WorldWideScience

Sample records for barriers nouvelles methodes

  1. New methods of thermodynamics; Nouvelles methodes en thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This day, organized by the SFT French Society of Thermology, took stock on the new methods in the domain of the thermodynamics. Eight papers have been presented during this day: new developments of the thermodynamics in finite time; the optimal efficiency of energy converters; a version of non-equilibrium thermodynamics with entropy and information as positive and negative thermal change; the role of thermodynamics in process integration; application of the thermodynamics to critical nuclear accidents; the entropic analysis help in the case of charge and discharge state of an energy storage process; fluid flow threw a stable state in the urban hydraulic; a computer code for phase diagram prediction. (A.L.B.)

  2. The genesis, methodical foundations, and problems in the realisation of the Atlas de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main organisational, epistemological, and methodical principles assumed by one of the two scientific editors of the Atlas de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, and the problems they faced. The presented solutions may be useful to the authors of similar projects in the future.

  3. Method of installing subsurface barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-10-09

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  4. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  5. Barrier bucket method in cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main principles of the Barrier Bucket Method of charge particles stacking and acceleration in proton synchrotrons. The consideration is done with two models of 'rectangular barriers' and 'quasi-sinusoidal' ones using different approaches to analysis of particle motion. The first of them - so-called 'step by step approach', allows us to give a very clear physical explanation of the method and obtain easily the main characteristics of the method in analytical form. However, that is not always an efficient way. Therefore, the general case of the 'barriers' of an arbitrary form is considered as well and differential equations of particle phase motion are derived. This approach gives ample opportunities for analysis and numerical simulations of different phase dynamics regimes of particles in cyclic accelerators. Numerical examples for the method illustration are presented

  6. AIDS, STDs encourage use of barrier methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, N

    1993-08-01

    Condom use in the Dominican Republic is being promoted, in part due to the spread of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 90% of the married women using contraception prefer sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, subdermal implants, or injectables. Barrier methods have never been very popular (5%). Cultural bias may account for some of the avoidance of barrier methods. Men complain about the effects on pleasure and spontaneity. There is uncertainty about what emphasis family planning (FP) programs should place on STD prevention; STD services would make FP popular but also could strain existing services and financial resources. Educational efforts to encourage barrier use are hampered by the lack of access to indoor plumbing, since most barrier methods are messy. Cost may be another limitation on widespread use. PROFAMILIA has been active in promoting the diaphragm and spermicide use. Counseling includes the new vaginal contraceptive film that contains a N-9 spermicide that dissolves on contact. Demand for the film is just now appearing. Research is needed to determine what degree of protection is provided against HIV infections. The female condom is still expensive and men may also find this method objectionable. Pharmacies are the chief source of barrier methods, but pharmacies do not provide counseling. Efforts have been made to teach sex workers with contraceptive messages. Free condoms have been offered in hourly rate hotels since 1987. A study of condom use within these hotels found that most people do not use the condoms (12%) usage. The range of usage varied with the quality of the hotel; condom use was greatest at more expensive ones (28% versus 5% at cheap hotels). A survey of use of instructional materials left in hotels found that 25% of the customers took the printed materials. PMID:12345033

  7. Replication Methods in the Pricing and Hedging of Barrier Options

    OpenAIRE

    Tichý Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers various options replication methods. Firstly, a specific type of barrier option, an up-and-out call, is considered. Other barrier options are briefly also described, and various types of barriers are considered. Secondly, a general definition of replication methods is provided. Two methods are thus examined in detail: The first one, based on ever-changing positions in replicating portfolio, is referred to as a dynamic replication method. The second one is denoted as a sta...

  8. Experimental evaluation of optimization method for developing ultraviolet barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) barrier coatings can be used to protect many industrial products from UV attack. This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings using pigment particles. The radiative properties of the pigment particles were evaluated theoretically, and the optimum particle size was decided from the absorption efficiency and the back-scattering efficiency. UV barrier coatings were prepared with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The transmittance of the UV barrier coating was calculated theoretically. The radiative transfer in the UV barrier coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM2). In order to validate the calculated results, the transmittances of these coatings were measured by a spectrophotometer. A UV barrier coating with a low UV transmittance and high VIS transmittance could be achieved. The calculated transmittance showed a similar spectral tendency with the measured one. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction will result in effective UV barrier coatings. UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering. -- Highlights: • This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings theoretically using pigment particles. • The control of nano-scale radiation is applied to macro-scale phenomena. • UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering and have never been done before

  9. Nouvelle methode d'integration energetique pour la retro-installation des procedes industriels et la transformation des usines papetieres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe

    The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method

  10. The photothermal camera - a new non destructive inspection tool; La camera photothermique - une nouvelle methode de controle non destructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriou, M. [AREVA NP Centre Technique SFE - Zone Industrielle et Portuaire Sud - BP13 - 71380 Saint Marcel (France)

    2007-07-01

    The Photothermal Camera, developed by the Non-Destructive Inspection Department at AREVA NP's Technical Center, is a device created to replace penetrant testing, a method whose drawbacks include environmental pollutants, industrial complexity and potential operator exposure. We have already seen how the Photothermal Camera can work alongside or instead of conventional surface inspection techniques such as penetrant, magnetic particle or eddy currents. With it, users can detect without any surface contact ligament defects or openings measuring just a few microns on rough oxidized, machined or welded metal parts. It also enables them to work on geometrically varied surfaces, hot parts or insulating (dielectric) materials without interference from the magnetic properties of the inspected part. The Photothermal Camera method has already been used for in situ inspections of tube/plate welds on an intermediate heat exchanger of the Phenix fast reactor. It also replaced the penetrant method for weld inspections on the ITER vacuum chamber, for weld crack detection on vessel head adapter J-welds, and for detecting cracks brought on by heat crazing. What sets this innovative method apart from others is its ability to operate at distances of up to two meters from the inspected part, as well as its remote control functionality at distances of up to 15 meters (or more via Ethernet), and its emissions-free environmental cleanliness. These make it a true alternative to penetrant testing, to the benefit of operator and environmental protection. (author) [French] La Camera Photothermique, developpee par le departement des Examens Non Destructifs du Centre Technique de AREVA NP, est un equipement destine a remplacer le ressuage, source de pollution pour l'environnement, de complexite pour l'industrialisation et eventuellement de dosimetrie pour les operateurs. Il a ete demontre que la Camera Photothermique peut etre utilisee en complement ou en remplacement des

  11. Schottky barrier diode and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid (Inventor); Franz, David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky barrier diodes are disclosed that are particularly suited to serve as ultra-violet sensors operating at wavelengths below 200 nm. The Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky barrier diodes have very large active areas, up to 1 cm.sup.2, which exhibit extremely low leakage current at low reverse biases. Very large area Pt/n.sup.-GaN Schottky diodes of sizes 0.25 cm.sup.2 and 1 cm.sup.2 have been fabricated from n.sup.-/n.sup.+ GaN epitaxial layers grown by vapor phase epitaxy on single crystal c-plane sapphire, which showed leakage currents of 14 pA and 2.7 nA, respectively for the 0.25 cm.sup.2 and 1 cm.sup.2 diodes both configured at a 0.5V reverse bias.

  12. Method of manufacturing lightweight thermo-barrier material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Winford (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method of manufacturing thermal barrier structures comprising at least three dimpled cores separated by flat plate material with the outer surface of the flat plate material joined together by diffusion bonding.

  13. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  14. Method Producing an SNS Superconducting Junction with Weak Link Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a high temperature superconductor Josephson element and an improved SNS weak link barrier element is provided. A YBaCuO superconducting electrode film is deposited on a substrate at a temperature of approximately 800 C. A weak link barrier layer of a nonsuperconducting film of N-YBaCuO is deposited over the electrode at a temperature range of 520 C. to 540 C. at a lower deposition rate. Subsequently a superconducting counter-electrode film layer of YBaCuO is deposited over the weak link barrier layer at approximately 800 C. The weak link barrier layer has a thickness of approximately 50 A and the SNS element can be constructed to provide an edge geometry junction.

  15. La nouvelle-tableau (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Jenvrin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La nouvelle « Frémissante, la feuille se flétrit » met en scène le trouble d'un détenu qui par les seuls objets dont il dispose, lutte pour s'échapper intérieurement. L'usage du regard cinématographique porté sur les détails infimes de la matérialité carcérale, leur exposition sous forme de tableaux se faisant échos, les techniques de l’anonymat et du brouillage des repères objectifs, portent à son comble les dimensions énigmatiques et l'esthétique de la  brièveté propre à la nouvelle tout en permettant de  représenter la résistance de l'homme à l'enfermement et à la persécution.

  16. High spin exotic states and new method for pairing energy; Etats exotiques a hauts spins et nouvelle methode pour l`energie d`appariement nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.

    1996-01-19

    We present a new method called `PSY-MB`, initially developed in the framework of abstract group theory for the solution of the problem of strongly interacting multi-fermionic systems with particular to systems in an external rotating field. The validity of the new method (PSY-MB) is tested on model Hamiltonians. A detailed comparison between the obtained solutions and the exact ones is performed. The new method is used in the study of realistic nuclear Hamiltonians based on the Woods-Saxon potential within the cranking approximation to study the influence of residual monopole pairing interactions in the rare-earth mass region. In parallel with this new technique we present original results obtained with the Woods-Saxon mean-field and the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation in order to investigate such exotic effects as octupole deformations and hexadecapole C{sub 4}-polarizing deformations in the framework of high-spin physics. By developing these three approaches in one single work we prepare the ground for the nuclear structure calculations of the new generation - where the residual two-body interactions are taken into account also in the weak pairing limit. (author). 2370refs.

  17. New methods for leaks detection and localisation using acoustic emission; Nouvelles methodes de detection et de localisation de fuites par emission acoustique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, P.

    1993-12-08

    Real time monitoring of Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor secondary coolant system tends to integrate digital processing machines. In this context, the method of acoustic emission seems to exhibit good performances. Its principle is based on passive listening of noises emitted by local micro-displacements inside a material under stress which propagate as elastic waves. The lack of a priori knowledge on leak signals leads us to go deeper into understanding flow induced noise generation. Our studies are conducted using a simple leak model depending on the geometry and the king of flow inside the slit. Detection and localization problems are formulated according to the maximum likelihood principle. For detection, the methods using a indicator of similarity (correlation, higher order correlation) seems to give better results than classical ones (rms value, envelope, filter banks). For leaks location, a large panel of classical (generalized inter-correlation) and innovative (convolution, adaptative, higher order statistics) methods of time delay estimation are presented. The last part deals with the applications of higher order statistics. The analysis of higher order estimators of a non linear non Gaussian stochastic process family, the improvement of non linear prediction performances and the optimal-order choice problem are addressed in simple analytic cases. At last, possible applications to leak signals analysis are pointed out. (authors).264 refs., 7 annexes.

  18. New logarithmic technique of diffusivity identification using the flash method; Nouvelle technique logarithmique d`identification de la diffusivite par la methode flash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thermitus, M.A.; Laurent, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Using a logarithmic transformation, the thermogram of a flash experiment can be interpreted as the sum of the adiabatic model solution with a term representative of the losses. Two methods based on this transformation are proposed in this study. They are based on the identification of a parameter that depends on the thickness of the sample and on its diffusivity and not on the experimental conditions. They allow to identify the diffusivity with a high precision even for materials with a low conductivity at high temperatures. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  19. Development of new non destructive methods for bituminized radioactive waste drums characterization; Developpement de nouvelles methodes de caracterisation non destructive pour des dechets radioactifs enrobes dans du bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, P

    2004-10-15

    Radioactive waste constitute a major issue for the nuclear industry. One of the key points is their characterization to optimize their management: treatment and packaging, orientation towards the suited disposal. This thesis proposes an evaluation method of the low-energy photon attenuation, based on the gamma-ray spectra Compton continuum. Effectively, the {sup 241}Am measurement by gamma-ray spectrometry is difficult due to the low energy of its main gamma-ray (59.5 keV). The photon attenuation strongly depends on the bituminous mix composition, which includes very absorbing elements. As the Compton continuum also depends on this absorption, it is possible to link the 59.5 keV line attenuation to the Compton level. Another technique is proposed to characterize uranium thanks to its fluorescence X-rays induced by the gamma emitters already present in the waste. The uranium present in the drums disturbs the neutron measurements and its measurement by self-induced X-ray fluorescence allows to correct this interference. Due to various causes of error, the total uncertainty is around 50 % on the activity of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am, corrected by the peak to Compton technique. The same uncertainty is announced on the uranium mass measured by self induced X-ray fluorescence. As a consequence of these promising results, the two methods were included in the industrial project of the 'Marcoule Sorting Unit'. One major advantage is that they do not imply any additional material because they use information already present in the gamma-ray spectra. (author)

  20. Methode nouvelle pour la mesure CCD du diametre solaire avec un astrolabe. A new method for CCD measurements of the solar diameter with an astrolabe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinceac, V.; Chollet, F.; Laclare, F.; Delmas, C.

    1998-03-01

    the luminosity function along each of the 256 useful lines (the matrix is 512 by 512 pixels). This means that a numerical derivation is performed on every other line of the CCD video camera which has to stand as vertical as possible. Then, for every frame, and through the 256 points, a parabola is fitted, using the least squares method. The top of this parabola materializes the prospective characteristic point. The sets of such points associated with the corresponding times of acquisition, are collected for both images and the exact time of contact of the two images may be obtained. This time is also the time when the solar edge crosses the almucantar. The results for the semi-diameter obtained during 1996 campaign are derived from sixty measurements with the revolving mask and sixty seven without it, performed on the Solar Astrolabe. They give a mean value of 959\\farcs39 +/- 0\\farcs 03 with a scatter of 0\\farcs 29. It is interesting to remark that the values of the error bar and the scatter obtained do not depend on the definition of the Solar edge, whereas the mean value does depend on it. It is noticed that going with the method is made a systematic error which slightly shrinks the diameter, but this value can be known statistically and the correction can easily be done. Choosing the best definition of the Solar edge will be the matter of a following article. The main advantage of such a digital acquisition procedure has to be stressed, as it enables to store the full data for further reference and, if possible, better future processing.

  1. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, ... and Cervical Cap FAQ022, May 2016 PDF Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, ...

  2. Modeling Barrier Tissues In Vitro: Methods, Achievements, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Sakolish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organ-on-a-chip devices have gained attention in the field of in vitro modeling due to their superior ability in recapitulating tissue environments compared to traditional multiwell methods. These constructed growth environments support tissue differentiation and mimic tissue–tissue, tissue–liquid, and tissue–air interfaces in a variety of conditions. By closely simulating the in vivo biochemical and biomechanical environment, it is possible to study human physiology in an organ-specific context and create more accurate models of healthy and diseased tissues, allowing for observations in disease progression and treatment. These chip devices have the ability to help direct, and perhaps in the distant future even replace animal-based drug efficacy and toxicity studies, which have questionable relevance to human physiology. Here, we review recent developments in the in vitro modeling of barrier tissue interfaces with a focus on the use of novel and complex microfluidic device platforms.

  3. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  4. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months

  5. Répertoire Mayol - Dix chansons nouvelles

    OpenAIRE

    Mayol Éditions, .

    2011-01-01

    Répertoire Mayol - Dix chansons nouvelles - Mayol Éditions [?]. Photo Mayol non signée - Catalogue recto [exemplaire sans cotage - sans adresse - exemplaire 4 p. contient deux chansons (incomplet?) - sans date, Verso publicité Champagne. Inconnu BNF.

  6. Method for applying a diffusion barrier interlayer for high temperature components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ronghua; Cheruvu, Narayana S.

    2016-03-08

    A coated substrate and a method of forming a diffusion barrier coating system between a substrate and a MCrAl coating, including a diffusion barrier coating deposited onto at least a portion of a substrate surface, wherein the diffusion barrier coating comprises a nitride, oxide or carbide of one or more transition metals and/or metalloids and a MCrAl coating, wherein M includes a transition metal or a metalloid, deposited on at least a portion of the diffusion barrier coating, wherein the diffusion barrier coating restricts the inward diffusion of aluminum of the MCrAl coating into the substrate.

  7. In vivo measurements of skin barrier: comparison of different methods and advantages of laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, A.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2010-12-01

    A major function of the skin is to provide a protective barrier at the interface between external environment and the organism. For skin barrier measurement, a multiplicity of methods is available. As standard methods, the determination of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as well as the measurement of the stratum corneum hydration, are widely accepted, although they offer some obvious disadvantages such as increased interference liability. Recently, new optical and spectroscopic methods have been introduced to investigate skin barrier properties in vivo. Especially, laser scanning microscopy has been shown to represent an excellent tool to study skin barrier integrity in many areas of relevance such as cosmetology, occupation, diseased skin, and wound healing.

  8. The cervical cap. An alternate barrier contraceptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbirds, W M; Jonas, H S

    1982-04-01

    The cervical cap is examined as an acceptable addition to barrier method technology. Attention is directed to its history, methodology, contradindications and side effects, effectiveness, and areas of current research. Invention of the modern cervical cap occurred in the mid-1800s. Finch reports that the 1st cervical cap was described in 1838 by Frederick Adolphe Wilde, a German gynecologist. He called it a Cautchuk Pessarium, and each cap was custom made from a wax impression of the woman's cervix. No matter who is credited with the invention of the cap, it remained a widely used method of contraception for the next century although principally employed in Europe. Currently, cervical caps are widely used in England and Central Europe. Use of the cap in the U.S. has been limited by the small amount of data on its demonstrated effectiveness as well as most clinican's belief that the method is too complicated for the "average woman." There are 2 primary types of cervical caps: firm and soft rubber. For the cap to be effective, it must be fitted by trained medical personnel. For maximum effectiveness, it is essential that the cervical cap user master the techniques of self insertion and removal. Most sources recommend that prior to insertion, the cap be approximately 1/3 filled with spermicidal cream or jelly. Whether or not a spermicide is used, the woman assumes a semi-reclining or squatting position. Removal of the cap is facilitated by inserting the index and middle fingers into the vagina and tiling the rim of the cap away from the cervix, thus breaking the suction. The cap can then be easily removed via the inserted fingers. The following conditions contraindicate the use of the cervical cap: cervical erosion or laceration; cervical malformation; Nabothian cysts; inflammation of the adnexa or inability of the woman to place and remove the cap correctly. The only reported side effect of the cap is the presence of a malodorous secretion if the cap is left in place

  9. Nouvelle économie et gouvernance

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Charreaux

    2000-01-01

    L'objectif de cet article exploratoire est d'éclairer les relations entre nouvelle économie et gouvernance. D'une part, il s'interroge sur la façon de modéliser les liens entre nouvelle économie, création de valeur et système de gouvernance de façon à appréhender, selon un double sens de causalité, la contrainte exercée par les systèmes de gouvernance sur les trajectoires de développement et, inversement, les évolutions des configurations des systèmes de gouvernance. D'autre part, l'article p...

  10. A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media

  11. Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method. Manual for Incident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method models an accident or incident as a series of interactions between human and technical systems. In the sequence of human and technical errors leading to an accident there is, in principle, a possibility to arrest the development between each two successive errors. This can be done by a barrier function which, for example, can stop an operator from making an error. A barrier function can be performed by one or several barrier function systems. To illustrate, a mechanical system, a computer system or another operator can all perform a given barrier function to stop an operator from making an error. The barrier function analysis consists of analysis of suggested improvements, the effectiveness of the improvements, the costs of implementation, probability of implementation, the cost of maintaining the barrier function, the probability that maintenance will be kept up to standards and the generalizability of the suggested improvement. The AEB method is similar to the US method called HPES, but differs from that method in different ways. To exemplify, the AEB method has more emphasis on technical errors than HPES. In contrast to HPES that describes a series of events, the AEB method models only errors. This gives a more focused analysis making it well suited for checking other HPES-type accident analyses. However, the AEB method is a generic and stand-alone method that has been applied in other fields than nuclear power, such as, in traffic accident analyses

  12. A computational method for the systematic screening of reaction barriers in enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, Martin R; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Vico, Luca De;

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-empirical (PM6-based) computational method for systematically estimating the effect of all possible single mutants, within a certain radius of the active site, on the barrier height of an enzymatic reaction. The intent of this method is not a quantitative prediction of the barrier...... heights, but rather to identify promising mutants for further computational or experimental study. The method is applied to identify promising single and double mutants of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) with increased hydrolytic activity for the artificial substrate ortho-nitrophenyl β...... point mutations are recomputed using FMO-MP2/PCM/6-31G(d) single points. PM6 predicts an increase in barrier height for all eight mutants while FMO predicts an increase for six of the eight mutants. Both methods predict that the largest change in barrier occurs for N35F, where PM6 and FMO predict a 9...

  13. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  14. The Case Method: "I’m not sure ..." Faci ng Barriers to Implementi ng the Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Dias Campos

    2014-03-01

    extension courses for teachers. It presents the dilemma experienced by Cosmo, a young professor recently hired by the iesg (Institute of Higher Education in Management, who wishes to adopt the case method as a teaching practice within an institutional setting and with distinct and heterogeneous didactic experiences. It also presents the views of different stakeholders in the institution, discussing the challenge to accommodate its teaching strategy with its professionals’ individual and cultural daily practice. The case intends to foster reflection on the barriers and actions required for institutional case method adoption, seen from three of the organization’s levels: the faculty, the student body and the institutional structure as a whole.

  15. A novel method for calculating the energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchitchekova, Deyana S.; Morthomas, Julien; Ribeiro, Fabienne; Ducher, Roland; Perez, Michel

    2014-07-01

    A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ˜3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress.

  16. A novel method for calculating the energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchitchekova, Deyana S. [IRSN, PSN, SEMIA, LPTM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Univ. Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, Villeurbanne (France); Morthomas, Julien; Perez, Michel [Univ. Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, Villeurbanne (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [IRSN, PSN, SEMIA, LPTM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ducher, Roland [IRSN, PSN, SAG, LETR, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-21

    A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ∼3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress.

  17. A novel method for calculating the energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ∼3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress

  18. Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ochako, Rhoune; Mbondo, Mwende; Aloo, Stephen; Kaimenyi, Susan; Thompson, Rachel; Temmerman, Marleen; Kays, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Young women in Kenya experience a higher risk of mistimed and unwanted pregnancy compared to older women. However, contraceptive use among youth remains low. Known barriers to uptake include side effects, access to commodities and partner approval. Methods: To inform a youth focussed behaviour change communication campaign, Population Services Kenya developed a qualitative study to better understand these barriers among young women. The study was carried out in Nyanza, Coast, ...

  19. A path-independent method for barrier option pricing in hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Ranjbar, Hedieh; Seifi, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a method for barrier option pricing under a Black-Scholes model with Markov switching. We extend the option pricing method of Buffington and Elliott to price continuously monitored barrier options under a Black-Scholes model with regime switching. We use a regime switching random Esscher transform in order to determine an equivalent martingale pricing measure, and then solve the resulting multidimensional integral for pricing barrier options. We have calculated prices for down-and-out call options under a two-state hidden Markov model using two different Monte-Carlo simulation approaches and the proposed method. A comparison of the results shows that our method is faster than Monte-Carlo simulation methods.

  20. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed

  1. Test method for the microbiological barrier properties of wrapping materials ; new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn ACP de; Wagner P

    1993-01-01

    The study shows that the new approach, as proposed by CEN TC102 wg4, for the development of a test method for the determination the microbial barrier properties of packaging materials for medical devices does not give the expected advances over the in 1990 presented LGM test method (RIVM-report 9190

  2. Evaluation of a method of placing cross-sectional barriers during permanent plugging of wells

    OpenAIRE

    Sandven, Sondre

    2010-01-01

    When oil and gas wells reach the end of their production life, they need to be permanently plugged and abandoned. The requirements for a permanent barrier state that it must cover the entire cross-section of the wellbore, including all annuli. This thesis evaluates a new method of establishing a cross-sectional barrier in areas with poor, non-sealing annular cement. The traditional method is to mill away the section with poor cement and set an open hole cement plug, but due ...

  3. Method of patterning super-conductive oxide films by use of diffusion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, B.; Van der Kolk, G.J.; Heijman, M.G.J.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes a method of manufacturing a film of a copper oxide based superconducting material in a desired pattern. The superconducting material comprises an alkaline earth metal, copper, another metal component and oxygen in which method a superconductor precursor material comprising copper oxide, alkaline earth metal fluoride and another metal or metal oxide is provided on a substrate in the form of a film, applying a diffusion barrier formed of a material selected from the group consisting of gold, silicon and aluminum and oxides of silicon and of aluminum against water and oxygen in a pattern complementary to the desired pattern on the film and subsequently heating the film with the patterned diffusion barrier to an elevated temperature in the presence of water and oxygen such that the film not covered by the diffusion barrier becomes superconducting.

  4. A new group-contribution method for the estimation of physical properties of hydrocarbons; Nouvelle methode de contribution de groupes pour l'estimation des proprietes physiques des hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skander, N. [Centre de Recherche et Developpement de Sonatrach, Boumerdes (Algeria); Chitour, C.E. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Lab. de Valorisation des Energies Fossiles, Dept. de Genie Chimique, Alger (Algeria)

    2002-08-01

    In the present work, we propose a new group-contribution method to estimate the boiling point, freezing point and the liquid density at 20 deg C of hydrocarbons. The method was tested with satisfactory accuracy, and when compared with other group-contribution methods, it reveals better results in terms of average standard deviations. (authors)

  5. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  6. A Validation of Elements, Methods, and Barriers to Inclusive High School Service-Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Chun, Eul Jung; Kim, Rah Kyung; Renzaglia, Adelle

    2013-01-01

    A statewide survey of coordinators of inclusive high school service-learning programs was conducted to validate elements, methods, and barriers to including students with and without disabilities in service-learning. Surveys were mailed to 655 service-learning coordinators; 190 (29%) returned a completed survey. Findings support the validity of…

  7. Method of in situ retrieval of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-12-26

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  8. Test method for the microbiological barrier properties of wrapping materials ; new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijn ACP; Wagner P.

    1993-01-01

    The study shows that the new approach, as proposed by CEN TC102 wg4, for the development of a test method for the determination the microbial barrier properties of packaging materials for medical devices does not give the expected advances over the in 1990 presented LGM test method (RIVM-report 919000001, June 1990). The material qualification obtained by means of a materials test does not provide any relevant information about the expected performance of the material when formed into a final...

  9. Complex-valued derivative propagation method with approximate Bohmian trajectories for quantum barrier scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2015-08-18

    Highlights: • The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation is approximately solved in real space. • Equations of motion are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. • Numerically unstable reflected trajectories may pass through the potential barrier. • Transmitted wave packet is obtained by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories. • Excellent transmission probabilities are obtained for both thick and thin barriers. - Abstract: The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation for the complex action is approximately solved by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories in real space. Equations of motion for the complex action and its spatial derivatives are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. We transform these equations into the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. Setting higher-order derivatives equal to zero, we obtain a truncated system of equations of motion describing the rate of change in the complex action and its spatial derivatives transported along approximate Bohmian trajectories. A set of test trajectories is propagated to determine appropriate initial positions for transmitted trajectories. Computational results for transmitted wave packets and transmission probabilities are presented and analyzed for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a two-dimensional system involving either a thick or thin Eckart barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator.

  10. Complex-valued derivative propagation method with approximate Bohmian trajectories for quantum barrier scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation is approximately solved in real space. • Equations of motion are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. • Numerically unstable reflected trajectories may pass through the potential barrier. • Transmitted wave packet is obtained by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories. • Excellent transmission probabilities are obtained for both thick and thin barriers. - Abstract: The complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation for the complex action is approximately solved by propagating individual Bohmian trajectories in real space. Equations of motion for the complex action and its spatial derivatives are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. We transform these equations into the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. Setting higher-order derivatives equal to zero, we obtain a truncated system of equations of motion describing the rate of change in the complex action and its spatial derivatives transported along approximate Bohmian trajectories. A set of test trajectories is propagated to determine appropriate initial positions for transmitted trajectories. Computational results for transmitted wave packets and transmission probabilities are presented and analyzed for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a two-dimensional system involving either a thick or thin Eckart barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator

  11. New method for studying the efficiency of chelating agents of the polyamine acid series for internal decontamination; Methode nouvelle d'etude de l'efficacite des chelateurs de la serie des acides polyamines pour la decontamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We followed the biological fate of a complex formed on one side with either a rare earth (cerium-144) or a transuranium element (plutonium-239), and on the other side with a chelating agent of the polyamino acid series (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). This method allowed to study: 1 - the in vivo stability of the various complexes and to compare them; 2 - the stability of the complexes as a function of the isotope - chelating agent weight relationships; 3 - the metabolism of the chelating agents resulting in stable complexes, i. e. DTPA and TTHA mainly. This simple method brought out the higher efficiency, of DTPA in chelating rare earths and plutonium and for therapeutic purposes. (authors) [French] La methode consiste a suivre le devenir biologique d'un complexe forme d'une part avec une terre rare (cerium 144) ou un transuranien (plutonium 239) et d'autre part avec un chelateur de la serie des acides polyamines (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). Elle permet d'etudier: 1 - la stabilite in vivo des differents complexes, de les comparer; 2 - la stabilite des complexes en fonction des rapports ponderaux isotope - chelateurs; 3 - le metabolisme des chelateurs formant des complexes stables, essentiellement DTPA et TTHA. Cette methode simple degage la suprematie du DTPA en ce qui concerne la chelation des terres rares et du plutonium, et son utilisation a des fins therapeutiques. (auteurs)

  12. Bentonite engineered barrier building method for radioactive waste on sub-surface disposal test project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering barriers such as clay and concrete materials are planned to use for covering radioactive waste in cavern-type disposal facility. The requirement to clay barrier is very low permeability, which could be satisfied by high density Bentonite, and such a compaction method will be needed. Two methods, compaction and air shot, were tested in engineering scale for constructing a high-density clay barrier. Two types of compaction equipments, 'Teasel plate' and 'Plate compacter', were developed and engineering scale experiments were performed for compacting Bentonite only and Bentonite-sand-aggregate mixture. As a result, the Teasel plate can reach higher density Bentonite in relatively short time in comparison to other equipments. While, regarding air shot method, an air-shot machine in a tunnel construction site was tested by different water adding methods (wet, dry, and half wet). It is concluded that the dry and half wet constructing methods will achieve reasonable workability. As a result, the best construction option can be chosen according to the locations of radioactive waste facility. (author)

  13. Barriers to the Uptake of Human-based Test Methods, and How to Overcome Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Kathy; Drake, Tamara; Coleman, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Although there is growing concern as to the questionable value of animal-based methods for determining the safety and efficacy of new medicines, which has in turn led to many groups developing innovative human-based methods, there are many barriers to their adoption for regulatory submissions. The reasons for this are various, and include a lack of confidence that the available human-based methods, be they in vivo, in silico or in vitro, can be sufficiently predictive of clinical outcomes. However, this is not the only problem: the issue of validation presents a serious impediment to progress, a particularly frustrating situation, in view of the fact that the existing animal-based methods have never themselves been formally validated. Superimposed upon this is the issue of regulatory requirements, where, although regulators may be willing to accept non-animal approaches in place of particular animal tests, nowhere is this explicitly stated in their guidelines. Such problems are far from trivial, and represent major hurdles to be overcome. In addition, there are a range of other barriers, real or self-imposed, that are hindering a more-predictive approach to establishing a new drug's clinical safety and efficacy profiles. Some of these barriers are identified, and ways forward are suggested. PMID:26551287

  14. The Facilitators and Barriers to Nurses’ Participation in Continuing Education Programs: A Mixed Method Explanatory Sequential Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since several factors affect nurses’ participation in Continuing Education, and that nurses’ Continuing Education affects patients’ and community health status, it is essential to know facilitators and barriers of participation in Continuing Education programs and plan accordingly. This mixed approach study aimed to investigate the facilitators and barriers of nurses’ participation, to explore nurses’ perception of the most common facilitators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory...

  15. Novel Gas Barrier SiOC Coating to PET Bottles through a Hot Wire CVD Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaya, Masaki; Kodama, Kenji; Yasuhara, Shigeo; Hotta, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to enhance the gas barrier enhancement of plastic containers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles, a novel method was found using a hot wire CVD technique, where tantalum wire is heated and exposed to a gas flow of vinyl silane. The resultant SiOC thin film was confirmed to characteristically contain Si-Si bonds in its surface and demonstrate a remarkably and highly practical decrease of the permeation of various gas through poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles.

  16. NOUVELLES TECHNOLOGIES EDUCATIVES, RISQUES PEDAGOGIQUES ET CONTROLE DE GESTION

    OpenAIRE

    Bescos, Pierre-Laurent

    2000-01-01

    International audience Les Nouvelles Technologies Educatives (NTE) peuvent être très utiles pour augmenter l'efficacité pédagogique et l'implication des étudiants, notamment pour des cours en comptabilité ou contrôle de gestion. Mais leur utilisation ne se fait pas sans certains risques, à partir du moment où cela s'accompagne nécessairement de nouvelles approches pédagogiques et du fait de la dépendance vis-à-vis des diverses technologies employées. A partir d'une expérimentation sur un c...

  17. REVIEW OF MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS METHODS FOR PREDICTING CEMENTITIOUS BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Kosson, D.

    2009-11-30

    Cementitious barriers for nuclear applications are one of the primary controls for preventing or limiting radionuclide release into the environment. At the present time, performance and risk assessments do not fully incorporate the effectiveness of engineered barriers because the processes that influence performance are coupled and complicated. Better understanding the behavior of cementitious barriers is necessary to evaluate and improve the design of materials and structures used for radioactive waste containment, life extension of current nuclear facilities, and design of future nuclear facilities, including those needed for nuclear fuel storage and processing, nuclear power production and waste management. The focus of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) literature review is to document the current level of knowledge with respect to: (1) mechanisms and processes that directly influence the performance of cementitious materials (2) methodologies for modeling the performance of these mechanisms and processes and (3) approaches to addressing and quantifying uncertainties associated with performance predictions. This will serve as an important reference document for the professional community responsible for the design and performance assessment of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This review also provides a multi-disciplinary foundation for identification, research, development and demonstration of improvements in conceptual understanding, measurements and performance modeling that would be lead to significant reductions in the uncertainties and improved confidence in the estimating the long-term performance of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This report identifies: (1) technology gaps that may be filled by the CBP project and also (2) information and computational methods that are in currently being applied in related fields but have not yet been incorporated into performance assessments of cementitious barriers. The various

  18. Debris flow impact on mitigation barriers: a new method for particle-fluid-structure interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchelli, Maddalena; Pirulli, Marina; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2016-04-01

    Channelized debris-flows are a type of mass movements that involve water-charged, predominantly coarse-grained inorganic and organic material flowing rapidly down steep confined pre-existing channels (Van Dine, 1985). Due to their rapid movements and destructive power, structural mitigation measures have become an integral part of counter measures against these phenomena, to mitigate and prevent damages resulting from debris-flow impact on urbanized areas. In particular, debris barriers and storage basins, with some form of debris-straining structures incorporated into the barrier constructed across the path of a debris-flow, have a dual role to play: (1) to stimulate deposition by presenting a physical obstruction against flow, and (2) to guarantee that during normal conditions stream water and bedload can pass through the structure; while, during and after an extreme event, the water that is in the flow and some of the fine-grained sediment can escape. A new method to investigate the dynamic interactions between the flowing mass and the debris barrier is presented, with particular emphasis on the effect of the barrier in controlling the water and sediment content of the escaping mass. This aspect is achieved by implementing a new mechanical model into an enhanced two-phase dynamical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012), in which solid particles mixture and viscous fluid are taken into account. The complex mechanical model is defined as a function of the energy lost during impact, the physical and geometrical properties of the debris barrier, separate but strongly interacting dynamics of boulder and fluid flows during the impact, particle concentration distribution, and the slope characteristics. The particle-filtering-process results in a large variation in the rheological properties of the fluid-dominated escaping mass, including the substantial reduction in the bulk density, and the inertial forces of the debris-flows. Consequently, the destructive power and run

  19. Simplification process of safety assessment model for engineered barrier system by using adjoint sensitivity analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analyses for mass transport model in porous media were performed by using adjoint method. The mass transport model employed is to evaluate the performance of engineered barrier of shallow land disposal, assuming that water flows through a cylinder packed with sand. In this model instantaneous sorption equilibrium between liquid and solid phases is assumed and two types of boundary conditions which represent the nuclide release from waste package, i.e. solubility-limited case and constant leaching case, are considered. From the sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the effect of longitudinal dispersion on performance measure is very small and calculated normalized sensitivity is in the order 10-4∼10-3 around the most probable value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This suggests that the term of longitudinal dispersion can be removed from the original model. In this case analytical solution is easily introduced for two boundary conditions respectively to evaluate the performance measure of the barrier system. These simplified models, in fact, gives larger estimate of the nuclide release from the engineered barrier system than that calculated from the model considering the longitudinal dispersion. They are acceptable from the standpoint of conservatism of safety assessment. (author)

  20. A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, Monika; Vartiainen, Jari; Lucenius, Jessica; Hippi, Ulla; Seppälä, Jukka; Serimaa, Ritva; Laine, Janne

    2013-06-12

    In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm(3) μm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1), and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm(3) μm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m(2) day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials. PMID:23635431

  1. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Crockford, R.M. [Keller Colcrete Ltd., Wetherby, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Achhorner, F.N. [Slurry Walls, Inc., Irving, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques.

  2. Novel Gas Barrier SiOC Coating to PET Bottles through a Hot Wire CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to enhance the gas barrier enhancement of plastic containers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles, a novel method was found using a hot wire CVD technique, where tantalum wire is heated and exposed to a gas flow of vinyl silane. The resultant SiOC thin film was confirmed to characteristically contain Si-Si bonds in its surface and demonstrate a remarkably and highly practical decrease of the permeation of various gas through poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles.

  3. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques

  4. Implementation and Methods of Project Learning in Quantity Surveying Firms: Barriers, Enablers and Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Learning from project is vital for organizations to achieve competition and to survive in a dynamic environment. However, learning is not an easy task because there is no specific way for learning from projects. Besides, the practice of project learning and transfer knowledge to the firm’s level is still vague, specifically in the construction milieu. Approach: A questionnaire survey was conducted targeted quantity surveying firms in Malaysia, attempted to identify methods of learning from projects and implement this approach successfully. Interviews with experts in construction projects were conducted to expand and validate the results of the survey. Results: The findings indicated that on-the-job training is the preferable method to learn from construction project in quantity surveying firms. In addition, top management support and employee participants are the main enablers/barriers of project learning implementation. While, top management support found to be the main key success factor of project learning implementation. Conclusion/Recommendations: Determining barriers and enablers of learning showed how construction organization could implement learning from project successfully. This adds a practical tool of promoting learning in the field of organizational learning in construction. Results can be replicated in different industries to observe the disparity in each setting.

  5. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  6. Determination of barrier height temperature coefficient by Norde's method in ideal Co/n-GaAs Schottky contacts

    OpenAIRE

    TURUT, Abdulmecit

    2012-01-01

    We have formed the ideal Co/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) by magnetron DC sputtering. The experimental current-voltage data of the Co/n-GaAs SBD are almost independent of the sample temperature and quite well obey the thermionic emission model from 100 K to 320 K. We have showed that the temperature coefficient of the barrier height can be determined using Norde's method instead of the temperature-dependent capacitance-voltage measurements or the flat-band barrier height ...

  7. Separation methods that are capable of revealing blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Alekha K; Elmquist, William F

    2003-11-25

    The objective of this review is to emphasize the application of separation science in evaluating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to drugs and bioactive agents. Several techniques have been utilized to quantitate the BBB permeability. These methods can be classified into two major categories: in vitro or in vivo. The in vivo methods used include brain homogenization, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling, voltametry, autoradiography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET), intracerebral microdialysis, and brain uptake index (BUI) determination. The in vitro methods include tissue culture and immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) technology. Separation methods have always played an important role as adjunct methods to the methods outlined above for the quantitation of BBB permeability and have been utilized the most with brain homogenization, in situ brain perfusion, CSF sampling, intracerebral microdialysis, in vitro tissue culture and IAM chromatography. However, the literature published to date indicates that the separation method has been used the most in conjunction with intracerebral microdialysis and CSF sampling methods. The major advantages of microdialysis sampling in BBB permeability studies is the possibility of online separation and quantitation as well as the need for only a small sample volume for such an analysis. Separation methods are preferred over non-separation methods in BBB permeability evaluation for two main reasons. First, when the selectivity of a determination method is insufficient, interfering substances must be separated from the analyte of interest prior to determination. Secondly, when large number of analytes is to be detected and quantitated by a single analytical procedure, the mixture must be separated to each individual component prior to determination. Chiral separation in particular can be essential to evaluate the stereo-selective permeation and distribution of agents into the

  8. [Measurement of active particles generated in a coaxial barrier discharge by spectral method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Peng-Ying

    2013-05-01

    Coaxial dielectric barrier discharge has extensive application prospects. A dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrode was used to investigate the discharge properties and spectral intensity emitted from active particles in the air by optical method. Results indicate that the optical emission spectra consist of spectral lines from oxygen atoms (777.5 and 844.6 nm), which implies that oxygen atoms with high chemical activity were generated in the discharge plasma. Through spatially resolved measurements, spectral intensities from oxygen atoms were given as functions of the experimental parameters such as the value of the applied voltage, the gas flow rate and argon content. Results show that the spectral line intensity from oxygen atom increases with increasing the peak value of the applied voltage, increases with increasing the gas flow rate, reaches its maximum with a gas flow rate of 30 L x min(-1) and then decreases with further increasing the gas flow rate. Similarly, the spectral line intensity increases firstly and then decreases with increasing argon content (in a mixture of argon and air) and a maximum is reached when argon content is 16.7%. PMID:23905311

  9. Selection strategy for the most Suitable CEC method for clay barrier characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is one of the most relevant properties of clay barriers. CEC results often are used for characterization of the clay host rock or for sensitive detection of degradation of the barrier material, e.g. bentonite buffer. Numerous methods exist for the determination of the CEC and exchangeable cations. However, a lot of methods suffer from systematic errors. These errors are caused by interactions (that differ from cation exchange) of the exchange solutions used with minerals in the barrier material: i) Dissolution of soluble minerals such as calcite, gypsum, or dolomite which causes inflated exchangeable calcium (magnesium) values. Other reactions of carbonates or gypsum not only affect exchangeable cations but also the CEC (index cation) values in a way that ii) witherite (barium carbonate) is formed and dissolved later (barium chloride method) which causes inflated CEC values or iii) rests of gypsum are present during reexchange with magnesium chloride (barium chloride method) which then leads to drastic CEC underestimation by formation of barium sulphate (here simultaneously barium ions are desorbed from exchange positions and sulphate enters the solution due to gypsum dissolution). When the ammonium acetate method is used for CEC determination of calcareous clays/bentonites another mechanism for a systematic CEC decrease occurs: iv) ammonium acetate is first used to saturate the clay components in a regular way (cation exchange), but during washing for removal of excess salt, ammonium is desorbed again from exchange positions by calcium which is liberated (dissolved) from remaining calcite of calcareous clays studied. Other errors may be v) the degradation of cationic complexes (silver thiourea, if pH > 8) or vi) substances which are added to adjust the pH of the exchange solutions such as triethanolamine in barium chloride exchange solution which may be protonated and adsorbed in

  10. Test method for the microbial barrier properties of packaging for medical devices ; RIVM method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn ACP de; Asten JAAM van; LGM

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important qualities of packaging for medical devices is the ability to keep the contents sterile. The quality of the packaging is determined by the quality of the material and the quality of the seals. The former is usually tested with test methods using micro-organisms. In hospitals

  11. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  12. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  13. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by off-aligned electron cooling for CRing of HIAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A.; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-08-01

    A new accelerator complex, HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility), has been approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for research in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity of up to 5×1011 ppp 238U34+, the Compression Ring (CRing) needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from the Booster Ring (BRing). However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, off-alignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper, simulation and optimization with the BETACOOL program are presented. Supported by New Interdisciplinary and Advanced Pilot Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  14. Injection method of barrier bucket supported by misaligned electron cooling for CRing

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Guo-Dong; Xia, Jia-Wen; Mao, Li-Jun; Yin, Da-Yu; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Sheng, Li-Na; Smirnov, A; Wu, Bo; Zhao, He

    2016-01-01

    A new accelerator complex HIAF (the High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility) is approved in China. It is designed to provide intense primary and radioactive ion beams for researches in high energy density physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics as well as other applications. In order to achieve a high intensity up to 5e11ppp 238U34+, CRing needs to stack more than 5 bunches transferred from BRing. However, the normal bucket to bucket injection scheme can only achieve an intensity gain of 2, so an injection method, fixed barrier bucket (BB) supported by electron cooling, is proposed. To suppress the severe space charge effect during the stacking process, misalignment is adopted in the cooler to control the transverse emittance. In this paper the simulation and optimization with BETACOOL program are presented.

  15. Development of methods for efficiency assessment of engineered barriers: Radioactive Waste Repository Authority annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarises the results obtained during the first year of the developing of methods for evaluation of performance of engineered barriers envisaged to be used in deep geological repository of spent fuel and high level waste. The first part of the report is devoted to the methods of studying corrosion behaviour of candidate materials for disposal containers of spent fuel under anaerobic conditions which sooner or later will occur in the repository, The corrosion of metal materials is accompanied by the hydrogen generation which provide one of the ways for determination of corrosion rate under anaerobic conditions. Another part of the report is devoted to the development of the procedure for determination of sorption of radionuclides on bentonite under aerobic conditions. This procedure, which will be followed by others under other conditions that can occur in the repository, includes also the procedures for preparation of bentonite for sorption experiment, the preparation of water phase and other measurement procedures. The development of diffusion cells for determination of radionuclides diffusion coefficients started our diffusion experiments. During the diffusion cells development we had to move from plastic to stainless steel to avoid the destruction of diffusion cells by the bentonite swelling pressure. First experiments were carried out with tritium, which represent not-sorbing radionuclide. The last part of the report is devoted to the implementation of source-term code PAGODA. On model case it was shown that the code poses a very efficient tool for performing sensitive analysis of the effect of engineered barriers on the total source term and also effective doses of individual from critical group of population. (author)

  16. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  17. A quantitative MRI method for imaging blood-brain barrier leakage in experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE MRI can longitudinally measure the transport coefficient Ktrans which reflects BBB permeability. Ktrans measurements however are not widely used in TBI research because it is generally considered to be noisy and possesses low spatial resolution. We improved spatiotemporal resolution and signal sensitivity of Ktrans MRI in rats by using a high-sensitivity surface transceiver coil. To overcome the signal drop off profile of the surface coil, a pre-scan module was used to map the flip angle (B1 field and magnetization (M0 distributions. A series of T1-weighted gradient echo images were acquired and fitted to the extended Kety model with reversible or irreversible leakage, and the best model was selected using F-statistics. We applied this method to study the rat brain one hour following controlled cortical impact (mild to moderate TBI, and observed clear depiction of the BBB damage around the impact regions, which matched that outlined by Evans Blue extravasation. Unlike the relatively uniform T2 contrast showing cerebral edema, Ktrans shows a pronounced heterogeneous spatial profile in and around the impact regions, displaying a nonlinear relationship with T2. This improved Ktrans MRI method is also compatible with the use of high-sensitivity surface coil and the high-contrast two-coil arterial spin-labeling method for cerebral blood flow measurement, enabling more comprehensive investigation of the pathophysiology in TBI.

  18. Test methods for evaluating and comparing the performance of side impact barrier faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Roberts, A.; Seeck, A.; Cesari, D.

    1998-01-01

    Side-impact safety of passenger cars is assessed in Europe in a full-scale test using a moving barrier. The front of this barrier is deformable and represents the stiffness of an 'average' car. The EU Directive 96/27/EC on side impact protection has adopted the EEVC Side Impact Test Procedure, inclu

  19. Language barriers and patient safety risks in hospital care: a mixed methods study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosse, F. van; Bruijne, M. de; Suurmond, J.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A language barrier has been shown to be a threat for quality of hospital care. International studies highlighted a lack of adequate noticing, reporting, and bridging of a language barrier. However, studies on the link between language proficiency and patient safety are scarce, especial

  20. Effect of Cooling Methods on Methane Conversion via Dielectric-Barrier Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of cooling methods on stability and methane conversion rate using dielectric-barrier discharges (DBD) were systematically investigated in this article. The results showed that the methane conversion rate was as high as 44.43% in a pure methane system at a flow rate of 100 mL ± min-1 and an input power of 234.2 W with air cooling. A dark greenish and soft film-like carbon was deposited on the outer surface of quartz tube when the outer electrode was water-cooled, which decreased the methane conversion. With air cooling of inner electrode the selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons was higher than that with other cooling methods, while the C3 hydrocarbons had higher selectivity with flowing water cooling. Cooling the inner electrode could restrain the carbon deposition, but would decrease the methane conversion rate. The stability of both reaction and plasma operation can be improved through cooling the reactor. From thermodynamic analysis, it was found that the effective collisions frequency among the reactant molecules and free electrons (e-) increased with temperature, which in turn led to a higher methane conversion rate and a change in the distribution of products.

  1. A method for in situ measurement of the elastic behavior of a columnar thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Novel experimental method providing mechanical properties for TBCs as input for lifetime models. → 3-point bending beams are cut by micro EDM from cross sections and loaded by custom setup. → Free digital image correlation Matlab functions are used in concert with FE simulations. → 7YSZ EB-PVD on NiCoCrAlY bond coat has in-plane modulus of 15-30GPa, no strain dependence. → TBC underwent brittle fracture at strains of 3.5-5.10-3. - Abstract: The mechanical behavior of a ceramic coating and the evolution of this behavior in-service play crucial roles in governing the performance and lifetime of these materials. A protocol is presented that allows for characterization of the in-plane elastic modulus and strain to failure of fragile ceramic coatings. The protocol employs digital image correlation (DIC) to measure time-resolved, full-field strain maps of bilayer microbeams, and material properties are extracted through direct comparison with finite element simulations of microbending experiments. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by the measurement of the in-plane Young's modulus (ETBC = 15-30 GPa) and the strain to fracture (3.5-5 x 10-3) of electron beam physical vapor deposited 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The results from this study also indicate that the in-plane TBC modulus has no strain dependence when measured in tension.

  2. La nouvelle dévolution des pouvoirs en Bolivie

    OpenAIRE

    Souty, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Le 25 janvier 2009, les Boliviens ont approuvé une nouvelle constitution définissant leur pays comme un « État social unitaire de droit, pluri-national et communautaire » et en augmentant les droits de la majorité boliviènne, c'est-à-dire de sa population indigène. L'article présente et analyse un long texte de 411 articles en précisant le système décisionnel, qui accorde un rôle important à la population.

  3. Debating with the Nouvelle Droite: What did I learn?

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-On, Tamir

    2016-01-01

    This is the third article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. I am the author of two books about the French nouvelle droite (ND – New Right): Where Have All The Fascists Gone? and Rethinking the French New Right: Alternatives to modernity. In 2014, I published a piece entitled „The French New Right Neither Right, nor Left?“. Surprisingly, the French ND leader Alain de Benoist responded with a polemical and largely ad hominem article in the same journal.1 I must stress that I neither i...

  4. Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions

    OpenAIRE

    Minnis, A; Padian, N

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. To discuss challenges in conducting effectiveness research and in translating results to public health intervention.

  5. Application of general methods for the study of porous materials to the determination of the characteristics of barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers foreseen for the separation of uranium isotopes by gaseous diffusion must posses pores of about 100 Angstrom radius and as high an output as possible. They should thus be of small but uniform thickness. In view of these conditions it is necessary to adapt the normal methods available for studying porous materials in order to check the characteristics of the prototypes examined. It has been found that only by cross-comparison of data from various methods can progress in the development of different prototypes be followed. The following account consists of two parts: 1) A review of the main experimental methods we have used: a) various absorption methods, b) electron microscopy, c) X-ray studies, d) mercury porosimetry, e) liquid permeability, f) gas permeability, g) measurement of separation efficiency. 2) Comparison of the results obtained using these various methods and their application with a view to acquiring as complete a knowledge as possible of the structure of the barrier. (author)

  6. Uses and evaluation methods of potential hydrogen permeation barriers for nuclear reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes results on the use of coatings as hydrogen permeation barriers on nuclear reactor component materials. Two classes of base materials were considered, exothermic hydrogen absorbers and endothermic hydrogen absorbers. The results of the tests indicate that substantial reductions in the amount of hydrogen absorbed by a metal can be achieved through the use of hydrogen permeation barrier coatings. Gold was determined to provide an effective hydrogen permeation barrier on Zr-2-1/2 Nb pressure tube material. Tin was determined to be a suitable hydrogen permeation barrier when applied on AISI 410 stainless steel and iron. Both gas phase and electrochemical permeation techniques were used to determine hydrogen permeabilities through coatings and base materials

  7. Transport methods for probing the barrier domain of lipid bilayer membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, T X; Chen, X.; Anderson, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Two experimental techniques have been utilized to explore the barrier properties of lecithin/decane bilayer membranes with the aim of determining the contributions of various domains within the bilayer to the overall barrier. The thickness of lecithin/decane bilayers was systematically varied by modulating the chemical potential of decane in the annulus surrounding the bilayer using different mole fractions of squalene in decane. The dependence of permeability of a model permeant (acetamide) ...

  8. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  9. A mixed-method investigation of patient monitoring and enhanced feedback in routine practice: Barriers and facilitators

    OpenAIRE

    Lucock, Mike; Halstead, Jeremy; Leach, Chris; Barkham, Michael; Tucker, Samantha; Randal, Chloe; Middleton, Joanne; Khan, Wajid; Catlow, Hannah; Waters, Emma; Saxon, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the barriers and facilitators of an effective implementation of an outcome monitoring and feedback system in a UK National Health Service psychological therapy service. Method: An outcome monitoring system was introduced in two services. Enhanced feedback was given to therapists after session 4. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used, including questionnaires for therapists and patients. Thematic analysis was carried out on written and verbal feedbac...

  10. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2004-09-07

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  11. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  12. Barriers and Facilitators to Research Use Among Allied Health Practitioners: A Mixed-Method Approach to Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dunne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – The disparity between what is known to be effective and what is done in practice points to barriers to research use among health practitioners. Library and information services (LIS collect, organize and disseminate published research findings so they may be uniquely positioned to be of influence. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD field in Ireland, and to explore the services, strategies, and resources that may help alleviate these issues.Methods – Three focus groups were held with AOD practitioners. A survey questionnaire was then sent by post to 175 counsellors. The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Barriers Scale (Funk et al. 1991, which assessed potential barriers from four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication.Results – The number of responses was 71 (41%. All communication-related Barriers Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of survey respondents. Similar issues were also raised in focus groups, where language, presentation, and time to engage with research were considered significant influences. Qualitative aspects of the study also revealed scepticism about research application and relevance.All proposed LIS were rated as moderate or great facilitators by the majority of respondents who expressed an opinion (those who choose “no opinion” or did not respond, 6–8%, were excluded.Conclusions – The high incidence of communication-related issues among top barriers and the enthusiasm expressed about proposed library services and training reveals the key role that LIS personnel can play in enabling practitioners to use research in practice. The addition of setting and practitioner factors indicates that a holistic, collaborative approach to

  13. Barriers and facilitators to implementing continuous quality improvement programs in colonoscopy services: a mixed methods systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, Bernard; Jobin, Gilles; Dubé, Catherine; Tousignant, Mario; Abdeljelil, Anis Ben; Grenier, Sonya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs may result in quality of care and outcome improvement. However, the implementation of such programs has proven to be very challenging. This mixed methods systematic review identifies barriers and facilitators pertaining to the implementation of CQI programs in colonoscopy services and how they relate to endoscopists, nurses, managers, and patients. Methods: We developed a search strategy adapted to 15 databases. Studies had to report on the implementation of a CQI intervention and identified barriers or facilitators relating to any of the four groups of actors directly concerned by the provision of colonoscopies. The quality of the selected studies was assessed and findings were extracted, categorized, and synthesized using a generic extraction grid customized through an iterative process. Results: We extracted 99 findings from the 15 selected publications. Although involving all actors is the most cited factor, the literature mainly focuses on the facilitators and barriers associated with the endoscopists’ perspective. The most reported facilitators to CQI implementation are perception of feasibility, adoption of a formative approach, training and education, confidentiality, and assessing a limited number of quality indicators. Receptive attitudes, a sense of ownership and perceptions of positive impacts also facilitate the implementation. Finally, an organizational environment conducive to quality improvement has to be inclusive of all user groups, explicitly supportive, and provide appropriate resources. Conclusion: Our findings corroborate the current models of adoption of innovations. However, a significant knowledge gap remains with respect to barriers and facilitators pertaining to nurses, patients, and managers. PMID:26878037

  14. LHC 2008 lectures "Une nouvelle vision du monde"

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The history of the science of the Universe and the science of matter have been marked by a small number of "revolutions" that have turned our understanding of the infinitesimally large and the infinitesimally small on its head. New ways of looking at the world have come about sometimes through conceptual advances and sometimes through innovations in scientific instrumentation. How do things stand at the beginning of the 21st century? Will today’s large-scale machine projects like the LHC and gravitational wave detectors pave the way for a new scientific revolution? Thursday, 15 May 2008 at 8.00 p.m. Une nouvelle vision du monde Jean-Pierre Luminet, Research Director at the CNRS The Globe, first floor No specialist knowledge required. Entrance free. To reserve call + 41 (0) 22 767 76 76 http://www.cern.ch/globe

  15. John Mcgahern, une image nouvelle ?1

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, John

    2012-01-01

    A propos du processus de la création chez l’écrivain, je vais commencer par prendre un épisode de la nouvelle de John McGahern, « Peaches » (« Pêches »), où nous rencontrons un écrivain aux prises avec cette expérience créative désagréable entre toutes – la hantise de la page blanche. Il s’installe dans un café et ouvre une lettre de son éditeur qui contient des critiques de son dernier livre : Lire les critiques n’était jamais facile et, lorsque la bière arriva, il les lut vite. C’était comm...

  16. Apparatus and method of manufacture for an imager equipped with a cross-talk barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An imager apparatus and associated starting material are provided. In one embodiment, an imager is provided including a silicon layer of a first conductivity type acting as a junction anode. Such silicon layer is adapted to convert light to photoelectrons. Also included is a semiconductor well of a second conductivity type formed in the silicon layer for acting as a junction cathode. Still yet, a barrier is formed adjacent to the semiconductor well. In another embodiment, a starting material is provided including a first silicon layer and an oxide layer disposed adjacent to the first silicon layer. Also included is a second silicon layer disposed adjacent to the oxide layer opposite the first silicon layer. Such second silicon layer is further equipped with an associated passivation layer and/or barrier.

  17. [Modern methods of examination of ballistic trauma after passing through the barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, R v; Tiurin, M V; Kabanov, M Iu; Nepomniashchiĭ, S A; Smolin, N V; Nagut, N N; Soroka, A K; Nikolaev, I K

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of experimental data were studied peculiarities of ballistic of wounds after passing barriers. Authors analyzed forensic medical examination reports concerned about murdered and wounded with gunshots in Saint Petersburg. As research objects were used: simulators of biological materials (block of glycerin soap) and experimental animals. The following bullets were used: automat cartridge 7H22, 7H24 - gauge 5,45x39 mm, pistol cartridge 7H29 - gauge 9,0x21 mm; gun reach - 50 and 100 meters; barriers - steel plates, glass, brickwork. The following assessment of exposure was used: in simulators - according to volumes of temporary cavity; in experimental animals - according to results of morphofunctional researches. Data about damaging action of pistol cartridge 7H22, 7H24 with gauge 5,45 mm and automat cartridges 7H29 and 9,0 mm is received. PMID:25286581

  18. Passive methods for improving air quality in the built environment: A review of porous and solid barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John; Baldauf, Richard; Fuller, Christina H.; Kumar, Prashant; Gill, Laurence W.; McNabola, Aonghus

    2015-11-01

    Protecting the health of growing urban populations from air pollution remains a challenge for planners and requires detailed understanding of air flow and pollutant transport in the built environment. In recent years, the work undertaken on passive methods of reducing air pollution has been examined to address the question: "how can the built environment work to alter natural dispersion patterns to improve air quality for nearby populations?" This review brings together a collective of methods that have demonstrated an ability to influence air flow patterns to reduce personal exposure in the built environment. A number of passive methods exists but, in the context of this paper, are split into two distinct categories: porous and solid barriers. These methods include trees and vegetation (porous) as well as noise barriers, low boundary walls and parked cars (solid); all of which have gained different levels of research momentum over the past decade. Experimental and modelling studies have provided an understanding of the potential for these barriers to improve air quality under varying urban geometrical and meteorological conditions. However, differences in results between these studies and real-world measurements demonstrate the challenges and complexities of simulating pollutant transport in urban areas. These methods provide additional benefits to improving air quality through altering dispersion patterns; avenue trees and vegetation are aesthetically pleasing and provides cooling and shade from direct sunlight. Additionally, real-world case studies are considered an important direction for further verification of these methods in the built environment. Developing design guidelines is an important next stage in promoting passive methods for reducing air pollution and ensuring their integration into future urban planning strategies. In addition, developing channels of communication with urban planners will enhance the development and uptake of design guidelines to

  19. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  20. Microstructure of thermal barrier coatings deposited by APS method with application of new type ceramic powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents results of structural research into thermal barrier coatings obtained by the APS. For the base the Rene 80 alloy was used, whereas a MeCrAlY-type multicomponent alloy was used for an interlayer.Design/methodology/approach: Throughout the research an optic microscope as well as a scanning electron microscope were employed. Measurements of the formed structure’s porosity were taken.Findings: It has been observed that application of novelty ceramic powders allows for a possibility of forming thermal barrier coatings, which can be used for protecting of the combustion chamber’s surface as well as turbine’s blades in an aircraft engine.Research limitations/implications: Further research into resistance to oxidation of these coatings seems necessary for experimental determination of their actual work temperature.Practical implications: They can be successfully applied in automotive industry for coating of petrol or diesel engine’s components.Originality/value: Investigation into possible applications of two-layer and composite coatings, which may improve the work temperature of thermal barrier coatings, is feasible.

  1. Identifying barriers and tailoring interventions to improve the management of urinary tract infections and sore throat: a pragmatic study using qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories of behaviour change indicate that an analysis of factors that facilitate or impede change is helpful when trying to influence professional practice. The aim of this study was to identify barriers to implementing evidence-based guidelines for urinary tract infection and sore throat in general practice in Norway, and to tailor interventions to address these barriers. Methods We used a checklist to identify barriers and possible interventions to address these in an iterative process that included a review of the literature, brainstorming, focus groups, a pilot study, small group discussions and interviews. Results We identified at least one barrier for each category. Both guidelines recommended increased use of telephone consultations and reduced use of laboratory tests, and the barriers and the interventions were similar for the two guidelines. The complexity of changing routines involving patients, general practitioners and general practitioner assistants, loss of income with telephone consultations, fear of overlooking serious disease, perceived patient expectations and lack of knowledge about the evidence for the guidelines were the most prominent barriers. The interventions that were tailored to address these barriers included support for change processes in the practices, increasing the fee for telephone consultations, patient information leaflets and computer-based decision support and reminders. Conclusion A systematic approach using qualitative methods helped identify barriers and generate ideas for tailoring interventions to support the implementation of guidelines for the management of urinary tract infections and sore throat. Lack of resources limited our ability to address all of the barriers adequately.

  2. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    able to prove to their respective policymakers that it is not overly difficult to make measurements of sensitive objects without revealing classified information. Without technical measures to inspect classified nuclear items and materials, it will be extremely difficult to reduce stockpiles in a manner that does not weaken the security of Russia and the United States. The importance of successfully developing and implementing effective information barrier methods and procedures cannot be overstated. (author)

  3. Prevalence of and Barriers to Dual-Contraceptive Methods Use among Married Men and Women Living with HIV in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Chakrapani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the prevalence and correlates of dual-contraceptive methods use (condoms and an effective pregnancy prevention method and barriers to their use among married persons living with HIV (PLHIV in India. Methods. We conducted a quantitative survey (93 men, 97 women, 25 in-depth interviews, seven focus groups, and five key informant interviews. Results. Prevalence of dual- contraceptive method use increased from 5% before HIV diagnosis to 23% after diagnosis (P < 0.001. Condoms were the most common contraceptive method, with prevalence increasing from 13% before diagnosis to 92% after diagnosis (P < 0.001. Barriers to using noncondom contraceptives were lack of discussion about noncondom contraceptives by health care providers, lack of acceptability of noncondom contraceptives among PLHIV, and lack of involvement of husbands in family planning counseling. Conclusion. There is a need for interventions, including training of health care providers, to increase dual-contraceptive methods use among married PLHIV.

  4. Barriers, facilitators and preferences for the physical activity of school children. Rationale and methods of a mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Andrés María

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity interventions in schools environment seem to have shown some effectiveness in the control of the current obesity epidemic in children. However the complexity of behaviors and the diversity of influences related to this problem suggest that we urgently need new lines of insight about how to support comprehensive population strategies of intervention. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of the children from Cuenca, about their environmental barriers, facilitators and preferences for physical activity. Methods/Design We used a mixed-method design by combining two qualitative methods (analysis of individual drawings and focus groups together with the quantitative measurement of physical activity through accelerometers, in a theoretical sample of 121 children aged 9 and 11 years of schools in the province of Cuenca, Spain. Conclusions Mixed-method study is an appropriate strategy to know the perceptions of children about barriers and facilitators for physical activity, using both qualitative methods for a deeply understanding of their points of view, and quantitative methods for triangulate the discourse of participants with empirical data. We consider that this is an innovative approach that could provide knowledges for the development of more effective interventions to prevent childhood overweight.

  5. Deux nouvelles lèvres de Cassidae au PPNB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Le Dosseur

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En 2008, deux nouvelles lèvres de Cassidae ont été mises au jour sur deux sites néolithiques (Néolithique Précéramique B : PPNB du Levant Sud : Beisamoun et Yiftahel. Il s’agit d’objets façonnés sur la lèvre externe de coquillages méditerranéens appelés Phalium granulatum. Des aménagements pour la suspension (perforations aux extrémités laissent penser que ces objets ont été utilisés comme pendentifs ou qu’ils ont été cousus sur des vêtements ou des accessoires. Ces découvertes alimentent la discussion sur l’approvisionnement en matières premières mais aussi sur les parentés culturelles et les singularités de chaque site à cette époque. Si l’usage de lèvres de Cassidae est partagé par de nombreux sites PPNB, les modes de fabrication et de suspension ne sont pas strictement les mêmes sur tous. Ces variations reflètent-elles une évolution des modes de suspension dans le temps (au cours du PPNB moyen/récent ? Ou révèlent-elles des choix « contemporains » distincts, qui contribueraient à définir l’identité propre de chaque site ?   Après le Néolithique, l’usage des lèvres de Cassidae se poursuit aux Âges des métaux. À cette époque plus qu’au Néolithique, ces objets sont retrouvés dans des contextes funéraires. Il est difficile de savoir si cette situation résulte des méthodes de fouilles distinctes adoptées sur les sites néolithiques et sur ceux des Âges des métaux ou si elle est une réalité archéologique. Dans le second cas, on pourrait proposer que le sens donné aux lèvres de Cassidae, en partie reflété par le lieu de dépôt, a pu évoluer avec le temps.Two more cassid lips for the PPNBBeisamoun and Yiftahel In 2008, two new cassid lips have been found on two Neolithic sites (Pre Pottery Neolithic B, in the Southern Levant: Beisamoun and Yiftahel. These objects are shaped on the external lip of shells coming from the Mediterranean Sea and called Phalium

  6. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information...... from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  7. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information...... from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  8. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  9. Efficient decomposition of NO by ammonia radical-injection method using an intermittent dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0321 (Japan)]. E-mail: kyukimur@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Kawamura, Kensuke [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0321 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Takashi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0321 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0321 (Japan); Kambara, Shinji [Department of Environmental Energy System, Gifu University, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Moritomi, Hiroshi [Department of Environmental Energy System, Gifu University, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yamashita, Toru [Coal Research Laboratory, Idemitsu Kosan Co., LTD, Sodegaura, Chiba 299-0267 (Japan)

    2007-03-12

    Although many NO decomposition systems have been developed using plasmas such as dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), corona discharges, surface discharges, glow discharges, and microwave discharges, the present system is unique on the viewpoint of the use of an intermittent one-cycle sinusoidal power source to generate DBD plasma. There are several features of the system: (1) easy control of the electric power consumed in the DBD plasma, and (2) DBD-plasma generation used only for the production of ammonia radicals. The system employs a radical injection system, where the radicals are produced in a separate discharge chamber, called radical injector, from NO flow field. This enables an efficient production of ammonia radicals being appropriate for DeNOx. It is shown from the temperature dependence of NO removal (DeNOx) characteristics that the present system is a low-temperature DeNOx system compared to a conventional thermal DeNOx system, and NO decomposition is performed over a wide range of gas temperature containing NO. Surveying parametric characteristics of DeNOx, the energy efficiency is improved by a factor of 30% compared to the previously obtained result.

  10. Méthode analytique généralisée pour le calcul du coning. Nouvelle solution pour calculer le coning de gaz, d'eau et double coning dans les puits verticaux et horizontaux Generalized Analytical Method for Coning Calculation. New Solution to Calculation Both the Gas Coning, Water Coning and Dual Coning for Vertical and Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietraru V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une nouvelle méthode analytique d'évaluation du coning d'eau par bottom water drive et/ou de gaz par gas-cap drive dans les puits horizontaux et verticaux a été développée pour les réservoirs infinis [1]. Dans cet article, une généralisation de cette méthode est présentée pour les réservoirs confinés d'extension limitée dont le toit est horizontal. La généralisation proposée est basée sur la résolution des équations différentielles de la diffusivité avec prise en compte des effets de drainage par gravité et des conditions aux limites pour un réservoir confiné. La méthode est applicable aux réservoirs isotropes ou anisotropes. L'hypothèse de pression constante à la limite de l'aire de drainage dans l'eau et/ou dans le gaz a été adoptée. Les pertes de charge dans l'aquifère et dans le gas-cap sont donc négligées. Les principales contributions de cet article sont : - L'introduction de la notion de rayon de cône, différent du rayon de puits. La hauteur du cône et le débit critique dépendent du rayon de cône alors qu'ils sont indépendants du rayon du puits. - Une nouvelle corrélation pour le calcul du débit critique sous forme adimensionnelle en fonction de trois paramètres : le temps, la longueur du drain horizontal (nulle pour un puits vertical et le rayon de drainage. - Des corrélations pour le calcul du rapport des débits gaz/huile (GOR ou de la fraction en eau (fw, pendant les périodes critique et postcritique, qui tiennent compte de la pression capillaire et des perméabilités relatives. - Des corrélations pour le calcul des rapports de débits gaz/huile et eau/huile pendant les périodes pré, post et supercritique en double coning. - Des critères pour le calcul du temps de percée au puits en simple coning de gaz ou d'eau, ou en double coning de gaz et d'eau. A new analytical method for assessing water and/or gas coning in horizontal and vertical wells has been developed for infinite

  11. Lower Bound Limit State Analysis using the Interior-Point Method with Spatial Varying Barrier Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    A method of conducting lower bound Limit State analysis is to apply the interior-point method. The aim of the paper is to refine the method by reducing the number of optimization variables considerably by eliminating the equilibrium equations a priori. Another new idea is to adapt a spatially...

  12. Experimental protocol and critical assessment of the Pockels method for the measurement of surface charging in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gegot, F; Callegari, Th; Boeuf, J P [LAPLACE, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Aillerie, M [LMOPS, UMR CNRS 7132, Universite P Verlaine-Metz and Supelec, 57070 Metz (France)

    2008-07-07

    The behaviour of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) is controlled by the successive charging and discharging of the dielectric surface. Measuring the space and time evolution of the charges on the dielectric layers is of great interest to optimize these discharges and better understand the transition from homogeneous to filamentary regimes and the formation of patterns. Such measurements can be performed using a diagnostic technique based on the Pockels effect, where an electro-optic crystal is used as the dielectric layer of a DBD and as a probe of the electric field across the layer. The surface charge density is related to this field and can, in some limited conditions, be simply deduced from it. The principle of this technique is relatively simple but the necessary care that must be taken in its application to DBDs has not been described in detail in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical assessment of the method and to illustrate its application in the case of a low pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge.

  13. Nouvelle sociologie et morale naturalisée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La première partie de cet article vise à soutenir, à l’aide d’une perspective biologique, l’entreprise interdisciplinaire de la nouvelle sociologie décrite et défendue par Laurence Kaufmann et Laurent Cordonier dans leur article « Vers un naturalisme social » paru dans SociologieS en octobre 2011. La seconde partie est consacrée à la question de l’évolution de la morale ; l’idée d’un module de « morale naïve » est remise en question.New sociology and naturalized moralityThe first part of this article aims to support, from a biological point of view, the interdisciplinary path taken in sociology by Laurence Kaufmann and Laurent Cordonier in their paper « Vers un naturalisme social » (october 2011, SociologieS. The second part is devoted to the evolution of morality; the idea of « folk morality » module is questioned.Nueva sociología y moral naturalistaEn la primera parte del artículo la autora dentro de una perspectiva biológica, es partidaria del encaminamiento interdisciplinario de la nueva sociología descrita y propugnada por Laurence Kaufmann y Laurent Cordonier en su artículo « Hacia un naturalismo social » publicado en octubre 2011 en SociologieS. La segunda parte trata de la evolución de la moral en donde la moral ingenua no tiene cabida.

  14. L’élevage de la crevette bleue en Nouvelle -Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Della Patrona, Luc; Brun, Pierre; Peignon, Jean-marie

    2009-01-01

    Ce poster présente l'ouvrage homonyme qui représente une somme de connaissances considérable sur l’élevage de la crevette bleue Litopenaeus stylirostris en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les différents aspects de l’élevage y sont détaillés avec de nombreux exemples très concrets et une iconographie abondante, 320 pages,101 figures, 49 photos, 85 tableaux, près de 500 références bibliographiques. Cet ouvrage satisfera naturellement les professionnels de la crevetticulture en Nouvelle-Calédonie et au delà...

  15. In vivo methods for the analysis of the penetration of topically applied substances in and through the skin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Meinke, M C; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Darvin, M E; Haag, S F; Fluhr, J W; Weigmann, H-J; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of a drug is characterized by its action mechanism and its ability to pass the skin barrier. In this article, different methods are discussed, which permit this penetration process to be analysed non-invasively. Providing qualitative and quantitative information, tape stripping is one of the oldest procedures for penetration studies. Although single cell layers of corneocytes are removed from the skin surface, this procedure is considered as non-invasive and is applicable exclusively to the stratum corneum. Recently, optical and spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the penetration process. Fluorescence-labelled drugs can be easily detected in the skin by laser scanning microscopy. This method has the disadvantage that the dye labelling changes the molecular structures of the drug and consequently might influence the penetration properties. The penetration process of non-fluorescent substances can be analysed by Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, CARS and multiphoton microscopic measurements. Using these methods, the concentration of the topically applied formulations in different depths of the stratum corneum can be detected by moving the laser focus from the skin surface deeper into the stratum corneum. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods will be discussed in this article. PMID:22957937

  16. Sensitive and Real-Time Method for Evaluating Corneal Barrier Considering Tear Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Tadahiro; Teshima, Mugen; Kitahara, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Nakashima, Mikiro; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Higuchi, Shun

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new electrophysiological method mimicking tear flow to evaluate the epithelial tight junction of rabbit cornea quantitatively. We investigated the effect of tear flow on the corneal damage induced by ophthalmic preservatives using this method. An Ussing chamber system with Ag/AgCl electrodes was used in the electrophysiological experiment. The excised rabbit cornea was mounted in the Ussing chamber and the precorneal solution in the chamber was perfused with a peristaltic pump ...

  17. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    policy and security reviews. These elements are: Supplier of Integrated Measurement System and Information Barrier; Central Processing Units (CPUs); Non-CPU Equipment; Procedures; Electronic Emanations; Location of Barriers(s); Software, Firmware, CPU Operating Systems; Storage, Authentication, and Disposition of Data and Data Media; Inputs and Outputs. Technical specialists from cooperating parties must be able to prove to their respective policy makers that it is not overly difficult to make measurements of sensitive objects without revealing classified information. Without technical measures to inspect classified nuclear items and materials, it will be extremely difficult to reduce stockpiles in a manner that does not impact the security of Russia and the United States. The importance of successfully developing and implementing effective information barrier methods and procedures can not be overstated. A cooperative program is a good investment in U.S., Russian, and international security and threat reduction. The utility of radiation detection systems to characterize known and unknown quantities of nuclear material is without dispute. Such systems offer a powerful technological tool for warhead dismantlement transparency, and bilateral and international safeguards. There are many examples of their use in the international community today. The problem is the application of such systems with a host country's sensitive nuclear material. If it is one objective of any bilateral or trilateral arrangement to prevent the release of classified nuclear data to the inspecting party when inspecting sensitive materials, then some form of information barrier must be integrated into the measurement system. Through a set of well-defined principles as described above, the protection of such information is not a difficult problem to solve. Perhaps the more difficult problem is providing an inspecting party with confidence, for the case where the host supplies and/or certifies the

  18. Chimie des acrylamides chiraux : nouvelles méthodologies et application à la synthèse de nouvelles architectures moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    gratais, alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions permettant la création de liaisons carbone-carbone sont des outils essentiels dans le domaine de la synthèse organique. Elles permettent d'accéder à des structures de plus en plus complexes. Cependant le contrôle de ces réactions en utilisant des partenaires hautement fonctionnalisés reste un enjeu majeur.Le développement de nouvelles méthodologies de synthèse basées sur la réactivité des acrylamides chiraux dérivés d'acides aminés est étudié dans ces travaux. Une nouvelle versi...

  19. Influence of the multilayer coating obtained by the HVOF method on behavior of the steel barrier at dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Pavel; Radchenko, Andrey; Batuev, Stanislav

    2013-06-01

    The high velocity (supersonic) oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray technology is a rather recent addition to family of thermal spray processes. This technique is considered most modern of technologies of spraying. The increase in velocity of the particles at lower temperatures allowed reducing level of oxidation of the particles and to increase the density of a powder coating. In HVOF dry dusting applicators of the first and second generations was used the cylindrical nozzle, whereas in the third generation expanding Laval nozzles are used. This method allows the velocity of a gas flow to exceed to 2000 m/sec, and the velocities of the powder particles 800 m/sec. Recently many results on elastic and strength properties of the multilayer coatings obtained by supersonic flame spraying method are received. But the main part of works on research of the coating obtained by the HVOF method is devoted to research of their stress-strain state at static loadings. In this work the behavior of the steel barrier with the multilayer coating applied by HVOF is researched, at dynamic loading of projectile structure at different velocities of interaction. The problem was solved numerically within Lagrangian approach, a finite element method with the use of the explicit finite difference scheme of G. Johnson.

  20. Method to form a barrier in a reservoir with a magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P. L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of winning oil from a source via a bored well, wherein a magnetorheological fluid is introduced into the source via the bored well to re duce the water content of the oil won. Oil drilling is resumed in the presence of a magnetic field, thereby increasing the oil yi

  1. Implementation and Methods of Project Learning in Quantity Surveying Firms: Barriers, Enablers and Success Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman; Ali M. Alashwal; Zatil H. Jamaludin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Learning from project is vital for organizations to achieve competition and to survive in a dynamic environment. However, learning is not an easy task because there is no specific way for learning from projects. Besides, the practice of project learning and transfer knowledge to the firms level is still vague, specifically in the construction milieu. Approach: A questionnaire survey was conducted targeted quantity surveying firms in Malaysia, attempted to identify methods o...

  2. Method to form a barrier in a reservoir with a magnetorheological fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of winning oil from a source via a bored well, wherein a magnetorheological fluid is introduced into the source via the bored well to re duce the water content of the oil won. Oil drilling is resumed in the presence of a magnetic field, thereby increasing the oil yield and/or decreasing the water content of the drilled oil.

  3. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus

  4. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Keto, Paula [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-09-15

    The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus

  5. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this report are to: (1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, (2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, (3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, (4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, (5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling programme can be divided into three main categories: (1) Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 2 0), and one high- and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The highgrade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. (2) Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). (3) Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (30, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The general conclusion from the comparison between estimated achievable densities and the density criteria is that placing pre-compacted blocks of swelling clay or 50/50 mixture and pellets in the tunnel results in the highest safety margin. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Cooling Methods on Methane Conversion via Dielectric-Barrier Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baowei; YANG Kuanhui; XU Genhui

    2008-01-01

    Effects of cooling methods on stability and methane conversion rate using dielectricbarrier discharges (DBD) were systematically investigated in this article.The results showed that the methane conversion rate was as high as 44.43% in a pure methane system at a flow rate of 100 mL.min-1 and an input power of 234.2 W with air cooling.A dark greenish and soft film-like carbon was deposited on the outer surface of quartz tube when the outer electrode was watercooled,which decreased the methane conversion.With air cooling of inner electrode the selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons was higher than that with other cooling methods,while the C3 hydrocarbons had higher selectivity with flowing water cooling.Cooling the inner electrode could restrain the carbon deposition,but would decrease the methane conversion rate.The stability of both reaction and plasma operation can be improved through cooling the reactor.From thermodynamic analysis,it was found that the effective collisions frequency among the reactant molecules and free electrons (e-) increased with temperature,which in turn led to a higher methane conversion rate and a change in the distribution of products.

  7. Denis Muzet, La croyance et la conviction. Les nouvelles armes du politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jole Morgante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Denis Muzet, La croyance et la conviction.
    Les nouvelles armes du politique
    (Paris, Éditions de l’Aube, 2007, p. 173
    ISBN 978-2-7526-0405-7
    par Jole Morgante

  8. Prise en compte du spirituel et nouvelles représentations du soin

    OpenAIRE

    Chatel, Tanguy

    2006-01-01

    International audience To what extended comprehension of "care", the spiritual care in the secularized and public context of palliative care may lead us ? A quelles nouvelles représentations du soin nous convie une prise en compte de la souffrance spirituelle dans le contexte laïque et public des soins palliatifs ?

  9. A Model Parameter Extraction Method for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ozone Chamber using Differential Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, M.; Salam, Z.; Ishaque, K.

    2014-04-01

    In order to design an efficient resonant power supply for ozone gas generator, it is necessary to accurately determine the parameters of the ozone chamber. In the conventional method, the information from Lissajous plot is used to estimate the values of these parameters. However, the experimental setup for this purpose can only predict the parameters at one operating frequency and there is no guarantee that it results in the highest ozone gas yield. This paper proposes a new approach to determine the parameters using a search and optimization technique known as Differential Evolution (DE). The desired objective function of DE is set at the resonance condition and the chamber parameter values can be searched regardless of experimental constraints. The chamber parameters obtained from the DE technique are validated by experiment.

  10. State-of-the-art of non-hormonal methods of contraception: II. Chemical barrier contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batár, István

    2010-04-01

    Chemical contraceptives mainly known as spermicides are one of the oldest types of contraceptives. The industrial revolution facilitated new developments, and they became a leading and widespread method. However, their use declined in the second half of the 20th century, and came under focus again only with the upsurge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The effectiveness of spermicides depends on the users' compliance and pregnancy rates vary widely: from 6/100 woman-year (with perfect use) to 26/100 woman-year (with typical use). Preparations consist of two components: an excipient (foam, cream, jelly, soluble film, suppository or tablet); and a chemical agent with spermicidal properties (acidic compound, microbicidal agent, detergent). The most widely used active agent has been the surface active (detergent) nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Based on their mode of action (surfactant effect of detergents, enzymatic action of microbicides on cell metabolism) spermicides were thought to provide protection against STIs including HIV. Recent studies have, however, shown that detergents may actually increase the risk. Because of this, there is an urgent need for a suitable non-detergent spermicide, and research should focus on developing new compounds to replace N-9 and other agents having similar undesired effects. This paper reviews the latest studies reporting results on these recent developments. PMID:20055729

  11. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  12. Research on Method of Safety Barrier Failure Point Control%防撞护栏破坏点控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国辉; 邰永刚; 包凌文; 白书锋

    2012-01-01

    For current rapid development of urban highway problems, control method of barrier failure point on reconstruction project median barrier was proposed, which made the destruction of the barrier component could be controlled when it was collided by vehicle. Based on the method a new type barrier structure was studied. The results by computer simulation displayed that this barrier can not only achieve requirements for landscape, convenient repair and maintenance but also its crashworthiness can reach SB/SBm level.%针对目前我国城区高速公路的快速发展问题,提出了扩建工程中中央分隔带护栏的破坏点控制方法,使护栏在遭受车辆碰撞时,构件破坏位置“可控”,依据该方法研究了一种新型护栏结构型式.计算机仿真分析表明:该护栏结构型式满足城区高速公路对景观要求高、维修养护方便等方面的要求,其防撞等级可达到SB/SBm级.

  13. Thermal barrier ZrO2 - Y2O3 obtained by plasma spraying method and laser melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kobylańska–Szkaradek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of laser melting upon the selected physical properties of ZrO2 - Y2O3 ceramic coatings deposited by APS (Air Plasma Spraying method on super-alloys which function as TBC (Thermal Barriers Coatings.Design/methodology/approach: Laser melting which helps eliminate pores and other structural defects of coatings deposited by plasma spraying method should contribute to the improvement of their density and durability as thermal barriers. In order to prove the assumptions made in the paper, coatings featuring varied porosity and deposited upon the nickel base super-alloys surface with the initially sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat have been subjected to laser melting and then their structure, thermal conductivity and thermal life prediction in the conditions of cyclic temperature changes from 20 to 1200ºC have been examined.Findings: It has been revealed that the coatings featuring low porosity laser melted on part of their thickness and heated up to about 700ºC demonstrate the highest thermal life prediction under the conditions mentioned and at slightly lower thermal conductivity. Heating is intended to lower the structural stresses which are connected with the change of ceramic volume at crystallization as well as thermal stresses resulting from varied expansion of coating and metal substrate.Research limitations/implications: Low wettability of metal by ceramic which results from various surface tensions of these materials is the cause of their lower adhesion to the substrate during laser melting all through their thickness. It is so because delaminations occur between phases the boundary and cracks.Practical implications: The worked out conditions of laser melting might be used in the process of creation of ZrO2 - Y2O3 coats which feature high working durability upon super-alloy elements.Originality/value: It has been found that homogenization of chemical composition of coatings occurs during

  14. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  15. IFP Energies Nouvelles. 2014 Activity report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix, - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. Despite the current economic environment, 2014 was a good year for IFPEN. In the field of renewable energies, major milestones were reached in two significant projects dedicated to the production of second generation biofuels in which IFPEN is very actively involved: processes developed in FuturolTM are already in the pre-marketing phase, while the construction of the two pilot units for the BioTfueL project has just been launched. In the field of ocean energies, IFPEN research has led to the first partnership agreements relating to floating wind turbines anchor technologies and command control systems for wind energy and wave energy conversion. In the transport sector, game-changing concepts are beginning to emerge, such as smart battery charging and a Rankine cycle system for an internal combustion engine transforming combustion heat into energy. In addition, IFPEN have joined forces with innovative SMEs to boost their research in the fields of electric power-trains and power electronics. Finally, IFPEN launched an eco-driving application that has proved extremely popular with the public. Turning now to oil and gas, IFPEN continued to expand its range of basin and reservoir simulation, modeling and characterization software, and it signed several contracts in the field of chemical enhanced recovery solutions with its EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) AllianceTM partners. IFPEN also developed new generations of high-performance catalysts and improved the conversion rate of its processes to enable refiners to convert increasingly heavy crudes and comply

  16. City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Design This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. Participants 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Setting Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Results Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Conclusions Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. PMID:27154475

  17. Assessment of wood volumes which can be mobilized from IFN 'new method' data. 2009 updating of the 2007 'available biomass' study. Final report; Evaluation des volumes de bois mobilisables a partir des donnees de l'IFN -nouvelle methode- Actualisation 2009 de l'etude -biomasse disponible- de 2007. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginisty, Ch.; Chevalier, H.; Vallet, P. [Cemagref Unite de recherche -Ecosystemes forestiers- Domaine des barres, 45 - Nogent sur Vernisson (France); Colin, A. [Inventaire Forestier National, Nogent sur Vernisson (France)

    2009-07-01

    After having presented some notions used in this study, this report present the data sources (IFN data, current wood taking), describes the assessment method (wood volumes, branches, impact of the Klaus tempest). It discusses the results according to the 2007 hypothesis (gross availability, gross availability after the tempest, exploitable resource, additional availability, sawmills products). It also outlines the study limitations and draws some perspectives

  18. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  19. La nouvelle réforme du système de santé 

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Dai, Candice; Duchâtel, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Analyse de Candice tran Dai d’après :– Li Ling, « Le succès de la réforme du système de santé repose sur deux points clés », Zhongguo jingyingbao (China Management News), 18 avril 2009.– Li Hongmei, Li Xiaohong, Wang Junping, « Dix experts commentent la nouvelle réforme du système de santé : un meilleur accès aux soins médicaux et à moindre coût », Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 15 avril 2009.– Yao Qi, « La nouvelle réforme du système de santé doit surtout remédier aux déficiences des hôpitau...

  20. La formation d’une nouvelle régulation sociale en Tchécoslovaquie

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Večerník

    1994-01-01

    Dans cet article, l’auteur s’intéresse à l’instauration d’une nouvelle forme de protection sociale en Tchécoslovaquie, parallèlement aux réformes économiques. Il s’intéresse ici aux problèmes liés à la mise en place de nouvelles régulations sociales, en posant la question du rôle de l’héritage du passé, et en analysant les nouveaux défis lancés par l’Europe et le nouvel Etat tchécoslovaque démocratique. Enfin, il se penche sur les adaptations et les transformations des institutions et du syst...

  1. Ut rosa spineti compensans flore rigorem1. La Vierge Immaculée comme Nouvelle

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Parmi les différents types iconographiques de l’Immaculée Conception qui se diffusent dans la peinture italienne du xvie siècle, la Vierge Immaculée Nouvelle ève revêt une importance toute particulière. Dans ce genre d’images, l’accent est porté sur le fait que Marie Immaculée doit être considérée comme la Nouvelle Ève, celle qui s’oppose à la première femme ; elle est sans péché dès l’origine car elle va opérer contre le péché même. C’est seulement en 1518 que l’opposition Marie–ève est adop...

  2. L’Observatoire numérique Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ullmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ses missions consistent à observer le développement numérique et favoriser l’animation territoriale des acteurs en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Parrainée par l’association calédonienne pour les technologies de l’information et de la communication (ACTIC et le ministère en charge de l’économie numérique du Gouvernement de Nouvelle-Calédonie nommé depuis mai 2009, une mission d’étude a été menée depuis juin 2010 pour définir les contours d’un Observatoire numérique. A travers cette étude, il s’agissai...

  3. Estimation of moisture barrier ability of thin SiNx single layer on polymer substrates prepared by Cat-CVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SiNx films with the thickness of 50 nm were prepared by Cat-CVD method on the cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) and the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, and their moisture barrier abilities were evaluated. MOCON measurement method and Ca degradation test showed the moisture permeation results of 0.02 g/(m2 day) for PET substrate and 0.006 g/(m2 day) for COC substrate after SiNx deposition. Applying the simple model of gas barrier property, it was estimated that the Cat-CVD method achieves the high coverage ratio of over 99% for SiNx film on these substrates, and the moisture permeation rate of single SiNx film with the thickness of 50 nm was estimated to be 0.0045 g/(m2 day)

  4. Preferences and Barriers to Care Following Psychiatric Hospitalization at Two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Bowersox, Nicholas; Birgenheir, Denis; Burgess, Jennifer; Forman, Jane; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Patient preferences and barriers to care may impact receipt of adequate mental health treatment following psychiatric hospitalization and could inform quality improvement initiatives. This study assessed preferences for a broad range of post-hospital services and barriers to counseling by surveying 291 patients and interviewing 25 patients who had recently been discharged from an inpatient psychiatric stay at one of the two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Individual counseling was the most frequently reported service that survey respondents preferred, but did not receive; whereas, open-ended survey responses and interviews also identified telephone follow-up "check-in" calls as a frequently preferred service. Difficulty with transportation was the most commonly cited barrier to counseling among survey respondents and in interviews; however, patients strongly preferred in-person counseling to telephone or internet-video alternatives. Increasing support from family and support from an individual Veteran peer were also perceived to be helpful in the majority of survey respondents. PMID:25779387

  5. Catalogue des ravageurs d'intérêt agricole de Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Luc-Olivier; Chazeau, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Ce document à double entrée, zoologique et botanique, recense tous les ravageurs d'intérêt agricole (acariens, insectes, mollusques, vertébrés) signalés en Nouvelle-Calédonie (435 espèces), avec leurs plantes-hôtes, la source de l'information, et une documentation photographique importante. (Résumé d'auteur)

  6. La Nouvelle-Calédonie: modèle d'île

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse PANOUILLÈRES

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Relief, précipitations, répartition de la population accusent un certain nombre de dissymétries est-ouest en Nouvelle-Calédonie; la colonisation récente et la concentration de plus de la moitié des habitants à Nouméa sont un facteur supplémentaire de déséquilibre spatial.

  7. Despite Barriers, Education Providers, Health Professionals, and Students Perceive E-Learning to Be an Effective Method of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie Andrea

    2006-01-01

    A review of: Childs, Sue, Elizabeth Blenkinsopp, Amanda Hall, and Graham Walton. “Effective E-Learning for Health Professionals and Students—Barriers and Their Solutions. A Systematic Review of the Literature—Findings from the HeXL Project.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 22.S2 (2005): 20-32. Objective – To determine barriers or problems and possible solutions related to e-learning, and to determine the effectiveness of e-learning among health professionals and students. Desi...

  8. Sub-barrier enhancement of fusion as compared to a microscopic method in 18O+12C

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, T. K.; Vadas, J.; Schmidt, J.; Haycraft, C.; Hudan, S.; deSouza, R. T.; Baby, L. T.; Kuvin, S. A.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the energy dependence of the fusion cross-sec on at sub-barrier energies provides an important test for theoretical models of fusion. To extend the measurement of fusion cross-sections in the sub-barrier domain for the 18O+12C system. Use the new experimental data to confront microscopic calculations of fusion. Evaporation residues produced in fusion of 18O ions with 12C target nuclei were detected with good geometric efficiency and identified by measuring their energy and time...

  9. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  10. New method for selection and characterization of single-source events in Ni+Ni collisions at 32 A.MeV; Nouvelle methode de selection et caracterisation des evenements monosource dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 32 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskay-Wallez, Anne-Marie [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-07-13

    The study of heavy ion collisions, with the help of such efficient multi-detectors as INDRA, has shown the persistence of reactions leading to single-source events, up to bombarding energies higher than the Fermi one. These events could help characterizing an expected phase transition in nuclear matter. Whatever interesting they may be, the single-source events correspond to a small part of the total cross section, which makes them difficult to isolate and therefore to analyze. That is why different selection means have been tested - thanks to the 'Simon' event generator - on a simulated Ni + Ni at 32 A{center_dot}MeV sample, before any application to the INDRA experimental data. As the known methods based on global variables did not prove effective, a set of new 4-dimensional quantities has been built, whose main advantage lies in a better description of physical events. From a Discriminant Analysis performed on 625 of these new 'moments' proceeds a highly discriminant variable, called D{sub 625}. The experimental cross section associated with D{sub 625}-selected single-source events amounts to 170 mb at 32 A{center_dot}MeV. Such quasi-fusion events are shown to disappear at about 60 A{center_dot}MeV. As regards the deexcitation mode of the 32 A{center_dot}MeV Ni + Ni single-source events, an extensive experimental study and comparisons of the data with two reference models seem to confirm the hypothesis of a transition between fusion-evaporation and simultaneous multifragmentation mechanisms. (author)

  11. Mobile Learning as a Method of Ubiquitous Learning: Students' Attitudes, Readiness, and Possible Barriers to Implementation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Riyadh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and level of readiness, and possible barriers to implementing Mobile Learning as a part of ubiquitous learning. In addition, the study attempted to find out to what extent students are interested in mobile learning. It also aimed to answer the question regarding the readiness of college…

  12. IFP Energies nouvelles - 2013 Activity Report. 2013 financial report. Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) is a public research and training player. It has an international scope, covering the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to industrial research and innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by resources provided by French and foreign international partners. The aim of IFPEN's R and D programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological barriers in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. Through its research and resulting innovations, IFPEN fosters the economic development of fields related to the energy, transport and eco-industry sectors. In so doing, it also contributes to creating wealth and jobs. IFPEN's innovations are developed industrially through close partnerships with industrial players and IFP Group subsidiaries. In both emerging and mature markets, IFPEN creates companies or acquires stakeholdings in companies of significant potential, either directly or via capital funds. In addition, IFPEN supports the development of SMEs and SMIs as part of collaboration agreements, contributing its technical and legal expertise. Representing over 50 professions, from geological engineers to power-train engineers, IFPEN's employees form a unique body of globally recognized scientific specialists and an unparalleled network of expertise. In order to carry out their research work at the cutting edge of innovation, they have

  13. A computational method for the systematic screening of reaction barriers in enzymes: searching for Bacillus circulans xylanase mutants with greater activity towards a synthetic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Hediger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a semi-empirical (PM6-based computational method for systematically estimating the effect of all possible single mutants, within a certain radius of the active site, on the barrier height of an enzymatic reaction. The intent of this method is not a quantitative prediction of the barrier heights, but rather to identify promising mutants for further computational or experimental study. The method is applied to identify promising single and double mutants of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX with increased hydrolytic activity for the artificial substrate ortho-nitrophenyl β-xylobioside (ONPX2. The estimated reaction barrier for wild-type (WT BCX is 18.5 kcal/mol, which is in good agreement with the experimental activation free energy value of 17.0 kcal/mol extracted from the observed kcat using transition state theory (Joshi et al., 2001. The PM6 reaction profiles for eight single point mutations are recomputed using FMO-MP2/PCM/6-31G(d single points. PM6 predicts an increase in barrier height for all eight mutants while FMO predicts an increase for six of the eight mutants. Both methods predict that the largest change in barrier occurs for N35F, where PM6 and FMO predict a 9.0 and 15.8 kcal/mol increase, respectively. We thus conclude that PM6 is sufficiently accurate to identify promising mutants for further study. We prepared a set of all theoretically possible (342 single mutants in which every amino acid of the active site (except for the catalytically active residues E78 and E172 was mutated to every other amino acid. Based on results from the single mutants we construct a set of 111 double mutants consisting of all possible pairs of single mutants with the lowest barrier for a particular position and compute their reaction profile. None of the mutants have, to our knowledge, been prepared experimentally and therefore present experimentally testable predictions.

  14. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  15. A computational method for the systematic screening of reaction barriers in enzymes: Searching for Bacillus circulans xylanase mutants with greater activity towards a synthetic substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Hediger, Martin R; De Vico, Luca; Jensen, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-empirical (PM6-based) computational method for systematically estimating the effect of all possible single mutants, within a certain radius of the active site, on the barrier height of an enzymatic reaction. The intent of this method is not a quantitative prediction of the barrier heights, but rather to identify promising mutants for further computational or experimental study. The method is applied to identify promising single and double mutants of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) with increased hydrolytic activity for the artificial substrate ortho-nitrophenyl \\beta-xylobioside (ONPX$_2$). The estimated reaction barrier for wild-type (WT) BCX is 18.5 kcal/mol, which is in good agreement with the experimental activation free energy value of 17.0 kcal/mol extracted from the observed k$_\\text{cat}$ using transition state theory (Joshi et al., Biochemistry 2001, 40, 10115). The PM6 reaction profiles for eight single point mutations are recomputed using FMO-MP2/PCM/6-31G(d) single points. PM6 ...

  16. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  17. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, C M

    2012-01-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf system for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf systems, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  18. Etude par télédétection des surfaces aménageables sur les communes du Mont Dore et de Yaté (Nouvelle Calédonie) : 1. méthodologie, 2. applications et évolution du projet = A survey of land use potential with the help of remote sensing applied to the district of Mont-Dore and Yate : 1. methods, 2. application and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Lille, D.; Nosmas, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    La pointe Sud-Est de Nouvelle-Calédonie est une région mal ou non exploitée en raison de son relief et de son accès difficile. Le satellite de télédétection a fait la preuve de ses performances : il peut offrir dans des conditions de rapidité et de coût raisonnables une carte de terrain au 1/50 000ème, qui peut être mise en oeuvre dans ce secteur (200 km2). La sélection des surfaces utilisables a été faite avec l'aide d'un "modèle numérique de terrain" selon des critères thématiques et morpho...

  19. l'ICANN et les nouvelles extensions : une ouverture de l'internet à de nouvelles communautés d'utilisateurs ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Béchec, Marianning

    2012-01-01

    Attendue depuis 2006, l'iCann (internet Corporation for assigned names and numbers), organisme international de régulation de l'internet a autorisé le 12 janvier 2012 une ouverture dans le système de nommage du web en lançant les modalités de création et de dépôt en ligne de nouvelles extensions pour les noms de domaines (composants des adresses web).l'iCann gère les autorisations de noms de domaine, tels que .fr, .com, .biz, selon un système de nommage (DnS, Domain name System). le DnS assur...

  20. David, Charles-Philippe et la Chaire Raoul-Dandurand (éds : Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces, nouvelles politiques, Quebec : Fides la Presse, 315 p, annexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Groc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La Remmm couvrant essentiellement le monde arabe et musulman, le livre Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces et nouvelles politiques dont nous faisons ici le compte-rendu, nous interpelle moins dans le fourmillement de considérations militaires, stratégiques, balistiques extrêmement techniques qu'en fonction de la prémisse à partir de laquelle est faite cette réévaluation de la sécurité, à savoir l'aire musulmane mais aussi l'islam. L'objet global de ce livre, réalisé par toute une équipe ...

  1. Introduction générale: objet classique, équations nouvelles

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Alain; Muller, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Pour introduire les principaux résultats de l'ouvrage, nous souhaitons insister sur un constat en particulier : si la thématique du changement d'échelle est classique dans le champ de la science politique, il nous semble que son traitement académique révèle des questions nouvelles qui sont directement liées à cette forme de confrontation publique des points de vue. Ce diagnostic sera introduit par une brève réflexion sur les conditions d'investigation d'un champ aussi vaste. Il sera ensuite p...

  2. Une nouvelle étape dans la sociologie des professions en France

    OpenAIRE

    Vézinat, Nadège

    2010-01-01

    La sociologie des groupes professionnels ne constitue pas un objet nouveau de la sociologie ; néanmoins, des redéfinitions de l’objet, du champ et des approches ont été proposées récemment dans la sociologie française avec pour enjeu, d’introduire de nouvelles perspectives. Le passage d’une sociologie des professions (plutôt anglo-saxonne) à une sociologie des groupes professionnels (portée par la France) peut constituer un virage important dans la compréhension des communautés professionnell...

  3. Nouvelles découvertes dans le quartier du Mīdān

    OpenAIRE

    Dayoub, Bassam

    2013-01-01

    Le quartier du Mīdān est sans aucun doute le faubourg de Damas le plus représentatif de l’histoire de l’expansion de la ville hors de ses murailles. Toutefois, plusieurs édifices de ce secteur demeurent non identifiés. Ces monuments viennent cependant nous renseigner sur l’histoire de la ville et sur les personnages qui sont à l’origine de l’urbanisation des espaces extra-muros. Le but de cet article est de fournir des données nouvelles contribuant à identifier, à travers quatre monuments, le...

  4. DEFENSE DES CULTURES Une nouvelle race de Plasmopara halstedii, agent du mildiou du tournesol

    OpenAIRE

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe Denis; Lafon Serge; Walser Pascal; Raulic Isabelle; Inra-Ubp Umr

    2000-01-01

    Depuis l’apparition des races 710 et 703 de Plasmopara halstedii, la prospection systématique réalisée sur la culture de tournesol a permis de déceler en 1995 la présence de deux nouvelles races, 300 et 700, et celle de souches résistantes au métalaxyl. Ces découvertes n’ont pas remis en cause les programmes de lutte par l’utilisation de variétés résistantes car celles-ci sont également résistantes à ces races et à ces souches.

  5. Une nouvelle approche de la relation vision-commande en robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Espiau, Bernard; Chaumette, François; Rives, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Ce rapport presente les concepts et les resultats relatifs a une nouvelle approche de la commande referencee vision en robotique. L'idee de base consiste a considerer un systeme de vision comme un capteur particulier associe a une tache, et insere dans une boucle de commande. Une fois effectuee l'etape necessaire de modelisation, la problematique ainsi posee ressort alors de l'automatique, et met en avant des questions naturelles de stabilite et de robustesse. Ce rapport est structure comme s...

  6. Nouvelle gouvernance agricole et politique environnementale : harmonisation ou conflits d'objectifs ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rivaud, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    La prise en compte du contexte international, notamment dans le cadre des négociations au sein de l'organisation mondiale du commerce, a conduit à une réforme très importante, en 2003, de la politique de soutien à l'agriculture. Parallèlement, les préoccupations environnementales et la nécessité d'intégrer les objectifs relatifs au développement durable se posent comme des priorités pour le modèle agricole. C'est autour de ces deux piliers que s'articule la nouvelle gouvernance agricole. En a...

  7. Perspective anthropologique sur l'infanticide. : La notion de personne en Nouvelle-Guinée

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnemère, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    National audience Cet article cherche à décentrer le regard sur l'infanticide en présentant plusieurs travaux qui abordent de près ou de loin le sujet dans la littérature anthropologique sur la Nouvelle-Guinée. C'est à des conceptions différentes de la personne et du statut du nourrisson que nous renvoient ces travaux, ainsi que ceux, bien connus, consacrés à la Rome antique, par exemple.

  8. Qigong et « nouvelles religions » en Chine et à Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Micollier, E.

    2007-01-01

    Dans les années 1990, le qigong en Chine populaire et les « nouvelles religions » à Taiwan sont des phénomènes sociaux éclairant des aspects de la gouvernance dans le monde chinois et amplifiés par leur transnationalisation croissante. Le qigong « travail du souffle, exercice de l'énergie vitale » est un ensemble de pratiques et de savoirs néo-traditionnels à dimension thérapeutique et religieuse. En Chine, l'exercice du qigong , pratique corporelle de santé, renvoie à une dimension religieus...

  9. NOUVELLES FORMES DE LA TRAITE DES ETRES HUMAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos CHILEA; Andreea Georgiana ENACHE

    2011-01-01

    New forms of human trafficking are: I. Trafficking and exploitation of slaves. Trafficking human beings is one method of obtaining slaves. Victims are typically recruited through deceit or trickery (such as a false job offer, false migration offer, or false marriage offer), sale by family members, recruitment by former slaves, or outright abduction. II. Traffic flows of workers in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, Turkey. In the case of trafficking of workers there is the ...

  10. La nouvelle culture de la 'défonce'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien

    The use of alcohol and drugs among youth from a number of North European countries has changed significantly since the early 1990s: there are signs of increased drug use and of growing sessional consumption of alcohol. Hence a number of researchers have argued that a new culture of intoxication is...... emerging among young people from Denmark. The article is based on fieldwork among young Danish tourists at an international nightlife resort. The author and four assistants collected the data during the summers 2007 and 2008. Various methods were used including surveys, field observations and interviews....

  11. Investigation of nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges in still air and in transonic flow by optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, P.; Goekce, S.; Leyland, P.; Ott, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the interaction of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) actuators with aerodynamic flow up to transonic velocities was investigated. The primary focus was on the influence of the flow on the discharge and the effects of the discharge itself. In addition, the influence of the ns-DBD on a shock-wave was studied. The aim was to improve the understanding of the plasma-flow interaction, a topic that is not yet fully understood, in particular for ns-DBD. The actuator was integrated in two different models, a NACA 3506 compressor blade profile and a bump geometry at the bottom of the wind tunnel. The effect of the rapid energy deposition close to the discharge was examined with the phase-locked schlieren visualisation technique. Images of the plasma acquired with short exposure times revealed information on the discharge evolution. The results show a significant effect of the flow on the discharge characteristics, in particular due to the drop of static pressure. On the other hand, no significant effect of the ns-DBD on the flow was observed due to unfavourable flow conditions, which underlines the importance of the actuator’s placement.

  12. Barriers and motivators to voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among different age groups of men in Zimbabwe: results from a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hatzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15-49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%. Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%, improved hygiene (26%, enhanced sexual performance (6% and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%. Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%, not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%, lack of partner support (6%. Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. CONCLUSIONS: VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised.

  13. Numerical methods for finding periodic points in discrete maps. High order islands chains and noble barriers in a toroidal magnetic configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We first remind usual physical and mathematical concepts involved in the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, and namely in chaotic systems described by discrete 2D maps (representing the intersection points of toroidal magnetic lines in a poloidal plane in situations of incomplete magnetic chaos in Tokamaks). Finding the periodic points characterizing chains of magnetic islands is an essential step not only to determine the skeleton of the phase space picture, but also to determine the flux of magnetic lines across semi-permeable barriers like Cantori. We discuss here several computational methods used to determine periodic points in N dimensions, which amounts to solve a set of N nonlinear coupled equations: Newton method, minimization techniques, Laplace or steepest descend method, conjugated direction method and Fletcher-Reeves method. We have succeeded to improve this last method in an important way, without modifying its useful double-exponential convergence. This improved method has been tested and applied to finding periodic points of high order m in the 2D 'Tokamap' mapping, for values of m along rational chains of winding number n/m converging towards a noble value where a Cantorus exists. Such precise positions of periodic points have been used in the calculation of the flux across this Cantorus. (authors)

  14. Nouvelles pascaliennes

    OpenAIRE

    Descotes, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Colloques Le colloque Port-Royal et le peuple d’Israël (24-26 septembre 2003), qui aura lieu à Blois (Bibliothèque Abbé Grégoire), comportera plusieurs communications consacrées à Pascal, notamment sur Pascal et Philon (Hélène Michon), et sur L’Israël de Pascal (P. Manent). Renseignements : Jean de Mathan, 167 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris. D’autre part, la Société des Amis de Port-Royal lance un appel à communications pour le colloque du IIIe centenaire de Port-Royal (16-17 septembre 2004),...

  15. Nouvelle cuisine

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Diners at CERN's Restaurant No. 1 have been adjusting to some temporary arrangements while building work takes place in the main service area. The essential renovation will bring many improvements in the near future. The restaurant before restoration. A huge white marquee erected on a green lawn greets the eye. The sight is familiar in the summer months, but the sharp chill in the air disrupts the scene. Instead of a mid-summer's day, it's actually the middle of January. This apparently strange reversal of seasons is a way of providing an additional dining and service area outside Restaurant No. 1. As renovations get underway inside, the mysterious hum of drills and the hollow echo of hammering behind scaffold boards raise our curiosity about what is in-store. 'Everything will be better,' says Mario Zanolini, head waiter of Restaurant No. 1. 'It will be more comfortable for the customers. The free-flow area will be bigger and there will be 7 tills instead of the previous 5.' These are just for starters. ...

  16. Nouvelles pascaliennes

    OpenAIRE

    Descotes, Dominique; Miteran, Stéphanie; Goyet, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Les journées sur le théologico-politique (3-4 mai 1996) Ces deux journées d’étude se sont déroulées à l’initiative du professeur Laurent Jaffro de l’Université de Paris I, dans le cadre des activités du Centre d’Études sur les Réformes, l’Humanisme et l’Âge Classique (CERHAC), à l’Université Blaise Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand ; elles ont réuni neuf intervenants autour de la question du théologico-politique. Le champ d’investigation des communications a permis de parcourir le vaste panorama de ...

  17. Nouvelles Pascaliennes

    OpenAIRE

    Descotes, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Départ à la retraite Suzanne Montagne, l’un des plus fidèles Amis de Blaise Pascal et du Centre International Blaise Pascal, a pris sa retraite de conservateur de la Bibliothèque municipale. Une chaleureuse réception à l’Hôtel de Ville de Clermont-Ferrand a marqué l’événement, où Roger Quilliot, sénateur-maire de la Ville, et Jean-Marc Monteil, président de l’Université Blaise-Pascal, ont salué l’une des personnalités les plus actives de la Bibliothèque Municipale et Interuniversitaire. Les a...

  18. The efficacy of different moisturizers on barrier recovery in hairless mice evaluated by non-invasive bioengineering methods. A model to select the potentially most effective product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Halkier-Sørensen, L

    1997-01-01

    Moisturizers (emollients) are used frequently on normal and diseased skin. However, only few studies have examined their effects in dynamic situations and in more clinically relevant settings. We evaluated the effect of 4 commonly used products in a hairless mice model after acute skin barrier...... known irritant product, chlorhexidine cream 1%. Locobase was the most effective product in correcting barrier function and significantly improved barrier function during early stages of barrier recovery (< 6 h) without interfering with late stages of barrier recovery (> 6 h). The irritant control...... product, chlorhexidine cream 1%, delayed barrier recovery in the late stages. The model makes it possible to evaluate the combined effects of exogenous and endogenous components on barrier repair and to select the potentially most effective products before performing more cumbersome and time...

  19. On the solution of large-scale SDP problems by the modified barrier method using iterative solvers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Stingl, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 109, 2-3 (2007), s. 413-444. ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : semidefinite programming * iterative methods * preconditioned conjugate gradients * augmented lagrangian methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.475, year: 2007

  20. Sexualité, transgression et politique dans les premières nouvelles de Yu Dafu

    OpenAIRE

    Veg, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Parmi les écrivains de la génération du 4 mai, Yu Dafu (1896-1945) est sans conteste le plus scandaleux, ayant fait son entrée sur la scène littéraire en 1921 avec une nouvelle sur la misère sexuelle d’un étudiant chinois au Japon et sur le « délit » de masturbation qui le tourmente. Dans le même recueil, « Départ au sud » évoque les relations sexuelles entre un étudiant et une jeune fille japonaise dans un environnement rural idyllique. Ces premiers textes ont contribué à faire de Yu un écri...

  1. Nouvelle stratégie énergétique 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Dyllick-Brenzinger, Ralf Matthias; Yoon, David C.; Püttgen, Hans Björn

    2012-01-01

    La nouvelle politique énergétique de la Suisse prévoit, d’une part, l’arrêt progressif des centrales nucléaires et, d’autre part, la compensation de cette perte de production notamment par le développement intensif de l’énergie photovoltaïque et par des mesures de réduction de la consommation. Le Centre de l’énergie de l’EPFL a mené une étude sur l’interaction entre la production photovoltaïque et le stockage hydraulique afin de déterminer dans quelles mesures une telle stratégie pourrait êtr...

  2. Nouvelles mobilités et pratiques sociales : les Starbucks à Pékin

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Blandine; Xiaoting, Jin; Puel, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    La multinationale Starbucks s'est montrée pionnière aux Etats-Unis, avec le déploiement de l'accès Wi-Fi. Autoproclamée entreprise éthique, elle offre un espace non-fumeur, des boissons non alcoolisées et un accès Internet payant et sécurisé, dans les lieux « branchés » des grandes métropoles.Après avoir resitué le modèle économique de l’entreprise dans le contexte global des nouvelles formes de mobilités et du développement de leurs enjeux marchands, les auteurs présentent les premiers résul...

  3. Hydrodiffusion assistée par micro-ondes : nouvelle technique d'éco-extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zill-E-Huma, Huma

    2010-01-01

    L'hydrodiffusion générée par micro-ondes est une nouvelle technique d'extraction mise au point au sein de l'Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse. Ce procédé est une combinaison entre une technique traditionnelle et une technologie innovante. En effet, le chauffage par micro-ondes a permis d'initier et de générer le transfert de matière et de chaleur de l"intérieur des matrices végétales (oignons) vers l'extérieur et de réduire de façon considérable les temps d'extraction des antioxyda...

  4. Turquie, Grèce : un passé commun, des nouvelles perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Akgönül, Samim; Bertrand, Gilles; Bilici, Faruk; Dalègre, Joëlle; Drettas, Georges; Sawas, Stéphane; Tonnet, Henri; YÉRASIMOS, Stéphane; Zerouali, Basma

    2013-01-01

    Sans être naïfs sur les questions aussi importantes que le contentieux en mer Égée, le problème chypriote, la question des minorités, la confrontation des nationalismes, l’instrumentalisation de l'histoire, l’utilisation des différends comme outil politique interne, avec ce numéro spécial « Turquie et Grèce : un passé commun, des nouvelles perspectives », nous avons voulu délibérément mettre l’accent sur la complémentarité et la communauté culturelle entre Grecs et Turcs, bien plus encore que...

  5. Yoram Mouchenik, L’enfant vulnerable. Psychotherapie transculturelle en pays kanak (Nouvelle-Caledonie)

    OpenAIRE

    Juillerat, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Formé en psychologie et notamment en psychothérapeutique transculturelle, Yoram Mouchenik a entrepris dès 1992 – en collaboration avec des éducateurs, des psychologues des institutions locales – un certain nombre d’enquêtes dans les îles Loyauté (Nouvelle-Calédonie) : un travail de longue haleine dont il nous livre dans cet ouvrage trois cas d’enfants psychologiquement (physiquement aussi pour l’un d’entre eux) handicapés et où il nous explique sa méthode. Précisons-le d’emblée : cette derniè...

  6. Relativité et quanta une nouvelle révolution scientifique

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Ces trois dernières années, les moissons scientifiques ont été exceptionnellement fructueuses, de la découverte du boson de Higgs à celles des ondes gravitationnelles émises lors de la coalescence de deux trous noirs massifs, et aux observations du fond cosmologique par le satellite Planck. L'humanité vient alors d'atteindre un nouveau palier dans la compréhension du monde quantique et du monde de la gravitation : nos bases théoriques, expérimentales et technologiques forment un socle scientifique solide pour aller plus loin et tenter de répondre aux nouvelles questions qui surgissent suite à ces découvertes... Enquête et mise au point sur une révolution en cours.

  7. Securite, dangerosite, biopolitique: trois versants d'une nouvelle pratique de pouvoir sur les individus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Le questionnement de Foucault sur la judiciarisation des sociétés contemporaines renvoie à plusieurs controverses qui, entre 1974 et 1976, ont spécifiquement concerné la question du vivant comme de son rapport au champ du droit et des institutions politiques. Ces polémiques se sont cristallisées autour d'affaires judiciaires retentissantes mais également autour d'un discours technique et politique qui donne une place nouvelle aux notions de dangerosité, de sécurité et à la question plus générale de la gestion du vivant. Trois discours qui, pour Foucault, sont révélateur d'un profond changement de société et de mode de gouvernement des individus.

  8. Les orientations nouvelles des politiques de réforme administrative en France

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Chevallier

    2012-01-01

    Depuis les années 2000, les politiques de réforme administrative ont été caractérisées en France par une dynamique nouvelle, illustrée par le lancement en 2001 de la réforme budgétaire (LOLF) et en 2007 de la “révision générale des politiques publiques” (RGPP), et marquées par une influence beaucoup plus nette du New Public Management. Le bilan qu’il est possible d’en dresser reste pourtant incertain, les ambitions des réformateurs contrastant avec la réalité du terrain et la stratégie top do...

  9. Une Nouvelle Orientation Psychophysique dans la Pédagogie Théâtrale Contemporaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezio Ruggieri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but de présenter comment les apports du modèle psychophysiologique bio-existentialiste élaboré par Vezio Ruggieri et ses collaborateurs peuvent jeter une lumière nouvelle sur les processus sous-jacents le jeu de l’acteur tels que la présence scénique, le processus d’identification avec un personnage et le complexe mécanisme de la prosodie. Cet encadrement théorique, qui voit le rapport corps-esprit dans une relation circulaire, éclairera le lecteur sur les bases physiologiques de la perception et de l’imagination ainsi que sur le rôle fondamental que la structure musculaire joue dans la construction de ces phénomènes.

  10. Karl Polanyi, la Nouvelle sociologie économique et les forces du marché

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Le Velly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre en quoi plusieurs auteurs de la Nouvelle sociologie économique tendent à adopter un regard incomplet sur les forces du marché. Pour cela, l’auteur distingue deux notions d’encastrement renvoyant pour la première à un cadre méthodologique institutionnaliste et pour la seconde à l’observation du poids variable des forces du marché. Il établit qu’autant des sociologues classiques comme Weber ou Polanyi ont su coupler ces deux approches, autant plusieurs travaux majeurs de la Nouvelle sociologie économique, notamment ceux de Zelizer, de Fligstein et de Biggart, adoptent la première perspective mais ne traitent que de façon partielle de la seconde. L’auteur met particulièrement en cause les objets de recherche retenus par ces derniers auteurs, dès lors que sont systématiquement privilégiées des situations où les forces du marché sont tenues à l’écart.This article shows how many authors of the New Economic Sociology tend to adopt an incomplete view of market forces. The author distinguishes two notions of embeddedness, one related to the institutionalist theories and the second to the observation of the variable weight of market forces. It is established that classical sociologists such as Weber or Polanyi have joined these two approaches, while manyu works of the New sociological economy, for examle those of Zelizer, Fligstein or Biggart adopt the first perspective, but only treat the second partially. The author particularly questions the research objects chosen by these authors, since he considers that they generally refer to situations where market forces are held at bay.

  11. La nouvelle donne de la santé globale : dynamiques et écueils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Buissonnière

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les quinze dernières années ont été marquées par l’avènement de nouveaux acteurs dans le champ de la santé globale et l’augmentation de l’aide au développement en faveur de la santé. Ces acteurs ont capté une partie importante des ressources privées et publiques supplémentaires disponibles et se sont imposés comme les pièces maîtresses de ce nouvel échiquier, aux dépens des institutions traditionnelles qui ont graduellement perdu leur prépondérance et ont vu leur leadership s’affaiblir. Les choix et politiques de santé ont peu à peu échappé à la seule autorité des institutions qui en avaient jusqu’alors le mandat et en assumaient la charge. Certains pans entiers de la santé sont désormais dominés par des financeurs privés, devenus de facto prescripteurs d’orientations de santé publique. Cette nouvelle donne pose des questions essentielles de gouvernance et de responsabilité. Qui décide des orientations ? Comment les décisions sont-elles prises ? Les pays destinataires de l’aide doivent encore trop souvent subir le manque de coordination des donateurs et l’absence d’alignement des agendas. Dans ce contexte, et en prenant acte de cette nouvelle réalité, quelques pistes mériteraient d’être explorées afin de garantir que les orientations en matière de santé globale reflètent au mieux la réalité des besoins et les aspirations des pays.

  12. A novel preclinical method to quantitatively evaluate early-stage metastatic events at the murine blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Chris E.; Nounou, Mohamed I; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Terrell-Hall, Tori B; Mohammad, Afroz S; Jagannathan, Rajaganapathi; Lockman, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that approximately 15% of women with disseminated breast cancer will develop symptomatic brain metastases combined with treatment guidelines discouraging single-agent chemotherapeutic strategies facilitates the desire for novel strategies aimed at outright brain metastasis prevention. Effective and robust preclinical methods to evaluate early stage metastatic processes, brain metastases burden, and overall mean survival are lacking. Here, we develop a novel method to quantitat...

  13. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  14. Development of 14C-poly-methyl-methacrylate method for the characterisation of low porosity media. Application to rocks in geological barriers of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel from nuclear power plants will be disposed of in geological formations. Understanding of the nature of the radionuclide transport through geological barriers is essential in any assessment of the confining properties of such barriers. Radioelement migration within a rock matrix under natural long-term conditions is a complex process controlled by many parameters. Purely physical parameters such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity are used to describe transport in well-defined laboratory systems. In natural rock matrices, transport is influenced in a more complex manner by physical pore properties such as pore size distribution, connectivity, tortuosity and constrictivity and by the petrological and chemical nature and charge of the pore surfaces. An overall characterisation of heterogeneous rock structures is required in order to understand of radioelement transport processes. A new method was developed for characterisation of the heterogeneous pore structure of centimetric-scale rock cores. The poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) method involves the impregnation of a rock sample with 14C- or 3H-labelled methyl-methacrylate (MMA) in vacuum, polymerization by irradiation, autoradiography with nuclear emulsion, optical densitometry, and porosity calculation routines relying on digital image processing techniques. The low molecular weight and low viscosity carrier monomer MMA, which can be fixed after impregnation by polymerisation, provides direct information about the accessible pore space in rock. Applied to low porous rocks, autoradiography describes the spatial distribution of the porosity. This information is not available with water gravimetry, which gives only bulk porosity values. The PMMA method is suitable for characterising the pore structure of a low porous crystalline rock. Valuable information can also be obtained on the heterogeneous structures of rocks of sedimentary origin. The method integrates the microscopic scales to

  15. Detection of segmentation cracks in top coat of thermal barrier coatings during plasma spraying by non-contact acoustic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous cracks can be observed in the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal ones and they have opposite impact on the properties of TBCs. Vertical cracks reduce the residual stress in the top coat and provide strain tolerance. On the contrary, horizontal cracks trigger delamination of the top coat. However, monitoring methods of cracks generation during APS are rare even though they are strongly desired. Therefore, an in situ, non-contact and non-destructive evaluation method for this objective was developed in this study with the laser acoustic emission (AE) technique by using laser interferometers as a sensor. More AE events could be detected by introducing an improved noise reduction filter and AE event detection procedures with multiple thresholds. Generation of vertical cracks was successfully separated from horizontal cracks by a newly introduced scanning pattern of a plasma torch. Thus, generation of vertical cracks was detected with certainty by this monitoring method because AE events were detected only during spraying and a positive correlation was observed between the development degree of vertical cracks and the total AE energy in one experiment. (paper)

  16. A novel preclinical method to quantitatively evaluate early-stage metastatic events at the murine blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Chris E; Nounou, Mohamed I; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Terrell-Hall, Tori B; Mohammad, Afroz S; Jagannathan, Rajaganapathi; Lockman, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The observation that approximately 15% of women with disseminated breast cancer will develop symptomatic brain metastases combined with treatment guidelines discouraging single-agent chemotherapeutic strategies facilitates the desire for novel strategies aimed at outright brain metastasis prevention. Effective and robust preclinical methods to evaluate early-stage metastatic processes, brain metastases burden, and overall mean survival are lacking. Here, we develop a novel method to quantitate early metastatic events (arresting and extravasation) in addition to traditional end time-point parameters such as tumor burden and survival in an experimental mouse model of brain metastases of breast cancer. Using this method, a reduced number of viable brain-seeking metastatic cells (from 3,331 ± 263 cells/brain to 1,079 ± 495 cells/brain) were arrested in brain one week postinjection after TGFβ knockdown. Treatment with a TGFβ receptor inhibitor, galunisertib, reduced the number of arrested cells in brain to 808 ± 82 cells/brain. Furthermore, we observed a reduction in the percentage of extravasated cells (from 63% to 30%) compared with cells remaining intralumenal when TGFβ is knocked down or inhibited with galunisertib (40%). The observed reduction of extravasated metastatic cells in brain translated to smaller and fewer brain metastases and resulted in prolonged mean survival (from 36 days to 62 days). This method opens up potentially new avenues of metastases prevention research by providing critical data important to early brain metastasis of breast cancer events. PMID:25348853

  17. Review of excavation methods and their implications for the near-field barrier of a deep underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews excavation techniques for use in the construction of deep underground radioactive waste repositories, gives a summary of responses of the host rock to excavation and the means of measuring that response and discusses techniques for predicting that response. The review of excavation techniques included technical developments and current practice. To this end an extensive database was developed reviewing major excavations in rock types relevant to disposal and the techniques employed. Creation of an underground opening alters the properties of the rock mass around it. This study identifies stress, displacement, rock mass deformability and permeability as key parameters and reviews how they may be determined. Finally the report discusses the techniques available for predicting the behaviour of the near-field host rock. This concentrates on methods of numerical analysis since existing empirical or analytical methods are not considered suitable. (author)

  18. Female-initiated barrier methods for the prevention of STI/HIV: Where are we now? where should we go?

    OpenAIRE

    Latka, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The female condom has been on the US marker for over 8 years and was hailed as a method that would allow women greater control in protecting themselves against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, since its launch, promotion of the female condom has met with challenges that vary from provider bias against the device, concerns about efficacy, and doubts about whether it will be used. While daunting, many of these challenges are not unique to the female condom. In fa...

  19. Prediction Method of Bottom Water Coning Profile and Water Breakthrough Time in Bottom Water Reservoir without Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Yahui Li; Haitao Li; Ying Li

    2015-01-01

    During the exploitation of bottom water oil reservoir, bottom water coning influences the breakthrough of bottom water significantly. Because water cut rises quickly after the breakthrough of bottom water, measures should be taken before the breakthrough to postpone production period without water, thus improving oil recovery. So accurate prediction of water coning profile and breakthrough time is very essential. Through mathematical derivation, this paper proposed a prediction method of bott...

  20. A method to predict different mechanisms for blood-brain barrier permeability of CNS activity compounds in Chinese herbs using support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ludi; Chen, Jiahua; He, Yusu; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Gongyu

    2016-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly selective barrier between central nervous system (CNS) and the blood stream, restricts and regulates the penetration of compounds from the blood into the brain. Drugs that affect the CNS interact with the BBB prior to their target site, so the prediction research on BBB permeability is a fundamental and significant research direction in neuropharmacology. In this study, we combed through the available data and then with the help of support vector machine (SVM), we established an experiment process for discovering potential CNS compounds and investigating the mechanisms of BBB permeability of them to advance the research in this field four types of prediction models, referring to CNS activity, BBB permeability, passive diffusion and efflux transport, were obtained in the experiment process. The first two models were used to discover compounds which may have CNS activity and also cross the BBB at the same time; the latter two were used to elucidate the mechanism of BBB permeability of those compounds. Three optimization parameter methods, Grid Search, Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), were used to optimize the SVM models. Then, four optimal models were selected with excellent evaluation indexes (the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of each model were all above 85%). Furthermore, discrimination models were utilized to study the BBB properties of the known CNS activity compounds in Chinese herbs and this may guide the CNS drug development. With the relatively systematic and quick approach, the application rationality of traditional Chinese medicines for treating nervous system disease in the clinical practice will be improved. PMID:26632324

  1. Elevage de la Crevette Bleue en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Litopenaeus Stylirostris. Bases biologiques et zootechnie

    OpenAIRE

    Della Patrona, Luc; Brun, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    L’ouvrage « Elevage de la Crevette Bleue en Nouvelle-Calédonie – Bases biologiques et zootechnie » est sans aucun doute le document de référence dont la crevetticulture de Nouvelle-Calédonie avait besoin. L’élaboration de cette synthèse des connaissances a été initiée lors du déroulement du projet de recherche Ifremer DESANS (DEfi SANté Stylirostris) construit sur la période 2003-2006 et a été finalisée sous le projet DEDUCTION (DEveloppement DUrable de la Crevetticulture, Traitement de l’Inf...

  2. Sonic Crystal Noise Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Yung

    2012-01-01

    An alternative road traffic noise barrier using an array of periodically arranged vertical cylinders known as a Sonic Crystal (SC) is investigated. As a result of multiple (Bragg) scattering, SCs exhibit a selective sound attenuation in frequency bands called band gaps or stop bands related to the spacing and size of the cylinders. Theoretical studies using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE), Multiple Scattering Theory (MST) and Finite Element Method (FEM) have enabled study of the performance of SC ...

  3. Development of high-density bentonite barriers by means of spraying methods. Part 2. Investigation of field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a method of constructing high-density bentonite by means of wet spraying to act as a backfill material in narrow places in radioactive waste disposal facilities. On the basis of the results of laboratory tests, they conducted field spraying tests to investigate the field conditions. The results of these tests are summarized as follows: 1) The bentonite could be sprayed smoothly by using a rotary spraying machine and a screw conveyor. 2) Provided that the air flow was at least 18.5 m3/min and the nozzle diameter did not exceed 25 mm, an average dry density of bentonite of 1.6 Mg/m3 or higher could be achieved. 3) The dry density was constant within the spraying distance range 500 mm ∼ 2000 mm. 4) With a nozzle diameter of 19 mm, a spraying distance of 1000 mm, and a water content of 19.5%, an average dry density of the sprayed bentonite of 1.6 Mg/m3 or higher and a rebound ratio not exceeding 30% was achieved. 5) The dry density of the sprayed bentonite decreased as the volume of bentonite supplied was increased, and it was shows to be closely related to the rotational speed of the spraying machine and the volume of bentonite sprayed from each hole. (author)

  4. Barriers to SCM implementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Rosli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper explores the barriers faced by Malaysian manufacturing companies in successfullyimplementing the Supply Chain Management (SCM. The study has highlighted some pertinent factorsperforming the barriers that are most frequently reported by the studied companies. Sixteen companies, fromservice and manufacturing companies were studied over a period of two years to assess their SCM practicesthrough survey and interview processes.Design/methodology/approach: This part discusses the research design and methodological issues upon whichthe research is based. The explanation includes two types of research methods, short survey and follow-upinterviews that were identified as being suitable to achieve the aims of this study, which is to identify the currentproblem of SCM practices within the Malaysian SMEs. Research design is a framework or plan for researchused as a guide in collecting and analysing data.Findings: The results showed that the barriers are depending on the types or group of companies business; suchas either it is an SME or a big company. The barriers inhibiting the practice of SCM can be summarized inthe following factors: partnership with suppliers, limited expertise, management commitment, understanding ofSCM, supported technologies and customer satisfaction. The findings are also compared with the results of asimilar study on SCM in other country.Practical implications: Some suggestions are also offered, which is believed to be a good strategy to the companiesto manage the SCM that will lead to sustainable competitive advantage and hence improve their market share.Originality/value: There are interesting barriers between the companies in Malaysia and other country in therespect of SCM implementation. These findings can be used by both Malaysian and other companies to worktogether or review the SCM strategies that will lead to sustainable competitive advantage and hence improvetheir business performance.

  5. New quantitative methods for mineral and porosity mapping in clayey materials: application to the compacted bentonites of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayey materials are well known for their non permeable properties and their textural changes between the dry and hydrated states. Their porous network is classically investigated in the dry state using bulk measurements. However, the relationship between porosity and mineral spatial heterogeneities in the hydrated state is poorly understood. The textural analysis limits induce some difficulties to understand the migration of solute species into compacted bentonites (as for nuclear waste repository). The goal of this work is to improve the analysis techniques for hydrated clayey materials in order to provide a multi-scale quantitative petrography. The bentonite samples are impregnated using a resin whose properties are close to water ones. The classical petrographic study reveals strong heterogeneities of spatial and size distributions of porosity and minerals. SEM images analysis allows a quantification and a simple mapping of pores and minerals into unaltered bentonites. Nevertheless, as alterations are suspected to happen in the repository context, two methods for the analysis of all types of materials have been also developed. Two specific softwares permits the treatments of autoradiographs and chemical element maps obtained using electron microprobe. The results are quantitative maps highlighting the spatial porosity heterogeneities from the decimetric to the micrometric scales. All pore sizes are taken into account including clay interlayer spaces. Moreover, an accurate mineral mapping is also supplied on millimetric areas with a spatial resolution close to the micrometer. In a widely point of view, this work provides new complementary tools for the textural analysis of fine grained materials and the improvement of migration modelling of solute species. (author)

  6. Method for evaluating the potential of 14C labeled plant polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioactive compounds in botanicals may be beneficial in preventing age-related neurodegenerative diseases, but for many compounds conventional methods may be inadequate to detect if these compounds cross the blood-brain barrier or to track the pharmacokinetics in the brain. By combining a number of unique technologies it has been possible to utilize the power of AMS to study the pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in the brain at very low concentrations. 14C labeled compounds can be biosynthesized by plant cell suspension cultures co-incubated with radioisotopically-labeled sucrose and isolated and separated into a series of bioactive fractions. To study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C labeled plant polyphenols, rats were implanted with jugular catheters, subcutaneous ultrafiltration probes and brain microdialysis probes. Labeled fractions were dosed orally. Interstitial fluid (ISF) and brain microdialysate samples were taken in tandem with blood samples. It was often possible to determine 14C in blood and ISF with a β-counter. However, brain microdialysate samples 14C levels on the order of 107 atoms/sample required AMS technology. The Brain MicrodialysateAUC/SerumAUC ranged from .021- to .029, with the higher values for the glycoside fractions. By using AMS in combination with traditional methods, it is possible to study uptake by blood, distribution to ISF and determine the amount of a dose which can reach the brain and follow the pharmacokinetics in the brain.

  7. Method for evaluating the potential of {sup 14}C labeled plant polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janle, Elsa M., E-mail: janle@purdue.ed [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0259 (United States); Lila, Mary Ann [University of Illinois, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Urbana IL (United States); Grannan, Michael; Wood, Lauren; Higgins, Aine [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0259 (United States); Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B. [University of Illinois, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Urbana IL (United States); Kim, Helen [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pharmacology, Birmingham AB (United States); Jackson, George S. [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Weaver, Connie M. [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0259 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Bioactive compounds in botanicals may be beneficial in preventing age-related neurodegenerative diseases, but for many compounds conventional methods may be inadequate to detect if these compounds cross the blood-brain barrier or to track the pharmacokinetics in the brain. By combining a number of unique technologies it has been possible to utilize the power of AMS to study the pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in the brain at very low concentrations. {sup 14}C labeled compounds can be biosynthesized by plant cell suspension cultures co-incubated with radioisotopically-labeled sucrose and isolated and separated into a series of bioactive fractions. To study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of {sup 14}C labeled plant polyphenols, rats were implanted with jugular catheters, subcutaneous ultrafiltration probes and brain microdialysis probes. Labeled fractions were dosed orally. Interstitial fluid (ISF) and brain microdialysate samples were taken in tandem with blood samples. It was often possible to determine {sup 14}C in blood and ISF with a beta-counter. However, brain microdialysate samples {sup 14}C levels on the order of 10{sup 7} atoms/sample required AMS technology. The Brain Microdialysate{sub AUC}/Serum{sub AUC} ranged from .021- to .029, with the higher values for the glycoside fractions. By using AMS in combination with traditional methods, it is possible to study uptake by blood, distribution to ISF and determine the amount of a dose which can reach the brain and follow the pharmacokinetics in the brain.

  8. Validation of UHPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of kaempferol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and application to in vitro blood-brain barrier and intestinal drug permeability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Afrapoli, Fahimeh; Oufir, Mouhssin; Walter, Fruzsina R; Deli, Maria A; Smiesko, Martin; Zabela, Volha; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Sedative and anxiolytic-like properties of flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin, and of some of their intestinal metabolites, have been demonstrated in pharmacological studies. However, routes of administration were shown to be critical for observing in vivo activity. Therefore, the ability to cross intestinal and blood-brain barriers was assessed in cell-based models for kaempferol (KMF), and for the major intestinal metabolite of KMF, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA). Intestinal transport studies were performed with Caco-2 cells, and blood-brain barrier transport studies with an immortalized monoculture human model and a primary triple-co-culture rat model. UHPLC-MS/MS methods for KMF and 4-HPAA in Ringer-HEPES buffer and in Hank's balanced salt solution were validated according to industry guidelines. For all methods, calibration curves were fitted by least-squares quadratic regression with 1/X(2) as weighing factor, and mean coefficients of determination (R(2)) were >0.99. Data obtained with all barrier models showed high intestinal and blood-brain barrier permeation of KMF, and no permeability of 4-HPAA, when compared to barrier integrity markers. PMID:27281582

  9. Why some do but most don't. Barriers and enablers to engaging low-income groups in physical activity programmes: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kenneth R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effect of physical activity for the prevention of a range of chronic diseases is widely acknowledged. These chronic conditions are most pronounced in economically disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower, yet this group is particularly difficult to recruit and retain in physical activity programmes. This study examined the perceptions of participants, non-participants, and exercise leaders in a low-income area regarding barriers, motives, and enabling factors for organised physical activity with a view to improving recruitment and retention. Methods A mixed methods research approach was adopted to guide data collection and analysis. A survey, incorporating the Motivation for Physical Activity Measure - Revised (MPAM-R, was used to assess the motivations of 152 physical activity session participants in a highly deprived suburban neighbourhood. The MPAM-R data were analysed using t tests, analyses of variance to estimate age, body mass index, and activity mode differences and Pearson's correlation coefficient to address associations. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 33 local residents who did not participate in activity sessions and with 14 activity session leaders. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Participants reported cost, childcare, lack of time and low awareness as barriers to joining activity classes. The need for support, confidence and competence in order to take up activity was widely expressed, particularly among women. Once people are active, high levels of social interaction, interest and enjoyment are associated with improved levels of retention, with different types of physical activity scoring differently on these factors. Conclusions This study suggests that some factors such as cost, the fear of 'walking in alone', accessibility of facilities, and appropriate

  10. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  11. Translating barriers into potential improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Hansen, Karina Birch; Valsdottir, Thora;

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by The aim of this study is to explore potential barriers to seafood consumption by young adults and the parents of young children. Knowledge of these barriers will be used to assist the development of new....... Practical implications: Inputs for NPD related to convenience, attractiveness, quality, Inputs for NPD related to convenience, attractiveness, quality, trustworthiness, knowledge and requirements about seafood preparation are discussed. Originality/value: The present study combines qualitative methods to...... lead to practical input The present study combines qualitative methods to lead to practical input for NPD focusing on overcoming the barriers that keep consumers from choosing existing healthy seafood products. The importance of the consumers' confidence in their ability to successfully prepare a...

  12. Avoiding barriers in control of mowing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Bai-jing; QIAN Guo-hong; XIANG Zhong-ping; LI Zuo-peng

    2006-01-01

    Due to complicated barriers,it is difficult to track the path of the mowing robot and to avoid barriers.In order to solve the problem,a method based on distance-measuring sensors and fuzzy control inputs was proposed.Its track was composed of beelines and was easy to tail.The fuzzy control inputs were based on the front barrier distance and the difference between the left and right barrier distance measured by ultrasonic sensors;the output was the direction angle.The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.The result of the method was feasible,agile,and stable.The distance between the robot and the barriers could be changed by altering the inputs and outputs of fuzzy control and the length of the beelines.The disposed sensors can fulfill the need of the robot in avoiding barriers.

  13. Electrical spin injection into InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells: A comparison between MgO tunnel barriers grown by sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient electrical spin injection into an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well light emitting diode is demonstrated thanks to a CoFeB/MgO spin injector. The textured MgO tunnel barrier is fabricated by two different techniques: sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. The maximal spin injection efficiency is comparable for both methods. Additionally, the effect of annealing is also investigated for the two types of samples. Both samples show the same trend: an increase of the electroluminescence circular polarization (Pc) with the increase of annealing temperature, followed by a saturation of Pc beyond 350 °C annealing. Since the increase of Pc starts well below the crystallization temperature of the full CoFeB bulk layer, this trend could be mainly due to an improvement of chemical structure at the top CoFeB/MgO interface. This study reveals that the control of CoFeB/MgO interface is essential for an optimal spin injection into semiconductor.

  14. Contribution to the development of new analytical methods by the coupling between capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and ESI-MS): applications to the nuclear and biological fields; Contribution au developpement de nouvelles methodes analytiques par le couplage entre l'electrophorese capillaire et la spectrometrie de masse (ICP-MS et ESI-MS): applications dans les domaines nucleaires et biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitois, A

    2006-04-15

    The coupling between chromatographic and electrophoretic separation techniques and mass spectrometry is used to combine the efficiency of the separation technique to the selectivity and sensitivity of the detectors. In this work, the number of applications of the CE-MS couplings has been increased. New analytical methods have been set up in the nuclear and biological fields. New analytical methods for the determination of fission products (cesium and lanthanides) have been developed by CE-ICP-MS. They enable to determine both concentration and isotopic composition of the fission products for very low detection limits (ng/mL by CE-Q-ICPMS, pg/mL by CE-HR-ICP-MS), since all the isobaric interferences are resolved. Moreover, only some nano-liters of sample are necessary to perform the analysis. These method have been applied with success to a simulated sample of spent fuel, to a nuclear sample from PUREX process and to a leaching of MOX fuel. Then, lanthanides have been analysed by CE-ESI-MS and the capability of ESI-MS to provide structural information has been studied. Elementary information has been obtained for strong potentials. Structural information has been obtained for low potentials. Finally, a new analytical method by CE-ESI-MS for the determination of 10B-boronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) has been developed for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It has been applied to the cellular lines F98 and HUVEC. This CE-ESI-MS method has been validated by HR-ICP-MS. It enables a direct quantification of the chemical form 10B-BPA in samples of limited size (some nano-liters) and for low concentrations (ng/mL). As a consequence, this CE-ESI-MS method has enabled the study of the kinetics of 10B-BPA release and uptake for the F98 cells. (author)

  15. A novel method to achieve selective emitter for silicon solar cell using low cost pattern-able a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent phosphorus diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► a-Si thin films as semitransparent phosphorus diffusion barriers for solar cell. ► a-Si thin films on silicon wafers were patterned by the alkaline solution. ► Selective emitter was formed with patterned a-Si as diffusion barrier for solar cell. -- Abstract: Selective emitter for silicon solar cell was realized by employing a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent diffusion barrier. The a-Si thin films with various thicknesses (∼10–40 nm) were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation technique. Emitters with sheet resistances from 37 to 145 Ω/□ were obtained via POCl3 diffusion process. The thickness of the a-Si diffusion barrier was optimized to be 15 nm for selective emitter in our work. Homemade mask which can dissolve in ethanol was screen-printed on a-Si film to make pattern. The a-Si film was then patterned in KOH solution to form finger-like design. Selective emitter was obtainable with one-step diffusion with patterned a-Si film on. Combinations of sheet resistances for the high-/low-level doped regions of 39.8/112.1, 36.2/88.8, 35.4/73.9 were obtained. These combinations are suitable for screen-printed solar cells. This preparation method of selective emitter based on a-Si diffusion barrier is a promising approach for low cost industrial manufacturing.

  16. Barrier infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  17. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals. PMID:26844902

  18. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  19. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2014-01-01

    ) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...

  20. Contraintes et enjeux de développement de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En 2008 a été lancée en Nouvelle-Calédonie une vaste consultation pour élaborer un Schéma d’Aménagement et de Développement du territoire à l’horizon 2025. Si l’économie calédonienne a connu une forte croissance pendant plus d’une décennie, pouvant soutenir les besoins de la population et les investissements, le grand défi d’aujourd’hui réside dans la capacité à construire une communauté de destin basée sur une reconnaissance d’aspirations multiculturelles et sur un projet commun. Lancé dix ans après l’Accord de Nouméa qui le prévoyait, le S.A.D. est cette chance qu’ont les Néo-Calédoniens d’écrire enfin leur avenir ensemble. La réflexion stratégique globale et la mise en place d’une politique générale restent toutefois encore à mettre en place.In 2008 a vast consultation was launched in New Caledonia aimed at establishing a development plan for the territory, directed at the year 2025. If the Caledonian economy has experienced high growth over the past decade, thereby satisfying population and investment needs, the current challenge resides in the capacity to build the society of the future based on the recognition of multi-cultural aspirations and a shared project. Envisaged by the Accord de Nouméa and launched ten years later, the SAD offers all New Caledonians the opportunity to plan the future together. The over-arching strategic reflection and the creation of the broad politic foundations for the project have yet, however, to be determined.

  1. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  2. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  3. Scénariser l'enseignement et l'apprentissage : une nouvelle compétence pour le praticien?

    OpenAIRE

    Pernin, Jean-Philippe; Godinet, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Le colloque "Scénariser l'enseignement et l'apprentissage : une nouvelle compétence pour le praticien ?" a été organisé par l'Institut National de Recherche Pédagogique et l'Equipe de Recherche Technologique en Education e-Praxis1. Ce colloque s'inscrit dans le cadre de la 8ème Biennale de l'Education, événement co-organisé du 11 au 14 avril 2006 par l'APRIEF (Association pour la promotion des recherches et des innovations en éducation et formation) et l'INRP.

  4. Identification de nouvelles structures inhibitrices de kinases : conception synthèse et évaluation biologique

    OpenAIRE

    Gloulou, Olfa

    2013-01-01

    Cette thèse a pour objectif l’identification de nouveaux inhibiteurs de kinase et plus particulièrement de kinases dépendantes de cyclines (CDKs). Des inhibiteurs de CDKs sont en essais cliniques depuis une dizaine d’année. Un faisceau d’informations récentes montre que cette nouvelle classe pharmacologique pourrait prochainement occuper une place prépondérante dans la thérapie antitumorale. L’introduction de cette thèse décrit les principaux inhibiteurs de CDKs en se focalisant sur ceux dont...

  5. Du changement climatique aux quartiers informels durables : une nouvelle vision stratégique pour les villes du Sud ?

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Alors que, jusqu'à présent, les enjeux de la ville durable et du changement climatique avaient peu fait évoluer les interventions sur les quartiers informels dans les villes du Sud, ils introduisent aujourd'hui une nouvelle vision de ces quartiers et de leur traitement. À Damas et au Caire, des études abordent ces espaces comme déjà partiellement durables et adaptés et/ou adaptables au changement climatique: densité, lien social, mixité, espaces publics piétons, morphologie urbaine adaptée au...

  6. Du changement climatique aux quartiers informels durables : une nouvelle vision stratégique pour les villes du Sud ?

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Alors que, jusqu’à présent, les enjeux de la ville durable et du changement climatique avaient peu fait évoluer les interventions sur les quartiers informels dans les villes du Sud, ils introduisent aujourd’hui une nouvelle vision de ces quartiers et de leur traitement. À Damas et au Caire, des études abordent ces espaces comme déjà partiellement durables et adaptés et/ou adaptables au changement climatique : densité, lien social, mixité, espaces publics piétons, morphologie urbaine adaptée a...

  7. ESPACE PUBLIC ET NOUVELLES RELATIONS ESTHÉTIQUES DANS LE THÉATRE, LE FESTIVAL "OFF" D'AVIGNON

    OpenAIRE

    Rasse, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Au fil des années, le "Off" est devenu le premier festival de théâtre du monde par le nombre et la diversité des spectateurs, mais surtout parce que le public y fait l'apprentissage de nouveaux rapports à la création contemporaine, qui transforment le champ de la culture. Nous nous efforçons de montrer que dans l'indifférence de la presse et le mépris de l'intelligentsia, se joue une expérience esthétique originale, de grande ampleur, significative des nouvelles aspirations du public.

  8. QIGONG ET " NOUVELLES RELIGIONS " EN CHINE ET À TAIWAN : INSTRUMENTALISATION POLITIQUE ET PROCESSUS DE LÉGITIMATION DES PRATIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2007-01-01

    Dans les années 1990, le qigong en Chine populaire et les " nouvelles religions " à Taiwan sont des phénomènes sociaux éclairant des aspects de la gouvernance dans le monde chinois et amplifiés par leur transnationalisation croissante. Le qigong " travail du souffle, exercice de l'énergie vitale " est un ensemble de pratiques et de savoirs néo-traditionnels à dimension thérapeutique et religieuse. En Chine, l'exercice du qigong, pratique corporelle de santé, renvoie à une dimension religieuse...

  9. Determination of bismuth by dielectric barrier discharge atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation: Method optimization and evaluation of analytical performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratzer, Jan; Boušek, J.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Mester, Z.; Dědina, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 19 (2014), s. 9620-9625. ISSN 0003-2700 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311202 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharge * hydride generation * atomic absorption spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2014

  10. Transport Properties for Triangular Barriers in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Mouhafid, Abderrahim El; Jellal, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study the electronic transport properties of Dirac fermions through one and double triangular barriers in graphene. Using the transfer matrix method, we determine the transmission, conductance and Fano factor. They are obtained to be various parameters dependent such as well width, barrier height and barrier width. Therefore, different discussions are given and comparison with the previous significant works is done. In particular, it is shown that at Dirac point the Dirac fer...

  11. Barriers to nursing care in emergency wards

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi, Hosein; Mohmmadi, Eesa; Abbas EBADI

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caring is the essence of nursing. Since care is influenced by cultural, economic, and social factors, various diverse barriers exist in the realization of care. The aim of the study was to clarify barriers to caring in emergency patients based on experiences of nurses and patients and their relatives. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design of content analysis was used to identify the barriers to caring in emergency patients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 Iranian ...

  12. Barrier Certificates Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Liyun; Gan, Ting; Xia, Bican; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    A barrier certificate can separate the state space of a con- sidered hybrid system (HS) into safe and unsafe parts ac- cording to the safety property to be verified. Therefore this notion has been widely used in the verification of HSs. A stronger condition on barrier certificates means that less expressive barrier certificates can be synthesized. On the other hand, synthesizing more expressive barrier certificates often means high complexity. In [9], Kong et al consid- ered how to relax the ...

  13. A new generation of wind turbines; Une nouvelle generation d'eoliennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nica, H. [Tesnic, Laval, PQ (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Although homeowners have expressed a desire to use wind energy to supply their electricity needs, many technical barriers have stood in the way of installing wind turbines in urban settings. This was due in part to three-bladed vertical axis turbines, high technical costs, limited performances in urban settings and questionable aesthetics. Tesnic has considered these issues and proposed a completely different turbine that uses a different method for extracting energy from the wind. The first approved 3.6 kW model should appear by the end of 2009. This new turbine is based on the same principal of the steam turbine patented in 1913 by Nikola Tesla. Instead of having blades, the Tesla turbine used closely spaced parallel disks and was recognized as being very robust with a high efficiency rating. Tesnic's new wind powered turbine is a vertical axis turbine with a series of valves that directs the wind on a rotor assembly of disk space. A series of blades on its circumference redirects the wind through the assembly of discs and accelerates the rotation of the rotor. The turbine extracts the wind energy in several ways, including conventional drag and lift, adherence and the vortex effect. This gives a 50 per cent added value of efficiency compared to other wind powered turbines. The global market for small wind powered energy is in full expansion. It has been projected that small turbines with 1 kW capacity will be abundant by 2020. It was noted that for household wind powered energy, the market must consider issues of cost, low maintenance, noise pollution, visual aesthetics, durability and safety. Wind energy can also be used in several industries, including plastics, composites, light metals, textiles and electronics. 2 figs.

  14. Espaces, territoires et identité dans la nouvelle Constitution équatorienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortense Faivre d’Arcier Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Le 28 septembre 2008, les Equatoriens ont approuvé par referendum la Nouvelle Constitution. A l’instar du Venezuela et de la Bolivie, l’Equateur a procédé à une refondation de ses institutions. Or, parmi les aspects les plus novateurs de la Charte fondamentale, on retiendra la reconnaissance de la pluri-nationalité de l’Etat. Le propos de cet article est justement de voir comment le projet politique du chef d’Etat équatorien, Rafaël Correa, s’intègre dans la réflexion globale, qui s’élabore depuis une vingtaine d’années en Amérique Latine sur les droits sociaux, économiques et culturels des peuples autochtones. La constitutionnalisation de ces derniers par les gouvernements latino-américains témoigne, notamment en Equateur, d’un approfondissement du processus démocratique et soulève un questionnement sur le concept identitaire et intégrateur dans sa double dimension nationale et transnationale. La résurgence de l’idée de citoyenneté latino-américaine inscrite dans la Constitution, en superposant les différents espaces d’intégration sociale, politique, culturelle et économique, bouleverse les schémas traditionnels frontières/territoires/identité.On September the 28th 2008, the New Constitution was approved by the Ecuadorians by way of referendum. Following the example of Venezuela and Bolivia, Ecuador has carried out an overhaul of its institutions. Therefore, among the most innovative aspects of the Fundamental Chart, the recognition of the plurinationality of the State has to be emphasized. The purpose of this article is to see how the political project of Ecuador's President Rafael Correa becomes integrated into a global reflection on social, economic and cultural rights of the autochthonous peoples which has been carried out in Latin-America for about twenty years. The constitutionalisation of those rights by the Latin-American governments – and particularly in Ecuador – indicates a will to

  15. Primary care physicians’ perceived barriers and facilitators to conservative care for older adults with chronic kidney disease: design of a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Tam-Tham, Helen; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Campbell, David; Thomas, Chandra; Quinn, Robert; Fruetel, Karen; King-Shier, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Guideline committees have identified the need for research to inform the provision of conservative care for older adults with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a high burden of comorbidity or functional impairment. We will use both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to provide a comprehensive understanding of barriers and facilitators to care for these patients in primary care. Objectives Our objectives are to (1) interview primary care physicians to determine t...

  16. Numerical Analysis of the Efficiency of Different Median Barrier Models in the Presence of a Plain Roadside Noise Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Momen Bellah Fard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside noise barrier as the noise control solution is extensively applied to reduce noise pollution. Median barrier like roadside barriers can make insertion loss at the receiver's area making a shadow zone behind the screen. However, the performance of roadside barrier can be affected by erecting a median barrier. Mainly a median barrier is considered as an extra structure to decrease the cross median crashes at highways. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of some treatments such as absorbent material and diffusers on various median barriers shapes. A 2D boundary element method was used to analyze the designed median barrier effects. Application of grass on the top surface of median barriers with even cap was more effective than those median barriers that had uneven cap. Utilizing Primitive Root Diffuser (PRD and Quadratic Residue Diffuser (QRD on the stem surface of median barrier has high efficiency due to cancel outing multiple reflection effects between roadside barrier and median barrier by 2.2 to 2.7 dB (A, while no improvement could be seen at median barriers with QRD and PRD tops. Finally, it can be stated that the performance of most median barriers were increased using the reactive surfaces on the stem sides of the barrier, while the top surface treatment was not very effective in this kind of screens.

  17. Separation of components of a broad 1H-NMR composite signal by means of nutation experiments under low amplitude radiofrequency fields. Application to the water signal in synthetic clays; Developpement et mise en oeuvre d'une nouvelle methode fondee sur le phenomene de nutation pour la decomposition d'un signal composite de resonance magnetique nucleaire. Application au signal 1h de l'eau dans des argiles synthetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trausch, G

    2006-11-15

    Nowadays, geologic nuclear waste storage is envisioned according to a multi-layer model which implies clays. The latter exhibit retention capacities and low permeability to water; that is why they are considered as a good candidate for engineered barriers to radioactive waste disposal. The present work here aims at studying transport phenomena which involve water molecules in three samples of synthetic clays (two of them exhibiting a Pake doublet) by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The first chapter describes structural properties of clays and presents the state-of-art of NMR and other experimental techniques used for such systems. The second chapter deals with the interpretation and the simulation of each conventional proton spectrum. These simulations allow us to evidence and to characterize a chemical exchange phenomenon. The third chapter is dedicated to original nutation experiments performed under low radiofrequency field in the case of broad NMR signal. It is shown that this type of NMR experiment can yield the number and the proportion of each species contributing to the whole signal. These results are exploited in the fourth chapter for processing relaxation and diffusion experiments. Finally, the diffusion coefficients obtained by NMR are divided by a factor 4 with respect to pure water while relaxation rates are two orders of magnitude greater. (author)

  18. Entre Classicisme et Modernité : La Nouvelle Revue Française dans le champ littéraire de la Belle Epoque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman-Bijman, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The literary review La Nouvelle Revue Française enjoys an enormous prestige in France. In Entre Classicisme et Modernité, Maaike Koffeman explores the origins of this legend of French literary life by means of a historical, literary and sociological analysis of the first years of the review s existe

  19. Engineered Barriers and Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological disposal system comprises a system of multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, to provide long-term isolation and containment of radioactive waste. Various geological formations are stable and potentially suitable for geological disposal. Engineered barriers are designed to work in an integrated fashion together with the host geological formation. Much research has been carried out to develop engineered barrier systems suitable for use in different host rocks and with different waste types. These studies continue both nationally and within the framework of multilateral international projects, in facilities such as underground research laboratories. Geological disposal is the preferred method for long term management of radioactive waste. In each repository the long-term isolation and containment of the waste is achieved by the host geological formation and the system of engineered barriers. Any engineered barrier system (EBS) is made of several components, each taking different safety roles that are relied upon at different times in the lifetime of the repository. Research, demonstration and development of EBS materials, as well as of their manufacturing and emplacement technologies are important endeavours in national waste management programmes and the subject of international cooperation. These studies and demonstrations have considerably enhanced confidence in the production of the EBS components and in their performance under repository conditions

  20. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Santra

    2000-06-01

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a ‘fingerprint’ of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously

  1. Study on a method to define ecological barrier range in Three Gorges reservoir area%三峡库区生态屏障范围界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡友兵; 李致家; 冯杰; 冯青

    2012-01-01

    为有效保护三峡库区生态环境,应在库区175m淹没线以上建立生态屏障区。本文针对生态屏障的内涵及其具有的功能,提出了具体的生态屏障界定标准并建立了数学模型,提出了生态屏障建设相对适宜度。以忠县洋渡镇作为实例,利用Grid-Xinanjiang产流模型,计算研究区域内各网格单元的产流开始时间;利用网格水滴汇流模型,统计研究区各网格单元到达库区175m淹没线的汇流时间;利用收集到的地形、地貌和土地利用等资料统计研究区各单元的地形起伏、土壤质地、生态屏障投资费用等情况,在此基础上得到了洋渡镇生态屏障建设相对适宜度分布情况。通过计算缓冲区情景与高程情景下不同阈值的生态屏障平均相对适宜度变化曲线,确定了相应情景的生态屏障范围阈值;并通过对比2种阈值的生态屏障范围与适宜度的分布图,认为高程情景优于缓冲区情景。%The internal and surrounding water quality and environment in Three Gorges Area have changed significantly after construction.To effectively protect the ecological environment,an ecological buffer zone is planned to establish above the contour line at 175 meter which represents normal high water level.In this paper,a specific definition standard index named "relative ecological barrier construction fitness" of ecological barrier has been provided and the corresponding mathematical model built based on the ecological barrier theory for finalizing the best scope of ecological barriers.Taking the Yangdu town of Zhongxian county as an example,the Grid-Xinanjiang runoff generation model was used to calculate each grid cells' runoff start time,the grid water drop concentration model was used to statistic the convergence time of each grid cells.The undulating terrain,soil texture and ecological barrier investment costs were calculated base on the topography and land use data.By computing the average

  2. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    . During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and...... exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  3. Justice française en Nouvelle-Calédonie  la fin du rêve tropical French judicial practice in Nouvelle-Calédonie: the end of a tropical dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Frezet

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Territoire d’outre-mer. - Nouvelle-Calédonie. - Article 77 de la Constitution de 1958. - Loi organique n°99-209 du 19 mars 1999. - Statut coutumier kanak. – Portée de l’article 7 de la loi précitée. - Composition du tribunal pour enfants saisi en matière d’assistance éducative en présence de parties de statut coutumier Kanak.SOMMAIRE. – Conformément à l’article 7 de la loi organique n°99-209 du 19 mars 1999 les personnes de statut coutumier kanak étant régies, pour l’ensemble du droit civil, ...

  4. [Control of continuous potato monoculture barrier via biological soil disinfestation method in Yellow River irrigation areas of central Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-le; Liu, Guo-feng; Qiu, Hui-zhen; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jun-lian; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-04-01

    The potential of biological soil disinfestation (BSD) in control of continuous potato monoculture barrier was investigated in present study. BSD involves the induction of soil reduction conditions through incorporation of easily decomposed organic materials into soil, flooding the soil by irrigation, and covering the soil surface with plastic film. Control (CK) was left without cover and organic amendment as well as flooding. Field experiment was conducted for testing the effect of BSD approach on the control of continuous potato monoculture barrier, especially on tube yield, plant growth and development, suppression of soil-borne pathogen, and soil microbial community and enzyme activities. Compared with CK, BSD treatment significantly increased tuber yield by 16.1% and plant biomass by 30.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, the incidence of diseased plant and the ratio of diseased tuber in BSD treatment also significantly decreased by 68.0% and 46.7% as compared to those in CK, respectively. BSD treatment significantly increased the content of chlorophyll and branch numbers per main stem of potato plants, improved the morphological characteristics of potato root system. In the course of BSD before potato sowing, soil pH value and bacteria/fungi significantly increased, but populations of fungi and Fusarium sp. significantly decreased compared with CK. There were no significant changes in populations of bacteria and actinomycetes between CK and BSD treatments. During potato growing stage, the populations of both soil fungi and Fusarium sp. were lower in BSD treatment than those of CK. With the advance of potato growth, the population of Fusarium sp. in BSD treatment gradually increased compared with CK. There were no significant changes in soil enzyme activities in the course of BSD before potato sowing and the whole of potato growing stage. It was concluded that BSD has the potential to control continuous potato monoculture barrier and may be an important element in a

  5. Nouvelle stratégie opérationnelle aux urgences : le Triage infirmier avancé.

    OpenAIRE

    JOBE, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Confronté au problème de surpopulation, conséquence de leur fréquentation sans cesse croissante, les services d’urgence ont mis en place des stratégies opérationnelles basées sur des filières de soins organisées au départ de systèmes de triage des patients. Pareils outils ont démontrés leur intérêt mais s’avèrent aujourd’hui insuffisant, raison pour laquelle de nouvelles stratégies voient le jour. Un d’elle, le triage infirmier avancé, permettant à un infirmier d’initier la démarche diagnosti...

  6. Une nouvelle batterie « Langage oral, langage écrit, mémoire, attention » : L2MA-2

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrie-Muller, Claude; Maillart, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    Cet article présente une nouvelle batterie « « Langage oral, langage écrit, mémoire, attention » : L2MA-2 » destinée à l’évaluation d’enfants francophones, français et belges, de la deuxième à la sixième année primaire (7 ans ½ à 11 ans ½). Conçue à partir d’une batterie existante (L2MA, Chevrie-Muller et al, 1997), cette batterie a fait l’objet d’importantes modifications. Parmi les changements apportés, on doit noter que la batterie permet une évaluation en deux niveaux (premièr...

  7. Pêcheurs kanak et politiques de développement de la pêche en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Leblic, I.

    1999-01-01

    Si, en Nouvelle-Calédonie, beaucoup de recherches ont été réalisées sur l'agriculture, rares sont celles qui concernent la pêche. Aucune étude ethnologique sur les sociétés de pêcheurs kanak n'existait en 1982 lorsque j'ai commencé mes recherches sur les clans pêcheurs de l'île des Pins. Les seules références bibliographiques, que j'ai pu trouver à l'époque, traitaient de biologie marine, d'océnographie, sans oublier quelques nomenclatures de poissons et coquillages réalisées par des linguist...

  8. Modification chimique des bitumes : Une nouvelle alternative aux bitumes modifiés polymères

    OpenAIRE

    Orange, G; MARTIN, JV; SUCH, C

    2004-01-01

    Cet article présente une alternative à la modification des bitumes par des polymères basée sur l'utilisation de nouveaux additifs issus de la chimie des phosphates (gamme InnovaltTM). Une augmentation de un à deux grades (grade Pene) peut être très facilement obtenue selon la nature du bitume par ajout de seulement 0,5 à 1,5 % poids d'InnovaltTM N sans aucun autre additif. De plus, cette nouvelle technologie peut être utilisée dans le cas des bitumes modifiés aux polymères : l'utilisation d'I...

  9. Nouvelle image de la mère dans La Mayonnaise de l’écrivaine Jeon Hye-sung

    OpenAIRE

    WANG-LE, Min Sook

    2014-01-01

    Les écrivaines coréennes participent aujourd’hui à la transformation du monde littéraire et contribuent à travers leur écriture au changement de leur statut et de celui des autres femmes. Elles mettent en avant la complexité de l’image de la mère dans une nouvelle perspective. Tantôt rejetée, tantôt valorisée, la maternité devient chez certaines d’entre elles une matière privilégiée dans leur quête d’identité féminine. Cette étude privilégie le cas de l’écrivaine Jeon Hey-sung (1960-), auteur...

  10. NOUVELLES ARCHITECTURES DE FIBRES OPTIQUES A TRES LARGE AIRE MODALE POUR LA MONTEE EN PUISSANCE DES LASERS FIBRES

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Aurélien; Darwich, Dia; Dauliat, Romain; Jamier, Raphaël; Humbert, Georges; Grimm, Stephan; Schuster, Kay; Salin, François; Roy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Nous rapportons ici la première démonstration expérimentale d'une nouvelle architecture de fibres optiques à très grande surface de mode destinée à renforcer la propagation d'un mode transverse unique. L'originalité de ce travail repose sur une rupture contrôlée de la périodicité de la gaine optique microstructurée afin de favoriser la délocalisation des modes d'ordre supérieur au bénéfice du confinement du seul mode fondamental. Le caractère monomode des structures fabriquées a été conforté ...

  11. Les revues syndicales des instituteurs français et l’Éducation nouvelle (1921-1932)

    OpenAIRE

    Mole, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Après la Première Guerre mondiale, les instituteurs syndicalistes français entretiennent avec l’Éducation nouvelle une relation complexe qui se donne à lire en particulier à travers leur presse corporative. Certains acteurs s’impliquent simultanément dans les deux réseaux, à l’instar de Freinet. Au-delà de la figure emblématique de ce grand pédagogue qui développe un mouvement spécifique autour de ses propres techniques, on peut observer diverses formes d’expression des thèmes de l’Éducation ...

  12. Tsunami wave suppression using submarine barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, Aleksei M [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alperovich, Leonid S; Pustil' nik, Lev A; Shtivelman, D [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Shemer, L; Liberzon, D [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Marchuk, An G [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    Submerged barriers, single or double, can be used to greatly reduce the devastating effect of a tsunami wave according to a research flume study conducted at Tel Aviv University. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  13. Tsunami wave suppression using submarine barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submerged barriers, single or double, can be used to greatly reduce the devastating effect of a tsunami wave according to a research flume study conducted at Tel Aviv University. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  14. Determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation that includes, for each compute node in the set: initializing a barrier counter with no counter underflow interrupt; configuring, upon entering the barrier operation, the barrier counter with a value in dependence upon a number of compute nodes in the set; broadcasting, by a DMA engine on the compute node to each of the other compute nodes upon entering the barrier operation, a barrier control packet; receiving, by the DMA engine from each of the other compute nodes, a barrier control packet; modifying, by the DMA engine, the value for the barrier counter in dependence upon each of the received barrier control packets; exiting the barrier operation if the value for the barrier counter matches the exit value.

  15. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen barriers are disclosed which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures. 2 claims, 3 figures

  16. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  17. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  18. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M. [Ebasco Environmental, Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Phillips, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

  19. Barrier Distributions and Systematics of Fusion- and Capture Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Wilczynski, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods of predicting ''capture'' cross sections, i.e. , cross sections for sticking of two colliding nuclei after overcoming the interaction barrier, are presented. Close links between the capture excitation functions and smearing of the interaction barrier are discussed. By using a new ''polynomial fit'' method of determining d sup 2 (E sigma)/dE sup 2 values, the barrier distributions have been directly deduced for several precisely measured fusion excitation functions found in the literature, and compared with results of standard ''point difference'' method. Existing data on near-barrier fusion- and capture excitation functions for about 50 medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed using a simple formula obtained assuming Gaussian shape of the barrier distribution. Systematics of the barrier distribution parameters, the mean barrier and width of the distribution, are presented and proposed to be used together with the closed-form ''error function formula'' for predicting unknown capture ...

  20. Commerce électronique et nouvelles configurations de marché: une approche théorique des stratégies d'intermédiation

    OpenAIRE

    Curchod, Corentin

    2003-01-01

    La thèse analyse un type de stratégie particulier, les stratégies d'intermédiation, définies comme toute orientation délibérée de l'activité d'une firme ou d'une part de son activité vers la gestion des relations entre deux groupes ou plus d'acteurs dans une chaîne d'offre. Elle pose la question: comment une nouvelle stratégie d'intermédiation peut-elle contribuer, face à des menaces ou des opportunités nouvelles, à créer, accroître ou maintenir le niveau de rente de la firme sur ses clients,...

  1. Ut rosa spineti compensans flore rigorem. La Vierge Immaculée comme Nouvelle Ève dans la peinture italienne du xvie siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Lora

    2012-01-01

    Parmi les différents types iconographiques de l’Immaculée Conception qui se diffusent dans la peinture italienne du xvie siècle, la Vierge Immaculée Nouvelle ève revêt une importance toute particulière. Dans ce genre d’images, l’accent est porté sur le fait que Marie Immaculée doit être considérée comme la Nouvelle Ève, celle qui s’oppose à la première femme ; elle est sans péché dès l’origine car elle va opérer contre le péché même. C’est seulement en 1518 que l’opposition Marie–ève est adop...

  2. Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

  3. Water Quality and River Plume Monitoring in the Great Barrier Reef: An Overview of Methods Based on Ocean Colour Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Devlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong driver of water quality change in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR is the pulsed or intermittent nature of terrestrial inputs into the GBR lagoon, including delivery of increased loads of sediments, nutrients, and toxicants via flood river plumes (hereafter river plumes during the wet season. Cumulative pressures from extreme weather with a high frequency of large scale flooding in recent years has been linked to the large scale reported decline in the health of inshore seagrass systems and coral reefs in the central areas of the GBR, with concerns for the recovery potential of these impacted ecosystems. Management authorities currently rely on remotely-sensed (RS and in situ data for water quality monitoring to guide their assessment of water quality conditions in the GBR. The use of remotely-sensed satellite products provides a quantitative and accessible tool for scientists and managers. These products, coupled with in situ data, and more recently modelled data, are valuable for quantifying the influence of river plumes on seagrass and coral reef habitat in the GBR. This article reviews recent remote sensing techniques developed to monitor river plumes and water quality in the GBR. We also discuss emerging research that integrates hydrodynamic models with remote sensing and in situ data, enabling us to explore impacts of different catchment management strategies on GBR water quality.

  4. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  5. Development of dielectric-barrier-discharge ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng'an; Tang, Fei; Chen, Jin; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2015-03-01

    Dielectric-barrier-discharge ionization is an ambient-ionization technique. Since its first description in 2007, it has attracted much attention in such fields as biological analysis, food safety, mass-spectrometry imaging, forensic identification, and reaction monitoring for its advantages, e.g., low energy consumption, solvent-free method, and easy miniaturization. In this review a brief introduction to dielectric barrier discharge is provided, and then a detailed introduction to the dielectric-barrier-discharge-ionization technique is given, including instrumentation, applications, and mechanistic studies. Based on the summary of reported work, possible future uses of this type of ionization source are discussed at the end. PMID:25510973

  6. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work by...

  7. Question 9. Compte tenu de toutes ces informations, peut-on établir un tableau des risques encourus par la Nouvelle-Calédonie ?

    OpenAIRE

    Coléno, Alain

    2014-01-01

    RésuméTrois grand type de risques peuvent être identifiés :– risque d’introduction d’espèces allochtones absentes de Nouvelle-Calédonie ;– risque d’implantation et de développement d’espèces allochtones introduites fortuitement ;– risque d’envahissement d’espèces déjà installées fortuitement ou volontairement.

  8. Caractérisation et propriétés des "matériaux culturels"... vers une nouvelle discipline en Science des Matériaux

    OpenAIRE

    Robbiola, Luc

    1999-01-01

    This work mainly aims to introduce a new discipline in materials science: the cultural materials science, which is depicted through the example of the bronze alteration. Methodological aspects as well as presentation of research investigation performed both on ancient and modern copper-tin alloys are summarised. Illustrative examples are given. Ce rapport porte principalement sur la mise en place d'une nouvelle discipline en science des matériaux : la science des matériaux culturels. Celle...

  9. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  10. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  11. A Semigroup Expansion for Pricing Barrier Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new asymptotic expansion method for pricing continuously monitoring barrier options. In particular, we develop a semigroup expansion scheme for the Cauchy-Dirichlet problem in the second-order parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs arising in barrier option pricing. As an application, we propose a concrete approximation formula under a stochastic volatility model and demonstrate its validity by some numerical experiments.

  12. Barriers and strategies in listening comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 张金萍; 李爱娜

    2006-01-01

    A variety of barriers to listening comprehension are illustrated in this paper. They are analyzed respectively and several effective strategies are also presented afterward. The barriers to listening are those of psychological quality, language knowledge, cultural background, Chinese interference and so on. The strategies should be as follows: training students' psychological quality,strengthening the teaching and learning of language knowledge,comparing cultural differences, using student-centered teaching method and combining intensive listening and extensive listening.

  13. Phonic Attenuation due to Screen-Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Bacria; Nicolae Herişanu

    2011-01-01

    The technique of noise decreasing admits two basic approaches: an active approach and a passive one. In the frame of passive method one can count the employment of screen-barriers. In this paper we present some considerations on sound attenuation due to screen-barriers emphasizing the elements which influence it. The elucidation of these elements is made by measurements. The obtained results can be applied in every other practical situation concerning the protection against ...

  14. Observation of an engineered barrier experiment in the Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (CH) with geophysical and hydraulic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the European Commission project EB 'Engineered Barrier Experiment in Opalinus Clay, which aims at the demonstration of a new concept for the construction of HLW repositories in horizontal drifts, in competent clay formations, high frequency seismic, acoustic emission, geo-electric and hydraulic in-situ measurements were performed. Investigations were carried out at different stages after the excavation of the EB niche as well as after the placement of a dummy canister, the sealing with a concrete plug and hydration of the backfill. The initial geophysical characterisation shows a clearly identified EDZ in the roof up to a depth of about 70 cm. At the sidewalls the EDZ reaches a depth of about 10 cm. Highest hydraulic transmissivities were observed at a distance of about 50 cm from the wall. After sealing the EB niche, a change in geo-mechanical rock parameters with time was expected due to the swelling of the backfill and local stress redistributions. These developments were monitored with seismic transmission (diurnal) and acoustic emission (permanent) measurements over a time span of 19 months. Geo-electric measurements were repeated at two and hydraulic measurements at three different stages after the sealing. Results show a decrease in seismic amplitude damping and an increase in seismic velocities in parts of the EDZ and the backfill which can be interpreted as a compaction due to saturation. Acoustic emission events are very rare. During the first 13 months about 100 events could be detected. Resistivities derived from geo-electric measurements indicate a rather homogeneous distribution of the backfill material and are suitable to define boundaries between disturbed and intact rock zones. Hydraulic transmissivities decrease of 2 to 2.5 orders of magnitude within about 2 years. (authors)

  15. Hemicellulose as barrier material

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, Hartman

    2006-01-01

    Polysaccharides constitute an important source of raw materials for the packaging industry today. Polysaccharides have good natural barrier properties which are necessary for packaging films. Cellulose is the forerunner among renewable polymers for such applications. Hemicelluloses represent a new interesting breed of barrier materials. We have chosen to work with the hemicellulose O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan (AcGGM). The high water solubility of this particular hemicellulose extracted from p...

  16. Barriers to SCM implementing

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Rosli; B. Md Dero; A.R. Ismail; M.N. Ab Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the barriers faced by Malaysian manufacturing companies in successfullyimplementing the Supply Chain Management (SCM). The study has highlighted some pertinent factorsperforming the barriers that are most frequently reported by the studied companies. Sixteen companies, fromservice and manufacturing companies were studied over a period of two years to assess their SCM practicesthrough survey and interview processes.Design/methodology/approach: This part discusses t...

  17. The English Democrats Party ou l’émergence d’une nouvelle mouvance : le nationalisme autonomiste anglais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude BARBANTI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La réforme dite de dévolution (décentralisation, votée en 1997, a entraîné de multiples conséquences et transformations dans la vie politique britannique. Le système traditionnellement unitaire de Westminster s’en est trouvé profondément bouleversé. Pourtant, tandis que de nombreuses études furent menées sur les divers nouveaux aspects d’une Grande-Bretagne dévolue, peu se sont penchées sur les conséquences de cette nouvelle asymétrie constitutionnelle sur l’Angleterre. Lorsque des députés de circonscriptions « celtiques » (en Écosse ou au pays de Galles arrivent à influencer le résultat de votes sur des affaires exclusivement anglaises, certains députés d’Angleterre, à Westminster, ne peuvent que se sentir désarmés face au manque de dispositions constitutionnelles garantissant un statut particulier pour ce territoire. Dès lors, de cette « question anglaise » (« English Question », naîtra toute une nouvelle mouvance autonomiste entièrement dédiée à l’obtention d’un Parlement anglais.Devolution at the end of the 1990s has led to numerous consequences and transformations in British politics. The traditional and centralised Westminster system has been turned upside down, and many studies have been carried out on the various aspects of this new “devolved Britain”.Yet, few have paid attention to the English case. However, the constitutional asymmetry thus created has indeed also affected England. When Celtic MPs succeed to influence the outcome of votes on exclusively English matters, one can realise that there is no such thing as an English government. Therefore, some English MPs have felt the need to ask for an option of “English Votes on English Laws”. This article tries to demonstrate that a feeling of “resentment” emerges from this situation and leads to the birth of a new “English” nationalism, entirely dedicated to obtaining an English Parliament.

  18. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (STβ-Kβ,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (Kβ-STβ,0 ) . Here β > 0 and β ≠ 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  19. Methodological Challenges and Institutional Barriers in the Use of Experimental Method for the Evaluation of Business Incubators: Lessons from the US, EU, and China

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Yu; Peter Nijkamp

    2010-01-01

    Despite their worldwide adoption by policy makers as the Holy Grail for entrepreneurship and business development, the effectiveness of business incubation programs remain elusive, primarily plagued by untenable evaluation methods. This paper develops an in-depth analysis on those methodological and institutional factors that prohibit the use of theoretically sound solutions such as the Experimental Method in evaluation practice.

  20. Barrier RF stacking at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key issue to upgrade the luminosity of the Tevatron Run2 program and to meet the neutrino requirement of the NuMI experiment at Fermilab is to increase the proton intensity on the target. This paper introduces a new scheme to double the number of protons FR-om the Main Injector (MI) to the pbar production target (Run2) and to the pion production target (NuMI). It is based on the fact that the MI momentum acceptance is about a factor of four larger than the momentum spread of the Booster beam. Two RF barriers--one fixed, another moving--are employed to confine the proton beam. The Booster beams are injected off-momentum into the MI and are continuously reflected and compressed by the two barriers. Calculations and simulations show that this scheme could work provided that the Booster beam momentum spread can be kept under control. Compared with slip stacking, a main advantage of this new method is small beam loading effect thanks to the low peak beam current. The RF barriers can be generated by an inductive device, which uses nanocrystal magnet alloy (Finemet) cores and fast high voltage MOSFET switches. This device has been designed and fabricated by a Fermilab-KEK-Caltech team. The first bench test was successful. Beam experiments are being planned

  1. Patient-, organization-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to preventive oral health care: a convergent mixed-methods study in primary dental care

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Anna Rose; Young, Linda; Bish, Alison; Gnich, Wendy; Cassie, Heather; Treweek, Shaun; Bonetti, Debbie; Stirling, Douglas; Macpherson, Lorna; McCann, Sharon; Clarkson, Jan; Ramsay, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of adult and childhood, a largely preventable yet widespread, costly public health problem. This study identified patient-, organization-, and system-level factors influencing routine delivery of recommended care for prevention and management of caries in primary dental care. Methods A convergent mixed-methods design assessed six guidance-recommended behaviours to prevent and manage caries (recording risk, risk-based recall intervals...

  2. Home birth and barriers to referring women with obstetric complications to hospitals: a mixed-methods study in Zahedan, southeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi Tabatabaie Mahmoud; Moudi Zahra; Vedadhir AbouAli

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background One factor that contributes to high maternal mortality in developing countries is the delayed use of Emergency Obstetric-Care (EmOC) facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that hinder midwives and parturient women from using hospitals when complications occur during home birth in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran, where 23% of all deliveries take place in non- hospital settings. Methods In the study and data management, a mixed-methods app...

  3. Barrier Li Quantum Dots in Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-Min; LI Xiao-Zhu; YAN Wen-Hong; BAO Cheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The methods for the few-body system are introduced to investigate the states of the barrier Li quantumdots (QDs) in an arbitrary strength of magnetic field. The configuration, which consists of a positive ion located on thez-axis at a distance d from the two-dimensional QD plane (the x-y plane) and three electrons in the dot plane boundby the positive ion, is called a barrier Li center. The system, which consists of three electrons in the dot plane bound bythe ion, is called a barrier Li QD. The dependence of energy of the state of the barrier Li QD on an external magneticfield B and the distance d is obtained. The angular momentum L of the ground states is found to jump not only withthe variation of B but also with d.

  4. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  5. Barrier Li Quantum Dots in Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYi-Min; LIXiao-Zhu; YANWen-Hong; BAOCheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The methods for the few-body system are introduced to investigate the states of the barrier Li quantum dots (QDs) in an arbitrary strength of magnetic field. The configuration, which consists of a positive ion located on the z-axis at a distaneed from the two-dimensional QD plane (the x-y plane) and three electrons in the dot plane bound by the positive ion, is called a barrier Li center. The system, which consists of three electrons in the dot plane bound by the ion,is called a barrier Li QD. The dependence of energy of the state of the barrier Li QD on an external magnetic field B and the distance d is obtained. The angular momentum L of the ground states is found to jump not only with the variation orB but also with d.

  6. Valuation of Discrete Barrier American Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patrício Samanez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an approach and a model to valuing discrete barrier American options. The developed model consists of an adaptation of the method of Grant, Vora and Weeks (1997, in order to allow to incorporate the barriers. The Hybrid Quasi-Monte Carlo method was used in the simulations and the Bisection method in the definition of the options trigger curves. The results found in the application of the developed model were compared with the estimated by the Adaptive Mesh Model, developed by Ahn et al (1999. In addition, the sensitivity of the options price relative to changes in inputs parameters was analyzed, confirming the consistence of the model.

  7. Compositional Safety Analysis using Barrier Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pappas, George J.; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a compositional method for verifying the safety of a dynamical system, given as an interconnection of subsystems. The safety verification is conducted by the use of the barrier certificate method; hence, the contribution of this paper is to show how to obtain compositional...... conditions for safety verification. We show how to formulate the verification problem, as a composition of coupled subproblems, each given for one subsystem. Furthermore, we show how to find the compositional barrier certificates via linear and sum of squares programming problems. The proposed method makes...

  8. Study on hydrogen permeation barrier of zirconium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using gas-solid reaction method, the hydrogen permeation barrier with 5-20 μm thickness was prepared on the surface of zirconium and zirconium hydride. The examinations of the morphology and structure of the barrier were accomplished by optical microscope and SEM. The compositions of the barrier were determined by EDS. The phases in the barrier were also analyzed by XRD. The results indicate that the barrier is well distributed and compact, moreover it combines firmly with the matrix. There are Zr, O, C, P and H etc. elements in the barrier. Otherwise the oxygen diffuses in matrix apparently. The main phases of the barrier are the ZrO2 and ZrP. There exists the ZrC phase or other phases. (authors)

  9. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  10. Fuzzy barrier distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion collisions often produce a fusion barrier distribution with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations [1]. Basically the same distribution can be obtained from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering, though here the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For 20Ne + 90Zr we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile, but for 20Ne + 92Zr we find completely smooth distribution (see Fig.1). We find that transfer channels in these systems are of similar strength but single particle excitations are significantly stronger in the latter case. They apparently reduce the 'resolving power' of the quasi-elastic channel, what leads to smeared out, or 'fuzzy' barrier distribution. This is the first case when such a phenomenon has been observed.(author)

  11. Numerical valuation of discrete double barrier options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Mariyan; Tagliani, Aldo

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper we explore the problem for pricing discrete barrier options utilizing the Black-Scholes model for the random movement of the asset price. We postulate the problem as a path integral calculation by choosing approach that is similar to the quadrature method. Thus, the problem is reduced to the estimation of a multi-dimensional integral whose dimension corresponds to the number of the monitoring dates. We propose a fast and accurate numerical algorithm for its valuation. Our results for pricing discretely monitored one and double barrier options are in agreement with those obtained by other numerical and analytical methods in Finance and literature. A desired level of accuracy is very fast achieved for values of the underlying asset close to the strike price or the barriers. The method has a simple computer implementation and it permits observing the entire life of the option.

  12. Identify and Rank Barriers to Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parchekani Choozaki Parvaneh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey study and is practical and in nature is analytical descriptive. This is an analytical study because samples were used to collect data and it is descriptive because its variables are studied and reported as there are in the real world. In this study we study the barriers to tourism development and will rank the barriers for the use planners. In this study, to determine the validity the content validity was determined and to determine reliability the Cronbach's alpha method has been used. Also to check the normality of questions’ answers the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test is used. The sample population has also been determined by computational methods. In conclusion, according to the results of questionnaires and fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy process method, results were presented in two parts: result analysis for ranking the barriers to the development of tourism and suggestions.

  13. Quantum dynamics of a particle interacting with a double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a previously developed method, the problem of a particle scattered by a double barrier is studied. Instead of the simple transmission or reflection, the more difficult case of the arrival in the region between the barriers is considered and solved explicitly by using matrix methods

  14. Vehicle-Barrier Tracking of a Scaled Crash Test for Roadside Barrier Design

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Giuseppina; Ghosh, Bidisha; SIMMS, CIARAN

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the tracking system used to perform a scaled vehicle-barrier crash test is reported. The scaled crash test was performed as part of a wider project aimed at designing a new safety barrier making use of natural building materials. The scaled crash test was designed and performed as a proof of concept of the new mass-based safety barriers and the study was composed of two parts: the scaling technique and of a series of performed scaled crash tests. The scaling method was used for ...

  15. Barriers in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ambjorn, Jan

    1994-01-01

    I discuss recent progress in our understanding of two barriers in quantum gravity: $c > 1$ in the case of 2d quantum gravity and $D > 2$ in the case of Euclidean Einstein-Hilbert gravity formulated in space-time dimensions $D >2$.

  16. Breaking Down Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1994-01-01

    Faculty at 11 higher education institutions in California, New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico have been experimenting with computer conferencing on the BESTNET (Bilingual English-Spanish Telecommunications Network). The growing system is credited with creating an international student-faculty community that crosses cultural barriers for…

  17. Using perceptual mapping methods to understand gender differences in perceived barriers and benefits of clinical research participation in urban minority HIV+ patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Wolak, Caitlin; Greener, Judith; Tedaldi, Ellen; Nanavati, Aasit; Ruppert, Katey; Gordon, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Minority participation in HIV clinical trials research is critical to understanding the impact of medications or behavioral interventions, but little is known about gender differences in perceptions of participation. We surveyed 50 minority HIV+ patients from an urban clinic to assess perceived risks/benefits of clinical trial research participation and used innovative marketing methods to analyze results. Perceptual mapping and vector message-modeling, a method that creates 3-D models representing how groups conceptualize elements, were used to assess how male and female participants could be motivated to participate. Results showed men farther away from participation and more concerned with HIV disclosure and experimentation than women. Men expressed distrust of the medical system, doubted HIV's origin, and knew less about research implementation. Women were closer to participation in both behavior and medical trials and perceived medication issues as more significant, including fear of losing medication stability, medications not working, being in the placebo group, and experiencing side effects. Vector modeling shows that messages would need to focus on different aspects of clinical research for men and women and that interventions aimed at minority HIV+ patients to encourage clinical trial participation would need to be targeted to their unique perceptions. Understanding gender perceptions of HIV clinical research has significant implications for targeting messages to increase minority participation. PMID:26572215

  18. Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? Débat avec la rédaction de la Nouvelle Revue du Travail Conceptualising work as a gift? Debate with editors of the Nouvelle Revue du Travail ¿Es posible pensar el trabajo a través del don? Debate con el comité de redacción de la Nouvelle Revue du Travail

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Caillé; Norbert Alter

    2012-01-01

    Dans un échange avec la Nouvelle Revue du Travail, Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter soutiennent leur lecture maussienne des réalités contemporaines du travail en discutant les questions centrales du capitalisme, du salariat, de l’entreprise et du travail sociologique. Cet échange fait suite aux contributions d’Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter dans ce Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? De la mise en œuvre du paradigme du don contre-don en sociologie du travail. »In an exchange with the ...

  19. Logarithmic barriers for sparse matrix cones

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Martin S; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for evaluating gradients and Hessians of logarithmic barrier functions for two types of convex cones: the cone of positive semidefinite matrices with a given sparsity pattern, and its dual cone, the cone of sparse matrices with the same pattern that have a positive semidefinite completion. Efficient large-scale algorithms for evaluating these barriers and their derivatives are important in interior-point methods for nonsymmetric conic formulations of sparse semidefinite programs. The algorithms are based on the multifrontal method for sparse Cholesky factorization.

  20. Barrier Data Base user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special purpose data base for physical security barriers has been developed. In addition to barriers, the entities accommodated by the Barrier Data Base (BDB) include threats and references. A threat is established as a configuration of people and equipment which has been employed to penetrate (or attempt to penetrate) a barrier. References are used to cite publications pertinent to the barriers and threats in the data base. Utilization and maintenance of the Barrier Data Base is achieved with LIST, QUERY, ENTER, DELETE, and CHANGE commands which are used to manipulate the data base entities

  1. Development of a thermal fatigue test method for thermal barrier coatings by laser excitation using a laser thermal shock facility; Entwicklung eines Pruefverfahrens zur laserinduzierten thermischen Ermuedung thermischer Schutzschichten mittels einer Laser-Thermoschockpruefeinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, Daniel

    2012-07-13

    The finite nature of fossil fuel supply and the growing environmental awareness become increasingly stronger motivations for the development of efficient gas turbines and jet engines for power generation or as engines for land-, sea- and water-based vehicles. One concept developed for this purpose are thermal barrier coatings, where the thermal load of components is reduced by applying a ceramic coating onto the components. In this work the possibility to use a laser thermal shock facility for thermo-cyclic testing of thermal barrier coatings is examined. A focused laser beam is used for heating the sample and a homogeneous temperature distribution on the sample surface is achieved by the used trajectory and radial adjusted laser power. The required improvements of the existing testing facility are explained, including the development of a new sample holder and of the testing and evaluation routines for the experiments. For the assessment of the initiation and evolution of damages, acoustic emission and thermographic methods are used. The possibilities and limits of these methods are assessed during the experiments. The work also includes an extensive temperature dependent characterisation of the ceramic material used for the thermal barrier coating. In this part, the measurement of the Young's modulus by a dynamic method is to be highlighted, as this is a rarely used technique. The characterisations show the expected values, except for a lower porosity as expected by the manufacturer and no significant phase changes during isothermal heat treatments. To reach sample surface temperatures above 1000 C, it is necessary to increase the absorption by an additional coating of magnetite. The temperature distribution on the surface is measured by an infrared camera, which is calibrated for this purpose. With the incorporated active air cooling of the sample backside, the temperature gradient can be controlled, but still leaves room for improvements. Already without

  2. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Gail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications. Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include

  3. Home birth and barriers to referring women with obstetric complications to hospitals: a mixed-methods study in Zahedan, southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Tabatabaie Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One factor that contributes to high maternal mortality in developing countries is the delayed use of Emergency Obstetric-Care (EmOC facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that hinder midwives and parturient women from using hospitals when complications occur during home birth in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran, where 23% of all deliveries take place in non- hospital settings. Methods In the study and data management, a mixed-methods approach was used. In the quantitative phase, we compared the existing health-sector data with World Health Organization (WHO standards for the availability and use of EmOC services. The qualitative phase included collection and analysis of interviews with midwives and traditional birth attendants and twenty-one in-depth interviews with mothers. The data collected in this phase were managed according to the principles of qualitative data analysis. Results The findings demonstrate that three distinct factors lead to indecisiveness and delay in the use of EmOC by the midwives and mothers studied. Socio-cultural and familial reasons compel some women to choose to give birth at home and to hesitate seeking professional emergency care for delivery complications. Apprehension about being insulted by physicians, the necessity of protecting their professional integrity in front of patients and an inability to persuade their patients lead to an over-insistence by midwives on completing deliveries at the mothers' homes and a reluctance to refer their patients to hospitals. The low quality and expense of EmOC and the mothers' lack of health insurance also contribute to delays in referral. Conclusions Women who choose to give birth at home accept the risk that complications may arise. Training midwives and persuading mothers and significant others who make decisions about the value of referring women to hospitals at the onset of life-threatening complications are central

  4. Les défis du tourisme suisse: Une nouvelle façon de communiquer dans le marché global.

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstrasser, Roland; Racine, Jean-Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Sous le titre " Les défis du tourisme suisse - Une nouvelle façon de communiquer dans le marché global " se cachent trois concepts principaux qui seront présents tout au long de ce mémoire : le tourisme, le réseau Internet et la communication commerciale. Le tourisme est un phénomène social qui se met en place au cours du XVIII siècle sous l'impulsion des anglais. Les transformations économiques, sociales et technologiques qui se sont suivies depuis, ont déterminé des transformations radicale...

  5. Etude de la Commande et de l'Observation d'une Nouvelle Structure de Conversion d'Energie de type SMC (Convertisseur Multicellulaire Superposé)

    OpenAIRE

    Lienhardt, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Ce manuscrit apporte une contribution à la commande et à l'observation du convertisseur multicellulaire superposé (SMC). Cette nouvelle structure de conversion d'énergie, brevetée en 2001, présente des caractéristiques très intéressantes qui lui confèrent un intérêt certain pour les applications industrielles de forte puissance. Les présents travaux ont pour objet principal d'améliorer le fonctionnement des convertisseurs SMC et de montrer leur compétitivité pour ce domaine d'application. Cet...

  6. Variation sur le thème 'A la recherche de nouvelles fondations pour la finance et la gouvernance d'entreprise'

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Charreaux

    2001-01-01

    L'objectif de cet article est de proposer une voie alternative à celle que préconise Zingales pour donner de nouvelles fondations à la finance d'entreprise. En empruntant le même cheminement que Zingales, cet article retient premièrement une définition plus large de la finance, accordant à l'investissement une place au moins équivalente à celle du financement. Deuxièmement, considérant que la vision contractuelle, dans son interprétation traditionnelle fondée sur la protection des actifs spéc...

  7. Du « modèle » de développement économique à une nouvelle forme de gouvernance métropolitaine ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ludovic Halbert; Audrey Halbert

    2007-01-01

    Entre mondialisation économique et diffusion des Nouvelles Technologies de l’Information et de Communication, la région métropolitaine de Bangalore connaît depuis une quinzaine d’années d’importantes mutations qui en font un laboratoire remarquable pour la communauté scientifique. Après avoir montré comment Bangalore est entrée dans une division internationale des tâches de production abstraite (économie de l’information), cet article analyse les transformations de la structure productive, de...

  8. Nouvelle dynamiques dans le secteur de l'électricité : lien entre la consommation et la croissance, structure de marché et énergies renouvelables

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    L’objectif de cette thèse est d’étudier les nouvelles dynamiques et leurs impacts dans le secteur de l'électricité. Elle discute des sujets critiques d’après les perspectives de la macroéconomie, de la configuration structurelle, et de la transition vers des sources d'énergie renouvelables. Plus précisément, trois sujets se dégagent: le lien entre la consommation d'électricité et la croissance économique, les impacts de l'intégration verticale entre les producteurs et les détaillants, et les ...

  9. Technologies énergétiques : la nouvelle donne économique de l'après-pétrole

    OpenAIRE

    Criqui, Patrick; Menanteau, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Le pétrole et le gaz naturel se font de plus en plus rares. Les énergies émettrices de CO2 sont de plus en plus surveillées. Les énergies renouvelables sont de plus en plus attendues. Face à cette nouvelle donne, le secteur de l'énergie évolue rapidement. Déjà, certains grands groupes réorientent ou diversifient leur activité. Quels choix faut-il faire pour les technologies énergétiques de demain ?

  10. Dynamiques des forêts denses humides et des savanes en réponse aux incendies en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Ibanez, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    La Nouvelle-Calédonie qui présente une biodiversité à la fois exceptionnelle et très menacée, fait partie des points chauds de biodiversités définis à l'échelle globale comme zones prioritaires pour la conservation. Les incendies, d'origines anthropiques et constituant l'une des principales menaces pesant sur les écosystèmes naturels néo-calédoniens, conduisent à un recul des forêts denses humides (forêts par la suite) principalement au profit des savanes sur substrats volcano-sedimentaires. ...

  11. Entre Classicisme et Modernité : La Nouvelle Revue Française dans le champ littéraire de la Belle Epoque

    OpenAIRE

    Koffeman-Bijman, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The literary review La Nouvelle Revue Française enjoys an enormous prestige in France. In Entre Classicisme et Modernité, Maaike Koffeman explores the origins of this legend of French literary life by means of a historical, literary and sociological analysis of the first years of the review s existence (1908-1914). She shows that the NRF owes its remarkable success not only to its high literary standards, but also to the strategies employed by its editors in order to conquer a dominant positi...

  12. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent M.

    2006-01-01

    Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence) ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicu...

  13. Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? Débat avec la rédaction de la Nouvelle Revue du Travail

    OpenAIRE

    Caillé, Alain; Alter, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Dans un échange avec la Nouvelle Revue du Travail, Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter soutiennent leur lecture maussienne des réalités contemporaines du travail en discutant les questions centrales du capitalisme, du salariat, de l’entreprise et du travail sociologique. Cet échange fait suite aux contributions d’Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter dans ce Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? De la mise en œuvre du paradigme du don contre-don en sociologie du travail. »

  14. Minutes of Fish Barrier Workshop

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minutes of Fish Barrier Workshop held 27 May 2009 at DOC Waikato Area Office. Lists attendees and highlights topics to be covered in Fish Barrier Workshop.

  15. Surface stability test plan for protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Thermal barrier coating materials

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David R.; Simon R. Phillpot

    2005-01-01

    Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  17. PHARMACOVIGILANCE: BARRIERS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, S. K.; RAPELLIWAR A; S. Sutradhar; THAWARE P; Misra, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is a new discipline which deals with adverse drug or any drug related problems. Pharmacovigilance programme was not bed of roses but its path is laid with challenges and barriers. It is facing obstacles from deficiency from professional health personal to web-based sale of drugs, counterfeit drug to self-medication, etc. It is an integral part of the health sector and identification and reporting of adverse drug effects will have a positive impact on the public health. Impro...

  18. ISOLEMENT DES SOUCHES D’ACTINOMYCETES PRODUCTRICES DE NOUVELLES MOLECULES ANTIFONGIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CHERAITI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two strains of actinomycetes were isolated from four samples of Oubeira lake fresh waters of El Kala region (East of Algeria. The antifungal activity was tested against one filamentous fungus: Aspergillus niger (strain supplied by the mycology laboratory of IBN SINA hospital of Annaba. We have utilized two methods in order to study the antifungal activity: culture in liquid medium and double layer method by testing four different media: ISPI, ISPII, GYEA and Bennett.Among the twenty two isolates, only two strains showed an activity against the target strain. It concerns strains Act sp5 and Act sp10. The activity of strain Act sp5 was very important with an inhibition zone diameter equals at 60 mm on GYEA medium.

  19. Scale Modelling of Railway Noise Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOTHERSALL, D. C.; HOROSHENKOV, K. V.; MORGAN, P. A.; SWIFT, M. J.

    2000-07-01

    Experiments were carried out in an anechoic chamber using a 1:20 scale model of a high-speed train to determine the insertion loss of various forms of track-side noise barrier. All the barriers investigated had the upper edge level with the bottom of the train windows and were positioned as close as possible to the train, within the limitations of the structure gauge. They thus provided attenuation of noise from sources in the lower portion of the train, in the region of the rails and wheels. The measured performance of plane screens with rigid and sound-absorbing surfaces is compared with values predicted by standard prediction methods for railway noise and the results of a numerical model. The effect of barrier shape and absorptive surfaces upon screening performance is investigated. Results are presented in terms of the insertion loss of the peak SPL of the pass-by profile for a single bogie noise source and for the whole train, and also insertion loss based onLAeq,1 h . Results for these three measures show similar trends. For the conditions tested insertion loss values for all the screens were lower when the ground behind the barrier was absorbing than when the ground was rigid. The relative changes in insertion loss for the different forms of barrier were similar for the two ground types. Insertion loss values for rigid screens were between 6 and 10 dB lower than those for similar screens with complete sound absorbing surfaces. The application of absorbing areas on rigid screens significantly increases the insertion loss by between 3 and 6 dB. The least efficient screen was a corrugated barrier with a rigid surface. The most efficient screens tested were plane and curved barriers with absorbing surfaces and a multiple edge screen with a part-absorbing surface.

  20. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  1. Exploring techniques for determining fusion barrier distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J.R.; Timmers, H.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Lemmon, R.C.; Mein, J.C.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1994-06-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering excitation functions, at backward angles, for reactions of {sup 16} O on {sup 92} Zr, {sup 144} Sm, {sup 154} Sm and {sup 186} W have been measured. A method for extracting barrier distributions from these data is presented. The distributions from the scattering data are compared with those from fusion, previously measured for these same reactions. All measured quasi-elastic functions decrease smoothly with energy although the rate of decrease is different for each reaction. The first differential with respect to energy of the quasi-elastic excitation function reflects the distribution of barriers for each reaction. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  3. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  4. Le principe de souveraineté à l’épreuve des nouvelles formes d’administration internationale de territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Delcourt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le concept de souveraineté a fait l’objet de de critiques touchant à la fois ses fondements doctrinaux et ses applications concrètes. L’objectif de cette contribution est de démontrer qu’il serait pourtant prématuré de le remiser au rang des accessoires de la science politique. L’analyse des « nouvelles » formes d’administration internationale de territoires en donne une illustration ­dans la mesure où le concept de souveraineté s’avère être un critère particulièrement pertinent pour évaluer la portée politique et les effets juridiques des interventions extérieures. L’utilité du recours au concept de souveraineté, sur un plan méthodologique, apparaîtra sans doute un peu paradoxale puisqu’il permet de qualifier des situations dans lesquelles il n’existe pas réellement un pouvoir souverain. C’est pourquoi, la seconde partie de la contribution s’interroge sur l’opportunité d’utiliser le concept de gouvernance internationale, un concept que l’on présente généralement comme mieux adapté aux réalités du monde contemporain. Une telle substitution, justifiée le plus souvent par un pragmatisme de bon aloi, est aussi considérée comme plus susceptible de contribuer à la consolidation des principes démocratiques dans les pays placés sous administration internationale. Quoi qu’il en soit, il apparaît évident que les problèmes méthodologiques que soulève l’utilisation du concept de souveraineté et de gouvernance internationale, sont éminemment liés à des positionnements normatifs sur lesquels il est difficile de faire l’impasse.

  5. Complex quantum trajectories for barrier scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bradley Allen

    We have directed much attention towards developing quantum trajectory methods which can accurately predict the transmission probabilities for a variety of quantum mechanical barrier scattering processes. One promising method involves solving the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Derivative Propagation Method (DPM). We present this method, termed complex valued DPM (CVDPM(n)). CVDPM(n) has been successfully employed in the Lagrangian frame to accurately compute transmission probabilities on 'thick' one dimensional Eckart and Gaussian potential surfaces. CVDPM(n) is able to reproduce accurate results with a much lower order of approximation than is required by real valued quantum trajectory methods, from initial wave packet energies ranging from the tunneling case (Eo = 0) to high energy cases (twice the barrier height). We successfully extended CVDPM(n) to two-dimensional problems (one translational degree of freedom representing an Eckart or Gaussian barrier coupled to a vibrational degree of freedom) in the Lagrangian framework with great success. CVDPM helps to explain why barrier scattering from "thick" barriers is a much more well posed problem than barrier scattering from "thin" barriers. Though results in these two cases are in very good agreement with grid methods, the search for an appropriate set of initial conditions (termed an 'isochrone) from which to launch the trajectories leads to a time-consuming search problem that is reminiscent of the root-searching problem from semi-classical dynamics. In order to circumvent the isochrone problem, we present CVDPM(n) equations of motion which are derived and implemented in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian frame for a metastable potential as well as the Eckart and Gaussian surfaces. In this way, the isochrone problem can be circumvented but at the cost of introducing other computational difficulties. In order to understand why CVDPM may give better transmission probabilities than real valued

  6. Stabilite magnetohydrodynamique des cuves d'electrolyse: Aspects physiques et idees nouvelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, David

    Industrial production of primary aluminum by means of electrolysis of alumina through the Hall--Heroult process raises magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability problems in physics. In aluminum reduction cells, a thin layer of electrolytic bath lies on top of a liquid aluminum layer. Magnetic forces acting on the liquids tend to amplify motions of the aluminum--electrolyte interface, thus limiting the process stability and efficiency. We review and comment the established understanding of the MHD of reduction cells, with a particular focus on the metal pad roll instability. Next, we discuss from a physical standpoint a few specific aspects such as the factors that determine the electric current distribution and how a horizontal gradient of the vertical magnetic field affects already known instabilities. We describe the numerical method that we devised to simulate instabilities in reduction cells, and thus uncover a new MHD instability caused by the large eddies generally observed in operating cells. We explain how power supplied by the magnetic force is converted to radial wave motion through the action of centrifugal and Coriolis forces. We finally study different control scenarios for the electrolysis current supplied to the cell by the anodes and thus show that the intensity of the current deflection inside the cell can be considerably reduced by varying the electric potential in such a way as to limit the current fluctuations at the anodes, which allows to slow down the development of MHD instabilities. Keywords. magnetohydrodynamics, waves, instabilities, linearization, numerical simulation, Saint-Venant, magnetostatics, electric current, aluminum reduction.

  7. Tearing Down Disciplinary Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    1988-05-01

    Profesor Hannes Alfvén's life-long battle against scientific narrow-mindedness and parochial approaches to the solution of scientific problems is well known and deeply appreciated by this author. In this article the new interdisciplinary trends in science are critically examined and the psychological impacts of crumbling disciplinary barriers on the participating scientists are analyzed. Several examples of interdisciplinary research programs are discussed and some thoughts on the structural reform of scientific organizations, agencies, and universities needed to face these trends are given.

  8. THE STUDY OF BARRIERS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Gorji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the barriers to individual entrepreneurship as well as comparing them in men and women population. This study was applied, correlation-survey method. Using field method, the data are collected from 113 men entrepreneurs and 65 women entrepreneurs. One questionnaire whose validity and reliability is verified by content and Cranach’s  methods is also used to collect the research data. To analyze the data, T-test and ANOVA are used. The results indicated that there is a meaningful difference between individual and environmental barriers to entrepreneurship and order of effectiveness of barriers in men and women.

  9. Barriers to entry : abolishing the barriers to understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Keppler, Jan Horst

    2009-01-01

    BARRIERS TO ENTRY: ABOLISHING THE BARRIERS TO UNDERSTANDING by Jan-Horst Keppler Professor of economics Université Paris – Dauphine, LEDa, and Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, PHARE Port.: (+33 6) 77 81 37 46; Email: . Abstract The concept of a barrier to entry has been discussed least since Bain (1956) with important contributions by Spence (1977), Dixit (1980) or Milgrom and Roberts (1982). The more recent discussion is synth...

  10. Optimum Barrier Height for SiC Schottky Barrier Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abd El-Latif; Alaa El-Din Sayed Hafez

    2013-01-01

    The study of barrier height control and optimization for Schottky barrier diode (SBD) from its physical parameters have been introduced using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. SBD is the rectifying barrier for electrical conduction across the metal semiconductor (MS) junction and, therefore, is of vital importance to the successful operation of any semiconductor device. 4H-SiC is used as a semiconductor material for its good electrical characteristics with high-power semiconductor ...

  11. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  12. Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    \\item[Background] The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. \\item[Purpose] We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and mass parameters. \\item[Methods] The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures ...

  13. Despite Barriers, Education Providers, Health Professionals, and Students Perceive ELearning to Be an Effective Method of Education A review of:Childs, Sue, Elizabeth Blenkinsopp, Amanda Hall, and Graham Walton. “Effective E‐Learning for Health Professionals and Students—Barriers and Their Solutions. A Systematic Review of the Literature—Findings from the HeXL Project.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 22.S2 (2005: 20-32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine barriers or problems and possible solutions related to elearning, and to determine the effectiveness of e‐learning among health professionals and students. Design – Systematic review of qualitative literature, in addition to interviews and questionnaires, to allow for triangulation of the data. Setting – “The HeXL Project: Surmounting the Barriers to NHS E-Learning in the North-East.” The National Health Service (NHS in the North-East of England, from May 2003 to March 2004. Subjects – A systematic review of 57 qualitative studies on health and e‐learning, phone interviews with 13 managers and trainers, and 149 questionnaires completed by users and non‐users of e‐learning. All participants of the interviews and questionnaires were staff and students of the NHS in the North‐East of England. Methods – The study used three methods to collect data to meet the objectives of the study. For the systematic review, the databases AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine, ASSIA (Applied Social Sciences, CINAHL (Nursing and Allied Health, ERIC (Education, HMIC (health Management, LISA (Library and Information Sciences, PubMed (Medline, and Web of Science were searched using the terms “e‐learning” or “computer assisted instruction”, and “health”, and “barriers.” Any type of research or comprehensive literature review was selected from the results to be included in analysis. Based on the findings from the systematic review, a semi‐structured interview schedule was developed for use in phone interviews to be conducted with managers or e‐learning trainers. Also based on the systematic review, questionnaires were developed and distributed to users and non‐users of e‐learning. The three methods permitted triangulation of the data. Main results – The search produced 161 results of which 57 met the methodological criteria. The 57 studies categorized elearning barriers and solutions into eight

  14. Multilayer barrier films comprising nitrogen spacers between free-standing barrier layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granstrom, Jimmy Erik

    The air sensitivity of organic electronic devices has delayed the broad commercialization of the printed "plastics" electronics technology. The vacuum deposition methods used to fabricate multi-layers which fulfill the encapsulation requirements for plastic electronic devices are complex and expensive. Fully printed "plastic" electronics requires the development of encapsulation architectures which comprise solution deposited barriers and/or low-cost free-standing barrier films based on polymers, e.g. poly ethylene terephthalate (PET). One way to reach this goal is the insertion of contaminant-free (e.g. pure N2) gas-phase spacers between free-standing barrier films in a multilayer structure. The spacers themselves do not exhibit any barrier properties (diffusion of gas permeants in a gas phase is orders of magnitude faster than in a solid), but they delay the attainment of steady state. The spacer also reduces the chemical potential gradient across downstream barrier layers during the transient regime, reducing permeation rate to the device. Furthermore, if sorption is not fully equilibrated and introduces a kinetic barrier to transport, the additional sorption and desorption steps needed for permeant to reach the device may also slow the steady-state permeation rate. Encapsulation architectures utilizing both single-matrix (without nitrogen spacers) and multiple-matrix structures (with nitrogen spacers) were fabricated in this study, including Russian Doll structures utilizing pairs of free-standing barrier films and epoxy seals separated by nitrogen spacers. This structure enables the use of low-cost epoxy to attach two or more free-standing barrier films to a substrate with improved barrier performance. The performance of various Russian Doll encapsulations was evaluated with the calcium thin film optical transmission test, showing improved performance of the Russian doll configuration relative to a non-nested barrier/spacer architecture, and demonstrating that

  15. Energy and spin dependence of heavy ion potential and near barrier fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the analysis by Mohanty et al., the energy and spin dependence of the barrier height was parameterized as a three segment linear dependence of barrier height on the radial kinetic energy at the fusion barrier; the low and high energy regions have constant barriers while in the middle region the barrier height rises linearly. The parameters specifying this barrier dependence are varied to fit the experimental cross sections. The spin distributions are also reproduced by this process. The method essentially goes for the best fit values for the three linear segments and hence, does not preserve the information on possible inherent structures in the fusion excitation function

  16. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    , indicating some loss of reductive capacity within the aquifer. The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) was requested to perform the following activities: (1) evaluate the most probable condition(s) that has led to the presence of Cr(VI) in 12 different barrier wells (i.e. premature loss of reductive capacity), (2) recommend methods for determining the cause of the problem, (3) recommend methods for evaluating the magnitude of the problem, (4) recommend practicable method(s) for mending the barrier that involves a long-term solution, and (5) recommend methods for extending the barrier to the northeast (e.g., changing injection procedure, changing or augmenting the injected material). Since the March 2004 workshop, a decision has been made to place a hold on the barrier extension until more is known about the cause of the problem. However, the report complies with the original request for information on all of the above activities, but focuses on determining the cause of the problem and mending of the existing barrier.

  17. Surface barrier for tritium permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To apply the surface barrier to reduce hydrogen permeation, the influence of the surface barrier on both the permeation and retention has been investigated considering physical and chemical stability of the barrier in fusion environment. Since energetic hydrogen from the plasma not only impinges directly into subsurface but also removes the front surface barrier, only the back surface barrier works reliably. Oxides, carbide and nitride are candidates as the barrier but their mechanical as well as chemical stability is an important concern, because very large thermal gradient and thermal cycling in fusion environment could enhance the crack initiation and exfoliation of the barrier. Therefore an appropriate barrier which is stable under a particular operating condition must be developed. The most reliable way to reduce the permeation is to use a metallic layer, but it must be rather thick. It should be noted that the back surface barrier to suppress the permeation inevitably increases the retention. Therefore an optimization between the permeation decrease and retention increase is necessary. An alternative way to reduce the plasma or ion driven permeation is to decrease the recombination coefficient at the back surface. However, large uncertainty in the observed recombination coefficients does not allow us to rely on the recombination limited process and further work is needed. 20 refs., 6 figs

  18. Tradition et innovations esthétiques dans la nouvelle yéménite contemporaine Tradition and aesthetic innovations in contemporary Yemeni short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Jenvrin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le nouveau recueil de Mu/hammad ‘Abd al-Wakîl Jâzim témoigne d’une transformation capitale dans la littérature yéménite contemporaine :  le passage d’une forme expérimentale en rupture avec les règles de la nouvelle traditionnelle et avec la réalité yéménite, à une autre forme plus accomplie dans laquelle les principes traditionnels de la nouvelle sont ici associés sans complexe aux formes renouvelées du genre.  La nouvelle intitulée Le maître des vautours, présente, dans une structure narrative traditionnelle, un conte fantastique moderne qui mêle réalisme, symbolisme et poésie, et dans lequel l’auteur traite à sa manière les thèmes littéraires contemporains de la dualité du rêve et de la réalité, du désenchantement et de l’enfermement perpétuel.  C’est notamment en s’inspirant de la langue, des pratiques orales, des croyances et de l’imaginaire populaire, que l’auteur, soucieux de donner un ancrage au texte dans la réalité yéménite, transfigure cette expérience existentielle moderne.The latest collection of short stories by Mu/hammad 'Abd al-Wakîl signals a major shift in contemporary Yemeni literature: from an experimental form, breaking away from both traditional short story conventions and Yemeni reality, to another, more accomplished form, unabashedly mixing traditional short story principles with renewed genre forms. The short story entitled The Vulture Master presents us, from within a traditional narrative structure, with a modern fantasy tale blending in realism, symbolism and poetry, and where the writer deals in his own way with such contemporary literary themes as disenchantment, perpetual captivity, and the duality of dream and reality. Drawing his inspiration from language itself, oral practices, beliefs and popular imagery, the writer, seeking to set his tale firmly in Yemeni reality, manages to transfigure this modern existential experiment.

  19. Methodes de calcul des forces aerodynamiques pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskri, Djallel Eddine

    L'aeroservoelasticite est un domaine ou interagissent la structure flexible d'un avion, l'aerodynamique et la commande de vol. De son cote, la commande du vol considere l'avion comme une structure rigide et etudie l'influence du systeme de commande sur la dynamique de vol. Dans cette these, nous avons code trois nouvelles methodes d'approximation de forces aerodynamiques: Moindres carres corriges, Etat minimal corrige et Etats combines. Dans les deux premieres methodes, les erreurs d'approximation entre les forces aerodynamiques approximees par les methodes classiques et celles obtenues par les nouvelles methodes ont les memes formes analytiques que celles des forces aerodynamiques calculees par LS ou MS. Quant a la troisieme methode, celle-ci combine les formulations des forces approximees avec les methodes standards LS et MS. Les vitesses et frequences de battement et les temps d'executions calcules par les nouvelles methodes versus ceux calcules par les methodes classiques ont ete analyses.

  20. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world....... This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  1. PHARMACOVIGILANCE: BARRIERS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARMA S. K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance is a new discipline which deals with adverse drug or any drug related problems. Pharmacovigilance programme was not bed of roses but its path is laid with challenges and barriers. It is facing obstacles from deficiency from professional health personal to web-based sale of drugs, counterfeit drug to self-medication, etc. It is an integral part of the health sector and identification and reporting of adverse drug effects will have a positive impact on the public health. Improvement in knowledge in pharmacovigilance and communication from the top level to the grass-root level in the health sector will help in proper implementation of the programme. Patient should be educated to report any adverse effects after taking drug and stop relaying on acquiring information related to drugs in web. Proper detection, reporting and analysis would help to implement the programme for the betterment of society.

  2. Exposure, Uptake, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Lanone, Sophie

    The nanotechnologies market is booming, e.g., in the food industry (powder additives, etc.) and in medical applications (drug delivery, prosthetics, diagnostic imaging, etc.), but also in other industrial sectors, such as sports, construction, cosmetics, and so on. In this context, with an exponential increase in the number of current and future applications, it is particularly important to evaluate the problem of unintentional (i.e., non-medical) exposure to manufactured nanoparticles (so excluding nanoparticles found naturally in the environment). In this chapter, we begin by discussing the various parameters that must be taken into account in any serious assessment of exposure to man-made nanoparticles. We then list the potential routes by which nanoparticles might enter into the organism, and outline the mechanisms whereby they could get past the different biological barriers. Finally, we describe the biodistribution of nanoparticles in the organism and the way they are eliminated.

  3. Countermeasures and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  4. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  5. URGENCES NOUVELLE VERSION

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The table of emergency numbers that appeared in Bulletin 10/2002 is out of date. The updated version provided by the Medical Service appears on the following page. Please disregard the previous version. URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVAPATIENT NOT FIT TO BE MOVED: Call your family doctor Or SOS MEDECINS (24H/24H) 748 49 50 Or ASSOC. OF GENEVA DOCTORS (7H-23H) 322 20 20 PATIENT CAN BE MOVED: HOPITAL CANTONAL 24 Micheli du Crest 372 33 11 382 33 11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy Donzé 382 68 18 382 45 55 MATERNITY 24 Micheli du Crest 382 68 16 382 33 11 OPHTALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382 84 00 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719 61 11 CENTRE MEDICAL DE MEYRIN Champs Fréchets 719 74 00 URGENCES : FIRE BRIGADE 118 FIRE BRIGADE CERN 767 44 44 BESOIN URGENT D'AMBULANCE (GENEVE ET VAUD) : 144 POLICE 117 ANTI-POISON CENTRE 24H/24H 01 251 51 510 EUROPEAN EMERGENCY CALL: 112 FRANCE PATIENT NOT FIT TO BE MOVED: call your family doctor PATIENT CAN BE MOVED: ST. JULIE...

  6. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  7. TMX-U Tandem-Mirror thermal-barrier experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal-barrier experiments have been carried out in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). Measurements of nonambipolar and ambipolar radial transport show that these transport processes, as well as end losses, can be controlled at modest densities and durations. Central-cell heating methods using ion-cyclotron heating (ICH) and neutral-beam injection have been demonstrated. Potential measurements with recently developed methods indicate that deep thermal barriers can be established

  8. Application of dielectric surface barrier discharge for food storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yassine BELLEBNA; Rabah OUIDDIR; Said NEMMICH; Amar TILMATINE

    2015-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a powerful oxidizer and has much higher disinfection potential than chlorine and other disinfectants. Ozone finds its application mainly in water treatment and air purification Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) method has proved to be the best method to produce ozone. Dried air or oxygen is forced to pass through a 1-2 mm gap. The aim of this study was to show that disinfection system using ozone generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is an effective ...

  9. S. Crépon. La nouvelle extrême droite, enquête sur les jeunes militants du Front national

    OpenAIRE

    Générat, Émilie

    2009-01-01

    Le Front national (FN) progresse depuis la fin des années quatre-vingt. Cette progression a souvent été expliquée par des causes socio-économiques. Pourtant en 2002, lorsque Jean-Marie Le Pen arrive au deuxième tour des élections présidentielles, la France est en période de croissance économique. Dans La nouvelle extrême droite, enquête sur les jeunes militants du Front national, Sylvain Crépon donne la parole aux jeunes militants de ce parti considéré « pas comme les autres », afin de recuei...

  10. Temps éclatés, urgences et nouvelles technologies : quels effets sur le travail et les travailleurs ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le travail et son organisation sont traversés par des processus d’accélération, de densification et de désynchronisation temporelle. La pression des délais et de la vitesse d’exécution semble avoir investi de larges secteurs professionnels. Adaptabilité, mobilité, flexibilité, réactivité, etc., sont devenus les maitres mots des nouvelles formes d’organisation, au gré des modes managériales et gestionnaires. Ces temps du travail éclatés, atomisés, et désynchronisés donnent de plus en plus l’im...

  11. Etude d'une nouvelle famille d'aluminosilicates de baryum et strontium dopés à l'europium : structure, fluorescence, phosphorescence et thermoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Grégoire

    2008-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la recherche de matériaux fluorescents et/ou phosphorescents à émission blanche, une nouvelle famille d'aluminosilicate de baryum/strontium dopée à l'europium (Ba/Sr)13-xAl22+2xSi10+2xO66:Eu a été étudiée. La première partie de ce mémoire rappelle les mécanismes d'émissions de fluorescence de l'ion Eu2+ et les processus de thermoluminescence (TL). La seconde partie est quant-à-elle consacrée aux conditions de synthèse des matériaux étudiés, à leur caractérisation structurale ...

  12. La parole de notre maison. Discours et cérémonies kanak aujourd’hui (Nouvelle-Calédonie), de Denis Monnerie

    OpenAIRE

    MAYER, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Denis Monnerie déploie dans un livre très complet la relation d’« événements » qui s’annonçait dans le numéro du Journal des Océanistes n° 117 de 2003 (pp. 213-231) consacré au cent cinquantenaire de la colonisation française de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Il rappelle fort opportunément (p. 52) que le terme « événements » (au pluriel) est l’euphémisme préféré du gouvernement français et de son histoire officielle pour dénommer des guerres coloniales ou des épisodes tragiques dont on tente d’exorci...

  13. Phénomène des branchies orange dans les élevages de crevettes en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Barri, Kiam; Pham, Dominique; Wabete, Nelly; Boulo, Viviane; Lignot, Jean-herve; Royer, Florence; Hubert, Morgane; Blockmans, Bernard; Pierrot, Thomas; Laugier, Thierry; Tostin, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    L'aquaculture est une activité importante du paysage économique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie., La crevette Bleue du Pacifique, Litopenaeus stylirostris est aujourd’hui l’espèce cible, élevée en semi-intensif, dans des bassins de terre de 4 à 10 hectares. Une coloration orange prononcée au niveau des branchies, comparable à celle observée suite à un stress hypoxique alors qu’aucun déficit en oxygène n’est constaté, est apparue récemment engendrant une décote du produit à la vente et donc un risque...

  14. Yoram Mouchenik, L’enfant vulnérable. Psychothérapie transculturelle en pays kanak (Nouvelle-Calédonie)

    OpenAIRE

    Jonckers, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Ce livre s’inscrit dans le champ de l’ethnopsychiatrie, tel qu’il a été notamment constitué dans le domaine francophone par les approches successives de Georges Devereux, Henri Collomb, Tobie Nathan et Marie-Rose Moro – dont Yoram Mouchenik est proche. L’auteur y présente le travail clinique qu’il a mené sous la forme d’entretiens familiaux à domicile sur les îles Loyauté, en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Centré sur la notion de vulnérabilité de l’enfant, l’ouvrage en reconstruit le contexte symbolique...

  15. A la recherche de l’insaisissable dynamique de pauvreté au Burkina Faso. Une nouvelle évidence empirique

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    2005-01-01

    La recherche contribue au débat relatif à la dynamique de pauvreté au Burkina Faso au cours de la période 1994-2003, et présente de nouvelles évidences empiriques en termes monétaire et non monétaire. En premier lieu, le débat quant à l’appréhension de la dynamique de pauvreté suggère de multiples questionnements : (i) la légitimité d’une approche macro-économique de la pauvreté par rapport à une investigation micro-économique est théoriquement et empiriquement non fondée ; (ii) la robustesse...

  16. Die Menschen der Virginia Company of London und der Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France – zwei frühneuzeitliche Handelskompanien im Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hense

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about the European overseas expansion to North America during the 17th century. Therefore it is remarkable that there has never been a detailed comparison between the English and French beginnings in this world-changing adventure before. After suffering considerable failures, both nations tried to use modern age chartered trading companies to fulfill their dreams of colonization and trade in the New World. This article tries to answer some significant questions by focussing on the social aspect of the charters of the Virginia Company of London (1606 and the Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France (1627. Who founded the companies? Who were the members of those companies? And how could the membership be acquired? Finally the article provides insight into the great question what was ‘typically’ English and ‘typically’ French in the membership of the companies.

  17. Nouvelle filière technologique pour micro-commutateurs parallèles capacitifs micro-ondes sur membrane diélectrique

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbia, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Ce mémoire traite de l'élaboration d'une nouvelle filière technologique pour micro-commutateurs parallèles capacitifs micro-ondes sur membrane diélectrique. Les micro-commutateurs sont des ponts à air métalliques actionnés électrostatiquement et structurés par un micro-usinage de surface. Un micro-usinage de volume est réalisé pour obtenir une membrane sur laquelle les circuits fabriqués sont faibles pertes. Le chapitre I présente le procédé technologique global utilisé. Dans un premier temps...

  18. L'auteure mise en scène et mise à nu. Sur les fausses confessions de La nouvelle pornographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Papillon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L'inclusion dans La nouvelle pornographie (2000 du nom propre de l'auteure est perçue comme une implication qui la met en danger. La métalepse est utilisée pour inscrire le roman dans la mouvance des confessions sexuelles et se jouer de leurs codes. Comme le discours publicitaire, Marie Nimier utilise la rhétorique pornographique afin de « vendre » un contenu domestique : la pornographie de surface dissimule un récit qui réinscrit l'amour comme moteur du désir féminin. Nimier joue de la métalepse pour déjouer les scènes pornographiques et séduire le lecteur par l'intelligence de ses manipulations plutôt que par ses dévoilements.

  19. Poison, médecine et nouvelles technologies dans la série télévisée Doctor Who (2005-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, François-Ronan

    2014-01-01

    International audience L'article étudie différents épisodes de la série télévisée Doctor Who dont l'organisation en réseau, grâce à la structure narrative de la série, permet de développer un discours critique sur les nouvelles technologies. Il montre de quelle manière la série télévisée présente certains progrès en nanotechnologies médicales de façon très négative, grâce à des équivalences visuelles avec les virus et le poison.

  20. Les nouvelles perspectives d'analyse spatiale des nuisances sonores. Le projet SIGAUR (Système d'Information Géographique et Acoustique URbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Quesseveur

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ce rapport présente un projet de recherche sur l’intégration d’une couche d’information de nuisances acoustiques dans un système d’information géographique.Après un développement sur l’état de la pollution et des moyens aujourd’hui en vigueur pour la combattre, on va montrer les nouvelles perspectives offertes pour l’analyse spatiale du bruit. En confrontant cette nuisance aux enjeux du territoire, elle peut devenir un véritable critère de décision en aménagement du territoire.Ce projet résulte d’une collaboration entre le Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment C.S.T.B. et l’équipe " S.I.G. " de l'Institut de Géographie Alpine (IGA

  1. Sûreté de fonctionnement des convertisseurs - Nouvelles structures de redondances pour onduleurs sécurisés à tolérance de pannes

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Zhifeng

    2011-01-01

    Au sein d'un convertisseur la défaillance d'un composant de puissance est un événement critique tant par le risque d'explosion du boitier et sa propagation au sein du système (forte énergie stockée dans l'alimentation) que par l'interruption de service qui en découle (systèmes embarqués, systèmes de production en flux tendu). Ce mémoire de thèse propose un ensemble de solutions nouvelles portant sur la problématique de l'isolement ultime de défauts "derniers secours" d'une part, et sur la con...

  2. Recherche de nouvelle physique dans la topologie à jets et énergie transverse manquante avec le détecteur D0 au TeVatron.

    OpenAIRE

    Makovec, Nikola

    2006-01-01

    Même si le modèle standard de la physique des particules est en parfait accord avec les mesures expérimentales, il n'est certainement pas la théorie ultime décrivant les particules et leurs interactions. Des signaux de nouvelle physique, pouvant être dus à la production par paire de leptoquarks se désintégrant en un quark et un neutrino ou à la production par paire de stops se désintégrant en un quark charmé et un neutralino (supposé être la particule supersymétrique la plus légère), ont été ...

  3. Synthèses et propriétés de mélanges de nouvelles molécules polyfonctionnelles lipopeptidiques tensioactives

    OpenAIRE

    Rondel, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Les tensioactifs sont des produits chimiques largement utilisés dans le monde. Dans un contexte de développement durable, il est important de développer selon les principes de la chimie verte de nouvelles molécules amphiphiles issues de substances naturelles renouvelables. L'association d'un acide aminé ou d'un peptide et d'un composé à longue chaîne permet l'obtention de molécules ayant une activité de surface élevée. Nous avons étudié et développé de nouveaux mélanges de tensioactifs obtenu...

  4. Factors associated with diet barriers in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Li; Leung, Doris Yin-ping; Sit, Janet Wing-hung; Li, Xiao-mei; Wu, Yu-Ning; Yang, Miao-yan; Gao, Cui-xia; Hui, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to investigate the diet barriers perceived by patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and examine the associations between diet barriers and sociodemographic characteristics, medical condition, and patient-centered variables. Methods Secondary subgroup analyses were conducted based on the responses of 246 adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes from a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Diet barriers were captured by the Diet Barriers subscale ...

  5. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...

  6. Les nouvelles formes de la communication autour des projets urbains : modalités, impacts, enjeux pour un débat participatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Bailleul

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous observons les évolutions que l’usage des nouvelles technologies implique dans la communication autour des projets urbains. Notre analyse des nouvelles modalités qu’Internet a pu importer dans la participation des habitants aux projets urbains (partie 1 nous pousse à observer, plus spécifiquement, les modifications qui ont trait, dans ce contexte, à la nature et au statut de l’information sur l’espace. La démocratisation des techniques de représentation de l’espace par ordinateur (3D, simulation entraîne le recours quasi systématique à des images virtuelles du projet, d’une grande qualité (partie 2, mais dont on ne connaît que très peu les impacts sur la perception et la réception que les habitants font du projet (partie 3.In this article, we observe the evolutions involved by the use of new technology in the communication around urban projects. Our analysis of the new modalities, Internet was able to import in the participation of inhabitants in urban projects (chapter 1 urges us to examine, more specifically, the modifications concerning the nature and the status of the information about space. The democratization of computer-based spatial representation’s tools (3D, simulation entails more and more systematic recourse to virtual images of the project, with high definition (chapter 2. But, nowadays, we still know little about their impacts on the perception and the reception, the inhabitants make of the project (chapter 3.

  7. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-04-23

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  8. Nouvelles approches en theorie du champ moyen dynamique: le cas du pouvoir thermoelectrique et celui de l'effet orbital d'un champ magnetique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois

    , cette approche donne une bonne representation de S lorsque le systeme devient coherent. Les calculs montrent aussi que la formule Kelvin est precise lorsque la fonction spectrale des electrons devient incoherente, soit a plus haute temperature. Dans la limite Kelvin, S est essentiellement l'entropie par particule, tel que propose il y a longtemps. Nos resultats demontrent ainsi que la vision purement entropique de S est la bonne dans le regime incoherent, alors que dans le regime coherent, l'approche a frequence infinie est meilleure. Nous avons utilise une methode a la fine pointe, soit le Monte-Carlo quantique en temps continu pour resoudre la DMFT. Pour permettre une exploration rapide du diagramme de phase, nous avons du developper une nouvelle version de la methode des perturbations iterees pour qu'elle soit applicable aussi a forte interaction au-dela de la valeur critique de la transition de Mott. Un autre sujet a aussi ete aborde. L'effet orbital du champ magnetique dans les systemes electroniques fortement correles est une question tres importante et peu developpee. Cela est d'autant plus essentiel depuis la decouverte des oscillations quantiques dans les supraconducteurs a haute temperature (haut- Tc). Par desir de developper une methode la moins biaisee possible, nous avons derive la DMFT lorsqu'un champ se couplant a l'operateur energie cinetique par la substitution de Peierls est present. Ce type d'approche est necessaire pour comprendre entre autres l'effet de la physique de Mott sur des phenomenes tels que les oscillations quantiques. Nous avons obtenu un resultat tres important en demontrant rigoureusement que la relation d'auto-coherence de la DMFT et le systeme intermediaire d'impurete quantique restent les memes. L'effet du champ peut etre contenu dans la fonction de Green locale, ce qui constitue la grande difference avec le cas habituel. Ceci permet de continuer a utiliser les solutionneurs d'impuretes standards, qui sont de plus en plus puissants

  9. Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for the larger molecules of water. Fiscal Year 1988 studies focused on the selection and formulation of the most promising asphalt materials for further testing in small-tube lysimeters. Results of laboratory-scale formulation and hydraulic conductivity tests led to the selection of a rubberized asphalt material and an admixture of 24 wt% asphalt emulsion and concrete sand as the two barriers for lysimeter testing. Eight lysimeters, four each containing the two asphalt treatments, were installed in the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility on the Hanford Site. The lysimeter tests allow the performance of these barrier formulations to be evaluated under more natural environmental conditions

  10. Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2009-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... Networks is discussed. Important advantages of safety-barrier diagrams as compared to other graphical risk-analysis methods are, firstly, the relative simplicity that supports communication with non-expert stakeholders and, secondly, the focus on deliberately inserted safety systems that supports the...... management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  11. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy Paul; Baldwin Helen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern Englan...

  12. Continuously monitored barrier options under Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Mijatovic; Martijn Pistorius

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for pricing barrier options in one-dimensional Markov models. The approach rests on the construction of an approximating continuous-time Markov chain that closely follows the dynamics of the given Markov model. We illustrate the method by implementing it for a range of models, including a local Levy process and a local volatility jump-diffusion. We also provide a convergence proof and error estimates for this algorithm.

  13. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  14. Development of engineered barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and 316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  15. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  16. Construction of Flexible Subterranean Hydraulic Barriers in Soil and Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the management of radioactive waste sites, there is sometimes a need to divert infiltration water; or contain or divert contaminated groundwater. This paper discusses several experimental techniques based on super permeating molten wax. Many of the methods are suited to form both vertical or horizontal barriers in-situ in the ground. The first method is based on thermally controlled permeation grouting between drilled holes that produces a very thick barrier in soil, rock, or even fractured rock up to 600 meters deep. The second method is a variation on jet grouting for producing a thin low cost barrier in soil. Also discussed is a technique for forming an infiltration barrier within the surface soil over an underground tank farm and a method for encapsulating a buried waste without excavation. These new methods can produce durable subterranean barriers of high integrity. These barriers are made with a special malleable wax that soaks into the soil or rock matrix. The wax is far more impermeable than clay or cement and can flex and stretch in response to soil movements. The wax contains no water and is not prone to damage from soil moisture changes. (authors)

  17. Clamshell excavation of a permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfetta, Antonio Di; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2006-06-01

    Nowadays, permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are one of the most widespread techniques for the remediation of contaminated aquifers. Over the past 10 years, the use of iron-based PRBs has evolved from innovative to accepted standard practice for the treatment of a variety of groundwater contaminants (ITRC in: Permeable reactive barriers: lessons learned/new directions. The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, Permeable Reactive Barriers Team 2005). Although, a variety of excavation methods have been developed, backhoe excavators are often used for the construction of PRBs. The aim of this study is to describe the emplacement of a full-scale PRB and the benefits deriving from the use of a crawler crane equipped with a hydraulic grab (also known as clamshell excavator) in the excavation phases. The studied PRB was designed to remediate a chlorinated hydrocarbons plume at an old industrial landfill site, in Avigliana, near the city of Torino, in Italy. The continuous reactive barrier was designed to be 120 m long, 13 m deep, and 0.6 m thick. The installation of the barrier was accomplished using a clamshell for the excavation of the trench and a guar-gum slurry to support the walls. The performance of this technique was outstanding and allowed the installation of the PRB in 7 days. The degree of precision of the excavation was very high because of the intrinsic characteristics of this excavation tool and of the use of a concrete curb to guide the hydraulic grab. Moreover, the adopted technique permitted a saving of bioslurry thus minimizing the amount of biocide required.

  18. Tritium/hydrogen barrier development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the hydrogen permeation barriers which can be applied to the structural metals used in fusion power plants is presented. Both implanted and chemically available hydrogen isotopes must be controlled in fusion plants. The need for permeation barriers appears strongest in Pb-17Li blanket designs, although barriers are also necessary for other blanket and coolant systems. Barriers which provide greater than a 1000- fold reduction in the permeation of structural metals are desired. In laboratory experiments, aluminide and titanium ceramic coatings provide permeation reduction factors (PRFs) of 1000 to over 100000 with a wide range of scatter. The rate-controlling mechanism for hydrogen permeation through these barriers may be related to the number and type of defects in the barriers. Although these barriers appear robust and resistant to liquid metal corrosion, irradiation tests which simulate blanket environments result in very low PRFs in comparison with laboratory experiments, i.e. less than 150. It is anticipated from fundamental research activities that the radiation- and electric-field-induced enhancement of hydrogen diffusion in oxides may contribute to the lower PRFs during in-reactor experiments. (orig.)

  19. Tritium/hydrogen barrier development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of hydrogen permeation barriers that can be applied to structural metals used in fusion power plants is presented. Both implanted and chemically available hydrogen isotopes must be controlled in fusion plants. The need for permeation barriers appears strongest in Li17-Pb blanket designs, although barriers also appear necessary for other blanket and coolant systems. Barriers that provide greater than a 1000 fold reduction in the permeation of structural metals are desired. In laboratory experiments, aluminide and titanium ceramic coatings provide permeation reduction factors, PRFS, from 1000 to over 100,000 with a wide range of scatter. The rate-controlling mechanism for hydrogen permeation through these barriers may be related to the number and type of defects in the barriers. Although these barriers appear robust and resistant to liquid metal corrosion, irradiation tests which simulate blanket environments result in very low PRFs in comparison to laboratory experiments, i.e., <150. It is anticipated from fundamental research activities that the REID enhancement of hydrogen diffusion in oxides may contribute to the lower permeation reduction factors during in-reactor experiments

  20. Seismic impact on engineered barrier system of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic impacts on the engineered barrier system of the geological disposal were examined by means of the three-dimensional elastic-plastic seismic response analysis based on effective stress method. In this study, it was evaluated against the largest ground motions recorded in Japan. The numerical analysis results showed that the engineered barrier system and the surrounding bedrock were shaken together and it had sufficient robustness for the failure state. Thus we confirmed the low possibility of a reduction in the mechanical stability of the engineered barrier system due to the ground motion. (author)

  1. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  2. A LOOK AT CULTURAL BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. VRÂNCEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global market allows each individual to work in foreign countries. This fact is a great opportunity for business development, but also puts into light the problem of cultural barriers. Ineffective cross-cultural communication and collaboration can harm employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A company with employees from different cultures must acknowledge and understand these barriers in order to overcome them and to obtain the desired performance. The present study aims to expose the cultural barriers encountered by foreigners in a multinational company from Romania.

  3. Barriers to the adoption of low carbon production: A multiple-case study of Chinese industrial firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study employs a multiple-case study method, identifies barriers to the adoption of low carbon production, and categorizes these barriers into four domains: structural, regulatory, cultural, and contextual. The two most frequently mentioned barriers were “lack of financial incentives to stimulate low carbon innovation” and “lack of a common definition of low carbon production”. The two least frequently mentioned barriers were “silos exist between planning and production” and “operational staff are often physically separated from planning staff, which isolates them from planning decisions”. Furthermore, contextual barriers were significantly related to structural and regulatory barriers, while regulatory barriers were significantly related to structural barriers. Larger firms tend to have a more structured organization and lower perceptions of the employment term barrier. However, larger structured organizations have been affected by a long history of a planning-oriented economy and hence tend to have inflexible hierarchical systems. In contrast, small firms have hierarchical systems with less effect on low carbon production than those of large enterprises. Another interesting trend is the direct size effect on cultural barriers, which is evident in a culture of risk aversion, as well as the lack of low carbon technology and the existence of silos between planning and production. - Highlights: • Barriers were categorized as structural, regulatory, cultural and contextual. • Contextual barriers were significantly related to structural and regulatory barriers. • Regulatory barriers were significantly related to structural barriers. • Firm size directly affected firm hierarchical systems and cultural barriers

  4. Conduction mechanism in highly doped β-Ga2O3(\\bar{2}01) single crystals grown by edge-defined film-fed growth method and their Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Toshiyuki; Harada, Kazuya; Koga, Yuta; Kasu, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Edge-defined fed-grown (\\bar{2}01) β-Ga2O3 single crystals with high electron concentration of 3.9 × 1018 cm-3 at 300 K were characterized by Hall effect measurement, and Schottky barrier diodes have been demonstrated. Electron mobility was as high as 74 cm2/(V·s) at 300 K regardless of the high doping concentration. The electron concentration did not change substantially in the low temperature below 160 K. This properties can be explained by the two-band model due to the inter-band conduction. On the Schottky barrier diodes, the rectification characteristics were clearly observed, and the current density of 96.8 A/cm2 at the forward voltage of 1.6 V was obtained.

  5. Gestion par projets et risques pour la santé psychologique au travail dans la nouvelle économie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Legault

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Y a-t-il des problèmes de santé mentale propres au travail dans la nouvelle économie ? Quoiqu’on puisse constater que le modèle de demande psychologique - autonomie décisionnelle de Karasek et Theorell- trouve aussi son application dans les milieux de travail qui empruntent cette forme, on observe, en fait, des formes particulières de ces facteurs dans la forme d’organisation du travail propre à la gestion par projets. Assimilables à « l’hypersollicitation par le client » comme il a été repéré par Christophe Dejours, ces formes ont été observées lors d’une enquête menée récemment sur la conciliation entre la vie privée et la vie professionnelle dans sept organisations montréalaises. La recherche qualitative a recueilli en tout le discours de 88 répondants distribués également selon le sexe et exerçant des fonctions liées au génie informatique. Ces observations permettent d’envisager une nuance au modèle théorique de la santé mentale ci-haut mentionné, visant à tenir compte des effets délétères d’une très grande latitude décisionnelle assortie de très grandes responsabilités chez des travailleurs hautement qualifiés.Are there distinct mental health problems among workers in the new economy? Although we may observe that the psychological demand - decision latitude model of Karakek and Theorell is appropriate and also finds its application in this type of workplace, we also notice some particular forms that these factors take in the management-by-project work organization model. Akin to the so-called "client’s hyper-demanding activity" as identified by Christophe Dejours, these forms were observed during a recent field study about balancing work and family in seven Montreal organizations. The qualitative study collected data from 88 individual interviews of information technology engineers, evenly distributed by gender. These observations allow a nuance of the above-mentioned theoretical

  6. La place du groupe de pairs dans l’intégration des nouvelles aides-soignantes dans les EHPAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Aubry

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une problématisation de l’intégration des aides-soignantes dans les organisations gériatriques de type EHPAD, en France, à partir du postulat théorique de l’habilitation, défini par Marcelle Stroobants. Devenir aide-soignante n’est pas uniquement le prolongement continu d’une formation, de l’acquisition d’un diplôme et de l’obtention d’un emploi. Le processus d’intégration des nouvelles aides-soignantes dans l’organisation est une étape informelle fondamentale au fait d’entrer dans le métier. À travers l’analyse de vingt-quatre entretiens biographiques, nous avons pu relever la contradiction entre les propos des acteurs, proposant une vision naturalisée du choix professionnel, et le récit de leur parcours professionnel. Ce décalage met en avant l’importance du processus de construction identitaire par le groupe de pairs. Les différentes approches sociologiques de la compétence ne proposent pas une vision aussi globale que celle de l’habilitation, qui permet un renversement de la perspective individualiste de formation. Dans le prolongement de cette théorie, nous insisterons ainsi sur le rôle central du jugement des pairs, attributif de compétence, pour ce métier fortement dominé socialement.The role of peer group in integration of new nursing’s aides in geriatric nursing homesThis paper proposes a problematization of the integration of nursing’s aides in organizations like geriatric nursing homes in France, from the theoretical premise of “habilitation”, defined by Marcelle Stroobants. Becoming a nursing’s aides not only the continuous extension of training, acquisition of a diploma and getting a job.The process of integrating new nursing’s aides in the organization is a fundamental informal stage in the fact of entering the profession.Through analysis of twenty-four biographical interviews, we could note the contradiction between what actors speech, offering a

  7. Experimental determination of dielectric barrier discharge capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, A V; Hoder, T; Koskulics, J; Schmidt, M; Brandenburg, R

    2012-07-01

    The determination of electrical parameters (such as instantaneous power, transferred charge, and gas gap voltage) in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors relies on estimates of key capacitance values. In the classic large-scale sinusoidal-voltage driven DBD, also known as silent or ozonizer discharge, capacitance values can be determined from charge-voltage (Q-V) plot, also called Lissajous figure. For miniature laboratory reactors driven by fast pulsed voltage waveforms with sub-microsecond rise time, the capacitance of the dielectric barriers cannot be evaluated from a single Q-V plot because of the limited applicability of the classical theory. Theoretical determination can be problematic due to electrode edge effects, especially in the case of asymmetrical electrodes. The lack of reliable capacitance estimates leads to a "capacitance bottleneck" that obstructs the determination of other DBD electrical parameters in fast-pulsed reactors. It is suggested to obtain capacitance of dielectric barriers from a plot of the maximal charge versus maximal voltage amplitude (Q(max) - V(max) plot) in a manner analogous to the classical approach. The method is examined using measurements of current and voltage waveforms of a coaxial DBD reactor in argon at 100 mbar driven by square voltage pulses with a rise time of 20 ns and with different voltage amplitudes up to 10 kV. Additionally, the applicability of the method has been shown for the data reported in literature measured at 1 bar of nitrogen-oxygen gas mixtures and xenon. PMID:22852728

  8. Ranking different barriers influencing on media privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghiyeh Jame

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, there have been growing interests on cost reduction for products and services. Privatization is considered as one of the most important techniques to increase relative efficiencies of publically held firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to rank important barriers on privatization of television (TV media industry in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire using a sample of 234 out of 600 graduate students who were enrolled in media communication studies. The survey considers social, cultural, economic as well as rules and regulations factors influencing privatization of TV media industry. The survey uses the ranking method presented by Cook and Kress (1990 [Cook, W. D., & Kress, M. (1990. A data envelopment model for aggregating preference rankings. Management Science, 36(11, 1302-1310.]. The results of the investigation indicate rules and regulations are the most important barriers on privatization of Iranian TV followed by cultural, social and economic factors.

  9. Commissioning neuropsychiatry services: barriers and lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rickards, Hugh; Agrawal, Niruj

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method Previous studies have shown variations in commissioning of neuropsychiatry services and this makes access to neuropsychiatric services a post-code lottery. In this survey, we approached all mental health and neuropsychiatric service commissioners within London to map current funding and commissioning arrangements, and explored perceived barriers to neuropsychiatric service commissioning. Results 83% of commissioners within London responded. There was significant variability between neuropsychiatric services commissioned through the mental health stream. Contracting arrangements were variable. Lack of earmarked fund for neuropsychiatry and disjointed funding stream for such services were identified by commissioners as a barrier, as was the critical mass of neuropsychiatric cases. Clinical implications Neuropsychiatric service development continues to be hindered by lack of clear commissioning process. Strategic drive is needed to promote more equitable neuropsychiatric services. National or regional commissioning covering a large population will provide a better model for neuropsychiatric services to be commissioned. PMID:26755989

  10. Barriers that do not fall

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Arroyo, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    * Full title: "Barriers that do not fall. Access to citizenship and the right to vote in a comparative perspective: Germany / Spain". * Presentation in Conference "Border Transgressions" - Bonn Universität (Germany) - 8-9th May 2014

  11. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  12. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  13. Barrier to adoption of biogas technology in south sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Syahdar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify factors that barrier to adoption of biogas technology by cattle farmer in South Sulawesi. The population was all of beef cattle farmers who have implemented biogas technology in Barru, Bulukumba, Enrekang and Sinjai Regency. The type of digester has implemented was fixed dome with different digester material i.e plastic, fiber and concrete. The first stage of the research using delbecq methode. The key question was what is the barrier of bi...

  14. Marketing Cultural Attractions: Understanding Non-Attendance and Visitation Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, P.; Wong, P; POLONSKY, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw together the previous academic and industry research on non-attendance of cultural attractions, followed by qualitative in-depth interviews to identify commonalities or gaps in the previous research on barriers, constraints and inhibitors, as well as to propose linkages between these. Design/methodology/approach – A multi-method approach is used – where barriers, constraints and inhibitors are identified by means of thematic content analysis of t...

  15. Fission barrier heights and lifetimes for heavy and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-state masses, fission barrier heights and α lifetimes for actinide and trans-actinide nuclei are determined in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic model with the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop, the Strutinsky shell-correction method and the Modified Funny-Hills shape parametrization accounting for elongation, neck formation, left-right asymmetry and non-axiality together with the Yukawa folding procedure. Fission barrier height are nicely reproduced in our approach which contains no adjustable parameter. (authors)

  16. L’innovation et les réseaux sociaux : de nouvelles sociabilités pour une autre socialité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Par cette contribution, nous désirons investir les approches spécifiques sur l’innovation qui interrogent le concept de réseau en créant ainsi une Science du réseau. Notre questionnement portera sur les nouvelles interactions créées sur Internet : le terme de « réseaux sociaux » est alors utilisé. Existe-t-il de nouvelles sociabilités qui constitueraient un champs de recherche épistémologique et empirique relevant d‘un croisement de méthodes ? S’agit-il d’une évolution sociale globale ou de c...

  17. La formation d’une nouvelle régulation sociale en Tchécoslovaquie : Cahiers du CEFRES N° 3f, Transition politique et transition économique dans les pays d'Europe centrale et orientale

    OpenAIRE

    Večerník, Jiří

    1994-01-01

    International audience Dans cet article, l’auteur s’intéresse à l’instauration d’une nouvelle forme de protection sociale en Tchécoslovaquie, parallèlement aux réformes économiques. Il s’intéresse ici aux problèmes liés à la mise en place de nouvelles régulations sociales, en posant la question du rôle de l’héritage du passé, et en analysant les nouveaux défis lancés par l’Europe et le nouvel Etat tchécoslovaque démocratique. Enfin, il se penche sur les adaptations et les transformations d...

  18. Barriers to Effective Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Latif

    2012-01-01

    Despite the best intentions and a lot of hard work, strategic planning most predictably fails. It’s not that strategic planning is a bad idea but there are some barriers which involve in its failure. This paper explores how and where strategic planning goes awry and what executives can do about it. The study finds some of the most common barriers in effective strategic planning like, strict time limits, identical procedures, lack of accountability, power and influence which organizations freq...

  19. Barriers in diabetes self management

    OpenAIRE

    Rising, Carl Johan; Lauwersen, Asbjørn Flyger; Stoustrup, Sune Wiingaard

    2013-01-01

    This project seeks to expand on the question: What barriers may occur in diabetes patients' self-care, and how can doctors and patients communicate across professionalism? This project deals with the barrier that may arise between the transfer of highly professional knowledge and patient. The project seeks to create an understanding on how diabetes patients, which is the target audience, understands and experience their illness, and thereby mapping key elements for further focus, to better th...

  20. Superheavy nuclei and fission barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    In this chapter, we will present relativistic mean field (RMF) description of heavy and superheavy nuclei (SHN). We will discuss the shell structure and magic numbers in the mass region of SHN, binding energies and α decay Q values, shapes of ground states and potential energy surfaces and fission barriers. We particularly focus on the multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories (CDFT) and the applications of CDFT to the study of exotic nuclear shapes and fission barriers.

  1. Clinical study on intestinal fatty acid binding protein and the endotoxin in early diagnosis of intestinal barrier dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令尚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen the high specific and sensitivemonitoring indications in the diagnosis of intestinal barrier dysfunction.Methods A total of 70 critical patients with intestinal barrier dysfunction and acute physiology

  2. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J. [Geo-Con, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control.

  3. STUDY FOR STREAMLINE OF ARBITRARY SHAPED HOMOGENEOUS RESERVOIRS WITH IMPERMEABLE BARRIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hong-jun; FU Chun-quan; HE Ying-fu

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state flow mathematical model of arbitrary shaped homogeneous reservoirs with impermeable barrier is constructed in this paper. By using Boundary Element Method (BEM), the mathematical model is solved. And a streamline generating technique is presented. The figures of streamlines are plotted and analyzed considering the effect of complex boundary and impermeable barriers. Through analyzing, it indicates that the size, shape and orientation of impermeable barriers have various degree of influence on the streamlines. So, if there are impermeable barriers in reservoir according to the geological materials, the influence of impermeable barriers must be considered when adjusting flood pattern and injection strategy.

  4. Le programme ARTEMIS : nouvel outil pour la datation radiocarbone AMS (Spectromètre de Masse par Accélérateur et nouvelles problématiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Billard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La mise en route du nouvel équipement ARTEMIS (Accélérateur pour la Recherche en sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Muséologie, Implanté à Saclay à partir de 2004 ouvre de nouvelles perspectives scientifiques et conduit à de nouvelles procédures de soumission des échantillons destinés à une datation 14C. Le MCC dispose aujourd’hui de droits alloués aux services régionaux de l'archéologie, services du ministère de la Culture, confrontés à ce type de demandes (musées, monuments historiques. Il impose désormais une nouvelle démarche de programmation scientifique des datations, associant une analyse critique des demandes.Since 2004, the availability at Saclay of a new ARTEMIS installation (Accélérateur pour la Recherche en sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Muséologie has opened new scientific perspectives and led to new procedures for submitting samples for carbon-14 dating. The French Ministry of Culture has the possibility of using this tool for radiocarbon dating at the request of its regional archaeological services or other services, such as museums and the historic monuments administration. This use now implies a new approach to the scientific planning for dating problems, associated with a critical analysis of the requests.

  5. La “nouvelle consommation” et les transformations des paysages urbains à la lumière de l’ouverture économique : l’exemple de Damas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leïla Vignal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une analyse géographique des nouvelles formes de consommation qui commencent à se développer en Syrie dans le secteur des biens de consommation courants. Effet de l’insertion de la région dans la mondialisation ou résultat de la timide ouverture économique syrienne ? La “nouvelle consommation” est en train de transformer les paysages urbains, et en particulier ceux de Damas. Elle requalifie les centralités intra-urbaines qui sont la vitrine de cette nouvelle consommation, elle crée de nouveaux réseaux de distribution destinés à désenclaver l’espace de la consommation, elle transforme la base industrielle damascène. This article presents a geographic analysis of emerging forms of consumption and consumer goods in Syria, and the impact of this development on urban landscapes, particularly in Damascus. Whether driven by a regional process of economic globalisation or by cautious Syrian economic overture, the new forms of consumption are transforming traditional patterns of urban centrality, creating new public spaces for retail and consumption, and introducing a shift in Damascus’ industrial base.

  6. Nationwide survey on barriers for dental research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundendu Arya Bishen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research in the dental field is progressing at mightier speed worldwide, but an unfortunately representation of India at this platform is negligible. The present study was undertaken to unearth the barriers for dental research among dental professionals in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on 1514 participant′s (Master of Dental Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery staff and postgraduates in 40 dental colleges of India selected by multistage random sampling. The response rate was 75.7%. The survey was undertaken from July 2013 to December 2013. The survey instrument was 24-item, investigator developed, self-structured, close-ended, and self-administered questionnaire grouped into four categories that are, institutional/departmental support related barriers, financial/training support related barriers, time-related barriers, and general barriers. Results: Among all respondents 47.23% informed that they are administrative and educational work rather than research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 57.53% of study participants reported lack of administrative and technical support for research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 64.9% reported meager college funding was the barrier (P < 0.001. Overall 61.5% respondents reported lack of time to do research work due to clinical and teaching responsibilities (P < 0.001 was the barrier for research. Largely 80.25% agreed that, the lack of documentation and record maintenance are an obvious barrier for research (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Present study unearths certain barriers for research in an Indian scenario, which includes administrative overburden, lack of funds, and lack of documentation of the dental data. Governing authorities of dentistry in India have to make major interventions to make research non-intensive environment to research-friendly environment.

  7. Du « modèle » de développement économique à une nouvelle forme de gouvernance métropolitaine ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Halbert

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre mondialisation économique et diffusion des Nouvelles Technologies de l’Information et de Communication, la région métropolitaine de Bangalore connaît depuis une quinzaine d’années d’importantes mutations qui en font un laboratoire remarquable pour la communauté scientifique. Après avoir montré comment Bangalore est entrée dans une division internationale des tâches de production abstraite (économie de l’information, cet article analyse les transformations de la structure productive, de la géographie métropolitaine, des modes de vie et enfin de la manière dont la région urbaine est développée et aménagée. L’essor d’une classe moyenne enrichie et d’une élite économique encourage une convergence d’intérêts avec certains élus de l’Etat fédéré pour promouvoir une métropole « internationale » suivant un « modèle » d’urbanisation en enclave. On observe en bout de chaîne la formulation d’une nouvelle forme de gouvernance métropolitaine.During the last fifteen years at least, both globalisation and ICTs have favoured a dramatic transformation of the Bangalore metropolitan region which has thus become a laboratory for the scientific community. This paper first considers the determinants of these changes, focusing for instance on the international division of « abstract » production activities (information economy before moving to the analysis of changes in the economic structure, in the regional geography and last in the way the metropolitan region is developed and planned. The upcoming of both a middle-class and an economic elite resulting from global changes met some State policy-makers goals into promoting an « international »  metropolis following the « model » of an enclave urbanisation. This goes as far as to formulate a new form of metropolitan governance.

  8. Diabetes and diet: Managing dietary barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of coping with

  9. Progress in forming bottom barriers under waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.E. [Carter Technologies, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes an new method for the construction, verification, and maintenance of underground vaults to isolate and contain radioactive burial sites without excavation or drilling in contaminated areas. The paper begins with a discussion of previous full-scale field tests of horizontal barrier tools which utilized high pressure jetting technology. This is followed by a discussion of the TECT process, which cuts with an abrasive cable instead of high pressure jets. The new method is potentially applicable to more soil types than previous methods and can form very thick barriers. Both processes are performed from the perimeter of a site and require no penetration or disturbance of the active waste area. The paper also describes long-term verification methods to monitor barrier integrity passively.

  10. Kinetic equations for diffusion in the presence of entropic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, D; Rubí, J M

    2001-12-01

    We use the mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory to derive the general kinetic equation of a system in the presence of potential barriers. The result is applied to a description of the evolution of systems whose dynamics is influenced by entropic barriers. We analyze in detail the case of diffusion in a domain of irregular geometry in which the presence of the boundaries induces an entropy barrier when approaching the exact dynamics by a coarsening of the description. The corresponding kinetic equation, named the Fick-Jacobs equation, is obtained, and its validity is generalized through the formulation of a scaling law for the diffusion coefficient which depends on the shape of the boundaries. The method we propose can be useful to analyze the dynamics of systems at the nanoscale where the presence of entropy barriers is a common feature. PMID:11736170

  11. WAVE TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTION DUE TO A THIN VERTICAL BARRIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method, the boundary fitted coordinate method (BFC),was used to investigate the transmission and reflection of water waves due to a rigid thin vertical barrier descending from the water surface to a depth, i. e. , a curtain-wall type breakwater. A comparison between the present computed results and previous experimental and analytical results was carried out which verifies the prediction of the BFC method. Wave transmission and reflection due to the barrier were computed, and the transmission and refiection coefficients were given in a figure.

  12. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  13. Transport barriers in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some publications with indications that the formation of transport barriers in toroidal devices could take place in the vicinity of low order rational surfaces (RS). It is necessary to note that the environs of RS have very important peculiarities. In particular, a stochastic layer of magnetic field lines forms instead of separaterix which must separate the island surfaces from the adjacent to them non-island surfaces in stellarator magnetic configurations. The attempt to realize the formation of transport barriers near RS and to study their influence on the RF discharge plasma confinement was undertaken in presented experiments on the U-3M torsatron. The presupposition was made that the radial electric field profile would have sharp change on the width of stochastic layer near RS in the case of collisionless longitudinal motion of electrons in this layer. Experimental data obtained on the U-3M torsatron during the formation of interior and edge transport barriers are in a good agreement with this presupposition. The results of experiments on the U-3M torsatron are discussed in comparison with data of other helical systems. It is shown that the number of dependences (the threshold power and density, the time of barrier formation, the localization of radial electric field shear layer) are in a good agreement for all these systems. In conclusion, the common features of formation of transport barriers in non- axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric systems are discussed. (author)

  14. Programmer's description of the Barrier Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barrier Data Base is a body of information concerning different kinds of barriers that are used in safeguarding nuclear materials and installations. The two programs written for creating, updating, and manipulating the Barrier Data Base are discussed. The BARRIER program is used to add, delete, modify, display, or search for specific data in the data base. A utility program named NUMBER is used to compress and renumber the barrier and threat tables

  15. Risk Assessment and Treatment Countermeasures for the Barrier Lakes of Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th, 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fawang; ZHANG Zhaoji; HAN Zhantao; SUN Jianping; XIAO Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduced the first hand investigation results of the risk and treatment measures for the barrier lakes triggered by the earthquake of Wenchuan. Characteristics of 10 barrier lakes were investigated and analyzed; procedure and methods for barrier lake treatment were brought forward. The dams of the barrier lakes can be classified as two classes: block rock in the south and loose deposit in the north. All the barrier dams were stable at the time of investigation, but water drainage channel needed to be constructed and to be protected from blockage or collapse. After the rain season of 2008, some dams needed to be consolidated, and change the barrier lakes to reservoirs.

  16. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  17. PROMOTION, SWITCHING BARRIERS, AND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Shin Tung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationships among promotion effects, switching barriers, and loyalty in the department stores. The relationship between switching barriers and loyalty reveals partially the same results as the switching barriers theory of Jones et al. (2000. The reasons arise from “too often” and “too similar” sales promotion programs of competitive department stores in Taiwan, leading the promotion effects to not contribute to the attractiveness of competitors. The promotion effects have a positive and significant influence on loyalty, which is consistent with the prior literature. Promotion effects are also the most important weight to loyalty in our tested model but it reveals a seeming loyalty, because the loyalty depends on the reward of promotion. The negative relationship between promotion effects and attractiveness of alternative supports the promotion effects, which can lower the attractiveness of competitors, but these similar promotion plans are not attributed to interpersonal relationships.

  18. Barriers to Effective Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Latif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the best intentions and a lot of hard work, strategic planning most predictably fails. It’s not that strategic planning is a bad idea but there are some barriers which involve in its failure. This paper explores how and where strategic planning goes awry and what executives can do about it. The study finds some of the most common barriers in effective strategic planning like, strict time limits, identical procedures, lack of accountability, power and influence which organizations frequently face in strategy formulation and implementation. It is concluded that, in order to achieve the goal of effective strategic planning, effective change management and leadership are indispensable. On the one hand, it is mandatory for the leadership to involve employees in decision making process, along with the explicit description of their roles within the organization, and on the other hand, full mechanism of employees’ accountability and regular checks are required to remove these barriers.

  19. Influence of solid noise barriers on near-road and on-road air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard W.; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Venkatram, Akula; Yang, Bo; Zhang, K. Max

    2016-03-01

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods that can be implemented in a relatively short time period to reduce air pollution exposures from nearby traffic. A field study was conducted to determine the influence of noise barriers on both on-road and downwind pollutant concentrations near a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, and black carbon were measured using a mobile platform and fixed sites along two limited-access stretches of highway that contained a section of noise barrier and a section with no noise barrier at-grade with the surrounding terrain. Results of the study showed that pollutant concentrations behind the roadside barriers were significantly lower relative to those measured in the absence of barriers. The reductions ranged from 50% within 50 m from the barrier to about 30% as far as 300 m from the barrier. Reductions in pollutant concentrations generally began within the first 50 m of the barrier edge; however, concentrations were highly variable due to vehicle activity behind the barrier and along nearby urban arterial roadways. The concentrations on the highway, upwind of the barrier, varied depending on wind direction. Overall, the on-road concentrations in front of the noise barrier were similar to those measured in the absence of the barrier, contradicting previous modeling results that suggested roadside barriers increase pollutant levels on the road. Thus, this study suggests that noise barriers do reduce potential pollutant exposures for populations downwind of the road, and do not likely increase exposures to traffic-related pollutants for vehicle passengers on the highway.

  20. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition, and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

  1. The Solution to Green Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The recovery process of world economy is rough and full of twists and turns.Especially the trade protectionism,having reemerged under the mask of"green barrier",is making a great impact on the slowly recovering world economy and trade.Then,what are the characteristics of trade barriers in the post-crisis era?Where is the outlet of Chinese manufacturing industry?With these questions,ourreporter interviewed Professor Zhou Shijian,Standing Director to China Association of International Trade and Senior Researcher to SINO-US Relationship Research Centre of Tsinghua University.

  2. Schottky barrier parameters and low frequency noise characteristics of graphene-germanium Schottky barrier diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Zagarzusem; Kil, Yeon-Ho; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Cho, Hyunjin; Kim, Myung-Jong; Lee, Sung-Nam; Jeong, Jae-chan; Hong, Hyobong; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of chemical vapor deposition-grown monolayer graphene/n-type germanium (Ge) Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and low frequency noise measurements. The Schottky barrier parameters of graphene/n-type Ge SBDs, such as Schottky barrier height (VB), ideality factor (n), and series resistance (Rs), were extracted using the forward I-V and Cheung's methods. The VB and n extracted from the forward ln(I)-V plot were found to be 0.63 eV and 1.78, respectively. In contrast, from Cheung method, the VB and n were calculated to be 0.53 eV and 1.76, respectively. Such a discrepancy between the values of VB calculated from the forward I-V and Cheung's methods indicated a deviation from the ideal thermionic emission of graphene/n-type Ge SBD associated with the voltage drop across graphene. The low frequency noise measurements performed at the frequencies in the range of 10 Hz-1 kHz showed that the graphene/n-type Ge SBD had 1/f γ frequency dependence, with γ ranging from 1.09 to 1.12, regardless of applied forward biases. Similar to forward-biased SBDs operating in the thermionic emission mode, the current noise power spectral density of graphene/n-type Ge SBD was linearly proportional to the forward current.

  3. Performance of PRD Welled Surfaces in T Shape Noise Barriers for Controlling Environmental Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Momen Bellah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: There is a considerable notice in the use of noise barriers in recent years. Noise barriers as a control noise solution can increase the insertion loss to protect receivers. This paper presents the results of an investigation about the acoustic efficiency of primitive root sequence diffuser (PRD on environmental single T-shape barrier."nMaterials and Methods: A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the insertion loss of the tested barriers. The results of rigid and with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD coverage are also predicted for comparison."nResults: It is found that decreasing the design frequency of PRD shifts the frequency effects towards lower frequencies, and therefore the overall A-weighted insertion loss is improved. It is also found that using wire mesh with reasonably efficient resistivity on the top surface of PRD improves the efficiency of the reactive barriers; however utilizing wire meshes with flow resistivity higher than specific acoustic impedance of air on the PRD top of a diffuser barrier significantly reduces the performance of the barrier within the frequency bandwidth of the diffuser. The performance of PRD covered T-shape barrier at 200 Hz was found to be higher than that of its equivalent QRD barriers in both the far field and areas close to the ground. The amount of improvement compared made by PRD barrier compared with its equivalent rigid barrier at far field is about 2 to 3 dB, while this improvement relative to barrier model .QR4. can reach up to 4- 6 dB."nConclusion: Employing PRD on the top surface of T-shape barrier is found to improve the performance of barriers compared with using rigid and QRD coverage at the examined receiver locations.

  4. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed

  5. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  6. Performance of passive and reactive profiled median barriers in traffic noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza MONAZZAM; Samaneh Momen Bellah FARD

    2011-01-01

    Median noise barriers, like parallel noise barriers, can be employed to reduce the impact of traffic on roadside communities via the direct propagation path. The performance of different shapes of median barriers was compared using reactive and passive surfaces and a 2D boundary element method (BEM). In the case of reactive surfaces, quadratic residue diffusers (QRDs) and primitive root diffusers (PRDs) were used on the top and stem surfaces of median barriers. To introduce passive barriers, two different absorbent materials including fibrous material and a grass surface with flow resistivity of 20000 and better at mid and high frequencies to that of their equivalent rigid barriers. More improvement was achieved by covering the top surface of thick barriers with grass rather than with fibrous material. The performance of QRD and PRD barriers where the diffuser was located on the top surface was more frequency dependent than that of barriers coated with fibrous material. A comparison of the average A-weighted insertion loss in the thick barriers showed that the greatest improvement (2. 59 dB (A)) was achieved using a barrier of 30-cm thickness covered with grass.

  7. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  8. Band structure of surface barrier states and resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: G. Binnig and H. Rohrer, Nobel Prize Winners for the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope, write in the opening sentence of one of their papers, co-authored with others : 'One of the fundamental problems in surface physics is obtaining knowledge of the electron-metal-surface interaction potential.' Although it is known that the surface barrier has an 'image' asymptotic form and saturates or weakens closer to the crystal surface, the position of the image tail, momentum dependence of the barrier height and saturation closer to the surface have not been agreed upon by different workers and techniques to this day. Ab initio calculations using the density functional approximation produce locations for the position of the image tail which differ by ∼50% depending on whether the exiting or incoming electron is considered part of the crystal or a classical charge interacting with the electron gas. Very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED), k-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy (KRIPES) and 2-photon photoemission spectroscopy (2PPE) are sensitive to the barrier but analyses to date have not yielded consistent conclusions. In this work we have used our plane-wave scattering method to calculate the barrier energy band structure for Cu (001) over the whole SBZ to compare with experimental results from KRIPES and 2PPE data as well as the calculation of Smith et al. This calculation used a parameterized nearly-free-electron function to represent the substrate scattering and could only produce states not resonances which occur outside of bulk band gaps and above the barrier height. As well, no inelastic scattering could be included. We show that inelastic scattering, surface restructuring and an extended data-base must be included for definitive conclusions about details of the barrier. Also, our calculation shows above-barrier resonances are strong and should be measured by experimentalists to extract the momentum dependent saturation and

  9. Study on the engineered barriers performance confirmation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an international consensus that the geological disposal should be essentially passive and safe without relying on the institutional control including monitoring. However, in recent years, many organizations have been discussing on a various types of monitoring in a repository from a societal demand etc. This study investigates the concept of monitoring in foreign countries and builds logic for monitoring designed to confirm the performance of the engineered barriers. This study also investigates the methodology for the engineered barriers performance confirmation monitoring applicable to the geological disposal concept shown in the H12 report. As a result on the investigation about the monitoring concept in foreign countries, the monitoring aiming at the performance confirmation of the engineered barriers is clearly defined only in the United States at present. However, each organization begins to discuss in the direction where the monitoring would be built into a decision-making process with a relation to reversibility in geological disposal program. With respect to the pre-closure monitoring, in-situ monitoring data acquired and accumulated for several decades from a siting stage, through the construction stage, to the end of operation will contribute to confirmation of safety and improvement of reliability of geological disposal by safety assessment. The purpose of the engineered barriers performance confirmation monitoring is defined to confirm that prerequisites for providing the engineered barriers performance and the behaviors accompanied by exhibition of performance would be within the range of prediction. The indirect measuring method of items both providing the engineered barriers performance and varying with exhibition of performance from the rock around the engineered barriers is proposed for the engineered barriers performance confirmation monitoring. As a measure for resolving the technical issues, the in-situ experimental plan in the

  10. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, G.F. [Horizontal Technologies Inc., Matlacha, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  11. Reduction of Train-induced Vibrations by using Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Leonardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the ground-borne vibration caused by high speed trains has received considerable attention in recent years, due to the effects of vibration on buildings, in terms of physical damage and on population, in terms of discomfort. The problem has become more significant with the increase of speed and weight of trains, which results in heavier loads on the tracks. Therefore, there is the necessity to find a method, which allows investigating the propagation of vibration waves in the soil. This study aims to study the train-induced ground vibration and the mitigation effects of barriers using a Finite Element Method (FEM model. Two different types of barriers were evaluated considering their stiffness and a benchmark model without mitigation measures was also analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the considered barriers. The results of the proposed elaborations have been finalized to the assessment of the incidence of the barrier on the vibration state induced from the passage of a high speed trains and the following conclusions can be made: concrete seems to provide a significative reduction of the vibration. The proposed method can be successfully applied to a preliminary analysis of the influence of different types of barriers on the dynamic properties of vibration waves in the soil.

  12. Architectural Barriers Removal: Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Human Development (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office for Handicapped Individuals.

    The guide presents information on resources for eliminating architectural barriers for handicapped persons. Entries are grouped according to information resources, funding sources, and publications available from the federal government. Seven organizations are described in terms of agency goals, publications, and materials. Federal programs…

  13. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  14. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Muller, S.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  15. Overcoming Barriers: Women in Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Women currently represent the largest number of teachers in the United States but remain underrepresented in the superintendent position. This suggests that the superintendency has been influenced by patriarchy. If women are to break through the barriers that prevent them from attaining a superintendency, we will need to understand the social…

  16. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  17. The blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Birgit; Verma, Ajay; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    In autoimmune neurologic disorders, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a central role in immunopathogenesis, since this vascular interface is an entry path for cells and effector molecules of the peripheral immune system to reach the target organ, the central nervous system (CNS). The BBB's unique anatomic structure and the tightly regulated interplay of its cellular and acellular components allow for maintenance of brain homeostasis, regulation of influx and efflux, and protection from harm; these ensure an optimal environment for the neuronal network to function properly. In both health and disease, the BBB acts as mediator between the periphery and the CNS. For example, immune cell trafficking through the cerebral vasculature is essential to clear microbes or cell debris from neural tissues, while poorly regulated cellular transmigration can underlie or worsen CNS pathology. In this chapter, we focus on the specialized multicellular structure and function of the BBB/neurovascular unit and discuss how BBB breakdown can precede or be a consequence of neuroinflammation. We introduce the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and include a brief aside about evolutionary aspects of barrier formation and refinements. Lastly, since restoration of barrier function is considered key to ameliorate neurologic disease, we speculate about new therapeutic avenues to repair a damaged BBB. PMID:27112670

  18. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites, described as the inclusion of nanometer-sized layered silicates into polymeric materials, have been widely researched due to significant enhancements in material properties with the incorporation of small levels of filler (1--5 wt.%) compared to conventional micro- and macro-composites (20--30 wt.%). One of the most promising applications for polymer-clay nanocomposites is in the field of barrier coatings. The development of UV-curable polymer-clay nanocomposite barrier coatings was explored by employing a novel in situ preparation technique. Unsaturated polyesters were synthesized in the presence of organomodified clays by in situ intercalative polymerization to create highly dispersed clays in a precursor resin. The resulting clay-containing polyesters were crosslinked via UV-irradiation using donor-acceptor chemistry to create polymer-clay nanocomposites which exhibited significantly enhanced barrier properties compared to alternative clay dispersion techniques. The impact of the quaternary alkylammonium organic modifiers, used to increase compatibility between the inorganic clay and organic polymer, was studied to explore influence of the organic modifier structure on the nanocomposite material properties. By incorporating just the organic modifiers, no layered silicates, into the polyester resins, reductions in film mechanical and thermal properties were observed, a strong indicator of film plasticization. An alternative in situ preparation method was explored to further increase the dispersion of organomodified clay within the precursor polyester resins. In stark contrast to traditional in situ polymerization methods, a novel "reverse" in situ preparation method was developed, where unmodified montmorillonite clay was added during polyesterification to a reaction mixture containing the alkylammonium organic modifier. The resulting nanocomposite films exhibited reduced water vapor permeability and increased mechanical properties

  19. Barriers to the adoption of the ART approach as perceived by dental practitioners in governmental dental clinics, in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikwilu, E.N.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; J. Mulder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of the barriers to the practice of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) as perceived by dental practitioners working in pilot dental clinics, and determine the influence of these barriers on the practice of ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A validated and tested questionnaire on barriers that may hinder the practice of ART was administered to 20 practitioners working in 13 pilot clinics. Factor analysis was performed to generate barrier fact...

  20. BARRIERS TO THE ADOPTION OF THE ART APPROACH AS PERCEIVED BY DENTAL PRACTITIONERS IN GOVERNMENTAL DENTAL CLINICS, IN TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Emil N. Kikwilu; Frencken, Jo E.; Jan De Mulder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of the barriers to the practice of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) as perceived by dental practitioners working in pilot dental clinics, and determine the influence of these barriers on the practice of ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A validated and tested questionnaire on barriers that may hinder the practice of ART was administered to 20 practitioners working in 13 pilot clinics. Factor analysis was performed to generate barrier fact...

  1. On the barrier to crystal nucleation in lunar glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinnon, H.; Roshko, A.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an analytical method for calculating in detail the size distributions of small crystallites and nuclei in supercooled liquids as they are being quenched to form a glass and subsequently reheated above the glass transition to produce crystallization. This method is applied to experiments performed using differential thermal analysis (DTA) to estimate the barriers to crystal nucleation and the cooling rates required to form glasses or bodies with various degrees of crystallinity. DTA data and derived nucleation barriers are reported for anorthite and for the following lunar compositions: 15498, 15418, matrix and intrusion compositions of breccia 15286, Apollo 15 green glass, Luna 24 highland basalt, and 65016.

  2. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  3. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil`s hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing.

  4. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil's hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing

  5. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA. PMID:25643585

  6. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  7. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  8. Simulation of energy barrier distributions using real particle parameters and comparison with experimental obtained results

    OpenAIRE

    BÜTTNER, M.; Schiffler, M.; Weber, P; Seidel, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we compare previously measured energy barriers over the course of temperature with the results of simulations of the behaviour of the energy barriers. For the measurements the temperature dependent magnetorelaxation method (TMRX) was used. For the simulations of the energy barrier distribution we have used the real particles properties such as anisotropy and core size volume of the fractions of two magnetically fractionated ferrofluids. There is a good agreement between the simul...

  9. Sociodemographic Variation in the Perception of Barriers to Exercise Among Japanese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Kaori; Inoue, Shigeru; Ohya, Yumiko; Odagiri, Yuko; Takamiya, Tomoko; Suijo, Kenichi; Owen, Neville; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2009-01-01

    Background The perception of barriers to exercise is an important correlate of exercise participation. However, only a limited number of studies—mostly from Western countries—have attempted to describe the perceptions of barriers to exercise in specific population groups. This study examined the associations between sociodemographic attributes and perceived barriers to exercise in Japanese adults. Methods A population-based cross sectional study of 865 participants (age: 20–69 years old, men:...

  10. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jubin Varghese; Nathan Grills; Kaaren Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intell...

  11. Barriers and Facilitators to Walking and Physical Activity Among American Indian Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Craig N. Sawchuk, PhD; Russo, Joan E.; Andy Bogart, MA; Steve Charles; Jack Goldberg, PhD; Ralph Forquera; Peter Roy-Byrne, MD; Dedra Buchwald, MD

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is common among older American Indians. Several barriers impede the establishment and maintenance of routine exercise. We examined personal and built-environment barriers and facilitators to walking and physical activity and their relationship with health-related quality of life in American Indian elders. Methods We used descriptive statistics to report barriers and facilitators to walking and physical activity among a sample of 75 American Indians aged 50 to ...

  12. Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.B. [SPECTRA Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

    1997-06-01

    In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier`s integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier`s performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF{sub 6}) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF{sub 6} diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF{sub 6} through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days.

  13. Informatization barriers of logistics process management in production company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WALASEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to characterize informatization barriers of logistics processes management in a production company which provides automotive parts. Threats of successful implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems include: community barriers; organizational barriers; communication barriers; formal barriers; legal barriers; not prepared implementation team barrier; substantive barrier. Proper identification of barriers and solving them are the right way to implement Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in a company.

  14. Ultrasonic wave transducer for high temperature barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This transducer is made by a metallic body pivoting on a support fixed to the barrier and an internal vitroceramic waveguide in contact on the barrier and on the other end on a piezoelectric ceramic element

  15. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  16. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team to break it down. Barriers to shared decision making and solutions to overcome them include: Barrier: Fear, anger, stress or other emotions Solution: Strong emotions can interfere with your ability ...

  17. E-Business Barriers in Iran's Free Trade Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Sarlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are 24 free trade and special economic zones in Iran. Problem Statement: of these zones is lack of e-business and this is in spite of managements' desire to have proper infrastructure for e-business in these zones. The goal of this study is to determine and explain e-business barriers in free trade and special economic zones in Iran. Approach: Our approach in this study is based-on Delphi method. We used Delphi method to conduct our study and chose 25 members for our Delphi panel, who were given the outcomes of literature review. We asked the panel group to rank the barriers by importance and provide any other problems or issues they found during their studies. Results: The result of four rounds of Delphi panels declared five main barriers for implementing e-business in the regions including: Infrastructural barriers, Property rights issues, Mistrust in E- payments, financial barriers and Shortage of IT skills. Conclusions/Recommendations: We concluded that to implement e-business in the Iranian free zones and special economical districts, there are some infrastructure requirements such as high speed internet, wide internet band, proper laws and regulations; so that small and medium size enterprises (SMEs could utilize e-business.

  18. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  19. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ≈ 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

  20. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price competition, and the price-orientation of decision-makers. At the consumer level, potential barriers are: involving the consumer in animal welfare, making him understand the welfare benefits, convinc...

  1. NON-TARIFF TRADE BARRIERS IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    As trade agreements lower tariff rates throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These non-tariff barriers can be just as troublesome for exporting companies. Non-tariff barriers include technical measures, customs rules and procedures, transport regulations or costs, lack of knowledge of regional markets, and import policies. The objective of this study is to identify non-tariff barriers faced by U.S., and more specifically North Dakota, exporting businesses, especially those inv...

  2. Transport properties of Dirac electrons in graphene based double velocity-barrier structures in electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lei [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering, Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Department of Medical Physics, Basic Medical College, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017 (China); Li, Yu-Xian [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering, Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Liu, Jian-Jun, E-mail: liujj@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering, Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Physics Department, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Using transfer matrix method, transport properties in graphene based double velocity-barrier structures under magnetic and electric fields are numerically studied. It is found that velocity barriers for the velocity ratio (the Fermi velocity inside the barrier to that outside the barrier) less than one (or for the velocity ratio greater than one) have properties similar to electrostatic wells (or barriers). The velocity barriers for the velocity ratio greater than one significantly enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, the plateau width of the Fano factor with a Poissonian value shortens (or broadens) for the case of the velocity ratio less than one (or greater than one). When the Fermi energy is equal to the electrostatic barrier height, for different values of the velocity ratio, both the conductivities and the Fano factors remain fixed. -- Highlights: ► We model graphene based velocity-barrier structures in electric and magnetic fields. ► Velocity barrier for ξ<1 (ξ>1) have property similar to electrostatic well (barrier). ► Velocity barrier for ξ>1 enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barrier. ► The plateau width of Fano factor shortens (or broadens) for the case of ξ<1 (or ξ>1). ► The conductivity remains fixed at the point of E{sub F}=U{sub 0} for different values of ξ.

  3. Transport properties of Dirac electrons in graphene based double velocity-barrier structures in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using transfer matrix method, transport properties in graphene based double velocity-barrier structures under magnetic and electric fields are numerically studied. It is found that velocity barriers for the velocity ratio (the Fermi velocity inside the barrier to that outside the barrier) less than one (or for the velocity ratio greater than one) have properties similar to electrostatic wells (or barriers). The velocity barriers for the velocity ratio greater than one significantly enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barriers. In the presence of magnetic field, the plateau width of the Fano factor with a Poissonian value shortens (or broadens) for the case of the velocity ratio less than one (or greater than one). When the Fermi energy is equal to the electrostatic barrier height, for different values of the velocity ratio, both the conductivities and the Fano factors remain fixed. -- Highlights: ► We model graphene based velocity-barrier structures in electric and magnetic fields. ► Velocity barrier for ξ1) have property similar to electrostatic well (barrier). ► Velocity barrier for ξ>1 enlarge the resonant tunneling region of electrostatic barrier. ► The plateau width of Fano factor shortens (or broadens) for the case of ξ1). ► The conductivity remains fixed at the point of EF=U0 for different values of ξ.

  4. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software

  5. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software

  6. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. III [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Garrabrants, A. C. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); van der Sloot, H. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy (The Netherlands); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (The Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc. , 1400, boul. du Parc - Technologique , Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D. W. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Fuhrmann, M. J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Philip, J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-11

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software

  7. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Burns, H.H.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.W.; Fuhrmann, M.J.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in K{sub d}/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP

  8. Experimental Investigations on a Novel Chemical Looping Combustion Configuration Étude expérimentale d’une nouvelle configuration de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanpanah M.M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC is a promising novel combustion technology involving inherent separation of carbon dioxide with minimum energy penalty. An oxygen carrier is employed to continuously transfer oxygen from the air reactor to the fuel reactor where the oxygen is delivered to the fuel. Consequently, direct contact between the air and fuel is prevented. The resulting flue gas is CO2-rich, without N2 dilution. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported back to the air reactor for re-oxidation purposes, hence forming a chemical loop. Various CLC configurations have already been developed and tested on laboratory scales. However, more investigations are required to achieve feasible CLC processes. Among the different points to address, control of the solid circulation rate between the two reactors is of the highest importance regarding its effect on achievement of an appropriate oxygen transfer rate and solid oxidation degrees. Moreover, minimization of gas leakage between the fuel and air reactors is another important issue to be considered. A novel CLC configuration is proposed where reactions are carried out in two interconnected bubbling fluidized beds. Solid circulation rate control is achieved independently of gas flow rate in the reactors through use of pneumatic non-mechanical valves (L-valves. Moreover, loopseals are employed to minimize gas leakage while transferring solids. Experimental results from operation of a 10 kWth equivalent cold prototype are presented in this paper. The effect of operating variables on the solid circulation rate, gas leakage between the two beds and the pressure balance on all of the process elements is studied. The results demonstrate stable solid circulation with efficient control of the solid flow rate and effective gas tightness of the system. La combustion en boucle chimique (CLC est une nouvelle technologie prometteuse qui implique la separation inherente du dioxyde de carbone avec une perte

  9. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  10. Development of a real time monitor and multivariate method for long term diagnostics of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges: application to He, He/N2, and He/O2 discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, N; Milosavljević, V; Daniels, S

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we present the development and application of a real time atmospheric pressure discharge monitoring diagnostic. The software based diagnostic is designed to extract latent electrical and optical information associated with the operation of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) over long time scales. Given that little is known about long term temporal effects in such discharges, the diagnostic methodology is applied to the monitoring of an APDBD in helium and helium with both 0.1% nitrogen and 0.1% oxygen gas admixtures over periods of tens of minutes. Given the large datasets associated with the experiments, it is shown that this process is much expedited through the novel application of multivariate correlations between the electrical and optical parameters of the corresponding chemistries which, in turn, facilitates comparisons between each individual chemistry also. The results of these studies show that the electrical and optical parameters of the discharge in helium and upon the addition of gas admixtures evolve over time scales far longer than the gas residence time and have been compared to current modelling works. It is envisaged that the diagnostic together with the application of multivariate correlations will be applied to rapid system identification and prototyping in both experimental and industrial APDBD systems in the future. PMID:21895242

  11. Innovative probabilistic risk assessment applications: barrier impairments and fracture toughness. 1. Applications of Risk-Informed Decision Making to Hazard Barrier Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hazard barriers. The information can be used to evaluate the risk significance of planned impairment activities as well as to rank the risk significance of individual barriers. Such information can be used to ensure that hazard barrier maintenance resources are allocated consistent with the safety significance of the barriers. The core damage frequency contribution of a barrier impairment can be calculated using an approach similar to that used to evaluate events for plant PRAs. See the following equation: CDF = (FIE) * ( fBI * EIT/8760) * (CCDPCS), where CDF = core damage frequency, FIE = initiating event frequency (events/yr), fBI = barrier impairment frequency (events/yr), EIT = estimated impairment time (h), CCDPCS = conditional core damage probability of the configuration. The impairment of hazard barriers should not normally be a risk significant activity. This was confirmed for SONGS in its barrier study titled, 'Probabilistic Risk Assessment Barrier Control Program.' That study shows that the average increase in core damage frequency attributable to all barrier impairments is small and that when the results are extrapolated to the plant, it is -7/yr. This low level of risk was calculated using PRA methods and applying reasonably allowed impairment times to the barrier impairments. The combination of low frequency of the initiating event (e.g., a pipe break) and the relatively low unavailability of the barrier results in this low risk profile. (author)

  12. Security barriers with automated reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James O; Baird, Adam D; Tullis, Barclay J; Nolte, Roger Allen

    2015-04-07

    An intrusion delaying barrier includes primary and secondary physical structures and can be instrumented with multiple sensors incorporated into an electronic monitoring and alarm system. Such an instrumented intrusion delaying barrier may be used as a perimeter intrusion defense and assessment system (PIDAS). Problems with not providing effective delay to breaches by intentional intruders and/or terrorists who would otherwise evade detection are solved by attaching the secondary structures to the primary structure, and attaching at least some of the sensors to the secondary structures. By having multiple sensors of various types physically interconnected serves to enable sensors on different parts of the overall structure to respond to common disturbances and thereby provide effective corroboration that a disturbance is not merely a nuisance or false alarm. Use of a machine learning network such as a neural network exploits such corroboration.

  13. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  14. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  15. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  16. An investigation on the noise reduction performance of profiled rigid median barriers at highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median barriers as a portion of a divided highway are provided to minimize the cross-median crashes. Moreover, median barriers similar to roadside noise barriers could protect people from transportation noise. Thus, there is a need to investigate various median barrier models to identify changes of insertion loss over a simple rigid barrier. In order to estimate the acoustical influence of median barrier′s profile in the shadow zone, different median barrier models are presented and their insertion losses are calculated over a frequency range from 50 to 4000 Hz using a two-dimensional boundary element method. The present investigation has clearly revealed that among the profiled median barriers, T-shape, Y-shape, and L-shape provide better performance than that of the other shapes. It is also found that among inclined barriers, V-shape barrier significantly presents higher values of attenuation. Based on the calculation of different geometrics, it has been shown that a further 2 dB (A in efficiency could be obtained by a better design of the median barrier which is labeled model "L."

  17. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO4) 2H2O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  18. Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

  19. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  20. Filamentary and diffuse barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrier discharges, sometimes also referred to as dielectric-barrier discharges or silent discharges, are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharge is, that non-equilibrium plasma conditions in atmospheric-pressure gases can be established in an economic and reliable way. This has led to a number of important applications including industrial ozone generation, surface modification of polymers, plasma chemical vapor deposition, excitation of CO2 lasers, excimer lamps and, most recently, large-area flat plasma display panels. Depending on the application, the width of the discharge gap can range from less than 0.1 mm to about 100 mm and the applied frequency from below line frequency to several gigahertz. Typical materials used for the insulating layer (dielectric barrier) are glass, quartz, ceramics but also thin enamel or polymer layers

  1. Mesures compensatoires des atteintes à l’environnement dans les projets d’infrastructures : de nouvelles exigences réglementaires pour une amélioration des pratiques ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANPEENE-BRUHIER, Sylvie ; PISSARD, Pierre-André ; BASSI, Christelle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La compensation des impacts résiduels des aménagements sur les milieux naturels prévue par la loi depuis 1976 n’est pas toujours bien appliquée. La réglementation s'est renforcée et avec elle, s'imposent désormais de nouvelles exigences techniques qui complexifient les dossiers et accentuent la pression foncière. Mais il reste à combler des lacunes importantes pour améliorer la prise en compte de la biodiversité et des services écosystémiques.

  2. Des pôles de croissance vers des systèmes d’innovation territorialisés dans une « nouvelle » économie de marche : le cas de Gdansk, Pologne

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lorek

    2013-01-01

    Depuis la libéralisation économique, les pôles de croissance construits sous la tutelle de l’État ont connu des transformations institutionnelles et organisationnelles majeures dans les pays centralement planifiés. Les nouvelles formes d’organisation industrielle, qui sont à l’origine de ces transformations, donnent la priorité aux logiques territoriales. Les économies locales, sous-estimées pendant l’économie centralement planifiée, sont devenues des espaces prioritaires d’application de la ...

  3. Les difficultés de la filière brésilienne face à la nouvelle organisation mondiale du négoce des pierres de couleur

    OpenAIRE

    Reys, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    Les filières des pierres de couleur, à l’image de la plupart des ressources naturelles exploitées, ont longtemps représenté un négoce hiérarchisé largement dominé par les principales puissances occidentales. Leur organisation serait à présent en pleine restructuration notamment sous l’influence croissante d’acteurs originaires d’Asie. La nouvelle division des tâches et la multipolarisation du commerce ne profiteraient toutefois pas à la majorité des pays extracteurs qui connaitraient toujours...

  4. La circulation de l’information littéraire et scientifique en Europe entre 1710 et 1792, d’après les Nouvelles Littéraires du Journal des Savants

    OpenAIRE

    Chotard, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Multiforme, hétérogène, surabondante, la presse est un acteur essentiel de la circulation de l’information des Lumières. Le Journal des Savants donne à la presse d’Ancien Régime l’une de ses institutions les plus solides, le premier périodique de critique bibliographique et un précieux outil de travail pour le monde savant. De 1710 jusqu’aux premiers mois de 1792, les Nouvelles Littéraires occupent une place singulière au sein du Journal, dont elles épousent naturellement le projet mais où, s...

  5. Note de lecture. À quoi ressemblera le travail demain ? Technologies numériques, nouvelles organisations et relations au travail, Sandra Enlart & Olivier Charbonnier, Dunod, Paris, 2013, (192 p.)

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, François

    2013-01-01

    International audience Internet, médias sociaux, réseaux sociaux, jeux vidéos, terminaux mobiles : comment ces nouvelles technologies bouleversent-elles notre façon de travailler ? Comment repenser les organisations, le travail, les compétences individuelles et collectives en cohérence avec les évolutions de la société. Ces mutations sont l’affaire de tous, pour les anticiper plutôt que de les subir…

  6. [Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zeng-qian; Dong, Li-fang; Han, Li; Li, Xue-chen; Chai, Zhi-fang

    2002-12-01

    The experimental setup of dielectric barrier discharge was designed which is propitious to optical measurement. Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges (filamentary model) in air at atmospheric pressure was measured by using optical method. Temporal behavior of dielectric barrier discharges was obtained. The experimental results show that the discharge burst in each half cycle of applied voltage consists of a series of discharge pulses, the duration of each discharge pulse is about 30-50 ns, and the interval of the neighboring discharge pulses is about a few hundred ns. The result is of great importance to the application of dielectric barrier discharges. PMID:12914154

  7. Controlling the collision between two solitons in the condensates by a double-barrier potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi-Jian; Li Jin-Hui

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytical solution of two solitons of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a double-barrier potential by using a multiple-scale method.In the linear case,we find that the stable spots of the soliton formation are at the top of the barrier potential and at the region of barrier potential absence.For weak nonlinearity,it is shown that the height of the barrier potential has an important effect on the dark soliton dynamical properties.Especially,in the case of regarding a double-barrier potential as the output source of the solitons,the collision spots between two dark solitons can be controlled by the height of the barrier potential.

  8. Closed cryogenic barrier for containment of hazardous material migration in the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes the method for reversibly establishing a closed cryogenic barrier confinement system about a predetermined volume extending downward beneath a surface region of the Earth. It comprises the steps of: establishing an array of barrier boreholes extending downward form spaced-apart locations on the periphery of the surface region, establishing a flow of refrigerant medium in the boreholes, whereby the water in the portions of the Earth adjacent to the barrier boreholes freezes to establish ice columns extending axially along and radially about the central axes of the barrier boreholes, wherein the position of the central axes, the radii of the columns, and the lateral separations of the barrier boreholes are selected so that adjacent columns overlap. The overlapping columns collectively establish a barrier enclosing the volume

  9. Patient-related barriers to cancer pain management: a systematic exploratory review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review was to systemically explore the current evidence regarding patient-related barriers to cancer pain management to find new areas that might be important for better understanding of patient barriers' phenomenon. The method used in this study was a computerised literature search...... analgesic regimen were included and analysed. The dominant part of articles studied cognitive patient-related barriers to cancer pain management, while affective, sensory barriers, as well as pain communication and pain medication adherence were studied in much less extend. However, the findings from...... different studies regarding relationships between cognitive barriers and pain intensity were not consistent. On the contrary, the quality of pain communication was consistently found to be not satisfactory in some key areas. The associations between more expressed attitudinal as well as sensory barriers and...

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF QUADRATIC RESIDUE DIFFUSERS TO EFFICIENCY OF TILTED PROFILE PARALLEL HIGHWAY NOISE BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam ، P. Nassiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of tilted profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD tops and faces. A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage are also calculated for comparisons. Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all tilted profile parallel barrier models introduced here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with rigid equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions. Applying a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz on 5 degrees tilted parallel barrier improves the overall performance of its equivalent rigid barrier by 1.8 dB(A. Increase in the treated surfaces with reactive elements shifts the effective performance toward lower frequencies. It is found that by tilting the barriers from 0 to 10 degrees in parallel set up, the degradation effects in parallel barriers is reduced but the absorption effect of fibrous materials and also diffusivity of the quadratic residue diffuser is reduced significantly. In this case all the designed barriers have better performance with 10 degrees tilting in parallel set up. The most economic traffic noise parallel barrier which produces significantly high performance, is achieved by covering the top surface of the barrier closed to the receiver by just a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz and tilting angle of 10 degrees. The average A-weighted insertion loss in this barrier is predicted to be 16.3 dB (A.

  11. Nouvelles techniques pratiques pour la modelisation du comportement dynamique des systèmes eau-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Benjamin

    The dynamic or seismic behavior of hydraulic structures is, as for conventional structures, essential to assure protection of human lives. These types of analyses also aim at limiting structural damage caused by an earthquake to prevent rupture or collapse of the structure. The particularity of these hydraulic structures is that not only the internal displacements are caused by the earthquake, but also by the hydrodynamic loads resulting from fluid-structure interaction. This thesis reviews the existing complex and simplified methods to perform such dynamic analysis for hydraulic structures. For the complex existing methods, attention is placed on the difficulties arising from their use. Particularly, interest is given in this work on the use of transmitting boundary conditions to simulate the semi infinity of reservoirs. A procedure has been developed to estimate the error that these boundary conditions can introduce in finite element dynamic analysis. Depending on their formulation and location, we showed that they can considerably affect the response of such fluid-structure systems. For practical engineering applications, simplified procedures are still needed to evaluate the dynamic behavior of structures in contact with water. A review of the existing simplified procedures showed that these methods are based on numerous simplifications that can affect the prediction of the dynamic behavior of such systems. One of the main objectives of this thesis has been to develop new simplified methods that are more accurate than those existing. First, a new spectral analysis method has been proposed. Expressions for the fundamental frequency of fluid-structure systems, key parameter of spectral analysis, have been developed. We show that this new technique can easily be implemented in a spreadsheet or program, and that its calculation time is near instantaneous. When compared to more complex analytical or numerical method, this new procedure yields excellent prediction of

  12. Perceived Gender and Racial/Ethnic Barriers to STEM Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Porche, Michelle V.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined urban adolescents' perceptions of gender and racial/ethnic barriers to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) success, and their meaning-making and coping regarding these experiences. The sample includes surveys from 1024 high school-aged students and interviews from 53 students. Logistic…

  13. Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Starch-Clay Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poor barrier and mechanical properties of biopolymer-based food packaging can potentially be enhanced by the use of layered silicates (nanoclay) to produce nanocomposites. In this study, starch-clay nano-composites were synthesized by a melt extrusion method. Natural (MMT) and organically modifi...

  14. New applications of meso-structured silicon oxides in bio-remediation; Nouvelles applications des silices mesostructurees en bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarneau, A. [Montpellier-1 Univ., Lab. de Materiaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR 5618 ENSCM/CNRS/UMI, Institut Charles Gerhardt, 34 (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, has been developed a new enzymes encapsulation method by sol-gel synthesis, using natural phospho-lipids as surfactants and amines as co-surfactants to control both the polarity and porosity. The catalytic performances are superior to the classical and commercial sol-gel encapsulations because of the addition of the porosity control. This new synthesis method, easy to carry out, provides new very efficient bio-catalysts, for instance for the oxidation of polluting molecules contained in water or in organic media. (O.M.)

  15. Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E.; Long, E.L.

    2000-03-01

    A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.

  16. Computation of transmission probabilities for thin potential barriers with transmitted quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational method is presented for the evaluation of transmission probabilities for thin potential barriers by evolving an ensemble of transmitted quantum trajectories. A single row of second-order trajectories computed using the derivative propagation method is propagated to determine the initial conditions for transmitted quantum trajectories. As time evolves, trajectories reflected from the potential barrier are deleted from the ensemble. This method is applied to a two-dimensional system involving either a thin Eckart or Gaussian barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator. Transmission probabilities are in good agreement with the exact results. - Highlights: • Transmission probabilities for thin potential barriers are computed. • Transmission probabilities are obtained using transmitted quantum trajectories. • Reflected trajectories are removed during the trajectory ensemble evolution. • Two systems involving a thin barrier coupled to a harmonic oscillator are studied

  17. Modelling with uncertainties: The role of the fission barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lü Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fission is the dominant decay channel of super-heavy elements formed in heavy ions collisions. The probability of synthesizing heavy or super-heavy nuclei in fusion-evaporation reactions is then very sensitive to the height of their fission barriers. This contribution will firstly address the influence of theoretical uncertainty on excitation functions. Our second aim is to investigate the inverse problem, i.e., what information about the fission barriers can be extracted from excitation functions? For this purpose, Bayesian methods have been used with a simplified toy model.

  18. Sub-barrier Fusion Cross Sections with Energy Density Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrun, F. Muhammad; Hagino, K.; Takigawa, N.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the applicability of the energy density formalism (EDF) for heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies. For this purpose, we calculate the fusion excitation function and the fusion barrier distribution for the reactions of $^{16}$O with $^{154,}$$^{144}$Sm,$^{186}$W and $^{208}$Pb with the coupled-channels method. We also discuss the effect of saturation property on the fusion cross section for the reaction between two $^{64}$Ni nuclei, in connection to the so called steep ...

  19. Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

    2010-04-27

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

  20. Barriers to Energy Efficiency and the Uptake of Green Revolving Funds in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, John; Savan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency projects in Canadian universities, including access to capital, bounded rationality, hidden costs, imperfect information, risk and split incentives. Methods to address these barriers are investigated, including evaluating the efficacy of…