was initiated to test several design concepts for the collection of in situ leachate. The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility and quality assurance of proposed instrumentation used to monitor leachate generation and characteristics in the full-scale field lysimeter. Secondary objectives included gaining experience in the handling/packing of wastes, installation/operation of the leachate collection devices, and waste leachate characterization

  8. Performance of a direct steam generation solar thermal power plant for electricity production as a function of the solar multiple

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Pita, María José; Abánades Velasco, Alberto; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of the solar multiple on the annual performance of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation (DSG). The reference system selected is a 50 M We DSG power plant, with thermal storage and auxiliary natural gas-fired boiler. It is considered that both systems are necessary for an optimum coupling to the electricity grid. Although thermal storage is an opening issue for DSG technology, it gives an additional degree of freedom for pl...

  9. Geomechanical monitoring system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in detail the geomechanical instrumentation system and the data base that has been established from the geomechanical monitoring program. In addition, it describes the quality assurance and control measures that are in place to ensure that the data from the underground is accurate, traceable, and defensible. The system is installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This facility is being developed for the disposal of transuranic nuclear wastes in underground excavations in salt 2150 feet below the surface. The purpose of the instrumentation system is to monitor the deformations and stress changes that are occurring in the rock with time. This information is needed to routinely assess conditions in the facility and to ensure that safe operating conditions are maintained

  10. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature

  11. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Business Administration & Economics Div.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs

  13. Radiation-induced polymerization of ethylene in pilot plant. V. Molecular weight distribution of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular weight distribution of the polyethylene produced by radiation in a large-scale pilot plant at pressures of 105 to 395 kg/cm2 and temperatures of 30 to 800C was determined by gel permeation chromatography and discussed in connection with the polymerization conditions. The bimodal molecular weight distribution was observed in most of polymers. The number-average molecular weight at two peaks are 104 and 105, respectively. The fraction of the peak at higher molecular weight increased with pressure and mean residence time, and with decreasing dose rate and temperature. The distribution was unimodal in the early stage of the operation and became bimodal, remaining unchanged in the later stage. The distribution also changed from biomodal to unimodal with rising temperature. These results were consistent with those in static batch experiments and well explained by the polymerization scheme assuming two physical states to be different in polymer mobility. 6 figures

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  15. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  16. Characterization of highly active waste glasses produced in a hot vitrification pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully radioactive waste glasses produced in a hot vitrification pilot plant were characterized in the hot cells at the JRC-Karlsruhe (Joint Research Center-Karlsruhe). The work includes microstructural analysis before and after leaching by SOXHLET extractors (MCC-5S), as well as leachate and gel-layer chemical analysis. Partial devitrification, with phases enriched in metals and rare earths, was observed in one of the products. In the gel layers formed during the dissolution tests, enrichment in some elements (Fe, Ti, Gd, Nd, Ce) and depletion in glass constituents (Si, B, K, Ba, Ca, Na) as well as in Mo and Cs, were determined. This was in good qualitative agreement with the leachate chemical analysis

  17. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP`s environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence.

  18. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid (∼70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Pilot Plant Scale Airlift Reactor in Presence of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Somnath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall gas hold-up of a pilot plant scale internal loop airlift reactor was studied in presence of different alcohols in varied concentration. It has been observed that these simple alcohols can enhance overall gas hold-up of the airlift assembly possibly due to formation of protective thin layer over smaller gas bubbles thereby reducing chance of their coalescence. As the alcohols can be used as food source for the micro organisms present in the system, this green and environment friendly process have potential to replace usage of hazardous surfactants often used for enhancing overall hold-up in order to obtain desired mass transfer characteristics. An empirical relationship encompassing overall gas hold-up of the reactor as a function of superficial gas velocity and alcohol concentration is also developed.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) five-year Site Specific Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development facility vested with the vital mission of demonstrating the safe disposal of radioactive transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from our nation's defense activities and programs. It is the only facility in the United States specifically designed and constructed for the long-term storage of transuranic wastes. Since the inception of the WIPP project, work has continued to prepare the facility to receive TRU waste. A multitude of studies have been and continue to be conducted to demonstrate the safety of the WIPP facility in accordance with federal and state laws, state agreements, DOE Orders, etc. This Site Specific Plan outlines the implementation of activities at the WIPP project. 12 figs

  1. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 1000C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables

  2. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP's disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II

  5. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertz, M.R.; Figgins, P.E.; Deal, W.R.

    1983-02-10

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 100/sup 0/C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years

  7. Preliminary experiences with material testing at the oxyfuel pilot plant at Schwarze Pumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall Power, Gothenborg (Sweden); Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Mekanisk Teknologi; Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Lyngby (Denmark); Bjurman, Martin; Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB (Sweden). Research and Development; Gerhardt, Alexander [Vattenfall AB, Berlin (Germany). Research and Development

    2010-07-01

    Several material related issues may arise from oxyfuel combustion of coal due to the presence of CO{sub 2} but also as an effect of the partial recirculation of the flue gas. Two examples are increased corrosion and carburisation which may limit steam data, hence limiting the efficiency. A number of corrosion tests, in both conventional air-firing and oxyfuel mode, have been made in Vattenfalls 30 MW oxyfuel pilot plant located in Schwarze Pumpe, Germany. Internally cooled corrosion probes, equipped with ferritic, austenitic, super austenitic steels as well as Ni-based and FeCrAl alloys, simulating superheaters, economisers and air preheaters were exposed for up to 1500 hrs. The analyses show an indication of higher material wastage in oxyfuel compared to air combustion especially at the lower exposure temperatures. This may be due to increased sulphur concentration in corrosion front, increased heat flux, carburisation or other precipitate formations on austenitic steels and Ni-based alloys. (orig.)

  8. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project

  9. High intensity direct electron accelerator for semi-pilot-plant processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron accelerator of 300 keV and 3 kW for semi-pilot-plant processing is presented. The accelerator is powered by a high voltage transformer with ferrite core and multiple secondary windings providing a pulsed voltage to an evacuated acceleration tube as well as the power handling and control of the electron gun. Of particular importance is the development of a solid-state line-type modulator to generate adjustable frequency and voltage to power the high voltage transformer. One button digital control system provides the beam parameters preselection, protective functions and reliable operations. The high voltage transformer and acceleration tube are contained in a metal oil filled tank. The beam transport system includes three short magnetic lenses and a scanner subjected to a varying magnetic field causing the beam to sweep through an angle up to 600. The conveyor system with a continuously variable velocity is correlated to the integral preselected dose

  10. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  11. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP's environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence

  12. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage....... Unresolved issues, such as determination of the optimal recycle location of flue gas, the flue gas cleaning steps required (SO2, NOx, and particles), and the impact of an oxy-fuel flue gas on the cleaning steps, also persist. The aim of this work was to study the performance of the wet flue gas...... desulfurization (FGD) process under operating conditions corresponding to oxy-fuel firing. The most important output parameters were the overall degree of desulfurization and the residual limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry. Pilot-scale experiments quantified that the introduction of a flue gas with 90...

  13. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to ensure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  14. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to assure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report

  16. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  17. Use of geothermal heat for sugar refining in Imperial County: pilot plant implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the phase was to develop a successful geothermal resource and use it in conjunction with a geothermal process heat pilot plant to demonstrate the adequacy of a system which could provide technically sound, economical and environmentally acceptable process heat. During the second phase drilling of and exploratory production well was carried out. The well reached a total depth of about 10,000 feet. Static bottom hole temperatures as high as 393 degreees F were calculated. However, the well did not produce a free flow of more than 2 to 3 barrels of brine per hour. Attempts were made to stimulate the well by gas lift and circulation. These procedures were unsuccessful in promoting flow, and the well was shut in. At that point the DOE decided to terminate the project.

  18. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations....... Without any calibration the prediction of phosphorus removal was poor and the initial release rates from the simulations were not similar to those found from the laboratory tests. A period with low organic loading was chosen as a calibration period. In this period averages of daily influent measurements...... were used as influent parameters. First, calibration was performed in order to fit effluent COD and MLVSS in the sludge. Next, the phosphorus content in the sludge was decreased to the measured level by decreasing the fermentation rate. Finally, the initial phosphorus release rate was calculated from a...

  19. Removal of diethyl phthalate from water by ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabesa, Abdisa; Ghosh, Pallab

    2016-09-15

    Ozone microbubbles (OMBs) were used to remove diethyl phthalate (DEP) from water in a pilot plant. The removal of DEP and the mineralization efficiency were investigated under various reaction conditions. The removal of DEP by OMBs was very effective at the high pH and high ozone generation rates. Almost complete mineralization of DEP could be achieved at the high pH. The contribution of OH was computed by using a hydroxyl radical scavenger (i.e. t-BuOH). In neutral and alkaline media, the reaction of DEP with OH dominated over its direct reaction with ozone. The overall oxidation reaction fitted a second-order kinetic model. The overall rate constant and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of ozone slightly increased with increasing pH. The results indicate that the OMBs were efficient in terms of the reduction of concentration of DEP and its complete mineralization. PMID:27280856

  20. Geomechanical monitoring system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in detail the geomechanical instrumentation system and the database that has been established from the geomechanical monitoring program. In addition, it describes the quality assurance and control measures that are in place to ensure that the data from the underground is accurate, traceable, and defensible. The system is installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This facility is being developed for the disposal of transuranic nuclear wastes in underground excavations in salt 655 meters below the surface. The purpose of the instrumentation system, is to monitor the deformations and stress changes that are occurring in the rock with time. This information is needed to routinely assess conditions in the facility and to ensure that safe operating conditions are maintained. The geomechanical monitoring system has provided data collection, quality control, and database maintenance, all of which are of vital importance to monitoring the geomechanical performance of underground excavations

  1. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: a preliminary example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Baker, B.L.; Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Beyeler, W.; Blaine, R.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Hora, S.C.; Lincoln, R.C.; Marietta, M.G.; Mendenhall, F.T.; Prindle, N.H.; Rudeen, D.K.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Smith, L.N.; Swift, P.N.; Vaughn, P

    1997-09-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SPM is based on a large numerical integration problem that must be repeatedly evaluated to determine compliance probabilities associated with different experimental programs and design modifications. Due to the complexity and computational cost of the underlying integration problem, the implementation of the SPM must be planned very carefully. This presentation describes a preliminary application of the SPM, designated SPM-l, performed to provide insights to facilitate the development and implementation of the methodology. Topics illustrated by SPM-1 include definition of probability spaces on which the SPM is based, use of Latin hypercube sampling and simple random sampling to integrate over different probability spaces, selection of mechanistic calculations to be performed, efficient use of the limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed, and assembly of many individual calculations into a complete analysis.

  2. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental-Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies the quality of data necessary to meet the specific objectives associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This experimental-waste characterization program is only one part of the WIPP Test Phase, both in the short- and long-term, to quantify and evaluate the characteristics and behavior of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the repository environment. Other parts include the bin-scale and alcove tests, drum-scale tests, and laboratory experiments. In simplified terms, the purpose of the Program is to provide chemical, physical, and radiochemical data describing the characteristics of the wastes that will be emplaced in the WIPP, while the remaining WIPP Test Phase is directed at examining the behavior of these wastes in the repository environment. 50 refs., 35 figs., 33 tabs

  3. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental-Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies the quality of data necessary to meet the specific objectives associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). DOE plans to conduct experiments in the WIPP during a Test Phase of approximately 5 years. These experiments will be conducted to reduce the uncertainties associated with the prediction of several processes (e.g., gas generation) that may influence repository performance. The results of the experiments will be used to assess the ability of the WIPP to meet regulatory requirements for the long-term protection of human health and the environment from the disposal of TRU wastes. 37 refs., 25 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenario development is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence in this aspect of the PA will be through the use of the systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable

  5. Pilot-plant study of wastewater sludge decontamination using a ferrous sulfate bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the ferrous sulfate bioleaching (FSBL) process in a pilot plant for decontamination and stabilization of wastewater sludge. Batch and continuous experiments, conducted with two 4-m3 bioreactors using indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria (20% v/v of inoculum) with addition of 4.0 g ferrous sulfate heptahydrate per liter of sludge initially acidified to pH 4.0, were sufficient for effective heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, zinc, and lead) removal yields. The average metal removal yields during the FSBL process were as follows: cadmium (69 to 75%), copper (68 to 70%), manganese (72 to 73%), zinc (65 to 66%), and lead (16%). The FSBL process was also found to be effective in removing both fecal and total coliforms (abatement > 5 to 6 log units). The nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium) were also preserved in decontaminated sludge. PMID:17059142

  6. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  7. Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARTELL,MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY,MARTIN S.

    2000-05-18

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty.

  8. Identification and evaluation of appropriate backfills for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A backfill system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which will control the chemical environment of the post-closure repository to a domain where the actinide solubility is within its lowest region. The actinide solubility is highly dependent on the chemical species which constitute the fluid, the resulting pH of the fluid, and the oxidation state of the actinide which is stable under the specific conditions. The use of magnesium oxide (MgO) has the backfill material not only controls the pH of the expected fluids, but also effectively removes carbonate from the system, which has a significant impact on actinide solubility. The backfill selection process, emplacement system design, and confirmatory experimental results are presented

  9. 1987 annual water quality data report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility located in southeastern New Mexico, is designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste resulting from the nation's defense programs. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) supports four major programs for the WIPP: site characterization, the Performance Assessment, Radiological Baseline Program, and the Ecological Monitoring Program. Results from 13 wells sampled under the WQSP are presented in this report. Water quality data from three water-bearing zones have been collected. These zones are the Culebra and Magenta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation and the Dewey Lake Red Beds. Results presented from the sampling include field chemistry data, general water quality parameters, trace metals, and priority pollutants. 15 refs., 55 figs., 54 tabs

  10. Ecological Monitoring Program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Second semiannual report, January 1985--June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second semiannual report of the Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in southeastern New Mexico. The purpose of the EMP is to quantify and assess the impacts of WIPP construction activities on the surrounding ecosystem. The predicted impacts include: (1) alteration of natural habitat, (2) deposition of salt and dust, and (3) increased human activity and noise. This report describes the data collection activities and presents results, analyses, and discussions for the period of January through June, 1985. Also included are data collected prior to this period which were not available for inclusion in the first EMP semiannual report and data collected after this period which provide a more complete basis for the analyses and discussion. The eight subprograms currently active in the EMP are: environmental photography, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, vegetation, wildlife, meteorology, air quality, and water quality. 16 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs

  11. General description and production lines of the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a new facility, producing an MTR-type fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, as well as other plates or elements for an external clients with the same type and enrichment percent or lower, (LEU). General description is presented. The production lines in FMPP, which begin from uranium hexaflouride (UF6, 19.7±0.2 % U235 by wt), aluminum powder, and nuclear grade 6061 aluminium alloy in sheets, bars, and rods with the different heat treatments and dimensions as a raw materials, are processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection, and quality control plan to produce the final specified MTR-type fuel elements. All these processes and the product control in each step are presented. The specifications of the final product are presented. (author)

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis

  13. Pilot plant comparison study of two commercial nanofiltration membranes in a drinking water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ribera, Gemma; Llenas Argelaguet, Laia; Rovira, Miquel; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Martínez Lladó, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of commercial membranes were tested and compared at laboratory scale in order to select the most appropriate for improving the final water quality of a real drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Most of the membranes tested showed a reduction of trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) higher than 90%. In this work, several NF membranes were tested at laboratory scale in order to evaluate the most suitable NF membrane to reduce THMFP. NF270 (Dow Chemical) and ESNA1LF2 (Hydran...

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  15. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  16. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  17. TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION. ON-SITE TESTING WITH MOBILE PILOT PLANT TRAILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeded water treatment using a SALA high gradient magnetic separator pilot plant system was conducted on combined sewer overflows and raw sewage at SALA Magnetics in Cambridge, MA and at on-site locations in the Boston area. Special emphasis was placed on specific design and oper...

  18. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites

  19. Pilot plant for the radioactive decontamination of spent oils; Planta piloto para la descontaminacion radiactiva de aceites gastados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.V.; Cisneros L, L.; Lopez G, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work the operation parameters obtained in the laboratory of oil storage are presented, as well as the operations which shape the pilot plant, the design criteria and the basic design of the core equipment of the developed process. Finally, the comparative results obtained the decontamination process of oil are given as well as laboratory scale. (Author)

  20. Existing conditions socioeconomic portion. Waste isolation pilot plant environmental impact report, chapter 2, sections 2.2, 2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population characteristics and the economic setting of Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico, are reviewed as related to site selection for a radioactive waste isolation pilot plant. Sections are included on population distribution, basic industries, trade and services, financial resources, personal income, tourism, labor force, employment, land use, water systems, utilities, transportation, and local government