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Sample records for barriers ghana country

  1. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  2. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I; Atakora, S B; Atta-Konadu, R; Brew-Hammond, A [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to resource

  3. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply.

  4. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. Methods The study employed an inductive exploratory qua...

  5. Science reporting in Accra, Ghana: sources, barriers and motivational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Bernard; Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N; Russell, Leon H

    2015-01-01

    In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents' demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p=.017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters' coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Science reporting in Accra, Ghana: Sources, barriers and motivational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N.; Russell, Leon H.

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents’ demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p = .017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters’ coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana. PMID:25193967

  7. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  8. Slum upgrading in developing countries: lessons from Ghana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proliferation of slums in many cities of the developing countries has ... slum upgrading in Ghana and Kenya as model examples to make a case for .... improvement in housing, and still others, infrastructural development. ..... Class Summer Research Report), City and Regional Planning: International and Area Studies.

  9. Country Immunization Information System Assessments - Kenya, 2015 and Ghana, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colleen; Clarke, Kristie E N; Grevendonk, Jan; Dolan, Samantha B; Ahmed, Hussein Osman; Kamau, Peter; Ademba, Peter Aswani; Osadebe, Lynda; Bonsu, George; Opare, Joseph; Diamenu, Stanley; Amenuvegbe, Gregory; Quaye, Pamela; Osei-Sarpong, Fred; Abotsi, Francis; Ankrah, Joseph Dwomor; MacNeil, Adam

    2017-11-10

    The collection, analysis, and use of data to measure and improve immunization program performance are priorities for the World Health Organization (WHO), global partners, and national immunization programs (NIPs). High quality data are essential for evidence-based decision-making to support successful NIPs. Consistent recording and reporting practices, optimal access to and use of health information systems, and rigorous interpretation and use of data for decision-making are characteristics of high-quality immunization information systems. In 2015 and 2016, immunization information system assessments (IISAs) were conducted in Kenya and Ghana using a new WHO and CDC assessment methodology designed to identify root causes of immunization data quality problems and facilitate development of plans for improvement. Data quality challenges common to both countries included low confidence in facility-level target population data (Kenya = 50%, Ghana = 53%) and poor data concordance between child registers and facility tally sheets (Kenya = 0%, Ghana = 3%). In Kenya, systemic challenges included limited supportive supervision and lack of resources to access electronic reporting systems; in Ghana, challenges included a poorly defined subdistrict administrative level. Data quality improvement plans (DQIPs) based on assessment findings are being implemented in both countries. IISAs can help countries identify and address root causes of poor immunization data to provide a stronger evidence base for future investments in immunization programs.

  10. MULTI-COUNTRY ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS TO ACCEPTANCE OF GM RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Wailes, Eric; Alam, MJ; Mwaijande, Francis; Tsiboe, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice has been developed to confer pest resistance, herbicide tolerance and health benefits, yet regulatory, policy and market barriers prevent commercialization of GM rice. This study assesses factors based on consumer survey results that assess acceptance of GM rice in 5 selected countries, namely, Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana, Honduras, and Tanzania.

  11. Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tarp, Finn

    Ghana is relatively rare among Sub-Saharan African countries in having had sustained positive growth every year since the mid-1980s. This paper analyses the nature of the growth and then presents an analysis of the evolution of both consumption poverty and non-monetary poverty outcomes over...... this period, showing improvements in almost all indicators over this period. At the same time, inequality has risen over the past 20 years and spatial inequality, in both monetary and non-monetary outcomes, remains an important concern. This increase in inequality is one reason why growth has not led...

  12. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  13. Unpacking the Barriers to Reproductive Health Services in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    abortion and contraception compared with HIV/STI testing (p<0.001). Efforts to develop ... A recent study in Ghana among urban adolescents found that ..... Young people's perception of sexual and .... experimental intervention study. J Adolesc ...

  14. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-05-26

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.

  15. Structural barriers to coping with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural barriers to coping with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana: Experiences of diabetic youth and their families. ... Methods: Qualitative study conducted with families with a child with T1DM, receiving care in the greater Accra area. Total of 17 individuals ... Social support networks need to be explored and strengthened.

  16. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives' acceptance of rural postings in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Rominski, Sarah D; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Muriu, Eunice W; Kweku, Nakua E; Agyei-Baffour, Peter

    2012-07-24

    Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students' acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser's constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1) social amenities; 2) professional life; and 3) further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students' decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  17. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Jody R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1 social amenities; 2 professional life; and 3 further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  18. A concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbagbo, J.K.N.

    1997-04-01

    This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a biogas plant is, and how it functions. Chapter 2, describes the entire process. Chapter 3, discusses the necessary conditions for fermentation. Chapter 4, the measuring parameters for monitoring the system. Chapter 5, describes the various types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Chapter 6, describes a planning guide for Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 7, discusses digester sizing and finally, Chapter 8, describes a concise biogas plant construction suitable for the rural areas of Ghana and other tropical countries. (au)

  19. Project management in Ghana: expectations, realities and barriers to use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Venter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of an empirical study of the problems of developing Project Management (PM practice in Ghanaian organisations. Based on previous research and survey data, the characteristics of the project life cycle (PLC are used as a basis to examine the nature, type and severity of the problems encountered by organisations implementing projects. It is also used to determine the extent and relevance of PM usage: concepts, methods and application. It is concluded that although PM is important, legitimate and relevant, its practice in Ghana has been fraught with problems. Some recommendations for overcoming these problems are also made, and it is recommended that further research is required in order to ascertain the nature of PM practice and to gauge the attitudes and opinions of people involved in projects in Ghana.

  20. Project management in Ghana: Expectations, realities and barriers to use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Ofori

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of an empirical study of the problems of developing Project Management (PM practice in Ghanaian organisations. Based on previous research and survey data, the characteristics of the project life cycle (PLC are used as a basis to examine the nature, type and severity of the problems encountered by organisations implementing projects. It is also used to determine the extent and relevance of PM usage: concepts, methods and application. It is concluded that although PM is important, legitimate and relevant, its practice in Ghana has been fraught with problems. Some recommendations for overcoming these problems are also made, and it is recommended that further research is required in order to ascertain the nature of PM practice and to gauge the attitudes and opinions of people involved in projects in Ghana.

  1. Slum upgrading in developing countries: lessons from Ghana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper identifies common elements in the upgrading programmes in the literature. It assesses two slum upgrading projects from Ghana and Kenya to determine how the elements were factored into the projects' implementation. The article concludes that stakeholders involved in slum upgrading in Africa should consider ...

  2. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  3. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 5. Annex 9

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  4. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  5. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 4. Annex 8

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  6. Facilitators and barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankrah DNA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel NA Ankrah,1,2 Ellen S Koster,2 Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse,2 Daniel K Arhinful,3 Irene A Agyepong,4 Margaret Lartey5,6 1Pharmacy Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana (Legon, 4Health Policy, Planning and Management, University of Ghana School of Public Health, 5Department of Medicine, University of Ghana Medical School, 6Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be challenging among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, notwithstanding the life-saving importance of this therapy. Of the global total number of adolescents living with HIV in 2013, 83% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to identify facilitators of and barriers to antiretroviral treatment adherence among adolescents in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews for data collection was carried out among adolescents (aged 12–19 years at the adolescents HIV clinic at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Predominantly open-ended questions relating to ART were used. Interviews were done until saturation. In total, 19 interviews were conducted. Analysis was done manually to maintain proximity with the text. Findings: The main facilitators were support from health care providers, parental support, patient’s knowledge of disease and self-motivation, patient’s perceived positive outcomes, and dispensed formulation. The identified barriers were patient’s forgetfulness to take medicines, perceived stigmatization due to disclosure, financial barriers, and adverse effects of ART. Support from health care workers was the most frequently mentioned facilitator, and patient’s forgetfulness and perceived

  7. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J. A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G. A.

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last

  8. Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The government of Ghana sees the country's population as a valuable natural resource and emphasizes national population policy as an important part of overall socioeconomic planning and development. A formal system of development planning has been in effect since 1951. Decennial censuses are conducted relatively regularly but vital registration is thought to be incomplete. The current population size is 11,679,000 and the current rate of natural increase (3.1%) is considered too high, constraining the achievement of socioeconomic development. The high rate of growth is taxing on employment and public services. High fertility rates are influenced both by regional norms, such as early and universal marriage, and demographic factors, i.e., an increasingly higher proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group. The government sponsors family planning services which can be obtained free or at subsidized rates and seeks to upgrade the health and living standards of the population. Sterilization is permitted for medical reasons only, and abortions are restricted. Crude death rates have declined steadily and are currently estimated at 21-23/1000 population. The infant mortality rate is approximately 125.7/1000 live births. These rates are considered unacceptable and budget allocations for curative and preventive services have continuously risen. Uneven regional distribution of services continues to be problematic. Efforts to curb immigration in 1969 are thought to have resulted in the current satisfactory situation. Restrictive measures to prevent the emigration of skilled personnel are in effect. 60-65% of the population are urban dwellers and the proportion is expected to increase. The current spatial distribution of the population is considered inappropriate, rapid urbanization is causing rural depopulation, overburdening urban services and accentuating rural-urban disparaties. 2 approaches to the problem have been implemented: the urban increase is accomodated by

  9. Transition to e-government in Developing countries: The Case of Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) e-Service Smart City Initiatives in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofi Wireko, Joseph; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    Most developing countries, especially in Africa are fighting corruption as a major barrier to development, and e-government is seen as a new way of addressing it. Besides generally being recognized as cost-efficient, e-government is thought to reduce corruption through increased transparency......, better accountability and, the disappearance of the “middle-man” in the acquisition of public services by the citizenry. This paper discusses the extent to which this has been achieved in Ghana by analyzing the implementation of e-government service of the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA......) of Ghana using the “stages of growth” mode from a sociotechnical perspective. The outcome of the analysis suggests that the e-government service implementation by DVLA is still at its basic and rudimentary stage (Catalogue stage) and continuous presence of the “middle-man,” high level of corruption, lack...

  10. Financing energy SMEs in Ghana and Senegal: Outcomes, barriers and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselip, James; Desgain, Denis; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the findings of primary research carried out in Ghana and Senegal, which revisited the main assumptions behind the African Rural Energy Enterprise Development (AREED) initiative (2002–2012), and other donor-backed programmes, designed to promote small and medium-sized energy enterprises (energy SMEs). These assumptions were (1) that the lack of affordable local financing presented the most significant barrier to setting up and expanding energy SMEs, and (2) that these barriers would be overcome by a ‘demonstration effect’ whereby successful businesses, supported by donor-backed programmes, could in turn influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. - Highlights: • Analysis of the AREED ‘demonstration effect’ in Senegal and Ghana. • Commercial financial backing for SMEs remains a serious challenge for entrepreneurs. • Structural issues that increase the financial risk of investing in energy SMEs. • High transaction costs of investing in SMEs. • Longer supply chains and slower pay-back periods for capital-intensive technologies

  11. Exploring barriers to accessing physiotherapy services for stroke patients at Tema general hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketia-Kyere, Mercy; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of disability among stroke patients. Poor adherence to physiotherapy can negatively affect outcomes and healthcare cost. However, very little is known about barriers especially to physiotherapy services in Ghana. The objective of this study was to assess the barriers to physiotherapy services for stroke patients at Tema General Hospital (TGH). The individual/personal and health system barriers to physiotherapy services at TGH were determined. A cross-sectional study design was employed. A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit 207 respondents for a face-to-face interview. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on individual/personal barriers of respondents to physiotherapy services and were described using the Likert's scale. Health system barriers were assessed using a self-structured questionnaire which had section under the following heading: human factors, physiotherapy modalities, physical barriers and material/equipment factors. The time spent waiting for physiotherapy and attitude of physiotherapist towards patients; physiotherapy modality such as electrotherapy, exercise therapy and massage therapy among others were some of the indices measured. Respondents' adherence to Medication was assessed with the Morisky 8-item medication adherence questionnaire. Data were entered and analysed using Epi info 7 and STATA 12.0. Associations between the variables were determined using a chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to test the strength of associations between the independent and the dependent variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p  Tema General Hospital.

  12. Mapping of the freshwater lens in a coastal aquifer on the Keta Barrier (Ghana) by transient electromagnetic soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Gelting, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of the freshwater lens and saltwater intrusion in a 1000 m wide and 2500 m long portion of the Keta Barrier, Ghana, based on 96 transient electromagnetic (TEM) measurements. Saltwater intrusions from the Gulf of Guinea to the south of the barrier and from the Keta Lagoon...... interpret the existence of a mixing zone with brackish water between the freshwater lens and the layers with saline pore water. This mixing zone varies in thickness from 0-5 m close to the coastlines to  10-20 m in the central part of the barrier....

  13. Geographical access to care at birth in Ghana: a barrier to safe motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate facility-based care at birth is a key determinant of safe motherhood but geographical access remains poor in many high burden regions. Despite its importance, geographical access is rarely audited systematically, preventing integration in national-level maternal health system assessment and planning. In this study, we develop a uniquely detailed set of spatially-linked data and a calibrated geospatial model to undertake a national-scale audit of geographical access to maternity care at birth in Ghana, a high-burden country typical of many in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We assembled detailed spatial data on the population, health facilities, and landscape features influencing journeys. These were used in a geospatial model to estimate journey-time for all women of childbearing age (WoCBA to their nearest health facility offering differing levels of care at birth, taking into account different transport types and availability. We calibrated the model using data on actual journeys made by women seeking care. Results We found that a third of women (34% in Ghana live beyond the clinically significant two-hour threshold from facilities likely to offer emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC classed at the ‘partial’ standard or better. Nearly half (45% live that distance or further from ‘comprehensive’ EmONC facilities, offering life-saving blood transfusion and surgery. In the most remote regions these figures rose to 63% and 81%, respectively. Poor levels of access were found in many regions that meet international targets based on facilities-per-capita ratios. Conclusions Detailed data assembly combined with geospatial modelling can provide nation-wide audits of geographical access to care at birth to support systemic maternal health planning, human resource deployment, and strategic targeting. Current international benchmarks of maternal health care provision are inadequate for these purposes because

  14. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  15. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  16. Strengthening care for injured persons in less developed countries: a case study of Ghana and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Quansah, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In all countries, the priority for reducing road traffic injuries should be prevention. Nonetheless, there are low-cost ways to strengthen the care of injured persons, that will help to lower the toll from road traffic. The purpose of this review was to elucidate ways to accomplish this goal in the context of less developed countries. Studies selected for this review were obtained by Medline review, selecting on key words such as trauma, injury, trauma care, essential health services, and developing country. Articles pertaining to any country and all available years were considered. In addition, the authors utilized articles from the gray literature and journals from Mexico and Ghana that are not Medline referenced. Studies surveyed point to road safety and other forms of injury prevention, as well as prehospital care, as likely priorities for developing countries. Nonetheless, hospital-based improvements can contribute to decreases in mortality and, especially, decreases in disability. For both prehospital and hospital based care, studies revealed several critical weak points to address in: (1) human resources (staffing and training); (2) physical resources (equipment, supplies, and infrastructure); and (3) administration and organization. The 'essential services' approach, which has contributed to progress in a variety of fields of international health, needs to be developed for the care of the injured. This would define the trauma treatment services that could realistically be made available to virtually every injured person. It would then address the inputs of human resources, physical resources, and administration necessary to assure these services optimally in the different geographic and socioeconomic environments worldwide. Finally, it would identify and target deficiencies in these inputs that need to be strengthened.

  17. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ghana, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $6.5 million of Agency support received, Ghana ranks 29th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (53%), followed by training through fellowships and scientific visits (34%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-four per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, 13% through assistance in kind, 11% through extrabudgetary contributions, and 2% by UNDP. It should be noted that the share for extrabudgetary contributions includes an amount of $250,000 made available by the Ghanaian Government for the purchase of equipment by the Agency under a funds-in-trust arrangement. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest share has gone to agriculture (36%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (21%), nuclear medicine (16%), industry and hydrology (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (9%)

  18. Aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana: implications for health programming in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Karen M; Quigley, Maria A; Zandoh, Charles; Danso, Samuel; Hurt, Chris; Owusu Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2008-09-01

    In developing countries many stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur at home and cause of death is not recorded by national health information systems. A community-level verbal autopsy tool was used to obtain data on the aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana. Objectives were to describe the timing and distribution of causes of stillbirths and neonatal deaths according to site of death (health facility or home). Data were collected from 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2004; 20,317 deliveries, 696 stillbirths and 623 neonatal deaths occurred over that time. Most deaths occurred in the antepartum period (28 weeks gestation to the onset of labour) (33.0%). However, the highest risk periods were during labour and delivery (intrapartum period) and the first day of life. Infections were a major cause of death in the antepartum (10.1%) and neonatal (40.3%) periods. The most important cause of intrapartum death was obstetric complications (59.3%). There were significantly fewer neonatal deaths resulting from birth asphyxia in the home than in the health facilities and more deaths from infection. Only 59 (20.7%) mothers of neonates who died at home reported that they sought care from an appropriate health care provider (doctor, nurse or health facility) during their baby's illness. The results from this study highlight the importance of studying community-level data in developing countries and the high risk of intrapartum stillbirths and infectious diseases in the rural African mother and neonate. Community-level interventions are urgently needed, especially interventions that reduce intrapartum deaths and infection rates in the mother and infant.

  19. The politico-economics of electricity planning in developing countries: A case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Salam, Yakubu; Phimister, Euan

    2016-01-01

    Off-grid technologies are increasingly being proposed as a way of ensuring cost efficient universal access to electricity in many developing countries. However, many un-electrified communities would prefer access to electricity via the national grid rather than off-grid technologies. Electricity planning based on cost efficiency alone could therefore be undermined by political pressure from discontented communities that are assigned off-grid technologies. Using a case study of un-electrified communities in Ghana, we develop an electricity planning algorithm based on hierarchical lexicographic programming and consider specifications where the priorities are adjusted to give weight to (1) cost efficiency and (2) political economy considerations so that communities with larger populations (and therefore votes) are given priority in terms of grid electrification. The results emphasise the need to incorporate the political economy considerations in the national planning of universal electrification, showing significant regional differences in terms of where grid extensions ought to be placed. Incorporating a political economy perspective in national planning also suggests that the most important policy trade-offs shift from considering the grid versus off-grid balance to focussing more on the effectiveness of grid investment in providing universal access. - Highlights: • There is a focus on grid and off-grid electricity planning based on economics. • However community preferences for grid introduces a political dimension to planning. • We develop an algorithm to examine the politico-economics of electricity planning. • We find different priorities yield significant regional differences in grid access. • We find that greater policy focus on the effectiveness of grid investment is needed.

  20. Barriers to Teacher Motivation for Professional Practice in the Ghana Education Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Inusah

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana, several education initiatives for promoting the quality of education have excluded the issue of teacher motivation. Well-motivated teachers are likely to be more committed to their profession and this could lead to desirable learning outcomes. This research attempted to identity and analyse what teachers in public pre-tertiary schools in…

  1. Comparative Analysis between WiMAX and Fiber Optics Backhaul Network Deployment in Developing Countries - The Case of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Williams, Idongesit

    to deploy than mobile technologies. But in many developing countries, there is preference for the deployment of fiber optics rather than a broadband wireless solution for the deployment of broadband internet. Argument is made in this paper using the Expectation Confirmation Theory to reveal the level...... of satisfaction of mobile WiMAX compared to what Fiber optics would bring to rural areas in terms of broadband provisioning, Cost of access, Cost of deployment, Network accessibility and availability. The case of investigation is Northern Ghana due to the proliferation of rural areas in that region...

  2. Designed to deter: Barriers to facilities at secondary schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K. Danso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are varied and complex problems associated with the admission of students with disabilities into secondary (senior high schools all over the world. This situation is further complicated by difficulties encountered in the built environment of these institutions and, in this, Ghana is no exception. Objectives: This exploratory study investigated the level of accessibility of the built environment in secondary schools in eight out of the ten regions of Ghana, in order to determine whether they conform to guidelines provided in international building standards and also assess the extent to which they have been designed and constructed to meet the provisions of the Persons with Disability Act 2006, which allows for equal access to public buildings in Ghana. Method: In total, 705 building elements in 264 facilities were surveyed using international standards, building codes, regulations and guidelines. These facilities included car parks, classrooms, dormitories, assembly halls, telephone booths and administration blocks. Results: Our findings revealed that most of the building elements were barring and not disability-friendly. Just to name a few: there were obstructions on access routes to and around buildings, absence of designated car parks, unfriendly vertical and horizontal means of circulation in buildings and lack of accessible sanitary accommodations. In addition, the general lighting and signage were poor. As a result, very few students with disabilities are admitted and retained in these schools. Conclusion: Mainstreaming of people with disabilities into the Ghanaian educational system remains impossible unless urgent action is taken to alter the facilities at secondary schools. Based on this research outcome, recommendations have been made to the Ghanaian government and the Ghana Education Service, as well as non-governmental organisations and relevant professional bodies for the amelioration of the present situation in

  3. Ghana : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 3. Annexes 1-7

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report highlights a broad array of poor procedures and practices throughout the tendering and contract management process, which have been the cause of many of Ghana's public procurement problems, and where most of the leakages in public procurement funding occur and substantial savings could be realized. Most of the procedural anomalies are now being corrected by the Public Procureme...

  4. Overcoming the barriers. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, T.; Tanner, T.; Wilkinson, E.; Roach, R.; Boyd, S.

    2006-10-01

    highlight a number of barriers and opportunities to mainstreaming climate change adaptation in developing countries. These are focused around information, institutions, inclusion, incentives and international finance, and result in a number of recommendations for national governments and donors.

  5. Perceived barriers in the use of ultrasound in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachita; Bellows, Blaise A; Adedipe, Adeyinka A; Totten, Jodie E; Backlund, Brandon H; Sajed, Dana

    2015-12-01

    Access to ultrasound has increased significantly in resource-limited settings, including the developing world; however, there remains a lack of sonography education and ultrasound-trained physician support in developing countries. To further investigate this potential knowledge gap, our primary objective was to assess perceived barriers to ultrasound use in resource-limited settings by surveying care providers who practice in low- and middle-income settings. A 25-question online survey was made available to health care providers who work with an ultrasound machine in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including doctors, nurses, technicians, and clinical officers. This was a convenience sample obtained from list-serves of ultrasound and radiologic societies. The survey was analyzed, and descriptive results were obtained. One hundred and thirty-eight respondents representing 44 LMICs including countries from the continents of Africa, South America, and Asia completed the survey, with a response rate of 9.6 %. Ninety-one percent of the respondents were doctors, and 9 % were nurses or other providers. Applications for ultrasound were diverse, including obstetrics (75 %), DVT evaluation (51 %), abscess evaluation (54 %), cardiac evaluation (64 %), inferior vena cava (IVC) assessment (49 %), Focused Assessment Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam (64 %), biliary tree assessment (54 %), and other applications. The respondents identified the following barriers to use of ultrasound: lack of training (60 %), lack of equipment (45 %), ultrasound machine malfunction (37 %), and lack of ultrasound maintenance capability (47 %). Seventy-four percent of the respondents wished to have further training in ultrasound, and 82 % were open to receiving distance learning or telesonography training. Subjects used communication tools including Skype, Dropbox, emailed photos, and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) as ways to communicate and receive feedback

  6. Appraisal of corporate governance in a lower middle income country: The case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accountability is instrumental for ensuring that a trusting relationship exists between shareholders and management of corporations in order that there will be enhanced investor confidence. Towards this end, corporate governance measures are instituted to make the executives or management of business organizations accountable for their stewardships of the organizational resources or shareholders’ investments. It is against that backdrop that the Securities and Exchange Commission in Ghana has also developed a code on best practices on corporate governance. However, the extent to which the provisions in the code are consistent with the theoretical and empirical literature is unknown. This paper, therefore, sought to explore whether or not gaps exist between the corporate governance policy and practices in Ghana and extant literature. This paper achieves this by examining characteristics of the board as they exist in Ghana in relations to the literature. The characteristics examined in this paper include responsibilities, optimal size, independence, board composition, and audit and compensation committees of boards. Recommendations are made based on the literature to address gaps that exist.

  7. Similar Students and Different Countries? An Analysis of the Barriers and Drivers for Erasmus Participation in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Souto-Otero, Manuel; de Wit, Hans; Huisman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing participation in the Erasmus study abroad program in Europe is a clear policy goal, and student-reported barriers and drivers are regularly monitored. This article uses student survey data from seven countries to examine the extent to which student-level barriers can explain the considerable cross-country variation in Erasmus…

  8. Farmers’ Perceptions about Adaptation Practices to Climate Change and Barriers to Adaptation: A Micro-Level Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ndamani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the farmer-perceived importance of adaptation practices to climate change and examined the barriers that impede adaptation. Perceptions about causes and effects of long-term changes in climatic variables were also investigated. A total of 100 farmer-households were randomly selected from four communities in the Lawra district of Ghana. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions (FGDs. The results showed that 87% of respondents perceived a decrease in rainfall amount, while 82% perceived an increase in temperature over the past 10 years. The study revealed that adaptation was largely in response to dry spells and droughts (93.2% rather than floods. About 67% of respondents have adjusted their farming activities in response to climate change. Empirical results of the weighted average index analysis showed that farmers ranked improved crop varieties and irrigation as the most important adaptation measures. It also revealed that farmers lacked the capacity to implement the highly ranked adaptation practices. The problem confrontation index analysis showed that unpredictable weather, high cost of farm inputs, limited access to weather information, and lack of water resources were the most critical barriers to adaptation. This analysis of adaptation practices and constraints at farmer level will help facilitate government policy formulation and implementation.

  9. Comparison of perceived barriers to entrepreneurship in Eastern and Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovleva, T.A.; Kolvereid, L.; M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); Sørhaug, Ø

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis qualitative study among 591 business students from four European countries investigated cross-country differences in the kind of barriers people perceive to business start-up. In line with institutional theory, the most important perceived barriers in all countries related to

  10. Financing energy SMEs in Ghana and Senegal: Outcomes, barriers and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2014-01-01

    enterprises (energy SMEs). These assumptions were (1) that the lack of affordable local financing presented the most significant barrier to setting up and expanding energy SMEs, and (2) that these barriers would be overcome by a ‘demonstration effect’ whereby successful businesses, supported by donor...

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  12. All projects related to Ghana | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Ghana ... Integrated Climate Smart Flood Management for Accra, Ghana ... by scaling up enhanced information and communication technology-enabled (ICT) extension service models in Ghana.

  13. IDRC in Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ting up the Canada-Ghana Research and. Science Council ... major reform in the country's national health insurance ... helped spread the use of insecticide- coated mosquito nets throughout Africa. These nets are a ... effects of climate change.

  14. Ghana - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Millennium Development Authority's (MiDA) Agriculture Project within the Government of Ghana's Compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation is design...

  15. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kassapu, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. 'What men don't know can hurt women's health': a qualitative study of the barriers to and opportunities for men's involvement in maternal healthcare in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Dery, Isaac

    2015-10-10

    The importance of men's involvement in facilitating women's access to skilled maternal healthcare in patriarchal societies such as Ghana is increasingly being recognised. However, few studies have been conducted to examine men's involvement in issues of maternal healthcare, the barriers to men's involvement, and how best to actively involve men. The purpose of this paper is to explore the barriers to and opportunities for men's involvement in maternal healthcare in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Qualitative focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews were conducted with adult men and women aged 20-50 in a total of seven communities in two geographic districts and across urban and rural areas in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Attride-Stirling's thematic network analysis framework was used to analyse and present the qualitative data. Findings suggest that although many men recognise the importance of skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth, and the benefits of their involvement, most did not actively involve themselves in issues of maternal healthcare unless complications set in during pregnancy or labour. Less than a quarter of male participants had ever accompanied their wives for antenatal care or postnatal care in a health facility. Four main barriers to men's involvement were identified: perceptions that pregnancy care is a female role while men are family providers; negative cultural beliefs such as the belief that men who accompany their wives to receive ANC services are being dominated by their wives; health services factors such as unfavourable opening hours of services, poor attitudes of healthcare providers such as maltreatment of women and their spouses and lack of space to accommodate male partners in health facilities; and the high cost associated with accompanying women to seek maternity care. Suggestions for addressing these barriers include community mobilisation programmes to promote greater male involvement

  17. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  18. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  19. Ghana | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our funds sponsored Ghana Health Service research to improve the country's ... Major reforms extended health care to the aged, the poor, and children under 18. ... Researchers in Ghana found innovative ways to use information technology to ... enhance the quality of climate change science at the University of Ghana ...

  20. Waste management barriers in developing country hospitals: Case study and AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, Diego V de Godoy; Santos, Hugo H Dos; Pinheiro, Marco Ap; de Castro, Rosani; de Souza, Regiane M

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare waste management is an essential field for both researchers and practitioners. Although there have been few studies using statistical methods for its evaluation, it has been the subject of several studies in different contexts. Furthermore, the known precarious practices for waste management in developing countries raise questions about its potential barriers. This study aims to investigate the barriers in healthcare waste management and their relevance. For this purpose, this paper analyses waste management practices in two Brazilian hospitals by using case study and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The barriers were organized into three categories - human factors, management, and infrastructure, and the main findings suggest that cost and employee awareness were the most significant barriers. These results highlight the main barriers to more sustainable waste management, and provide an empirical basis for multi-criteria evaluation of the literature.

  1. Overcoming political, social and economic barriers to promote solar photovoltaic technology in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesooriya, P.; Hande, H.; Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper narrates the experiences of a private sector commercial company and that of a private developers (non-profit organization) in their efforts to promote solar PV in a developing country. The country chosen is Sri Lanka, in which a considerable PV effort has already been witnessed. However, substantial political, economic and social barriers exist which have hindered PV promotion in that country. The authors point that similar constraints may impede promotional efforts in many developing countries and recommend that a global paradigm to promote the technology must assign an important role to the issue of obstacles

  2. Barriers to obstetric fistula treatment in low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Zoë; Bellows, Ben; Bach, Rachel; Warren, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    To identify the barriers faced by women living with obstetric fistula in low-income countries that prevent them from seeking care, reaching medical centres and receiving appropriate care. Bibliographic databases, grey literature, journals, and network and organisation websites were searched in English and French from June to July 2014 and again from August to November 2016 using key search terms and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria for discussion of barriers to fistula treatment. Experts provided recommendations for additional sources. Of 5829 articles screened, 139 were included in the review. Nine groups of barriers to treatment were identified: psychosocial, cultural, awareness, social, financial, transportation, facility shortages, quality of care and political leadership. Interventions to address barriers primarily focused on awareness, facility shortages, transportation, financial and social barriers. At present, outcome data, though promising, are sparse and the success of interventions in providing long-term alleviation of barriers is unclear. Results from the review indicate that there are many barriers to fistula treatment, which operate at the individual, community and national levels. The successful treatment of obstetric fistula may thus require targeting several barriers, including depression, stigma and shame, lack of community-based referral mechanisms, financial cost of the procedure, transportation difficulties, gender power imbalances, the availability of facilities that offer fistula repair, community reintegration and the competing priorities of political leadership. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Female entrepreneurship in developing countriesBarriers and Motivation : Case Study, Egypt and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Gihan; Santos, Ajoqué

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship accounted by women has become important all over the world, especially in developing countries where it plays not only an economic role but a social role as well, changing communities and consequently, the whole society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main motivation and barriers faced by women in developing countries, especially concerning the case study, namely Brazil and Egypt. In order to accomplish that, a deep literature review has been done and ten cases ...

  4. Multi-Disciplinary Stroke Care in Developing Countries – Lessons from the Wessex-Ghana Stroke Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke disease in Ghana has been of increasing concern since the mid to late 20th century, in association with the increasing westernisation of diet and lifestyle [1]. Two thirds of world-wide mortality cases from stroke occur in sub-Saharan Africa [2], and in the Ghanaian capital city region of Accra, stroke is now attributed as the second largest cause of death [1]. The burden of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa is significant [3]. Experts recommend a three-prong approach to dealing with the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD: epidemiological surveillance; primary prevention (preventing disease in healthy populations; and secondary prevention (preventing complications and improving quality of life in affected communities [4]. This paper outlines the development of a specialist stroke service in Accra, Ghana. This work therefore broadly relates to the secondary prevention aspect, achieved through the development of a dedicated and specialised stroke service. Whilst this project took place in Ghana, the learning could be applied to the development of a stroke service in any resource poor setting, such as South Sudan. Indeed, because the focus is on establishing the fundamentals of organised stroke care, the principles are also entirely relevant to more developed health care systems.

  5. Ghana integrated to the world economy : focus on Ghana-UK-Germany trade linkage model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    1998-01-01

    In this study of Ghana integrated to the world economy, we focus primarily on Ghana-UK-Germany trade axis partly because of Ghana?s relative dependence on the EU for her international trade. The study employs ?representative? country macroeconometric models of these economies, using data over 1970-1991, including bilateral trade links among them and with the USA and Japan, to quantitatively analyze and draw policy inference of the international transmission mechanism of macroeconomic disturba...

  6. Developed country trade barriers and the least developed countries: The economic results of freeing trade

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Jon D.; Shatz, Howard J.

    2003-01-01

    The Doha Ministerial Declaration emphasized that priority should be given to improving market access for products originating in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). In this paper, we analyze the importance of this proposition with respect to market access in the Triad economies. We first present a brief history of non-reciprocal preferences granted by the Triad. This covers Generalized System of Preference (GSP) programmes in each, and further preferences granted to African, Caribbean and P...

  7. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  8. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives to encourage further

  9. Healthy firms: constraints to growth among private health sector facilities in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas E; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business

  10. Healthy firms: constraints to growth among private health sector facilities in Ghana and Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent. Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent, accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent, and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent. A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to

  11. Successful PV SHS project in developing countries? barriers and way foreword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villers, T. de; Watchueng, S.; Shanker, A.; Rambaud-Measson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a solar home system (SHS) programme in developing countries is complex and its success is dependant on many factors that are usually difficult to handle. The objective of this paper is to address financial and organisational aspects barriers and measures to PV programme implementation drawn from two specific projects in West Africa. Technical aspects on quality control and monitoring are also discussed. (authors)

  12. Mental health provision in schools: priority, facilitators and barriers in 10 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Patalay, P.; Giese, L.; Stanković, M.; Curtin, C.; Moltrecht, B.; Gondek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although schools are a key setting for the provision of mental health support for young people, little is known about the facilitators and barriers for providing such support. This study aimed to collect information from schools in 10 European countries regarding the priority given to mental health support for students, existence of a mental health-related school policy, links with relevant external agencies, schools’ perceptions on whether they are providing sufficient mental hea...

  13. Legal barriers in accessing opioid medicines: results of the ATOME quick scan of national legislation of eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Lisman, John; Scholten, Willem; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2014-12-01

    Overregulation of controlled medicines is one of the factors contributing to limited access to opioid medicines. The purpose of this study was to identify legal barriers to access to opioid medicines in 12 Eastern European countries participating in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europa project, using a quick scan method. A quick scan method to identify legal barriers was developed focusing on eight different categories of barriers. Key experts in 12 European countries were requested to send relevant legislation. Legislation was quick scanned using World Health Organization guidelines. Overly restrictive provisions and provisions that contain stigmatizing language and incorrect definitions were identified. The selected provisions were scored into two categories: 1) barrier and 2) uncertain, and reviewed by two authors. A barrier was recorded if both authors agreed the selected provision to be a barrier (Category 1). National legislation was obtained from 11 of 12 countries. All 11 countries showed legal barriers in the areas of prescribing (most frequently observed barrier). Ten countries showed barriers in the areas of dispensing and showed stigmatizing language and incorrect use of definitions in their legislation. Most barriers were identified in the legislation of Bulgaria, Greece, Lithuania, Serbia, and Slovenia. The Cypriot legislation showed the fewest total number of barriers. The selected countries have in common as main barriers prescribing and dispensing restrictions, the use of stigmatizing language, and incorrect use of definitions. The practical impact of these barriers identified using a quick scan method needs to be validated by other means. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene......This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low......-carbon energy technologies. While many electricity markets in Latin America were liberalized during the 1990s and 2000s, such market-driven reform policies were far from uniform and in reality there exist a diversity of governance frameworks for national electricity markets, exemplified here by Argentina, Cuba...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....

  15. Ghana Science Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education

  16. Treatment practices of households and antibiotic dispensing in medicine outlets in developing countries: The case of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2018-01-01

    in households and the antibiotic dispensing practices of medicine sales outlets in Eastern region, Ghana. Method: Twice-weekly illness recall visits were made to 12 households in three rural communities over eight consecutive weeks. Detailed fieldnotes were taken and analysed using a thematic approach....... Quantitative counts of health events and treatment were also conducted. Dispensing practices were systematically observed and documented in three rural and three urban medicine outlets for analysis. Result: Fever, abdominal, and respiratory symptoms were the most common causes of ill-health in the 12...... an integral part of healthcare in the study settings and the qualitative data provides a contextual understanding of over-the-counter antibiotic acquisition and use. Inappropriate antibiotic use is apparent in the study settings. Stricter regulation of the pharmaceutical sector, training of dispensers...

  17. Is Child Labor a Barrier to School Enrollment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving universal primary education is one of the Millennium Development Goals. In low- and middle-income developing countries (LMIC), child labor may be a barrier. Few multi-country, controlled studies of the relations between different kinds of child labor and schooling are available. This study employs 186,795 families with 7- to 14-year-old children in 30 LMIC to explore relations of children’s work outside the home, family work, and household chores with school enrollment. Significant negative relations emerged between each form of child labor and school enrollment, but relations were more consistent for family work and household chores than work outside the home. All relations were moderated by country and sometimes by gender. These differentiated findings have nuanced policy implications. PMID:26034342

  18. Barriers and facilitators to Electronic Medical Records usage in the Emergency Centre at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi-Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Gyamfi

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: The EMR has been a partial success. The facilitators identified in this study, namely training, provision of logistics, and staff commitment represent foundations to work from. The barriers identified could be addressed with additional funding, provision of information technology expertise, and data and power back up. It is acknowledged that lack of funding could substantially limit EMR implementation.

  19. Vaccinations against respiratory infections in Arabian Gulf countries: Barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Bondagji, Daniah M; Alshehari, Abdullah A; Basyouni, Mada H; Alhawassi, Tariq M; BinDhim, Nasser F; Rashid, Harunor

    2017-06-16

    To study the uptake, barriers and motivators of influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis vaccines among members of public in Arabian Gulf countries. A cross-sectional survey among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries' residents. Data collected electronically through a smartphone app. The survey variables aimed to investigate the respondents' awareness about vaccines against influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis infections. Collected data concerning the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, their perception toward vaccine uptake and the factors that motivate or demotivate them from taking influenza vaccine. The data were analysed statistically using the SPSS v.23.0. Differences in the characteristics of users from different countries were quantified through bivariate analysis. Other important variables and controlling factors were studied using logistic regression. A total of 1812 respondents participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years, 82% were male and 24% had ≥ 1 chronic diseases. The overall uptake of influenza vaccine was 17% (21% among "at risk" people) and ranged from 15% in Saudi Arabia to 24% in Qatar. Doctor's advice (23%) and a perception of having low body immunity (21%) were the main cited reasons for being vaccinated, whereas unawareness about the vaccine (43%) was the main barrier. The overall uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the preceding three years was 22% (25% among "at risk" individuals) and ranged from 0% in Bahrain to 79% in Kuwait. The overall uptake of pertussis vaccine was 16% (31% among "vulnerable" people), and ranged from 7% in Saudi Arabia to 75% in Oman. The overall uptake of meningococcal vaccine was 20% (29% among the "at risk" people) and ranged from 3% in Oman to 50% in Bahrain. The vaccination uptake across GCC countries is suboptimal and varies widely across the countries. Further research is needed to unearth the reasons and formulate action plan.

  20. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. full text

  1. Institutional Support : Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA-Ghana ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Economic Affairs in Ghana (IEA-Ghana) was founded in 1989 during the twilight of the military dictatorship. At that time there were no independent policy centres in the country and hence little public policy dialogue. Still, IEA-Ghana succeeded in creating a platform for debate and made a strong case for major ...

  2. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors......; lack of clearly defined markets; demand-side barriers to purchase relatively high capital-intense energy products. Where numerous energy SMEs are in operation and thus where a valid demonstration effect can be identified, there is a perceived paradox that serves to undermine commercial interest...... in investing in energy SMEs. The paradox is that the donor-supported businesses that were issued with concessional and/or flexible loans serve to demonstrate that these businesses depend upon such concessional terms, i.e., that they could not survive in ‘the real world’. While this assumption is widely...

  3. Renewable energy clusters recurring barriers to cluster development in eleven countries

    CERN Document Server

    Jaegersberg, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Taking eleven countries in Europe, Canada, South Africa, America, Latin America and Australia, this book discusses recurring barriers to cluster development in the renewable energy sector. The authors look at the real-world dynamics and tensions between stakeholders on the ground, with a particular focus on the relationships between SMEs and other actors. This trans-regional study is unique in its scale and scope, drawing on a decade of field research to show how by learning from the successes and failures of other clusters, costs and risk can be reduced. The book fills a significant gap in the literature for policymakers, managers and economic developers in a key market.

  4. Access to Strong Opioid Analgesics in the Context of Legal and Regulatory Barriers in Eleven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B; Scholten, Willem K; Jünger, Saskia; Medic, Dr Rer; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2018-04-06

    In 2011-2013, >95% of the global opioid analgesics consumption occurred in three regions, accounting for 15% of the world population. Despite abundant literature on barriers to access, little is known on the correlation between actual access to opioid analgesics and barriers to access, including legal and regulatory barriers. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and barriers to access in national legislation and regulations in 11 central and eastern European countries that participated in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. Two variables were contrasted to assess their correlation: the country level of access to strong opioid analgesics indicated by the Adequacy of Consumption Measure (ACM) and the number of potential legal and regulatory barriers identified by an external review of legislation and regulations. A linear correlation was evaluated using a squared linear correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the correlation between the ACM and the number of potential barriers produces an R 2 value of 0.023 and a correlation plot trend line gradient of -0.075, indicating no correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and the number of potential barriers in national legislation and regulations in the countries studied. No correlation was found, which indicates that other factors besides potential legal and regulatory barriers play a critical role in withholding prescribers and patients essential pain medication in the studied countries. More research is needed toward better understanding of the complex interplay of factors that determine access to strong opioid analgesics.

  5. Barriers to oral health across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John

    2017-06-01

    In this review we consider oral-health access among older adults within and between the USA and various European countries with regard to possible primary financial and modifiable secondary non-financial factors. For older adults, the likelihood of using dental services has been associated, in the health literature, with a multiplicity of factors. These factors are traditionally classified into predisposing, enabling and need categories, and can be further classified into modifiable and non-modifiable subcategories. This raises the question of which single factor or group of factors has the most influence in keeping older adults from seeking care, and how these influences might differ between the USA and various other (European) countries. As it turns out, there is variation in the magnitude of effects across certain measurable potential barriers, but generally it takes a combination of characteristics associated with non-use to have a substantial impact. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Breast Cancer in Ghana: Demonstrating the Need for Population-Based Cancer Registries in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail S. Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Breast cancer, the most common cancer worldwide, is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Ghanaian women. Previous studies find Ghanaian women are diagnosed at a younger age and at more advanced stages (III and IV, and have tumors with characteristics similar to African American women. We sought to remedy gaps in knowledge about breast cancer survival in Ghana and its relation to demographic and biologic factors of the tumors at diagnosis to assist in cancer control and registration planning. Methods: Individuals with a breast cancer diagnosis who sought care at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from 2009 to 2014 were identified via medical records. Follow-up telephone interviews were held to assess survival. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards models assessed survival associated with clinical and demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 223 patients completed follow-up and were analyzed. The median survival was 3.8 years. Approximately 50% of patients were diagnosed with grade 3 tumors, which significantly increased the risk of recurrence or death (hazard ratio [HR] for grade 2 versus 1, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.02; HR grade 3 v 1, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.08 to 6.07; P = .04. No other variables were significantly associated with survival. Conclusion: Higher tumor grade was significantly associated with shorter survival, indicating impact of aggressive biology at diagnosis on higher risk of cancer spread and recurrence. Contrary to prevailing notions, telephone numbers were not reliable for follow-up. Collecting additional contact information will likely contribute to improvements in patient care and tracking. A region-wide population-based active registry is important to implement cancer control programs and improve survival in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. mics in Modern Day Ghana 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in Gender and Development in Afiica, I (200 7): September. THE WOMBAS TARGET: .... countries. The purpose of this historical contextualization of HIV/AIDS policy cur- rently in Ghana is to ..... product development from a distance. ..... environmental disintegration and poverty in Nordiem Ghana.” In response to the.

  8. Constructivism and mathematics education in Ghana | Fletcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics is a subject found in every school Curriculum in almost every country. Here in Ghana, mathematics is a compulsory subject in both the basic education (i.e. primary and junior secondary) and senior secondary curricula. This paper argues that in spite of the desire of mathematics educators in Ghana to pursue a ...

  9. Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oduro Afriyie, K.

    1995-10-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over a period of more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p 2 /P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the annual rainfall amount. Values of the rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 24.5 mm at Sunyani in the mid-portion of Ghana to 180.9 mm at Axim in the south western coastal portion. The indices were used to construct a rainfall erosivity map for the country. The map revealed that Ghana may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The middle sector of Ghana is generally in the low erosion risk zone; the northern sector is in the moderate to severe erosion risk zone, while the coastal sector is in the severe to extreme severe erosion risk zone. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. An analysing framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries - illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhoff, A.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Actors in the field of international development co-operation supporting the development of EIA legislation in developing countries often do not achieve the results envisaged. The performance of EIA in these countries often remains weak. One reason, we assume, is that often those actors support the

  11. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.

  12. Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

  13. Reported barriers to evaluation in chronic care: experiences in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Nolte, Ellen; Brunn, Matthias; Elissen, Arianne; Conklin, Annalijn; Pedersen, Janice Pedersen; Brereton, Laura; Erler, Antje; Frølich, Anne; Flamm, Maria; Fullerton, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Ramune; Krohn, Robert; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Vrijhoef, Bert; Chevreul, Karine; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Farsi, Fadila; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio; Soennichsen, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The growing movement of innovative approaches to chronic disease management in Europe has not been matched by a corresponding effort to evaluate them. This paper discusses challenges to evaluation of chronic disease management as reported by experts in six European countries. We conducted 42 semi-structured interviews with key informants from Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and Spain involved in decision-making and implementation of chronic disease management approaches. Interviews were complemented by a survey on approaches to chronic disease management in each country. Finally two project teams (France and the Netherlands) conducted in-depth case studies on various aspects of chronic care evaluation. We identified three common challenges to evaluation of chronic disease management approaches: (1) a lack of evaluation culture and related shortage of capacity; (2) reluctance of payers or providers to engage in evaluation and (3) practical challenges around data and the heterogeity of IT infrastructure. The ability to evaluate chronic disease management interventions is influenced by contextual and cultural factors. This study contributes to our understanding of some of the most common underlying barriers to chronic care evaluation by highlighting the views and experiences of stakeholders and experts in six European countries. Overcoming the cultural, political and structural barriers to evaluation should be driven by payers and providers, for example by building in incentives such as feedback on performance, aligning financial incentives with programme objectives, collectively participating in designing an appropriate framework for evaluation, and making data use and accessibility consistent with data protection policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Going global: do consumer preferences, attitudes, and barriers to using e-mental health services differ across countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bonnie A; Zarean, Mostafa; Ruane, Ilse; Mateo, Niño Jose; Aliyeva, Turana A; Casey, Leanne M

    2017-08-31

    e-Mental health services have the capacity to overcome barriers to care and reduce the unmet need for psychological services, particularly in developing countries. However, it is unknown how acceptable e-mental health interventions may be to these populations. The purpose of the current study was to examine consumer attitudes and perceived barriers to e-mental health usage across four countries: Australia, Iran, the Philippines and South Africa. An online survey was completed by 524 adults living in these countries, assessing previous contact with e-mental health services, willingness to use e-mental health services, and perceived barriers and needs for accessing e-mental health services. Although previous contact with e-mental health services was low, the majority of respondents in each sample reported a willingness to try e-mental health services if offered. Barriers toward e-mental health usage were higher among the developing countries than Australia. The most commonly endorsed barriers concerned needing information and assurances regarding the programmes. Across countries, participants indicated a willingness to use e-mental health programmes if offered. With appropriate research and careful implementation, e-mental health has the potential to be a valuable part of mental healthcare in developing countries.

  15. Cardiothoracic surgical experience in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Mark; Tamatey, Martin; Edwin, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Ghana is one of the few low-to-middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa able to consistently sustain a cardiothoracic program with locally trained staff for more than two decades. Cardiothoracic surgery practice in Ghana started in 1964 but faltered from a combination of political and the economic problems. In 1989, Dr. Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng, a Ghanaian cardiothoracic surgeon trained in Hannover, rekindled interest in cardiothoracic surgery and in establishing a National Cardiothoracic Centre. His vision and leadership has brought cardiothoracic surgery practice in Ghana to its current high level. As a result, the medical landscape of what is achievable locally in both pediatric and adult patients has changed substantially: outbound medical travel that used to be common among Ghanaian cardiovascular patients has been reduced drastically. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center (NCTC), the only tertiary center in the country for cardiothoracic surgical pathology manages all such patients that were previously referred abroad. The NCTC has become a medical/surgical hub in the West African sub-region providing service, training, and research opportunities to neighboring countries. The Centre is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons as a center of excellence for training specialists in cardiothoracic surgery. Expectedly, practicing cardiothoracic surgery in such a resource-poor setting has peculiar challenges. This review focuses on the history, practice, successes, and challenges of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery in Ghana.

  16. The influence of actor capacities on EIA system performance in low and middle income countries -Cases from Georgia and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhoff, A.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.; Gugushvili, Tamar; Sonderegger, Gabi; Leest, Van der Bart; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to better understand the factors that contribute to the substantive performance of EIA systems in low and middle income countries. Substantive performance is defined as the extent to which the EIA process contributes to the EIA objectives for the long term, namely

  17. The influence of actor capacities on EIA system performance in low and middle income countries -Cases from Georgia and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhoff, Arend J.; Runhaar, Hens A C; Gugushvili, Tamar; Sonderegger, Gabi; Van der Leest, Bart; Driessen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to better understand the factors that contribute to the substantive performance of EIA systems in low and middle income countries. Substantive performance is defined as the extent to which the EIA process contributes to the EIA objectives for the long term, namely environmental

  18. Benefits, Challenges, and Dynamism of Positionalities Associated with Mixed Methods Research in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Although mixed methods designs have gained visibility in recent years, most of the publications on this methodological strategy have been written by scholars in the developed world. Consequently, the practical challenges associated with mixed methods research in developing countries have not been adequately discussed in the literature. Relying on…

  19. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2013-01-01

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS

  20. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS.

  1. Contraception for adolescents in low and middle income countries: needs, barriers, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; McCarraher, Donna R; Phillips, Sharon J; Williamson, Nancy E; Hainsworth, Gwyn

    2014-01-02

    Substantial numbers of adolescents experience the negative health consequences of early, unprotected sexual activity - unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortions, pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity and Sexually Transmitted Infections including Human Immunodeficiency Virus; as well as its social and economic costs. Improving access to and use of contraceptives - including condoms - needs to be a key component of an overall strategy to preventing these problems. This paper contains a review of research evidence and programmatic experiences on needs, barriers, and approaches to access and use of contraception by adolescents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Although the sexual activity of adolescents (ages 10-19) varies markedly for boys versus girls and by region, a significant number of adolescents are sexually active; and this increases steadily from mid-to-late adolescence. Sexually active adolescents - both married and unmarried - need contraception. All adolescents in LMIC - especially unmarried ones - face a number of barriers in obtaining contraception and in using them correctly and consistently. Effective interventions to improve access and use of contraception include enacting and implementing laws and policies requiring the provision of sexuality education and contraceptive services for adolescents; building community support for the provision of contraception to adolescents, providing sexuality education within and outside school settings, and increasing the access to and use of contraception by making health services adolescent-friendly, integrating contraceptive services with other health services, and providing contraception through a variety of outlets. Emerging data suggest mobile phones and social media are promising means of increasing contraceptive use among adolescents.

  2. Ghana Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GHANA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE is published jointly by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Ghana and the Ghana Science Association. It is open to all ... the authors belong. The topics need not be related to West Africa.

  3. Building partnership in oral cancer research in a developing country: processes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Latifah, Raja Jallaludin Raja; Samsuddin, Abdul Rani; Cheong, Sok Ching; Abdullah, Norlida; Ismail, Abdul Rashid; Hussaini, Haizal Bin; Talib, Norain Abu; Jallaludin, Amin

    2009-01-01

    The rising burden of cancer in the developing world calls for a re-evaluation of the treatment strategies employed to improve patient management, early detection and understanding of the disease. There is thus an increasing demand for interdisciplinary research that integrates two or more disciplines of what may seemed to be highly unrelated and yet very much needed as strategies for success in research. This paper presents the processes and barriers faced in building partnerships in oral cancer research in a developing country. A case study was undertaken in a developing country (Malaysia) to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the situation leading to the formation of a multidisciplinary research partnership in oral cancer. Following the formalization of the partnership, further evaluation was undertaken to identify measures that can assist in sustaining the partnership. The group identifies its strength as the existence of academia, research-intensive NGOs and good networking of clinicians via the existence of the government's network of healthcare provider system who are the policy makers. The major weaknesses identified are the competing interest between academia and NGOs to justify their existence due to the lack of funding sources and well trained human resources. With the growing partnership, the collaborative group recognizes the need to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) and guidelines for the sharing and usage of resources in order to safeguard the interest of the original partners while also attending to the needs of the new partners.

  4. OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porting rural livelihoods in Ghana, especially in the severe food ... moded methods of manufacturing and organization” (Beeh- .... there are certain productive activities that are jointly undertaken by .... Type of food Apatanga Adaboya Bongo-Soc Total ..... fulfilment of household needs and maintenance and the critical issue of ...

  5. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Filby

    Full Text Available Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider's perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs from providing quality of care.A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care.Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective, as well as the underlying

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Multiethnic Asian Country: Enrollment and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Ruth; Ng, Hsuen-Nin; Loo, Germaine; Ooi, Lean-See; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Wong, Raymond; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2015-09-01

    To determine the enrollment or barriers to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) among Asian patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prospective observational study. Department of cardiology at a university hospital. Patients (N=795) who underwent PCI between January 2012 and December 2013 at a tertiary medical institution. Not applicable. Data on enrollment in phase 2 CR and its barriers were collected by dedicated CR nurses. Of 795 patients, 351 patients (44.2%) were ineligible for CR because of residual coronary stenosis, while 30 patients (3.8%) were not screened because of either early discharge or death. Of the remaining 416 patients (90.8% men; mean age, 55 y), 365 (87.7%) declined CR participation and 51 (12.3%) agreed to participate. Of these 51 patients, 20 (39%) did not proceed to enroll and 4 (8%) dropped out, leaving 27 patients (53%) who completed at least 6 sessions of the CR program. The top 3 reasons provided by patients who declined to participate in CR were (1) busy work schedules (37.5%), (2) no specific reason (26.7%), and (3) preference for self-exercise (20.1%). Nonsmokers were more likely to participate in CR (P=.001). CR participation of Asian patients after PCI was found to be lower than that reported in Western countries. The exclusion criteria used in the institution under study differed from those provided by international associations. A busy work schedule was the most common reason for declining CR after PCI. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Some Agronomic Practices to Increase Maize Yield in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Some Agronomic Practices to Increase Maize Yield in Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... With the increasing population and consumption of maize in the country, research must be directed to solve this problem ...

  8. The influence of actor capacities on EIA system performance in low and middle income countries —Cases from Georgia and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhoff, Arend J.; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Gugushvili, Tamar; Sonderegger, Gabi; Van der Leest, Bart; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to better understand the factors that contribute to the substantive performance of EIA systems in low and middle income countries. Substantive performance is defined as the extent to which the EIA process contributes to the EIA objectives for the long term, namely environmental protection or, even more ambitious, sustainable development. We have therefore developed a conceptual model in which we focus on the key actors in the EIA system, the proponent and the EIA authority and their level of ownership as a key capacity to measure their performance, and we distinguish procedural performance and some contextual factors. This conceptual model is then verified and refined for the EIA phase and the EIA follow-up phase (permitting, monitoring and enforcement) by means of 12 case studies from Ghana (four cases) and Georgia (eight cases), both lower–middle income countries. We observe that in most cases the level of substantive performance increases during the EIA phase but drops during the EIA follow-up phase, and as a result only five out of 12 operational cases are in compliance with permit conditions or national environmental standards. We conclude, firstly that ownership of the proponent is the most important factor explaining the level of substantive performance; the higher the proponent's level of ownership the higher the level of substantive performance. The influence of the EIA authority on substantive performance is limited. Secondly, the influence of procedural performance on substantive performance seems less important than expected in the EIA phase but more important during the EIA follow-up phase. In order to improve substantive performance we learned two lessons. Firstly, increasing the proponent's level of ownership seems obvious, but direct change is probably difficult. However, where international finance institutes are involved they can increase ownership. Despite the limited influence of the EIA authority, a proactive strategy of

  9. The influence of actor capacities on EIA system performance in low and middle income countries —Cases from Georgia and Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: akolhoff@eia.nl [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: H.A.C.Runhaar@uu.nl [Environmental Studies and Policy, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands); Gugushvili, Tamar, E-mail: gugushvili.tamuna@gmail.com [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Sonderegger, Gabi, E-mail: gabi.sonderegger@gmail.com [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Leest, Bart, E-mail: bartvanderleest@hotmail.com [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Innovation and Environmental Sciences, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we aim to better understand the factors that contribute to the substantive performance of EIA systems in low and middle income countries. Substantive performance is defined as the extent to which the EIA process contributes to the EIA objectives for the long term, namely environmental protection or, even more ambitious, sustainable development. We have therefore developed a conceptual model in which we focus on the key actors in the EIA system, the proponent and the EIA authority and their level of ownership as a key capacity to measure their performance, and we distinguish procedural performance and some contextual factors. This conceptual model is then verified and refined for the EIA phase and the EIA follow-up phase (permitting, monitoring and enforcement) by means of 12 case studies from Ghana (four cases) and Georgia (eight cases), both lower–middle income countries. We observe that in most cases the level of substantive performance increases during the EIA phase but drops during the EIA follow-up phase, and as a result only five out of 12 operational cases are in compliance with permit conditions or national environmental standards. We conclude, firstly that ownership of the proponent is the most important factor explaining the level of substantive performance; the higher the proponent's level of ownership the higher the level of substantive performance. The influence of the EIA authority on substantive performance is limited. Secondly, the influence of procedural performance on substantive performance seems less important than expected in the EIA phase but more important during the EIA follow-up phase. In order to improve substantive performance we learned two lessons. Firstly, increasing the proponent's level of ownership seems obvious, but direct change is probably difficult. However, where international finance institutes are involved they can increase ownership. Despite the limited influence of the EIA authority, a proactive

  10. DEVELOPING A CONCEPTUAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (IS) SUCCESS MODEL FOR INTELLIGENT VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEMS USED IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – THE CASE OF GHANA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi

    single case study method. Grounded Theory (GT) method is employed to collect and analyze data. Research population is users of IVTS in Ghana. Purposive sampling technique is employed. Research Tools: Qualitative survey questionnaires & face-to-face interviews were used. Research Results: Most IVTS...... deployed in Ghana have very limited communication network bandwidths, low speeds & capacities, poor GSM network coverage, etc. Thus, qualities of the tracking systems & services, and vehicle information were far below users' perceptions as against their expectations. Research Findings: Relevant seventeen...

  11. Simulating Spatial Growth Patterns in Developing Countries: A Case of Shama in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, J. N.; Nyarko, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and agent-based modelling (ABM) can be an efficient tool to improve spatial planning practices. This paper utilizes GIS and ABM approaches to simulate spatial growth patterns of settlement structures in Shama. A preliminary household survey on residential location decision-making choice served as the behavioural rule for household agents in the model. Physical environment properties of the model were extracted from a 2005 image implemented in NetLogo. The resulting growth pattern model was compared with empirical growth patterns to ascertain the model's accuracy. The paper establishes that the development of unplanned structures and its evolving structural pattern are a function of land price, proximity to economic centres, household economic status and location decision-making patterns. The application of the proposed model underlines its potential for integration into urban planning policies and practices, and for understanding residential decision-making processes in emerging cities in developing countries. Key Words: GIS; Agent-based modelling; Growth patterns; NetLogo; Location decision making; Computational Intelligence.

  12. STI Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2017-01-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRH) is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001–2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10–24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from fifteen countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. Additionally, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. Adolescents in low and middle income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality. PMID:27338664

  13. Legal Barriers in Accessing Opioid Medicines : Results of the ATOME Quick Scan of National Legislation of Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Lisman, John; Scholten, Willem; Payne, Sheila; Lynch, Tom; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Overregulation of controlled medicines is one of the factors contributing to limited access to opioid medicines. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify legal barriers to access to opioid medicines in 12 Eastern European countries participating in the Access to Opioid

  14. Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

  15. Utilisation of rice residues for decentralised electricity generation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, face large challenges to achieve universal electrification. Using the case of Ghana, this study explores the role that rice residues can play to help developing countries meet their electrification needs. In Ghana, Levelised Electricity Costs...

  16. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  17. Collaborations in gynecologic oncology education and research in low- and middle- income countries: Current status, barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L; Berek, J; Randall, T; McCormack, M; Schmeler, K; Manchanda, R; Rebbeck, T; Jeng, C J; Pyle, D; Quinn, M; Trimble, E; Naik, R; Lai, C H; Ochiai, K; Denny, L; Bhatla, N

    2018-08-01

    Eighty-five percent of the incidents and deaths from cervical cancer occur in low and middle income countries. In many of these countries, this is the most common cancer in women. The survivals of the women with gynecologic cancers are hampered by the paucity of prevention, screening, treatment facilities and gynecologic oncology providers. Increasing efforts dedicated to improving education and research in these countries have been provided by international organizations. We describe here the existing educational and research programs that are offered by major international organizations, the barriers and opportunities provided by these collaborations and hope to improve the outcomes of cervical cancer through these efforts.

  18. An analysis framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries-Illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: akolhoff@eia.nl [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Actors in the field of international development co-operation supporting the development of EIA legislation in developing countries often do not achieve the results envisaged. The performance of EIA in these countries often remains weak. One reason, we assume, is that often those actors support the establishment of overly ambitious EIA legislation that cannot achieve its objectives in the light of constraining contexts. To provide more effective support we need to better understand the enabling and constraining contextual factors that influence the development of EIA legislation and to which support actors should align itself. In this article a new analysis framework for classifying, characterizing and explaining the development of EIA legislation is described, measured in terms of ambition levels. Ambitions are defined as intentions the EIA authorities aim to fulfill, expressed in formal EIA legislation. Three country cases, Yemen, Georgia and Ghana are used to illustrate the usefulness of our framework and as a first test to refine the framework. We have formulated the following five hypotheses that complement and refine our analysis framework. One, EIA legislation may develop multilinearly in terms of ambition levels. Two, ambitions in EIA legislation seem to be influenced to a great extent by the power and capacity of, on the one hand, the environmental authorities supporting EIA and, on the other hand, the sector authorities hindering the development of EIA. Three, the political system is the most important context factor influencing the rules of policy-making and the power of the different actors involved. Four, the importance of context factors on the development of ambitions is dependent on the phase of EIA system development. Five, some ambitions seem to be influenced by particular factors; for instance the ambitions for the object of study seem to be influenced by the level of environmental awareness of the sector ministries and parliament. The analysis

  19. Cost effectiveness of option B plus for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited countries: evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Adam; Paintsil, Elijah; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Long, Elisa F

    2015-03-18

    Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas Option B+ recommends continuous ART regardless of CD4 count, thus potentially reducing MTCT during future pregnancies. Our objective was to compare maternal and pediatric health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Option B+ versus Option B in Ghana. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate HIV progression in mothers and transmission (in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding) to current and all future children. Clinical parameters, including antenatal care access and fertility rates, were estimated from a retrospective review of 817 medical records at two hospitals in Ghana. Additional parameters were obtained from published literature. Modeled outcomes include HIV infections averted among newborn children, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness ratios. HIV-infected women in Ghana have a lifetime average of 2.3 children (SD 1.3). Projected maternal life expectancy under Option B+ is 16.1 years, versus 16.0 years with Option B, yielding a gain of 0.1 maternal QALYs and 3.2 additional QALYs per child. Despite higher initial ART costs, Option B+ costs $785/QALY gained, a value considered very cost-effective by World Health Organization benchmarks. Widespread implementation of Option B+ in Ghana could theoretically prevent up to 668 HIV infections among children annually. Cost-effectiveness estimates remained favorable over robust sensitivity analyses. Although more expensive than Option B, Option B+ substantially reduces MTCT in future pregnancies, increases both maternal and pediatric QALYs, and is a cost-effective use of limited resources in Ghana.

  20. Ghana energy abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, Clement

    1994-01-01

    Ghana Energy Abstracts 1994 is the first issue of an annual publication of the Energy information Centre. The aim is to combine in one publication the country' s bibliographic output on energy so as to provide a valuable source of reference for policy makers, planners,and researchers. It covers the broad spectrum of energy including; energy conservation, energy resource management, petroleum and renewable energy resources.The documents listed comprise research reports, baseline studies,conference proceedings, periodical articles dissertations and theses. Keywords and author indexes have been provided to facilitate easy reference. (C.E.M)

  1. Prevalence of Inguinal Hernia in Adult Men in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Beard, Jessica H; Frimpong-Twumasi, Benjamin; Koranteng, Adofo; Mensah, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Inguinal hernia is thought to be common in rural Ghana, though no recent data exist on hernia prevalence in the country. This information is needed to guide policy and increase access to safe hernia repair in Ghana and other low-resource settings. Adult men randomly selected from the Barekese sub-district of Ashanti Region, Ghana were examined by surgeons for the presence of inguinal hernia. Men with hernia completed a survey on demographics, knowledge of the disease, and barriers to surgical treatment. A total of 803 participants were examined, while 105 participants completed the survey. The prevalence of inguinal hernia was 10.8 % (95 % CI 8.0, 13.6 %), and 2.2 % (95 % CI 0, 5.4 %) of participants had scars indicative of previous repair, making the overall prevalence of treated and untreated inguinal hernia 13.0 % (95 % CI 10.2, 15.7 %). Prevalence of inguinal hernia increased with age; 35.4 % (95 % CI 23.6, 47.2 %) of men aged 65 and older had inguinal hernia. Untreated inguinal hernia was associated with lower socio-economic status. Of those with inguinal hernia, 52.4 % did not know the cause of hernia. The most common reason cited for failing to seek medical care was cost (48.2 %). Although inguinal hernia is common among adult men living in rural Ghana, surgical repair rates are low. We propose a multi-faceted public health campaign aimed at increasing access to safe hernia repair in Ghana. This approach includes a training program of non-surgeons in inguinal hernia repair headed by the Ghana Hernia Society and could be adapted for use in other low-resource settings.

  2. Can new legislation in importing countries represent new barriers to the development of an international ethanol market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Raquel R. de; Schaeffer, Roberto; Meira, Irineu

    2011-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel has been attracting increasing attention in countries that are interested in reducing their dependence on imported oil and lowering their greenhouse gas emissions. Despite this growing interest, the global ethanol market is still incipient because of the small number of producing countries, the lack of technical standardization and the existence of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers. New laws have taken effect in 2010 in the United States and the European Union imposing domestic requirements for sustainable production of ethanol. Although these are generally positive developments, they can create greater difficulties for the development of an international ethanol market. This work examines the technical barriers posed by these new laws and how they can be resolved under the auspices of the World Trade Organization. In addition, this work analyses the Brazilian and Caribbean cases discussing to what extent these new technical barriers will affect ethanol production and exports arising from these countries. - Research highlights: → We examine the ethanol market and the increase of technical barriers. → Higher production costs will be associated with different environmental standards. → The adoption of international standards is key to develop the ethanol market. → A global agreement on biofuels will foster the development of its market.

  3. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kuruppu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing on both academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensure success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping

  4. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, N.; Willie, R.

    2015-12-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing both on academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensuring success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping adaptive choices of

  5. Carrying water may be a major contributor to disability from musculoskeletal disorders in low income countries: a cross-sectional survey in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geere, Jo-Anne; Bartram, Jamie; Bates, Laura; Danquah, Leslie; Evans, Barbara; Fisher, Michael B; Groce, Nora; Majuru, Batsirai; Mokoena, Michael M; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Duc, Phuc Pham; Williams, Ashley Rhoderick; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Hunter, Paul R

    2018-01-01

    Background The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household’s water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence. We report the first large study of the health impacts of carrying water on women and children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam during 2012. It investigated water carrying methods and health status. Because areas of self-reported pain were correlated we undertook factor analysis of sites of reported pain, to interpret patterns of pain reporting. Regression analysis using Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) investigated water carrying as a risk factor for general health and self-reported pain. Results People who previously carried water had increased relative risk of reporting pain in the hands (risk ratio RR 3.62, 95% confidence interval CI 1.34 to 9.75) and upper back (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.40), as did people who currently carry water (RR hand pain 3.11, 95% CI 1.34 to 7.23; RR upper back pain 2.16, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.73). The factor analysis results indicate that factor 1, ‘axial compression’, which is correlated with pain in the head and upper back, chest/ribs, hands, feet and abdomen/stomach, is associated with currently (0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.43) or previously (0.21, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.42) carrying water. Factor 2, ‘soft tissue strain’, which is correlated with pain in the neck, shoulders/arms, lower back and hips/pelvis or legs, is marginally negatively associated with currently (-0.18, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.04) carrying water

  6. Carrying water may be a major contributor to disability from musculoskeletal disorders in low income countries: a cross-sectional survey in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geere, Jo-Anne; Bartram, Jamie; Bates, Laura; Danquah, Leslie; Evans, Barbara; Fisher, Michael B; Groce, Nora; Majuru, Batsirai; Mokoena, Michael M; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Duc, Phuc Pham; Williams, Ashley Rhoderick; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Hunter, Paul R

    2018-06-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household's water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence. We report the first large study of the health impacts of carrying water on women and children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam during 2012. It investigated water carrying methods and health status. Because areas of self-reported pain were correlated we undertook factor analysis of sites of reported pain, to interpret patterns of pain reporting. Regression analysis using Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) investigated water carrying as a risk factor for general health and self-reported pain. People who previously carried water had increased relative risk of reporting pain in the hands (risk ratio RR 3.62, 95% confidence interval CI 1.34 to 9.75) and upper back (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.40), as did people who currently carry water (RR hand pain 3.11, 95% CI 1.34 to 7.23; RR upper back pain 2.16, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.73). The factor analysis results indicate that factor 1, 'axial compression', which is correlated with pain in the head and upper back, chest/ribs, hands, feet and abdomen/stomach, is associated with currently (0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.43) or previously (0.21, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.42) carrying water. Factor 2, 'soft tissue strain', which is correlated with pain in the neck, shoulders/arms, lower back and hips/pelvis or legs, is marginally negatively associated with currently (-0.18, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.04) carrying water. The factor 'axial compression' was

  7. Mobile Health for Mental Health in West Africa: The Case for Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2018-03-15

    Although underdeveloped in mental health care, the sub-Saharan country of Ghana is advanced in telecommunications. In this context, innovative mobile health (mHealth) approaches may help to overcome limited infrastructure (lack of clinics, trained professionals, and landlines) and to address significant unmet public mental health needs. The Technology in Mental Health editor reports on travels to Ghana to assess the viability of mHealth for mental health initiatives in the region. He found that stakeholders from all sectors (patients, providers, government officials, and traditional and faith healers) were open to exploring whether mHealth approaches could promote more humane care, reduce human rights violations, and improve the clinical outcomes of those in need. mHealth strategies that use audio and video content to overcome barriers associated with limited literacy may be most suitable. To succeed, any mHealth model must be culturally and contextually adapted to fit the needs, beliefs, and capacities of Ghanaian users.

  8. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 51, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Medical Journal. ... Breast cancer screening in a resource poor country: Ultrasound versus mammography · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Review of errors in the issue of medical certificates of cause of death in a tertiary hospital in Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Trade Policy and Pro Poor Growth in Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As in other sub-Saharan countries, small-scale subsistence farming constitutes the predominant source of livelihood in Ghana. This grant will allow the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana to assess the linkages between international trade and poverty with special ...

  10. The Management of Chieftaincy Records in Ghana: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many developing countries like Ghana, the chieftaincy institution serves both administrative and advisory role to the government in community affairs. Using data obtained through a survey, the study examined the management of chieftaincy records in Ghana. The study revealed that chieftaincy records serve as source ...

  11. Medical physics practice and training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuasi, John H; Kyere, Augustine K; Schandorf, Cyril; Fletcher, John J; Boadu, Mary; Addison, Eric K; Hasford, Francis; Sosu, Edem K; Sackey, Theophilus A; Tagoe, Samuel N A; Inkoom, Stephen; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2016-06-01

    Medical physics has been an indispensable and strategic stakeholder in the delivery of radiological services to the healthcare system of Ghana. The practice has immensely supported radiation oncology and medical imaging facilities over the years, while the locally established training programme continues to produce human resource to feed these facilities. The training programme has grown to receive students from other African countries in addition to local students. Ghana has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency as Regional Designated Centre for Academic Training of Medical Physicists in Africa. The Ghana Society for Medical Physics collaborates with the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Ghana to ensure that training offered to medical physicists meet international standards, making them clinically qualified. The Society has also worked together with other bodies for the passage of the Health Profession's Regulatory Bodies Act, giving legal backing to the practice of medical physics and other allied health professions in Ghana. The country has participated in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency's projects on medical physics and has benefited from its training courses, fellowships and workshops, as well as those of other agencies such as International Organization for Medical Physics. This has placed Ghana's medical physicists in good position to practice competently and improve healthcare. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Scholten, Willem; Lisman, John A; Subataite, Marija; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2017-06-01

    Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries. This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. An in-depth analysis was undertaken to determine specific barriers for patients with opioid dependence in need of opioid analgesics or opioid agonist therapy (OAT). For each country, the number and nature of specific potential barriers for these patients were assessed according to eight categories: prescribing; dispensing; manufacturing; usage; trade and distribution; affordability; penalties; and other. An additional keyword search was conducted to minimize the omission of barriers. Barriers in an additional category, language, were recorded qualitatively. Countries included Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Ten of the 11 countries (all except Estonia) showed specific potential barriers in their legislation and regulations. The total number of barriers varied from two (Slovenia) to 46 (Lithuania); the number of categories varied from one (Slovenia) to five (Lithuania). Most specific potential barriers were shown in the categories 'prescribing', 'usage' and 'other'. The total number in a single category varied from one to 18 (Lithuania, prescribing). Individual differences between countries in the same specific potential barrier were shown; for example, variation in minimum age criteria for admission to OAT ranging from 15 (Lithuania, in special cases) to 20 years (Greece). All countries had stigmatizing language in their legislation

  13. Institutional Barriers for Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Thirteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Ellu; Täht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level…

  14. Barriers and Facilitators for implementing programmes and services to address hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in low and middle income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: An estimated 87.6% of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy cases is in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study is to review the evidence on barriers and facilitators to programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. METHODS: A systematic review...... they relate to capacity in terms of human and material resources; availability of feasible and appropriate guidelines; organizational management and referral pathways. Individual level barriers and facilitators include knowledge; risk perception; illness beliefs; financial condition; work obligations......; concerns for the baby and hardship associated with services. At the social and societal level, perceptions and norms related to women's roles, mobility and health; the knowledge and support of the women's social network; and structural aspects are important influencing factors. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous...

  15. The Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A plethora of both cross-country and country-specific studies have been undertaken to estimate the impact of external debt on growth in developing countries. Their general findings though revealing need to be confirmed in Ghana. This paper estimates empirically the impact of external debt on economic growth in Ghana to ...

  16. Women in Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers from a Developing Country Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hayfaa A. Tlaiss

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the under-representation of women in management positions continues to persist globally, little is known about the experiences of women in the healthcare sector in the context of the developing Middle Eastern nations. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, the current study explores some of the barriers that hinder and the enablers that foster women’s career advancement in the healthcare sector. To meet its objectives, the current study uses a relational approach that int...

  17. Women in Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers from a Developing Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlaiss, Hayfaa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the under-representation of women in management positions continues to persist globally, little is known about the experiences of women in the healthcare sector in the context of the developing Middle Eastern nations. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, the current study explores some of the barriers that hinder and the enablers that foster women’s career advancement in the healthcare sector. To meet its objectives, the current study uses a relational approach that integrates the macro socio-cultural, meso-organisational, and micro-individual levels of analysis. Methods: Guided by institutional theory as a theoretical framework and social constructionism as a philosophical stance, the current study adopts a qualitative research methodology. It capitalizes on in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with women managers in different occupational fields, across the managerial hierarchy in the healthcare sector in Lebanon. Snowballing and purposeful sampling procedures were used, and the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on identifying new, emerging themes. Results: The results of the study confirm the salience of discriminatory cultural values, gendered social roles and expectations in Middle Eastern societies, and illustrate their role as barriers hindering women’s career advancement. The results also portray the spillover effect of societal expectations and cultural gender stereotypes into the organisational realm, resulting in widely experienced attitudinal and structural organisational barriers. This study also illustrates how the enablers that facilitate and promote women’s career progression unfold amidst the interplay between the macro and meso factors, lending credence to the role of women’s agency at the individual micro level. Amongst the toll of barriers, Middle Eastern women navigate the patriarchy of their cultures and the discrimination inherent in their organisations by using their

  18. Women in Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers from a Developing Country Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa A. Tlaiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the under-representation of women in management positions continues to persist globally, little is known about the experiences of women in the healthcare sector in the context of the developing Middle Eastern nations. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, the current study explores some of the barriers that hinder and the enablers that foster women’s career advancement in the healthcare sector. To meet its objectives, the current study uses a relational approach that integrates the macro socio-cultural, meso-organisational, and micro-individual levels of analysis.Methods: Guided by institutional theory as a theoretical framework and social constructionism as a philosophical stance, the current study adopts a qualitative research methodology. It capitalizes on in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with women managers in different occupational fields, across the managerial hierarchy in the healthcare sector in Lebanon. Snowballing and purposeful sampling procedures were used, and the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on identifying new, emerging themes.Results: The results of the study confirm the salience of discriminatory cultural values, gendered social roles and expectations in Middle Eastern societies, and illustrate their role as barriers hindering women’s career advancement. The results also portray the spillover effect of societal expectations and cultural gender stereotypes into the organisational realm, resulting in widely experienced attitudinal and structural organisational barriers. This study also illustrates how the enablers that facilitate and promote women’s career progression unfold amidst the interplay between the macro and meso factors, lending credence to the role of women’s agency at the individual micro level. Amongst the toll of barriers, Middle Eastern women navigate the patriarchy of their cultures and the discrimination inherent in their organisations by

  19. Women in healthcare: barriers and enablers from a developing country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlaiss, Hayfaa A

    2013-06-01

    As the under-representation of women in management positions continues to persist globally, little is known about the experiences of women in the healthcare sector in the context of the developing Middle Eastern nations. In an attempt to address this knowledge gap, the current study explores some of the barriers that hinder and the enablers that foster women's career advancement in the healthcare sector. To meet its objectives, the current study uses a relational approach that integrates the macro socio-cultural, meso-organisational, and micro-individual levels of analysis. Guided by institutional theory as a theoretical framework and social constructionism as a philosophical stance, the current study adopts a qualitative research methodology. It capitalizes on in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with women managers in different occupational fields, across the managerial hierarchy in the healthcare sector in Lebanon. Snowballing and purposeful sampling procedures were used, and the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on identifying new, emerging themes. The results of the study confirm the salience of discriminatory cultural values, gendered social roles and expectations in Middle Eastern societies, and illustrate their role as barriers hindering women's career advancement. The results also portray the spillover effect of societal expectations and cultural gender stereotypes into the organisational realm, resulting in widely experienced attitudinal and structural organisational barriers. This study also illustrates how the enablers that facilitate and promote women's career progression unfold amidst the interplay between the macro and meso factors, lending credence to the role of women's agency at the individual micro level. Amongst the toll of barriers, Middle Eastern women navigate the patriarchy of their cultures and the discrimination inherent in their organisations by using their agency and persistence as they construct

  20. Challenges and barriers for implementation of the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan in low- and middle- income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fary Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP in Nigeria and compare these with other low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia, conducted intensive workshops at medical/academic institutions in Nigeria for healthcare professionals from various local Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation facilities. A modified Delphi method identified challenges for person with disability, using 3 GDAP objectives. Findings were compared with similar exercises in Madagascar, Pakistan and Mongolia. Results: Despite differences in the healthcare system and practice, the challenges reported in Nigeria were similar to those in other 3 low- and middle-income countries, at both macro (governmental/policymakers and micro levels (community/social/individual. Common challenges identified were: limited knowledge of disability services, limited Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation workforce, guidelines and accreditation standards; coordination amongst healthcare sectors; social issues; data and research; legislation and political commitment. Common potential facilitators included: need for strong leadership; advocacy of disability-inclusive development; investment in infrastructure/human resources; coordination/partnerships in healthcare sector; and research. Conclusion: Disability care is an emerging priority in low- and middle-income countries to address the needs of people with disability. The challenges identified in Nigeria are common to most low- and middle-income countries. The GDAP framework can facilitate access and strengthen Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation services.

  1. Beliefs and attitudes toward Buruli ulcer in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Y; van der Graaf, WTA; Asamoa, K; van der Werf, TS

    Buruli ulcer is a devastating emerging disease in tropical countries. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by interviewing patients with this disease and control subjects in Ghana. Common perceived causes were witchcraft and curses. Other reported causes were personal hygiene,

  2. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    rate of disintegration in aqueous medium. Colorimetric ... countries. In Ghana, artesunate-amodiaquine is the ACT of choice2. The cure rate ... authenticity of artemisinin products in the market and ... and the development of drug resistance. The.

  3. The Impact of Globalization on The Arts in Contemporary Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcbee

    in the cultural life of the average Ghanaian is excep- tionally high ... Ghana has experienced tremendous growth in education, health ..... The advantages of English as the country's offi- cial language .... (ICT), the internet and global trading.

  4. Understanding the perceptions of and emotional barriers to infertility treatment: a survey in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domar, Alice; Gordon, Keith; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; La Marca, Antonio; Barriere, Paul; Beligotti, Fabiola

    2012-04-01

    Infertility can significantly impact women's lives and personal relationships. Despite the negative impact of infertility, a significant number of women who are struggling to conceive do not consult a physician. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the emotional impact of infertility on women to identify which aspects of fertility treatment contribute to the psychological stress experienced by so many patients and to identify barriers to seeking treatment. Women (n = 445; 18-44 years) who had received fertility treatment within the past 2 years or were having trouble conceiving but had not received treatment, completed a 15-min survey online. Participants were from France (n = 108), Germany (n = 111), Italy (n = 112) and Spain (n = 114). Responses indicated that infertility causes a range of emotions and can strain relationships. Women who had received treatment were more likely to feel hopeful (26 versus 21%) and closer to their partner than women not in treatment (33 versus 19%, P barrier to treatment. This study has provided insight into the physical and psychological challenges of infertility treatments and permitted a better understanding of the factors that impact patient lives. A treatment protocol with minimal injections and provision of additional information may lessen the emotional impact and challenges of infertility and contribute to patient satisfaction with fertility treatment protocols.

  5. Moving Medicine, Moving Minds: Helping Developing Countries Overcome Barriers to Outsourcing Health Commodity Distribution to Boost Supply Chain Performance and Strengthen Health Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Priya; Barton, Iain; Bianco, Roberto Dal; Hovig, Dana; Sarley, David; Yadav, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Senegal and other developing countries are improving access to health commodities by outsourcing supply chain logistics to private providers. To achieve broader, lasting reform, we must support further adoption of the outsourced model; assist country-led cost-benefit analyses; and help governments build capacity to manage contracts and overcome other barriers.

  6. WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT, HOUSEHOLD STATUS AND CONTRACEPTION USE IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R

    2017-07-01

    Gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including contraceptive use, in low- and middle-income countries such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. To date there is limited, recent, evidence available regarding women's empowerment, household status and contraceptive use in Ghana. The objective of this study was to investigate whether women's empowerment and status in the household were associated with contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 1828 women aged 15-49. Women's empowerment was measured based on two composite indexes created by the DHS: attitudes towards intimate partner violence and decision-making. Women's status in the home was measured using indicators of work status, relationship to household head, control over monetary earnings and land ownership. Decision-making was found to be positively associated with contraceptive use and not having unmet need for contraception. Women who justified wife beating in one or more instances were less likely to use contraception, and more likely to have unmet need for contraception. Current or past employment and higher levels of male partner education were associated with contraceptive use. This study indicates that women's empowerment and household status are influential for contraceptive indicators. Future interventions aimed at improving contraceptive uptake and use should promote women's empowerment, i.e. decision-making, self-worth and education.

  7. The Barriers to Achieve Financial Protection in Iranian Health System: A Qualitative Study in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Seyran; Moradi, Tayebeh; Tavangar, Fateh; Bahrami, Giti; Shahboulaghi, Mohammadi; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2017-09-01

    The move to universal health coverage and consequently health promotion is influenced by political, socio-economic and other contextual factors in a country. Iran, as a developing country with an upper-middle national income, has developed policies to achieve universal health coverage through financial protection. This study aims to investigate barriers to develop financial protection as a requirement to achieve universal health coverage. This qualitative study was conducted using 20 in-depth interviews with experts in social welfare, health insurance and financing. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the data. The results have been categorized in three major themes that were extracted from ten sub-themes. The major themes included the political, social and economic context of the country, the context and structure of healthcare system and dimensions of UHC. Achieving financial protection as a long-term objective should be considered as a priority among Iranian policy makers that requires an inter-sectoral collaboration with a defined in-charge body. Health policy makers in Iran should develop a more comprehensive benefits package for diseases and health conditions with catastrophic consequences. They also should develop a plan to cover the poor people.

  8. Barriers to the Use of Computer Assistive Technology among Students with Visual Impairment in Ghana: The Case of Akropong School for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampratwum, Joseph; Offei, Yaw Nyadu; Ntoaduro, Afua

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring barriers to the use of computer assistive technology among students with visual impairment at Akropong School for the Blind. A case study design was adopted and the purposive sampling technique used to select 35 participants for the study. The researchers gathered qualitative data using an in-depth interview guide to…

  9. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  10. Internationalisation of SMEs in Ghana in Retrospect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the conference paper is to collide the research on internationalisation of companies from a developing country, Ghana. The paper is based on more than 30 research projects conducted over the period 1996-2006. It is found that Ghanaian companies are poorly integrated into the global eco...

  11. Barriers and facilitators to health information exchange in low- and middleincome country settings: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Akhlaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe ability to capture, exchange and use accurate information about patients and services is vital for building strong health systems, providing comprehensive and integrated patient care, managing public health risks and informing policies for public health and health financing. However, the organisational and technological systems necessary to achieve effective Health Information Exchange are lacking in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Developing strategies for addressing this depends on understanding the barriers and facilitators to HIE at the individual, provider organisational, community, district, provincial and national levels. This systematic review aims to identify, critically appraise and synthesise the existing published evidence addressing these factors.ObjectiveTo assess what is known, from published / unpublished empirical studies, about barriers and facilitators to HIE in LMIC so as to identify issues that need to be addressed and approaches that can fruitfully be pursued in future improvement strategies.MethodsWe will conduct a systematic review to identify the empirical evidence base on the barriers and facilitators to HIE in LMIC.  Two reviewers will independently search 11 major international and national databases for published, unpublished and in-progress qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies published during 1990-July 2014 in any language. These searches of scientific databases will be supplemented by looking for eligible reports available online. The included studies will be independently critically appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT, version 2011. Descriptive, narrative and interpretative synthesis of data will be undertaken.   Results These will be presented in a manuscript that will be published in the peer-reviewed literature. The protocol is registered with the International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO CRD 42014009826

  12. Towards accessible integrated palliative care: Perspectives of leaders from seven European countries on facilitators, barriers and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder-van der Eerden, Marlieke; Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; Hesse, Michaela; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Radbruch, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients at lower costs. However, knowledge on models encompassing all integration levels for successfully implementing IPC is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences of IPC leaders in seven European countries regarding core elements, facilitators and barriers of IPC implementation and provides recommendations for future policy and practice. A qualitative interview study was conducted between December 2013 and May 2014. In total, 34 IPC leaders in primary and secondary palliative care or public health in Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic data analysis. IPC implementation efforts involved a multidisciplinary team approach and cross-sectional coordination. Informal professional relationships, basic medical education and general awareness were regarded as facilitators of IPC. Identified barriers included lack of knowledge about when to start palliative care, lack of collaboration and financial structures. Recommendations for improvement included access, patient-centeredness, coordination and cooperation, financing and ICT systems. Although IPC is becoming more common, action has been uneven at different levels. IPC implementation largely remains provisional and informal due to the lack of standardised treatment pathways, legal frameworks and financial incentives to support multilevel integration. In order to make IPC more accessible, palliative care education as well as legal and financial support within national healthcare systems needs to be enhanced.

  13. Family Size and Rural Poverty -in the Kwahu South District in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poverty is one of the greatest social problems confronting the world today. The problem is more pronounced in the developing countries. Ghana is no exception to this global problem of rural poverty. Ghana as a nation has adopted a lot of measures to address poverty. From the early 1980's to 2002, the country has ...

  14. Thousands of men in four Latin countries choose to have vasectomies; machismo is no barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    The acceptability of vasectomy in 4 Latin American countries is repo rted. The unenthusiastic reception of vasectomy in Latin America is apparently due to a paucity of male sterilization programs and not to machismo. The 1st vasectomy program in Latin America was established in Bogota, Colombia, in 1970. This was followed by programs in Costa Rica (1971), El Salvador (1972), and Guatemala (1973). Upon expansion of the Colombian program from 1 city to 9 cities, the number of voluntary vasectomies increased from 100 to 560. 235 vasectomies were performed in the 1st 6 months of the Costa Rican program, and 278 were performed in the 1st 9 months of the Guatemalan program. During the 1st 2 years of the program in El Salvador, the monthly average of operations performed rose from 3 to 19. In El Salvador at least, vasectomy was acceptable to men aged 22-69 years, with 2-20 living children, and from all types of occupations.

  15. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-12-16

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern

  16. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  17. National waste management infrastructure in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. (author)

  18. Safe management of radioactive waste in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1963 by an Act of Parliament, Act 204 for the Promotion, Development and Peaceful Application of Nuclear Techniques for the Benefit of Ghana. As in many developing countries the use of nuclear application is growing considerably in importance within the national economy. The Radiation Protection Board was established as the national regulatory authority and empowered by the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993). The above regulations, Act 204 and LI 1559 provided a minimum legal basis for regulatory control of radioactive waste management as it deals with waste management issues in a very general way and is of limited practical use to the waste producer. Hence the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre was established in July 1995 to carry out waste safety operations in Ghana. This paper highlights steps that have been taken to develop a systemic approach for the safe management of radioactive waste in the future and those already in existence. (author)

  19. Education and Health Care Policies in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziblim Abukari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.

  20. Ghana and the nuclear power option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Ennison, I.

    2000-01-01

    For every country, dependable and continuous supply of electricity is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable development. In Ghana, Ghanaians have currently known the consequences of disrupted and inadequate supply of electricity. Globally too the call of ''Agenda 21'' of the Rio de Janeiro Conference (Earth Summit) to engage in the development and supply of electricity in a sustainable manner imposes on us certain limitations in our choice of energy option to utilise. Taking into account the high economic and population growths with the subsequent increase in demand for electricity in the 21st century, the fact that Ghana has no coal and imports oil which will be in dwindling supply in the 21st century and that the total hydro supply in Ghana will not be sufficient for our electricity demand in the next century, this paper proposes that Ghana starts now to plan for the introduction of the nuclear option so that in the long term we may have in place an environmentally friendly, dependable and reliable supply of energy. The paper also highlights the economic competitiveness of nuclear power over the other energy options in Ghana and addresses the apprehension and misunderstanding surrounding the nuclear power option. (author)

  1. Ghana : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the context of the Ghana institutional framework to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accounting and auditing practices in Ghana suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. Various weaknesses were identified in the laws and regula...

  2. Ghana Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Ghana Medical Association. It was established in 1962 It publishes quality manuscripts in in all aspects of health, health care and the medical sciences. The full text of published articles are available online at this website and at African ...

  3. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  4. Attitudes towards English in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Dako

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Ghana. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelpa, Jean-Paul; Vogel, Wolfram

    1982-12-01

    The Republic of Ghana has no claimed uranium resources in the categories Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional. The only occurrences known are within pegmatites and are of no economic importance. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Ghana estimates that the Speculative Resources of the country fall between 15,000 and 40,000 tonnes uranium. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Ghana believes that the Panafrican Mobile Belt has the highest uranium potential of all geological units of the country. The Obosum beds are the priority number two target. A three years exploration programme is recommended for a total cost of US $ 5,000,000. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and the Ghana Geological Survey provide a basic infrastructure for uranium exploration. Any future uranium development in Ghana should be embedded in a well defined national uranium policy. It is recommended that such a policy be draw, up by the Ghanaian authorities

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infection Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2016-07-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001 and 2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10-24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from 15 countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. In addition, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. Adolescents in low- and middle-income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

  8. Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Westeneng, Judith; Spaan, Ernst; Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Baltussen, Rob

    2016-07-22

    Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic expenditure (CE) and poverty. We conducted two repeated household surveys in two regions of Ghana in 2009 and 2011. We first analyzed the effect of OOPE on poverty by estimating poverty headcount before and after OOPE were incurred. We also employed probit models and use of instrumental variables to analyze the effect of health insurance on OOPE, CE and poverty. Our findings showed that between 7-18 % of insured households incurred CE as a result of OOPE whereas this was between 29-36 % for uninsured households. In addition, between 3-5 % of both insured and uninsured households fell into poverty due to OOPE. Our regression analyses revealed that health insurance enrolment reduced OOPE by 86 % and protected households against CE and poverty by 3.0 % and 7.5 % respectively. This study provides evidence that high OOPE leads to CE and poverty in Ghana but enrolment into the NHIS reduces OOPE, provides financial protection against CE and reduces poverty. These findings support the pro-poor policy objective of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme and holds relevance to other low and middle income countries implementing or aiming to implement insurance schemes.

  9. Approaches to formalization of the informal waste sector into municipal solid waste management systems in low- and middle-income countries: Review of barriers and success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparcana, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector represents a major challenge for low-and middle-income countries due to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues involving rapid urbanization, their MSWM systems, and the existence of the informal waste sector. Recognizing its role, several countries have implemented various formalization measures, aiming to address the social problems linked to this sector. However, regardless of these initiatives, not all attempts at formalization have proved successful due to the existence of barriers preventing their implementation in the long term. Along with this, there is a frequent lack of knowledge or understanding regarding these barriers and the kind of measures that may enable formalization, thereby attaining a win-win situation for all the stakeholders involved. In this context, policy- and decision-makers in the public and private sectors are frequently confronted with the dilemma of finding workable approaches to formalization, adjusted to their particular MSWM contexts. Building on the review of frequently implemented approaches to formalization, including an analysis of the barriers to and enabling measures for formalization, this paper aims to address this gap by explaining to policy- and decision-makers, and to waste managers in the private sector, certain dynamics that can be observed and that should be taken into account when designing formalization strategies that are adapted to their particular socioeconomic and political-institutional context. This includes possible links between formalization approaches and barriers, the kinds of barriers that need to be removed, and enabling measures leading to successful formalization in the long term. This paper involved a literature review of common approaches to formalization, which were classified into three categories: (1) informal waste workers organized in associations or cooperatives; (2) organized in CBOs or MSEs; and (3) contracted as individual

  10. Ghana Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > About the Journal > Ghana Medical Journal: Submissions ... Works publishable under this section include original work of suitable standard. ... interest statement of all types of manuscript should be submitted as a separate file.

  11. Ghana Mining Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.

  12. Ghana's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahafia, Albert K.

    1988-01-01

    The Paper gives the purpose of Ghana's Nuclear Programme and describes some specific research activities and peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, medicine and industry. A discussion of some of the problem facing the programme concludes the Paper. (author)

  13. African Journals Online: Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences .... The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal ... The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by ...

  14. Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Onyango, Cynthia; Suchman, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya. In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52) and three regions of Ghana (N = 27). Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers' reasons for (non) enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically. Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers' participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana. In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force driving providers to gain and maintain accreditation

  15. Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Onyango, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Background Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers’ perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa—the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya. Methods In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52) and three regions of Ghana (N = 27). Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers’ reasons for (non) enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically. Results Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers’ participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana. Conclusions In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force

  16. Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Sieverding

    Full Text Available Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF in Kenya.In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52 and three regions of Ghana (N = 27. Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers' reasons for (non enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically.Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers' participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana.In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force driving providers to gain and maintain

  17. Entrepreneurship training in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2017-01-01

    is that adding a focus on means, attitude and enterprising behaviour skills will increase the value of entrepreneurship training. The study is a design-based research undertaken in collaboration with the local NGO, Youth Empowerment for Life (YEfL). It builds on relevant theory and involves qualitative...... and quantitative research in Northern Ghana. The study reveals the five most crucial constraints for young entrepreneurs in Northern Ghana. Moreover, it proposes a new entrepreneurship model and training manual....

  18. Barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence in developed countries: a qualitative synthesis to develop a conceptual framework for a new patient-reported outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Kim; Lènàrt, Andras; Lessard, David; Toupin, Isabelle; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2018-05-02

    Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains common. Patient-centered tools are needed to comprehensively assess adherence barriers in HIV clinical practice. Thus, we conducted a research synthesis to produce a conceptual framework for a new patient-reported outcome measure (PRO) for use in routine HIV care in Canada and France. A PRO's conceptual framework graphically represents the concepts to be measured and the potential relationships between them. Towards ensuring the framework's relevance to the target populations' concerns, qualitative studies with HIV-positive adults on barriers to ART adherence in developed countries were synthesized with thematic analysis, attending to the cross-study prevalence and interrelationships of barrier themes. In March 2016, searches within Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase produced 5,284 records. Two reviewers determined the final sample (n = 41). Analysis generated three levels of ART adherence barrier themes. Twenty Level 2 themes and their component subthemes (Level 3) were organized into 6 higher-order themes (Level 1): Cognitive and emotional aspects (100% of studies contributing content -prevalence), Lifestyle factors (95%), Social and material context (95%), Characteristics of ART (90%), Health experience and state (73%), and Healthcare services and system (66%). As to interrelationships, study authors articulated relationships between all higher-order themes (Level 3). Linkages between Level 2 barrier themes showed great variability, from 21% to 95%. Overall, this synthesis contributes an exceptionally detailed conceptual framework and report of ART adherence barriers, applicable to a wide range of PLHIV. It suggests that a key to understanding many barriers is through their interconnections. It also identifies gaps in barrier research. Concerning the new PRO's development, comprehensiveness will need to be weighed against other concerns (e.g., respondent burden) and the provision of barrier

  19. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The state of Ghana's local government system: the case of Assembly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. International development organisations have, for a long time, presented Ghana as having a highly functional intergovernment system or decentralisation. While this projection is far from the country's grounded reality, Ghana continues to benefit from the 'misrepresentation' as one of the preferred destinations in the ...

  1. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  2. The changing face of women in physics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah

    2013-03-01

    Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.

  3. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadu, Mary; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Amoako, Joseph Kwabena; Akrobortu, Emmanuel; Hasford, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Although the use of radioisotopes in Ghana began in 1952, the Radiation Protection Board of Ghana was established in 1993 and served as the national competent authority for authorization and inspection of practices and activities involving radiation sources until 2015. The law has been superseded by an Act of Parliament, Act 895 of 2015, mandating the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ghana to take charge of the regulation of radiation sources and their applications. The Radiation Protection Institute in Ghana provided technical support to the regulatory authority. Regulatory and service activities that were undertaken by the Institute include issuance of permits for handling of a radiation sources, authorization and inspection of radiation sources, radiation safety assessment, safety assessment of cellular signal towers, and calibration of radiation-emitting equipment. Practices and activities involving application of radiation are brought under regulatory control in the country through supervision by the national competent authority.

  4. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  5. Is routine human papillomavirus vaccination an option for Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer remains an important public health problem in developing countries where over 80% of the global burden occurs annually but screening has been ineffective. In a polygamous country like Ghana with a high incidence of cervical cancer but no national screening program, the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) ...

  6. Gas-to-power market and investment incentive for enhancing generation capacity: An analysis of Ghana's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Jorik; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    Ghana's electricity generation capacity is currently insufficient to meet demand, making power outages and load shedding common. The resulting impact is potentially devastating for the country's growth prospects. Traditionally, lack of an affordable and reliable fuel supply for power generation, coupled with ineffective institutions and an unfavourable investment climate, have resulted in Ghana's electricity sector performing poorly. In light of the 2007 discovery of natural gas reserves in Ghanaian waters, this paper examines whether domestic gas could advance the performance of the electricity sector, and if so, how. The results of our analysis show that utilization of gas reserves in Ghana's gas-to-power market is an economically superior strategy compared to an export-oriented utilization scheme. The lack of an effective regulatory framework for investment, skill shortages, and an inefficient electricity pricing structure continue to be the main constraining factors. Our analysis also considers possible approaches to modification of the electricity tariff in order to send the right signal to potential investors in generation capacity, without compromising the affordability of power supply. - Highlights: •We examine if domestic gas can improve the Ghanaian electricity sector performance. •We compare domestic gas-to-power market utilisation versus gas export. •It shows that gas-to-power market is more economical compared to gas export. •Ineffective investment regime, skill shortage and inefficient tariffs are barriers.

  7. From mental health policy development in Ghana to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    schizophrenia, alcohol use disorders and bi-polar disorder account for a third of years ... Objective: This paper identifies the key barriers to mental health policy implementation in Ghana and suggests ways of overcoming them. Method: The ... of health workers trained and supervised in mental health care, and mental health ...

  8. PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...

  9. MINING RELATED ARSENIC PROBLEMS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Bempah, Crentsil

    2015-01-01

    Ghana is Africa's second-largest gold producing country after South Africa. Most mining areas particularly in Ashanti Region (Obuasi) and Western Region (Tarkwa), until the introduction of the bio-oxidation (BIOX) technology of extracting gold, the processing of the ore for gold involved the crushing and grinding of ore to fine powder followed by dissolution and precipitation of free gold. During the ore preparation by roasting, sulphur dioxide and As trioxide were released into terrestrial a...

  10. Language support for linguistic minority chronic hepatitis B/C patients: an exploratory study of availability and clinicians' perceptions of language barriers in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Abby M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Ahmad, Amena A; Levi, Miriam; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2017-02-20

    Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe, groups that may experience language barriers when accessing health care services in their host countries. We investigated availability of interpreters and translated materials for linguistic minority hepatitis B/C patients. We also investigated clinicians' agreement that language barriers are explanations of three scenarios: the low screening uptake of hepatitis B/C screening, the lack of screening in primary care, and why cases do not reach specialist care. An online survey was developed, translated and sent to experts in five health care services involved in screening or treating viral hepatitis in six European countries: Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The five areas of health care were: general practice/family medicine, antenatal care, health care for asylum seekers, sexual health and specialist secondary care. We measured availability using a three-point ordinal scale ('very common', 'variable or not routine' and 'rarely or never'). We measured agreement using a five-point Likert scale. We received 238 responses (23% response rate, N = 1026) from representatives in each health care field in each country. Interpreters are common in the UK, the Netherlands and Spain but variable or rare in Germany, Hungary and Italy. Translated materials are rarely/never available in Hungary, Italy and Spain but commonly or variably available in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. Differing levels of agreement that language barriers explain the three scenarios are seen across the countries. Professionals in countries with most infrequent availability (Hungary and Italy) disagree strongest that language barriers are explanations. Our findings show pronounced

  11. Simulating Spatial Growth Patterns in Developing Countries: an Agent Based Modelling Approach. A Case of Shama in the Western Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, J. N.

    2011-12-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rapid urban growth is characterized by prolific expansion of unplanned (informal) structures, and unguided spatial expansion. These unguided expansions by human agents have outstripped the regulatory capacities of Central and Local government. Governmental institutions in finding solutions to the unguided expansion in unplanned use of land have to call for the modelling of what influences the spatial decision and role of human agents in the growth of informal settlement. The objective of the study is to simulate spatial growth pattern of settlements in the Shama district using an agent based model. The study was conducted within a framework of NetLogo. The NetLogo assisted to incorporate and simulate driving forces that affect location decision-making by households and the growth of informal settlement. A survey was conducted to obtain household location decision preferences. The development of unplanned settlement has been a function of land price, proximity to economic centre's, household economic potential, and the location decision-making patterns of households. The exploratory analysis found particularly that majority of spontaneous development took place on areas liable to floods suggesting that some structures fall outside the required building regulations. The application of the proposed model indicates its potential to improve urban planning policies and decision-making processes in emerging cities of developing countries. Also, the result of the simulation suggests potential preferential location for residential development. The research justifies an approach in the area of simulating urban dynamics with agent-based models.

  12. Equity in financing and use of health care in Ghana, South Africa, and Tanzania: implications for paths to universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne; Ataguba, John E; Akazili, James; Borghi, Jo; Garshong, Bertha; Makawia, Suzan; Mtei, Gemini; Harris, Bronwyn; Macha, Jane; Meheus, Filip; McIntyre, Di

    2012-07-14

    Universal coverage of health care is now receiving substantial worldwide and national attention, but debate continues on the best mix of financing mechanisms, especially to protect people outside the formal employment sector. Crucial issues are the equity implications of different financing mechanisms, and patterns of service use. We report a whole-system analysis--integrating both public and private sectors--of the equity of health-system financing and service use in Ghana, South Africa, and Tanzania. We used primary and secondary data to calculate the progressivity of each health-care financing mechanism, catastrophic spending on health care, and the distribution of health-care benefits. We collected qualitative data to inform interpretation. Overall health-care financing was progressive in all three countries, as were direct taxes. Indirect taxes were regressive in South Africa but progressive in Ghana and Tanzania. Out-of-pocket payments were regressive in all three countries. Health-insurance contributions by those outside the formal sector were regressive in both Ghana and Tanzania. The overall distribution of service benefits in all three countries favoured richer people, although the burden of illness was greater for lower-income groups. Access to needed, appropriate services was the biggest challenge to universal coverage in all three countries. Analyses of the equity of financing and service use provide guidance on which financing mechanisms to expand, and especially raise questions over the appropriate financing mechanism for the health care of people outside the formal sector. Physical and financial barriers to service access must be addressed if universal coverage is to become a reality. European Union and International Development Research Centre. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Esoko and WhatsApp Communication in Ghana : Mobile Services such as Esoko and WhatsApp in Reshaping Interpersonal Digital Media Communication in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia, Salkovic

    2015-01-01

    The predominant use of mobile media such as SMS and MIM across various sectors in Ghana is incontrovertibly influencing and reshaping interpersonal communications. This paper looked at the use of the Esoko SMS and WhatsApp MIM platforms and how the use of these two dominant platforms are enhancing and reshaping digital communication in the rural and urban Ghana respectively, as barriers of socioeconomic factors limits the use of sophisticated technologies in the rural setting. This is done by...

  14. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-06-01

    African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.

  15. Entrepreneurship training in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Due to the very high youth unemployment in Northern Ghana, there is a huge need for enterprising skills among young people. A natural focus in recent years has therefore been entrepreneurship training, focusing on training young Ghanaians to start-up businesses. Unfortunately, the young...... is that adding a focus on the young entrepreneur’s means, attitude and enterprising behaviour skills to the existing focus on starting up businesses, will increase the value of the Entrepreneurship training and support the overcoming of constraints. The paper build on a design-based research project...... in collaboration with the local NGO YEfL. Based on relevant theory, a qualitative field research in Northern Ghana and a quantitative baseline survey a new Entrepreneurship Model has been designed. The new model was tested in autumn 2016 at three Entrepreneurship boot camps in Northern Ghana. The study has...

  16. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  17. New strategies to improve the management capacity of contractors for labor-based methods in road rehabilitation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quagraine, Victor Kwesi

    2007-01-01

    Ghana, like many African countries, is plagued with unemployment, poverty and annual trade deficits. Unemployment and poverty have led to a socio-economic breakdown. They are believed to be among the causes that led to the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Despite the abundance of an unemployed labor force, Ghana continues to depend on imported equipment, costing $174 million annually for its earthmoving and construction activities. In 1986, the Government of Ghana, the World Bank, the International L...

  18. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low-resource countries: An Ishikawa framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dan N; Bero, Lisa A

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) - essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008-2010. These reports summarized country-wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a "fishbone" (Ishikawa) diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health-system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health-system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. The "fishbone" Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the development of tailored intervention programs to improve and expand the use

  19. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country.

  20. Drivers of Informal Sector Participation of Small and Medium Enterprise in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintah S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The informal sector of Ghana has been growing amidst the recent economic development in this country. The study investigated the drivers of informal sector participation by SMEs in Ghana and made use of a Chi-square statistical methodology to analyze the drivers of SME participation in the informal sector of Ghana. Analyses from the study showed that gender can be deemed as a driver for SME participation in the informal sector of Ghana. Gender was significant at 0.012 with registration of business enterprise and 0.055 with tax obligation of respondents. The educational level of SME operators had an impact on registration and tax obligation and therefore can be deemed as a driver of SME participation in the informal sector of Ghana. However, the level of education was insignificant to registration and tax obligation but had a strong correlation to these variables. The study also showed that women are more likely to participate in the informal sector of Ghana as compared to men and also that there is a high tendency of not paying tax among SME operators in the informal sector of Ghana. A very low educational level among SME participants was recorded with over 60% of the respondents not having any formal education. Based on the findings of the study, a country-wide research can be done to ascertain the socio-economic determinants of informal sector participation in Ghana. Also, the study highly recommends policies that can harness the usefulness of informal sector.

  1. Ghana: an emerging oil-rich democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    After an indication of the main economic and social indicators of Ghana, and an overview of the historical evolution of Ghana towards democracy since its independence in 1960, a discussion of its advances and limitations in this respect as this country is starting oil production (support of investors, obstacles and difficulties related to institutional limits, decentralisation process, land tenure regime and tradition), the author discusses the possible consequences of this oil wind fall on the democratic dynamics, notably regarding the legal framework (issues of fragility of the institutional and legal systems). In a third part, the author discusses the capacity of the Ghanaian system to face the oil challenge while exorcising the generally occurring curse associated with oil resources

  2. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...... to provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further...

  3. Adaptation and translation of mental health interventions in Middle Eastern Arab countries: a systematic review of barriers to and strategies for effective treatment implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Robin E; Schwalbe, Craig S; MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Olimat, Hmoud S; Al-Makhamreh, Sahar S; Mian, Irfan; Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2013-11-01

    All too often, efficacious psychosocial evidence-based interventions fail when adapted from one culture to another. International translation requires a deep understanding of the local culture, nuanced differences within a culture, established service practices, and knowledge of obstacles and promoters to treatment implementation. This research investigated the following objectives to better facilitate cultural adaptation and translation of psychosocial and mental health treatments in Arab countries: (1) identify barriers or obstacles; (2) identify promoting strategies; and (3) provide clinical and research recommendations. This systematic review of 22 psychosocial or mental health studies in Middle East Arab countries identified more barriers (68%) than promoters (32%) to effective translation and adaptation of empirically supported psychosocial interventions. Identified barriers include obstacles related to acceptability of the intervention within the cultural context, community and system difficulties, and problems with clinical engagement processes. Whereas identified promoter strategies centre on the importance of partnering and working within the local and cultural context, the need to engage with acceptable and traditional intervention characteristics, and the development of culturally appropriate treatment strategies and techniques. Although Arab cultures across the Middle East are unique, this article provides a series of core clinical and research recommendations to assist effective treatment adaptation and translation within Arab communities in the Middle East.

  4. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  5. Area Handbook for Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Irving; And Others

    The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

  6. Ghana Journal of Geography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Spatial Location and Household Wealth on the Utilisation of Skilled Birth Attendants at Delivery Among Women in Rural Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hubert Amu, Dickson Kwamena Sekyi, 58-77 ...

  7. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  8. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low–resource countries: An Ishikawa framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Tran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 – essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia. Methods We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008–2010. These reports summarized country–wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a “fishbone” (Ishikawa diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health–system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Results Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health–system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. Conclusions The “fishbone” Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the

  10. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption practices and barriers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and barriers in rural Ghana: The case of foods for preventing vitamin A and iron deficiencies. ... of the occurrence of iron deficiency anaemia especially in pregnant women; however, only 8 FGs had knowledge of the causes of anaemia.

  11. STI Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRH) is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001?2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10?24 years) an...

  12. Ghana's achievement in mathematics in TIMSS 2007 | Mereku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performance on the international benchmarks also improved significantly. The mathematics score, 309, placed Ghana at the 47th position on the overall mathematics achievement results table when the 48 participating countries, which met the TIMSS sampling requirements, were ranked by their mean performances.

  13. A review of epidemiological studies of asthma in Ghana | Amoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: The last few decades have witnessed a rise in the global prevalence of asthma with a number of risk factors being linked to this increase. Although there is insufficient data on the prevalence of asthma in Ghana, a few studies conducted in this country have shed light on the disease aetiology and ...

  14. Autopsy practice in Ghana – reflections of a pathologist | Anim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autopsy practice in Ghana can be said to be far from satisfactory. Most Ghanaians do not know that there are different categories of death, which categories of death require an autopsy and who is required to perform the autopsy. The problems have further been complicated by the fact that, unlike other countries where ...

  15. 1prostate cancer screening in ghana - a clinical benefit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. 3Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences,. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. ABSTRACT. In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. HIV antiretroviral medication stock-outs in Ghana: contributors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although using ARVs produced in-country could reduce supply problems, the domestically-manufactured product currently does not meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We recommend focused efforts to produce WHO standard ARVs in Ghana, and a review of current supply chain management to identify and ...

  17. Improving governance, voice and access to justice in Ghana's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Ghana, many urban residents have yet to reap the benefit of the country's democratic stability and recent economic growth. About 40% of the urban population is trapped in poorly planned, overcrowded informal settlements with unsanitary conditions and low access to basic services. Rapid population growth and ...

  18. Housing Finance in Ghana: Can Community Mortgage Cooperatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is insufficient housing in Ghana. Available houses are mostly poorly developed and lack the basic amenities required to make them habitable. The growth of households is in excess of housing growth resulting in housing deficit in the country. The formal finance institutions have supplied very little mortgages to ...

  19. 6 Ghana's Quest for Oil and Gas.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reserves, countries along the Gulf of Guinea, including Ghana ... 3Science and Technology Policy Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial. Research, P. O. ... However, oil exploration and production involve several activities that can have detrimental ..... auditing and inspection from government, while allowing ...

  20. Biodiversity loss in Ghana: The human factor | Bennett-Lartey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The country loses a great proportion of its biodiversity, due mainly to unacceptable practices like slash and burn agriculture, surface mining, construction activities and bushfires. Various conservation measures practiced in Ghana have been discussed. These include forest reserves, botanical gardens, arboreta, gene banks, ...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Differentials in Ghana and Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Our study compared the two countries' fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in ... The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was ... poverty at both the household and national levels1- ... China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil, and.

  2. Improving health insurance coverage in Ghana : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotoh, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is one of the first sub-Saharan African countries to introduce national health insurance to ensure more equity in access to health care. The response of the population has been disappointing, however. This study describes and examines an experiment with so called 'problem-solving groups' that

  3. Ethics, culture and nursing practice in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, N T; Andrews, L D

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes how nurses in Ghana approach ethical problems. The International Council of Nurses' (ICN) Code for Nurses (2006) that serves as the model for professional code of ethics worldwide also acknowledges respect for healthy cultural values. Using the ICN's Code and universal ethical principles as a benchmark, a survey was conducted in 2009 to ascertain how nurses in Ghana respond to ethical and cultural issues in their practice. The study was qualitative with 200 participant nurses. Data were obtained through anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Nurses' approaches to ethical problems in Ghana do not always meet expectations of the ICN Code for Nurses. They are also informed by local ethical practices related to the institutional setting and cultural environment in the country. While some cultural values complemented the ICN's Code and universal ethical principles, others conflicted with them. These data can assist nurses to provide culturally competent solutions to ethical dilemmas in their practice. Dynamic communication between nurses and patients/clients, intentional study of local cultural beliefs, and the development of ethics education will improve the conformity between universal ethical standards and local cultural values. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  4. Financing public healthcare institutions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akortsu, Mercy Akosua; Abor, Patience Aseweh

    2011-01-01

    The financing of healthcare services has been of a major concern to all governments in the face of increasing healthcare costs. For developing countries, where good health is considered a poverty reduction strategy, it is imperative that the hospitals used in the delivery of healthcare services are well financed to accomplish their tasks. The purpose of this paper is to examine how public hospitals in Ghana are financed, and the challenges facing the financing modes adopted. To achieve the objectives of the study, one major public healthcare institution in Ghana became the main focus. The findings of the study revealed that the main sources of financing the public healthcare institution are government subvention, internally-generated funds and donor-pooled funds. Of these sources, the internally generated fund was regarded as the most reliable, and the least reliable was the donor-pooled funds. Several challenges associated with the various financing sources were identified. These include delay in receipt of government subvention, delay in the reimbursement of services provided to subscribers of health insurance schemes, influence of government in setting user fees, and the specifications to which donor funds are put. The findings of this study have important implications for improving the financing of public healthcare institutions in Ghana. A number of recommendations are provided in this regard.

  5. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Amadu, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power systems in most countries in the region. Ghana, which isthe focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two....... The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implicationsof changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor...

  6. Assessment of biomass residue availability and bioenergy yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Kamp, Andreas; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2014-01-01

    is expected to increase with more efficient applications, such as the production of biogas and liquid biofuels for cooking, transportation and the generation of power. The aim of this study is to establish the amount of Ghana's energy demand that can be satisfied by using the country's crop residues, animal...... manure, logging residues and municipal waste. The study finds that the technical potential of bioenergy from these sources is 96 PJ in 2700 Mm3 of biogas or 52 PJ in 2300 ML of cellulosic ethanol. The biogas potential is sufficient to replace more than a quarter of Ghana's present woodfuel use...

  7. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  8. Research gaps in routine health information system design barriers to data quality and use in low- and middle-income countries: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Gotz, David; Nutley, Tara; Smith, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Despite the potential impact of health information system (HIS) design barriers on health data quality and use and, ultimately, health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), no comprehensive literature review has been conducted to study them in this context. We therefore conducted a formal literature review to understand system design barriers to data quality and use in LMICs and to identify any major research gaps related understanding how system design affects data use. We conducted an electronic search across 4 scientific databases-PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Global Health-and consulted a data use expert. Following a systematic inclusion and exclusion process, 316 publications (316 abstracts and 18 full papers) were included in the review. We found a paucity of scientific publications that explicitly describe system design factors that hamper data quality or data use for decision making. Although user involvement, work flow, human-computer interactions, and user experience are critical aspects of system design, our findings suggest that these issues are not discussed or conceptualized in the literature. Findings also showed that individual training efforts focus primarily on imparting data analysis skills. The adverse impact of HIS design barriers on data integrity and health system performance may be even bigger in LMICs than elsewhere, leading to errors in population health management and clinical care. We argue for integrating systems thinking into HIS strengthening efforts to reduce the HIS design-user reality gap. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Barriers and facilitators for implementing programmes and services to address hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in low and middle income countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Kapur, Anil

    2018-04-21

    An estimated 87.6% of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy cases are in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study is to review the evidence on barriers and facilitators to programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted based on searches in PubMed. A total of 23 qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Barriers and facilitators exist at the health system level, individual level and social and societal levels and are often interacting. At the health system level they relate to capacity in terms of human and material resources; availability of feasible and appropriate guidelines; organisational management and referral pathways. Individual level barriers and facilitators include knowledge; risk perception; illness beliefs; financial condition; work obligations; concerns for the baby and hardship associated with services. At the social and societal level important factors are: perceptions and norms related to women's roles, mobility and health; the knowledge and support of women's social network; and structural aspects. Numerous factors influence programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. Thus, several components are needed to ensure detection, treatment and follow-up of women with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismic activity in Ghana: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Amponsah

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Though Ghana is far away from the major earthquake zones of the world, it is prone to earthquake disaster. Ghana has records of damaging earthquakes dating as far back as 1615. The last three major events occurred in 1862, 1906 and 1939. This paper presents the main historical and current instrumental recorded earthquakes of Ghana and the steps being taken to mitigate the negative effects of such disastrous occurrences in the country. The discussion is based on historical and current data obtained from the seismological observatories in Accra and Kukurantumi. Historical earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.0 and current local tremors with magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 4.8 on the Richter scale have been recorded since the establishment of the seismograph stations.

  11. Strengthening the security of radiation sources in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.; Flecther, J.J.; Ennison, I.; Schandorf, C.

    1998-01-01

    Legislative instrument LI 1559 of 1993 established the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) as the National Competent Authority (NCA) on radiation matters in Ghana. The Board advises Government through the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission on matters relating to radiation safety, security of sources, sales, import and export, contamination in food and environment, among others. It has wide ranging regulatory power and works in association with country authorities. The regulations in place for controlling the movement and use of radioactive materials in Ghana are discussed. Accountability for radioactive materials especially for those which were brought in before the establishment of the RPB have been the focus of our discussion. The need to for intensify educational programs for the public on matters relating to effect of radiation on man and environment is recommended. Strengthening of regulatory control of sources and intensifying efforts against smuggling, unauthorised use and systems for notification on radioactive transport accidents are noted. (author)

  12. Ghana Mining Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Mining Journal (GMJ) is a publication which focuses on the exchange of ideas, dissemination of information and promotion of knowledge arising out of research pertinent to the effective and sustainable exploitation of mineral resources in Ghana and elsewhere. Original contributions in the ...

  13. Ghana Journal of Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies (GJDS) is a multi-, trans- and an ... The Political Economy of Decentralisation and the Challenge of Improved Service Delivery ... Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 – 1950) ... District of South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  15. Barriers to Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Uptake in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rakibul M; Billah, Baki; Hossain, Md Nassif; Oldroyd, John

    2017-07-27

    Background: Cervical cancer (CCa) and breast cancer (BCa) are the two leading cancers in women worldwide. Early detection and education to promote early diagnosis and screening of CCa and BCa greatly increases the chances for successful treatment and survival. Screening uptake for CCa and BCa in low and middle - income countries (LMICs) is low, and is consequently failing to prevent these diseases. We conducted a systematic review to identify the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in women in LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINHAL Plus, and Google scholar to retrieve all English language studies from inception to 2015. This review was done in accordance with the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results: 53 eligible studies, 31 CCa screening studies and 22 BCa screening studies, provided information on 81,210 participants. We found fewer studies in low-income and lower - middle - income countries than in upper - middle - income countries. Lack of knowledge about CCa and BCa, and understanding of the role of screening were the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in LMICs. Factors that are opportunities for knowledge acquisition, such as level of education, urban living, employment outside the home, facilitated CCa and BCa screening uptake in women in LMICs. Conclusions: Improvements to CCa and BCa screening uptake in LMICs must be accompanied by educational interventions which aim to improve knowledge and understanding of CCa and BCa and screening to asymptomatic women. It is imperative for governments and health policy makers in LMICs to implement screening programmes, including educational interventions, to ensure the prevention and early detection of women with CCa and BCa. These programmes and policies will be an integral part of a comprehensive population-based CCa and BCa control framework in LMICs. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. The state of information and communication technology and health informatics in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.

  17. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    A recent study of 36 Sub Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in the absolute majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aid recipients, aid did not seem to have been equally bene…cial. This paper singles out these two countries for a more detailed...

  18. Progressivity of health care financing and incidence of service benefits in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazili, James; Garshong, Bertha; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Di

    2012-03-01

    The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme was introduced in Ghana in 2004 as a pro-poor financing strategy aimed at removing financial barriers to health care and protecting all citizens from catastrophic health expenditures, which currently arise due to user fees and other direct payments. A comprehensive assessment of the financing and benefit incidence of health services in Ghana was undertaken. These analyses drew on secondary data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey (2005/2006) and from an additional household survey which collected data in 2008 in six districts covering the three main ecological zones of Ghana. Findings show that Ghana's health care financing system is progressive, driven largely by the progressivity of taxes. The national health insurance levy (which is part of VAT) is mildly progressive while NHI contributions by the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of total benefits from both public and private health services is pro-rich. However, public sector district-level hospital inpatient care is pro-poor and benefits of primary-level health care services are relatively evenly distributed. For Ghana to attain an equitable health system and fully achieve universal coverage, it must ensure that the poor, most of whom are not currently covered by the NHI, are financially protected, and it must address the many access barriers to health care.

  19. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction

  20. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health care workers indicate ill preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in Ashanti Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Augustina Angelina Annan; Denis Dekugmen Yar; Michael Owusu; Eno Akua Biney; Paa Kobina Forson; Portia Boakye Okyere; Akosua Adumea Gyimah; Ellis Owusu-Dabo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic that hit some countries in West Africa underscores the need to train front line high-risk health workers on disease prevention skills. Although Ghana did not record (and is yet to) any case, and several health workers have received numerous training schemes, there is no record of any study that assessed preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWS) regarding EVD and any emergency prone disease in Ghana. We therefore conducted a hos...

  2. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to i...

  3. The role of the market in the development of aquaculture in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Hamenoo, Edmond Kwablah

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture in Ghana has over the years been little productive despite earlier claims about the high potential of the country. These claims are supported by an abundance of latent natural resources that can support large scale commercial production and the existence of a strong traditional market for fish products. A survey of consumer behavior in the local market for tilapia and fish in general was conducted in Ghana. The data were subjected to tabulation and multivariate analysis to assess ...

  4. A Systematic Review of Barriers to Breast Cancer Care in Developing Countries Resulting in Delayed Patient Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Within the developing world, many personal, sociocultural, and economic factors cause delayed patient presentation, a prolonged interval from initial symptom discovery to provider presentation. Understanding these barriers to care is crucial to optimizing interventions that pre-empt patient delay. Methods. A systematic review was conducted querying: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, J East, CAB, African Index Medicus, and LiLACS. Of 763 unique abstracts, 122 were extracted for full review and 13 included in final analysis. Results. Studies posed variable risks of bias and produced mixed results. There is strong evidence that lower education level and lesser income status contribute to patient delay. There is weaker and, sometimes, contradictory evidence that other factors may also contribute. Discussion. Poverty emerges as the underlying common denominator preventing earlier presentation in these settings. The evidence for sociocultural variables is less strong, but may reflect current paucity of high-quality research. Conflicting results may be due to heterogeneity of the developing world itself. Conclusion. Future research is required that includes patients with and without delay, utilizes a validated questionnaire, and controls for potential confounders. Current evidence suggests that interventions should primarily increase proximal and affordable healthcare access and secondarily enhance breast cancer awareness, to productively reduce patient delay.

  5. Approaches to formalization of the informal waste sector into municipal solid waste management systems in low- and middle-income countries: Review of barriers and success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparcana Robles, Sandra Roxana

    2016-01-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector represents a major challenge for low-and middle-income countries due to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues involving rapid urbanization, their MSWM systems, and the existence of the informal waste sector. Recognizing its role...... sectors are frequently confronted with the dilemma of finding workable approaches to formalization, adjusted to their particular MSWM contexts. Building on the review of frequently implemented approaches to formalization, including an analysis of the barriers to and enabling measures for formalization......, this paper aims to address this gap by explaining to policy- and decision-makers, and to waste managers in the private sector, certain dynamics that can be observed and that should be taken into account when designing formalization strategies that are adapted to their particular socioeconomic and political...

  6. Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire: Changing Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Eberhardt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic histories of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire since their independence have been dramatically different. In the period from 1970 Ghana experienced a sustained collapse in its economy such that by 1983 its level of real GDP per person had fallen by some 40%, its currency was worthless and the third attempt at democratic government had ended with a fourth military coup in 15 years. In contrast, Côte d’Ivoire had enjoyed more or less uninterrupted growth such that by 1980 real GDP per person was twice its 1960s level. However, the period since the mid-1980s has seen a remarkable reversal of fortunes. From 1983 Ghana has experienced sustained recovery, while Côte d’Ivoire has seen large falls in income, its first coup in 1999 and a decline into civil war and ethnic unrest. From being among the least successful Ghana has gone to being among the most successful of African countries, changing places with Côte d’Ivoire which has seen its economy transformed from one experiencing rapid growth to stagnation in a country ravaged by a bitter civil war. This article seeks to document and explain this extraordinary reversal of fortunes.

  7. Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-03-01

    Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  8. What are the barriers to scaling up health interventions in low and middle income countries? A qualitative study of academic leaders in implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamey Gavin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most low and middle income countries (LMICs are currently not on track to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. One way to accelerate progress would be through the large-scale implementation of evidence-based health tools and interventions. This study aimed to: (a explore the barriers that have impeded such scale-up in LMICs, and (b lay out an “implementation research agenda”—a series of key research questions that need to be addressed in order to help overcome such barriers. Methods Interviews were conducted with fourteen key informants, all of whom are academic leaders in the field of implementation science, who were purposively selected for their expertise in scaling up in LMICs. Interviews were transcribed by hand and manually coded to look for emerging themes related to the two study aims. Barriers to scaling up, and unanswered research questions, were organized into six categories, representing different components of the scaling up process: attributes of the intervention; attributes of the implementers; scale-up approach; attributes of the adopting community; socio-political, fiscal, and cultural context; and research context. Results Factors impeding the success of scale-up that emerged from the key informant interviews, and which are areas for future investigation, include: complexity of the intervention and lack of technical consensus; limited human resource, leadership, management, and health systems capacity; poor application of proven diffusion techniques; lack of engagement of local implementers and of the adopting community; and inadequate integration of research into scale-up efforts. Conclusions Key steps in expanding the evidence base on implementation in LMICs include studying how to: simplify interventions; train “scale-up leaders” and health workers dedicated to scale-up; reach and engage communities; match the best delivery strategy to the specific health problem and

  9. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  10. Refrigerator efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, Robert; Ben Hagan, Essel; Ofosu Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    In some cases, a simple replication of developed country appliance efficiency labels and standards may not be completely feasible in Ghana, Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developed country appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should be possible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true in developed countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiency improvements provide the greatest energy savings potential in the residential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like many African countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does not have manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approach may hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of used appliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges of the Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energy efficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigerator market transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an average energy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetary savings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modified refrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaian context. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be an example for many other African countries

  11. Barriers and facilitators to care for the terminally ill: a cross-country case comparison study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christopher A; Howell, Doris; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-02-01

    Why do many patients not die at their preferred location? Analyze system-level characteristics influencing the ability to implement best practices in delivering care for terminally ill adults (barriers and facilitators). Cross-country comparison study from a "most similar-most different" perspective, triangulating evidence from a scoping review of the literature, document analyses, and semi-structured key informant interviews. Case study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States. While similar with regard to leading causes of death, patient needs, and potential avenues to care, different models of service provision were employed in the four countries studied. Although hospice and palliative care services were generally offered with standard care along the disease continuum and in various settings, and featured common elements such as physical, psycho-social, and spiritual care, outcomes (access, utilization, etc.) varied across jurisdictions. Barriers to best practice service provision included legislative (including jurisdictional), regulatory (e.g. education and training), and financial issues as well as public knowledge and perception ("giving up hope") challenges. Advance care planning, dedicated and stable funding toward hospice and palliative care, including caregiver benefits, population aging, and standards of practice and guidelines to hospice and palliative care, were identified as facilitators. Successful implementation of effective and efficient best practice approaches to care for the terminally ill, such as shared care, requires concerted action to align these system-level characteristics; many factors were identified as being essential but not sufficient. Policy implementation needs to be tailored to the respective health-care system(s), monitored, and fine-tuned.

  12. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  13. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  14. The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative Fund Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Ghana opted for the HIPC debt relief initiative and reached the completion point in June 2004 the country has received several billions of money into the HIPC account at the Bank of Ghana. Part of the funds has been given out in the form of micro-credit to poor households to help reduce their poverty situation.

  15. Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Ennison, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  16. Initiatives related to climate change in Ghana. Towards change in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, L.; Bunzeck, I.G.; Van Tilburg, X.

    2011-04-01

    To support the development of a National Climate Change Policy Framework (NCCPF) and a further harmonization of climate change related activities in Ghana, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) and the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MEST) expressed demand for a mapping of the most important past and current climate change related initiatives in the country, and of international climate change related funding opportunities, that Ghana might be able to access. The initiatives mapping demonstrates Ghana's longstanding engagement with climate change, dating back to more than 15 years ago. The report shows a multitude of activities including a number of large (5 mln. USD to > 100 mln. USD), GEF or World Bank financed projects, and a range of smaller projects (in the order of 100 000 - 500 000 USD). The majority of current initiatives are related to forestry and REDD. This report concludes with a discussion on observed trends, such as a broadening involvement of MDAs in adaptation initiatives and a focus on low carbon growth, and of points for attention, such as a need for coordination, for private sector involvement and supporting systems (such as institutional capacity, governance and monitoring systems)

  17. Neurogenomics: Challenges and opportunities for Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Karikari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of genomic tools and technologies has shown the potential to help improve healthcare and our understanding of disease mechanisms. While genomic tools are increasingly being applied to research on infectious diseases, malaria and neglected tropical diseases in Africa, an area that has seen little application of genomic approaches on this continent is neuroscience. In this article, we examined the prospects of developing neurogenomics research and its clinical use in Ghana, one of the African countries actively involved in genomics research. We noted that established international research funding sources and foundations in genomic research such as H3ABioNet nodes established at a couple of research centres in Ghana provide excellent platforms for extending the usage of genomic tools and techniques to neuroscience-related research areas. However, existing challenges such as the (i lack of degree programmes in neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics; (ii low availability of infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists; and (iii lack of local research funding opportunities, need to be addressed. To promote and safeguard the long-term sustainability of neurogenomics research in the country, the impact of the existing challenges and possible ways of addressing them have been discussed.

  18. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana | Ndur | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Exploring factors influencing health-seeking decisions and retention in childhood cancer treatment programmes: perspectives of parents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lorna Awo; McGill, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted based on an interpretative epistemology using a social constructionist approach. Purposive sampling of parents attending the Paediatric Oncology Unit, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana was undertaken. Twelve semi-structured moderate interviews and two small focus group discussions with a total of seven participants were undertaken. Data analysis was through thematic content analysis. Five major themes emerged. Knowledge and perceptions revealed a total lack of appropriate knowledge prior to diagnosis. Health-seeking behaviour was determined by interplay of individual and environmental factors. Orthodox medical treatment was largely perceived favourably. The impact of cancer on parents and children included psychological, physical and socioeconomic effects. Financial, spiritual and psychosocial support helped in coping. Parents recommended public education and health financing to address the major barriers. Broad social determinants and experiences influence parental decision making for children with cancer. This implies Health Promotion strategies with multi-sectorial involvement will be required for effective implementation of the National Strategy for Cancer Control. Funded by authors.

  20. Can evidence-based health policy from high-income countries be applied to lower-income countries: considering barriers and facilitators to an organ donor registry in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vania, Diana K; Randall, Glen E

    2016-01-13

    Organ transplantation has become an effective means to extend lives; however, a major obstacle is the lack of availability of cadaveric organs. India has one of the lowest cadaver organ donation rates in the world. If India could increase the donor rate, the demand for many organs could be met. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that an organ donor registry can be a valuable tool for increasing donor rates. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the implementation of an organ donor registry is a feasible and appropriate policy option to enhance cadaver organ donation rates in a lower-income country. This qualitative policy analysis employs semi-structured interviews with physicians, transplant coordinators, and representatives of organ donation advocacy groups in Mumbai. Interviews were designed to better understand current organ donation procedures and explore key informants' perceptions about Indian government health priorities and the likelihood of an organ donor registry in Mumbai. The 3-i framework (ideas, interests, and institutions) is used to examine how government decisions surrounding organ donation policies are shaped. Findings indicate that organ donation in India is a complex issue due to low public awareness, misperceptions of religious doctrines, the need for family consent, and a nation-wide focus on disease control. Key informants cite social, political, and infrastructural barriers to the implementation of an organ donor registry, including widely held myths about organ donation, competing health priorities, and limited hospital infrastructure. At present, both the central government and Maharashtra state government struggle to balance international pressures to improve overall population health with the desire to also enhance individual health. Implementing an organ donor registry in Mumbai is not a feasible or appropriate policy option in India's current political and social environment, as the barriers, identified through

  1. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  2. A cluster-randomized trial of task shifting and blood pressure control in Ghana: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Gyamfi, Joyce; Chaplin, William; Ntim, Michael; Apusiga, Kingsley; Khurshid, Kiran; Cooper, Richard

    2014-06-12

    Countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are experiencing an epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) propelled by rapidly increasing rates of hypertension. Barriers to hypertension control in SSA include poor access to care and high out-of-pocket costs. Although SSA bears 24% of the global disease burden, it has only 3% of the global health workforce. Given such limited resources, cost-effective strategies, such as task shifting, are needed to mitigate the rising CVD epidemic in SSA. Ghana, a country in SSA with an established community health worker program integrated within a national health insurance scheme provides an ideal platform to evaluate implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) task-shifting strategy. This study will evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the implementation of the WHO Package targeted at CV risk assessment versus provision of health insurance coverage, on blood pressure (BP) reduction. Using a cluster randomized design, 32 community health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals in Ghana will be randomized to either the intervention group (16 CHCs) or the control group (16 CHCs). A total of 640 patients with uncomplicated hypertension (BP 140-179/90-99 mm Hg and absence of target organ damage) will be enrolled in this study (20 patients per CHC). The intervention consists of WHO Package of CV risk assessment, patient education, initiation and titration of antihypertensive medications, behavioral counseling on lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence every three months for 12 months. The primary outcome is the mean change in systolic BP from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are rates of BP control at 12 months; levels of physical activity, percent change in weight, and dietary intake of fruits and vegetables at 12 months; and sustainability of intervention effects at 24 months. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, six months and 12 months. Trained community health nurses will deliver the intervention as

  3. Facts about Nuclear Waste Safety - How the issue is being treated in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The fear of radioactive discharges and releases particularly from severe nuclear accidents and radioactive waste is central to public concern about nuclear activities. This fear was witnessed when Ghana began to suffer shortage in electricity supply from the hydroelectric power station at Akosombo and debates began on Ghana's energy mix and alternate options. As in every country, dependable and continuous supply of electricity is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable development. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was confronted at that time more than ever with the problem of public education on nuclear power safety to enhance public acceptance. This paper presents what the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is doing to communicate facts and education about nuclear waste safety to the Ghanaian public and to facilitate the comparison of risk from nuclear reactors and disposal facilities with risks from other forms of technology. The paper also tells of the usefulness of and difficulties in using Jos Draiger and John Lakey's manual on Radiation and Radiation Protection to educate pupils in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Preparatory School. The difficulties in communication of facts about nuclear, radiation and waste safety in Ghana, because of the different languages and dialects used by Ghanaians in the rural areas of Ghana. As a large number of factors influence decision making in the energy sector. To assist energy planners, the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission carried out assessments of alternative energy sources, covering a broad range of technical, economic and environmental factors. Cost-benefit and risk-benefit analyses place the nuclear power option on a scale comparable to the other electricity generating technologies. How come then that nuclear power option has so much negative publicity? The conclusion is drawn that literacy in nuclear radiation and waste safety is needed at all levels of the Ghanaian society. As inadequate perception of radiation risk

  4. Introduction of Core Based Subjects in the Curriculum of Technical and Vocational Institutions in Ghana: Assessment of Its Effect on Practical Training Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Otu

    2015-01-01

    Technical education among other things focuses on training the skill manpower needs of the youth in most countries of which Ghana is no exception. This study looks at Ghana Education Service technical and vocational sector reform programme introduced in 2010 with emphasis on the introduction of compulsory core based subjects and its effect on…

  5. Prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Samuel H

    2015-08-19

    Adolescence is a critical stage in the life course and evidence suggests that even though contraceptive use has been steadily increasing among women in Ghana over the past years, contraceptive prevalence and determinants among female adolescents is quite lacking. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana. The paper used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey. Bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the contraceptive prevalence among female adolescents while logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the correlates of female adolescent contraceptive use. The study founded that female adolescent contraceptive use was significantly determined by age of adolescent, education, work status, knowledge of ovulatory cycle, visit of health facility and marital status. This has implications for adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in Ghana. It is therefore essential to intensify girl child education and strengthen the provision of family planning information and services for female adolescents in the country.

  6. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University for Development Studies P. O. Box 520 ... A Book by a Corporate Author University for Development Studies (2003). Strategic plan (2003-2008). Tamale, Ghana: ... Accra, Ghana: National Development Planning Commission.

  7. Archives: Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 38 of 38 ... Archives: Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Electricity generation in Ghana : the role of the chemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amuasi, J.H.; Ephraim, J.H.; Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current electricity crisis in Ghana has mandated a holistic approach towards meeting the energy demand of the country. In this paper, a brief review of the various technologies for electricity generation is presented and the role of the chemist in each technology is identified. An emphasis is placed on the nuclear option as a plausible component of a comprehensive energy portfolio and the role of the chemist in each step of the nuclear fuel cycle is outlined. The challenges facing the chemists in the country are enumerated and recommendations for ensuring the incorporation of the nuclear option into the total energy mix of the country are presented. (author)

  9. Growth in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire: Lessons for Promoting Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire: Lessons for Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment (GrOW) ... for International Development (DFID), The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and IDRC. ... In addition to 10 projects addressing the barriers to women's economic empowerment, ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health education: opinions of students and educators in Bolgatanga muncipality, northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geugten, J.; Dijkstra, M.; van Meijel, B.K.G.; den Uyl, M.H.G.; de Vries, N.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students' and educators' perspective. This study examined students' opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators

  11. Sexual and reproductive health education : opinions of students and educators in Bolgatanga municipality, northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NK De Vries; Jolien van der Geugten; prof Berno van Meijel; M Dijkstra; M Den Uyl

    2014-01-01

    There have been few assessments of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes in sub-Saharan Africa from the students’ and educators’ perspective. This study examined students’ opinions on an SRH programme in northern Ghana and explored the facilitators and barriers for educators

  12. Journal of the Ghana Science Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of the Ghana Science Association publishes scholarly articles in all disciplines of science and technology and will normally be published three times in a year. Articles are accepted from Ghana and elsewhere and the topic need not be related to Ghana or West Africa. The contents of the issues focus primarily on ...

  13. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Diane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33, which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI levy (part of VAT is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and

  14. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazili, James; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Diane

    2011-06-27

    Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National

  15. Prospects and Challenges of Corporate Governance in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Aboagye, Emmanuel; Ahali, Aaron Yao Ofoe

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of corporate governance principles in the management of corporate organisations cannot be underestimated. The increasing influence of principles of corporate governance across the globe has been greatly linked to the recent corporate frauds and scandals. These frauds and scandals largely resulted from the failure of authorities of countries to effectively implement the legal and regulatory frameworks pertaining to corporate governance. Ghana is archetypal in regards to the failu...

  16. Franchising system in Ghana : merits and demerits to the franchisee

    OpenAIRE

    Asante, Bismark Kwesi

    2008-01-01

    Mastergradsoppgave i bedriftsøkonomi - Høgskolen i Bodø, 2008 This thesis pertains to franchising in Ghana. It seeks to provide the information on the stage of franchising in the economy, like a product life cycle, which goes through different stages. It is a descriptive case study which stands to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of franchising system of international business to the Ghanaian franchisees found in various industry sectors in the country using same ...

  17. Universal health coverage in the context of population ageing: What determines health insurance enrolment in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Nele; Channon, Andrew Amos; Falkingham, Jane

    2018-05-24

    Population ageing presents considerable challenges for the attainment of universal health coverage (UHC), especially in countries where such coverage is still in its infancy. Ghana presents an important case study on the effectiveness of policies aimed at achieving UHC in the context of population ageing in low and middle-income countries. It has witnessed a profound recent demographic transition, including a large increase in the number of older adults, which coincided with the development and implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), designed to help achieve UHC. The objective of this paper is to examine the community, household and individual level determinants of NHIS enrolment among older adults aged 50-69 and 70 plus. The latter are exempt from NHIS premium payments. Using the Ghanaian Living Standards Survey from 2012 to 2013, determinants of NHIS enrolment for individuals aged 50-69 and 70 plus living in rural Ghana are examined through the application of multilevel regression analysis. Previous studies have mainly focused on the enrolment of young and middle aged adults and considered mainly demographic and socio-economic factors. The novel inclusion of spatial barriers within this analysis demonstrates that levels of NHIS enrolment are determined in part by the community provision of healthcare facilities. In addition, the findings imply that insurance enrolment increases with household expenditure even for those aged 70 plus who are exempt from the NHIS premium payment. Adequate and appropriate infrastructure as well as health insurance is vital to ensure movement to UHC in low and middle income countries. Overall, the results confirm that there remain significant inequalities in enrolment by expenditure quintile that future policy reform will need to address.

  18. FDI TRENDS IN GHANA: THE ROLE OF CHINA, US, INDIA AND SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Boakye–Gyasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the years have shown that the FDI has had a positive influence on national economic growth and development. This research examines the FDI Inflow in Ghana and the contribution of the Selected Countries observed FDI inflows between 2000 and 2014. While comparing the quantitative data, the study showed that the selected countries contributed more to the Agriculture, Manufacturing, Building/Construction, and Service sectors of Ghana in terms of volumes of investments and projects as compared to other sectors of the economy due to incentives attached to prioritized economic sectors. On employment generation, the selected countries percentage share of domestic employment was higher than that of expatriate employment due to Ghana investment laws that allows investor with a specific minimum capital of three hundred thousand dollars to employ minimum of ten Ghanaians for every foreign employee hired.

  19. JOICFP included in GII mission to Ghana. Global Issues Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Among countries in West Africa, Ghana is the main focus of the Global Issues Initiative (GII) on Population and AIDS and one of twelve priority countries selected for official development assistance (ODA) under the program. A ten-member project formulation mission sent to Ghana by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) of Japan was in the country during January 10-18. This mission was the first of its kind to be sent to Africa. It was led by the director of the Third Project Formulation Study Division, Project Formulation Study Department, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and included representatives of MOFA, JICA, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and an observer from UNAIDS. The mission's chief objective was to explore possibilities for Japanese cooperation in the areas of population, child health, and HIV/AIDS in line with the Mid-Term Health Strategy (MTHS) formulated in 1995 by the government of Ghana. The mission also explored the possibility of collaboration with major donors, international organizations, international agencies, and NGOs. The mission met with representatives of NGOs from population, women, AIDS, and health-related areas on January 13, who were then briefed upon Japan's Grant Assistance for Grassroots Project for local NGOs. Views were exchanged upon NGO activities.

  20. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  1. Health insurance and care-seeking behaviours of female migrants in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattof, Samantha R

    2018-05-01

    People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the

  2. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1 ... Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to inform the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer education ... psychological barriers, and specific cultural barriers to ... Technology reviewed the interview guide to establish.

  3. Table of Contents | Editor | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016. Editorial Committee: Ọbádélé Kambon (Editor-in-Chief; University of Ghana). E. Kweku Osam (Consulting Editor; University of Ghana). Gordon S. Adika (University of Ghana). Nana Aba A. Amfo (University of Ghana). Jemima A. Anderson (University of Ghana). Charles O. Marfo (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science ...

  4. Culture and the environment in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyasi, Hubert M.

    1985-03-01

    The traditional culture of Ghana stressed a strong relationship with the environment, and a culturally acceptable environmental management resulted from strictures and taboos related to the land. Following its independence in 1957, Ghana has enacted laws that reflect an enlightened environmental policy. These are especially important because of the difficulties Ghana has had in its economic development using Western technology that has damaged the fragile tropical ecosystem. A key aspect of Ghana's policy is the attempt to marry scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs for environmentally sound management of Ghana's resources.

  5. Implementing the World Report on Disability in West Africa: challenges and opportunities for Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa A; Haig, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Disability issues have taken a prominent role on international stages in recent years. Beginning with the May 2005 World Health Assembly Resolution 58.23 and culminating in the June 2011 World Bank and World Health Organization World Report on Disability, comprehensive disability analyses from nations at various stages of development can now be accessed and used by relevant stakeholders in health, policy, and aide arenas. The implementation of this landmark report is critical for the advancement of social inclusion in diverse countries, including those with limited resources. However, activating the World Report on Disability in resource-limited countries remains a significant challenge because of threadbare data and cultural, institutional, and physical barriers to social inclusion. This review summarizes current national disability data and describes challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the World Report on Disability in Ghana. As a structural point of departure, the article uses the three broad categories of challenges outlined by the World Health Organization: attitudinal, physical, and institutional.

  6. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  7. Potential for radiation processing as a technique for the conservation of the environment in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbedemah, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental pollution in developing countries such as Ghana transcend many fields of human activity. Rivers that serve urban communities as sources of potable water encounter challenges of pollution as a result of agricultural, industrial and domestic activity. The wood processing industry leaves in its trail huge amounts of sawdust. Urban sewage also creates environmental problems if not managed adequately. Contaminated imported foods become sources for the introduction of new microflora into developing countries. Such new microflora can result in health problems in such societies. This paper discusses the enormity of these problems in Ghana with a proposal for minimising them by the application of radiation processing technology

  8. Sociodemographic Determinants of Malaria among Under-Five Children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Harrenson Nyarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana.

  9. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component...... of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline...... the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system...

  10. Agriculture in sustainable rural development : effects of the growth and poverty reduction strategy 11 (GRPS 11) on livelihoods and coping strategies of smallholder farming households: context of the Ejisu-Juaben municipality in the Ashanti region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Peter Kojo

    2011-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder 2011 The Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) approach championed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund lies at the centre of development assistance, debt relief, and development planning in many developing countries, including Ghana. Ghana has implemented a PRS (Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy I, 2003-2005) and a second generation of PRS (Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II, 2006-2009) had just pass...

  11. Child witch hunts in contemporary Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has investigated the phenomenon. In this case study, the persecution of child witches in Ghana is studied to explore the nature and patterns of witch hunts against children in the West African nation. There are no reliable national data on child abuse related to witchcraft accusations in Ghana. For this study, 13 cases of child witch hunts appearing in the local media during 1994-2009 were analyzed. Case summaries were constructed for each incident to help identify the socio-demographic characteristics of assailants and victims, victim-offender relationships, the methods of attacks, the spatial characteristics, as well as the motivations for the attacks. Children branded as witches ranged in age from 1-month-old to 17-years-old, were primarily from poor backgrounds, and lived in rural areas of the country. Accusations of witchcraft and witch assaults were lodged by close family members often through the encouragement of, or in concert with Christian clergymen and fetish priests. Accused witches were physically brutalized, tortured, neglected, and in two cases, murdered. For school-aged children, imputations of witchcraft contributed to stigmatization in both the community and at school, resulting in dropping out. The most frequently expressed reason for persecution of the child was suspicion that the child had used witchcraft to cause the death or illness of family relations or someone in the community. Another reason was suspicion that the child was responsible for the business failure or financial difficulties of a perceived victim. The results of this research are consistent with findings in the witchcraft literature suggesting that seemingly

  12. The Creation of Districts and Constituencies in Ghana: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Regions of Ghana. Ghana is presently divided into ten political regions which are subdivided ..... errors to which attention was drawn (Ghana 1972b:) ... national interest has been the driving force behind the creation of districts some of ...

  13. Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana. ... contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). ... (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[1]: 102-109).

  14. Nuclear medicine in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affram, R.K.; Kyere, K.; Amuasi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The background to the introduction and application of radioisotopes in medicine culminating in the establishment of the nuclear Medicine Unit at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana, has been examined. The Unit has been involved in important clinical researches since early 1970s but routine application in patient management has not always been possible because of cost per test and lack of continuous availability of convertible currency for the purchase of radioisotopes which are not presently produced by the National Nuclear Research Institute at Kwabenya. The capabilities and potentials of the Unit are highlighted and a comparison of Nuclear Medicine techniques to other medical diagnostic and imaging methods have been made. There is no organised instruction in the principles of medical imaging and diagnostic methods at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital which has not promoted the use of Nuclear Medicine techniques. The development of a comprehensive medical diagnostic and imaging services is urgently needed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Problems of Frafra potato production in Ghana | Tetteh | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the production of Frafra potato (Solenostemum rotundifolius Poir) in Ghana was conducted to collect baseline data on the crop and to identify constraints to production. In all, 100 farmers who were randomly selected from 16 villages and towns in five districts in the Upper East Region and Upper West Region ...

  16. Mental health research in Ghana: A literature review | Read | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: Mental health is a neglected area in health care in Ghana. With few clinicians and trained researchers in the field, research has been limited both in quantity and quality. Method: A search of the available literature revealed 98 articles published between 1955 and 2009. Sixty-six are reviewed in this ...

  17. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana | Ndur | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera outbreak in some cities and towns in Ghana in early 2011 necessitated a sachet water quality study in Tarkwa to determine their wholesomeness. The study was conducted in four phases in August 2011, December 2011, August 2012 and December, 2013. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analysed were ...

  18. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana | Adjei | Ghana Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women. Objective: To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 ...

  19. Towards a culture of maps appreciation in Ghana | Kofie | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Geography. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here ...

  20. Insect succession on three coffee types in Ghana | Padi | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect succession on three coffee types in Ghana. B Padi, E Ampomah. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  1. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Nii-Boye Quarshie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude, at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.

  2. Decade of inclusive education in Ghana: perspectives of special educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Peprah Opoku

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of inclusive education systems has been recognized as the process for orchestrating educational quality and equity. Inclusive education systems reflect growing awareness of the imperatives of 21st century societies to make quality education available to all students. This article contributes to developing area of inclusive education by exploring the perspectives of Ghanaian special educators on the progress and achievements of inclusive education. The data in this paper emerged from case study involving special educators from two regions in Ghana. Findings show an uncoordinated attempt to pilot inclusive education across the country because of different agencies funding the project. The authors argue that there is the need for a holistic review of the programme to ground the policy within the education system of Ghana.

  3. Networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi Ernest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of public procurement professionals in achieving value for money in public procurement activities is widely acknowledged around the globe. This has inspired the organisation of training programmes and workshops for procurement professionals, particularly those in developing countries in order to hone their knowledge and skills for proper management of government projects. This paper sought to explore the opportunities in networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana. The study adopted quantitative research methods for both data collection and analysis. The paper revealed that professional networking can offer procurement professionals the opportunity to acquire new knowledge from external professionals, know global trends about procurement practice, and obtain new information from other institutions about procurement. It is recommended that a platform that can support a network of procurement professionals in Ghana should be developed in order to ensure effective interaction and communication among procurement professionals for their capacity building.

  4. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.

  5. Stakeholders' views on maternity care shortcomings in rural Ghana: An ethnographic study among women, providers, public, and quasiprivate policy sector actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Biesma, Regien; Groot, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Access to skilled provider and emergency obstetric care is not universal across all districts in Ghana. The lived experiences of 3 stakeholder groups on maternity care shortcomings in 3 rural Ghanaian districts are examined in this study. We applied an ethnographic study approach where field data were collected between March to May 2015 in 3 rural districts of northern Ghana. Data were collected among women with recent births experiences (n = 90), health care providers (n = 16), and policy actors (n = 6). Transcripts were read through to identify similar and divergent stakeholders' views. Significant expressions and experiences of stakeholders on maternity care shortcomings were extracted and evaluated to define key themes. Four themes emerged: social/community factors, payments for health care, facility level factors, and policy level factors. The results show that traditional women's roles divest time for maternity care. Poor transport arrangements, insufficient health workforce, health funding gaps, insurance reimbursements delays, and catastrophic health expenditures on travel and drugs are attested as major barriers across all stakeholder groups in all districts studied. The discussion of the study findings suggests it is important to ascertain the scale of informal payments and their impacts on health access. Investments in health workforce and reliable ambulatory service systems could help address poor referral difficulties in rural areas of the country. Social support for community initiatives that pool funds could provide extra resources and relieve cost access-related challenges for using maternity care in rural settings in Ghana. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The use of antenatal care in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Despite decades of implementation of maternity healthcare programmes, including a focus on increasing the use of antenatal care (ANC and concomitant birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR, the uptake of ANC continues to be below expectations in many developing countries. This has attendant implications for maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates. Known barriers to ANC use include cost, distance to health care services and forces of various socio-cultural beliefs and practices. As part of a larger study on BPCR in rural Ghana, this paper reflects on the use of ANC in the study areas from rights-based and maternal engagement theoretical perspectives, with a focus on the barriers to ANC use.Mixed methods approach was adopted to collect data from 8 study communities from individual in-depth interviews with 80 expectant mothers and 13 health care professionals, and 24 focus groups comprising 240 community members. The qualitative data followed a thematic analytical method, while the quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics.The average number of ANC visits were 3.34±1.292, and the majority of expectant mothers (71.3% enrolled for ANC at the 8th week or later, with the longest delay recorded at the 6th month of gestation. Traditional norms significantly influenced this delay. Likewise, overall use of ANC during pregnancy was shaped by cultural factors related to perceptions of pregnancy, gender-based roles and responsibilities and concerns that ANC would result in an overweighed baby and culturally inappropriate delivery at a health care facility.Greater understanding of the sociocultural barriers to ANC is essential if proposed changes in community-specific health education programs are to facilitate early commencement and increased use of ANC.

  7. Toward universal electrification in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    sector in Ghana, negatively impacting all sectors of the economy and leading to economic losses. The low generation capacity is partly due to poor fuel supply to existing thermal power plants, meaning that installed capacity is often not available for use. This is coupled with low investment...

  8. Time and Change in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The disastrous state of Ghanaian finances immediately before and after the coup against Nkrumah has had the effect of virtually eliminating community development and health services, particularly in non-urban areas of Ghana. It is hoped that new regional and district structure and improved staff morale can now bring about more effective programs.…

  9. Role of Pigeonpea Cultivation on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the smallholder farming system in Ghana is under threat due to soil fertility decline. Mineral fertilizer is sparingly being used by smallholder farmers because of prohibitive cost. Grain legumes such as pigeonpea can play a complementary or alternative role as a source of organic fertilizer due to its ability to enhance soil fertility. Despite its importance, the potential of pigeonpea as a soil fertility improvement crop has not been exploited to any appreciable extent and the amount of land cultivated to pigeonpea in Ghana is vey negligible. This paper synthesizes recent studies that have been carried out on pigeonpea in Ghana and discusses the role of pigeonpea cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability. The paper shows that recent field studies conducted in both the semi-deciduous forest and the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana indicate that pigeonpea/maize rotations can increase maize yield by 75–200%. Barrier to widespread adoption of pigeonpea include land tenure, market, and accessibility to early maturing and high yielding varieties. The paper concludes among other things that in order to promote the cultivation of pigeonpea in Ghana, there is the need to introduce varieties that combine early maturity with high yields and other desirable traits based on farmers preferences.

  10. A nationwide quality improvement project to accelerate Ghana's progress toward Millennium Development Goal Four: design and implementation progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twum-Danso, Nana A Y; Akanlu, George B; Osafo, Enoch; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi; Boadu, Richard O; Atinbire, Solomon; Adondiwo, Ane; Amenga-Etego, Isaac; Ashagbley, Francis; Boadu, Eric A; Dasoberi, Ireneous; Kanyoke, Ernest; Yabang, Elma; Essegbey, Ivan T; Adjei, George A; Buckle, Gilbert B; Awoonor-Williams, J Koku; Nang-Beifubah, Alexis; Twumasi, Akwasi; McCannon, C Joseph; Barker, Pierre M

    2012-12-01

    The gap between evidence-based guidelines and practice of care is reflected, in low- and middle-income countries, by high rates of maternal and child mortality and limited effectiveness of large-scale programing to decrease those rates. We designed a phased, rapid, national scale-up quality improvement (QI) intervention to accelerate the achievement of Millennium Development Goal Four in Ghana. Our intervention promoted systems thinking, active participation of managers and frontline providers, generation and testing of local change ideas using iterative learning from transparent district and local data, local ownership and sustainability. After 50 months of implementation, we have completed two prototype learning phases and have begun regional spread phases to all health facilities in all 38 districts of the three northernmost regions and all 29 Catholic hospitals in the remaining regions of the country. To accelerate the spread of improvement, we developed 'change packages' of rigorously tested process changes along the continuum of care from pregnancy to age 5 in both inpatient and outpatient settings. The primary successes for the project so far include broad and deep adoption of QI by local stakeholders for improving system performance, widespread capacitation of leaders, managers and frontline providers in QI methods, incorporation of local ideas into change packages and successful scale-up to approximately 25% of the country's districts in 3 years. Implementation challenges include variable leadership uptake and commitment at the district level, delays due to recruiting and scheduling barriers, weak data systems and repeated QI training due to high staff turnover.

  11. Barriers and facilitators to implementation, uptake and sustainability of community-based health insurance schemes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Racha; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Morsi, Rami Z; Abou Samra, Clara Abou; Ahmad, Ali; Arif, Khurram; Hishi, Lama; Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys; Akl, Elie A

    2018-01-29

    Community-based health insurance (CBHI) has evolved as an alternative health financing mechanism to out of pocket payments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in areas where government or employer-based health insurance is minimal. This systematic review aimed to assess the barriers and facilitators to implementation, uptake and sustainability of CHBI schemes in LMICs. We searched six electronic databases and grey literature. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language and published after year 1992. Two reviewers worked in duplicate and independently to complete study selection, data abstraction, and assessment of methodological features. We synthesized the findings based on thematic analysis and categorized according to the ecological model into individual, interpersonal, community and systems levels. Of 15,510 citations, 51 met the eligibility criteria. Individual factors included awareness and understanding of the concept of CBHI, trust in scheme and scheme managers, perceived service quality, and demographic characteristics, which influenced enrollment and sustainability. Interpersonal factors such as household dynamics, other family members enrolled in the scheme, and social solidarity influenced enrollment and renewal of membership. Community-level factors such as culture and community involvement in scheme development influenced enrollment and sustainability of scheme. Systems-level factors encompassed governance, financial and delivery arrangement. Government involvement, accountability of scheme management, and strong policymaker-implementer relation facilitated implementation and sustainability of scheme. Packages that covered outpatient and inpatient care and those tailored to community needs contributed to increased enrollment. Amount and timing of premium collection was reported to negatively influence enrollment while factors reported as threats to sustainability included facility

  12. Females in the Agricultural Labour Force and Non-Formal Education for Rural Development in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Greenstreet (Miranda)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractGhana is an agricultural country where most of the people live in rural areas, the proportion of women being greater than men. Life in the rural areas is difficult, but despite the much talked about drift of people to the urban areas, it is almost certain that for many decades, a large

  13. Re-engaging the Distribution of Rewards among Small-Scale Farmers and Traders in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Anne Lassen

    A number of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries including Ghana have experienced positive growth rates in recent years. Unfortunately, these growth rates have not transformed into sustainable inclusive development and reduced poverty in many cases (Hailu and Tsukada, 2011). Within agricultural tr...

  14. Factors Associated with Waiting Time for Breast Cancer Treatment in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedey, Florence; Wu, Lily; Ayettey, Hannah; Sanuade, Olutobi A.; Akingbola, Titilola S.; Hewlett, Sandra A.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Cole, Helen V.; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Ghana. Data are limited on the predictors of poor outcomes in breast cancer patients in low-income countries; however, prolonged waiting time has been implicated. Among breast cancer patients who received treatment at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, this study…

  15. Incidence of 'crown fracture' disease of oil palm in Ghana | Quaicoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation into outbreak of a 'strange oil palm disease' at three locations in the Central and Western regions of Ghana showed the presence of 'crown fracture' disease in the country. Thirty-two cases of the disease were identified in Papagya (near Abakrampa), seven in Dwaboh (near Ayensudu), and six in the farm of ...

  16. Streetism And Child Labour In The Wa Municipality Of Ghana A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of child labor in Ghana, especially in Wa, has been given attention in recent times by various organizations within the country. An understudied dimension of these efforts at eradicating child labor is its gendered nature. This study was therefore conducted to unearth the gender dimension of the drivers of child ...

  17. Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a lot of work has been done on the safety of street foods in most developing countries, not much has been done with regards to the hotel industry. A pilot study to investigate food and its preparation conditions in ten selected hotels in Accra, the capital of Ghana with respect to food safety was therefore initiated in ...

  18. A review of the Phytophthora pod rot disease situation in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Phytophthora megakarya, which until 1985 was unknown in Ghana, has changed the status of black pod disease of cocoa in the country. Hitherto, only Phytophthora palmivora was known to be present. This paper reviews the Phytophthora pod disease situation, the origin, distribution, incidence and ...

  19. Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2013-03-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.

  20. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J.; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M.; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Lina, Peter H.C.; Godlevska, Elena V.; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats. PMID:23622767

  1. Implementing Free Primary Education Policy in Malawi and Ghana: Equity and Efficiency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuma; Oketch, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Malawi and Ghana are among the numerous Sub-Saharan Africa countries that have in recent years introduced Free Primary Education (FPE) policy as a means to realizing the 2015 Education for All and Millennium Development Goals international targets. The introduction of FPE policy is, however, a huge challenge for any national government that has…

  2. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges

  3. Frontline health worker motivation in the provision of maternal and neonatal health care in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    The health of mothers and neonates is a concern for many countries, because they form the future of every society. In Ghana efforts have been made to address quality health care in order to accelerate progress in maternal and child health and reduce maternal and

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of small-area intestinal parasites infections in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei, F. B.; Stein, A.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites infection is a major public health burden in low and middle-income countries. In Ghana, it is amongst the top five morbidities. In order to optimize scarce resources, reliable information on its geographical distribution is needed to guide periodic mass drug administration to

  5. First reported case of dog associated pig rabies in Ghana | Tasiame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pig rabies is uncommon and there is paucity of information on rabies in pigs in West African countries other than Nigeria. This communication presents a case of dog associated pig rabies in Adidome, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Case history, Dog assessment in adjoining communities, human exposure, ...

  6. Delayed Primary School Enrollment and Childhood Malnutrition in Ghana. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glewwe, Paul; Jacoby, Hanan

    This study investigated why the primary school enrollment of children in poor countries is often delayed despite the prediction made by human capital theory that schooling will begin at the earliest possible age. Using data from the 1988-89 Ghana Living Standards Survey household questionnaire, the study examined the age of enrollment,…

  7. TIMSS 2011 Science Assessment Results: A Review of Ghana's Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buabeng, Isaac; Owusu, Kofi Acheaw; Ntow, Forster Danso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews Ghana's performance in the TIMSS 2011 survey in comparison with other African and some high performing countries which participated in the TIMSS assessment. Students' achievement in the science content areas assessed were summarized and teacher preparation constructs of teachers of the students who took part in the assessment…

  8. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  9. Adoption patterns and constraints pertaining to small-scale water lifting technologies in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namara, R.E.; Hope, L.; Sarpong, E.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Owusu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is a priority development agenda item in Ghana and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a genuine endeavor to increase public and large-scale private investment in the sector. The on-going smallholder-driven private irrigation development that is largely based on water lifting

  10. Crime and the “poverty penalty” in urban Ghana | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... Ghana's rapid urbanization has contributed to a reduction in poverty across the country, yet ... The result: Western theories of how crime and poverty are linked do not ... In this brief, the research team shares the results of their three-year project, ... Libérer le potentiel des jeunes entrepreneurs de l'Afrique.

  11. The Effect of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in Ghana | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses time series data from 1972 to 2012 on Ghana to test the hypothesis that foreign aid can promote growth in developing countries. The ARDL approach to cointegration (bounds test) was employed to examine both the long run and short run relationships between aid and economic growth. The results of the ...

  12. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  13. DETECTION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS ANTIGEN IN DOGS IN KUMASI, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R D; Kodie, D O; Amemor, E; Dei, D; Tasiame, W; Burimuah, V; Emikpe, B O

    2018-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT ® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α 0.05 . We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection.

  14. ECONOMICS OF TOMATO MARKETING IN ASHANTI REGION, GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillus Abawiera Wongnaa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The perishable nature of most agricultural produce and the concomitant need for effective marketing outlets carries along huge economic consequences, especially in developing countries like Ghana. This study examines the determinants of profit in tomato marketing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Cross-sectional data collected from a random sample of 200 tomato marketers consisting of 100 wholesalers and 100 retailers were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the multiple linear regression technique of the ordinary least squares. The results show that wholesalers have a higher margin of 99.7 percent, while the retailers have a margin of 75.4 percent. Labour cost, purchase price, transportation cost and selling price run through all the estimated regressions as determinants of marketing profit. The effects of these variables on marketing profit could raise public concern since they have implications on prices received by tomato producers and those paid by final consumers and therefore there is the need for the government to devise policies aimed at stabilizing the local currency.The results also call for policy efforts to completely eliminate illiteracy among tomato traders in Ghana especially in the Ashanti Region. Policies that could enable the retailers to increase their scale of operations are also advocated. Future researchers may also estimate the exact point in the age variable at which retail profit declines and possible antecedents.

  15. DETECTION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS ANTIGEN IN DOGS IN KUMASI, GHANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R. D; Kodie, D.O; Amemor, E.; Dei, D.; Tasiame, W.; Burimuah, V.; Emikpe, B.O

    2018-01-01

    Background: Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α0.05 Results: We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. Conclusion: The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection. PMID:29302647

  16. Austerity in Civil Procedure : A Critical Assessment of the Impact of Global Economic Downturn on Civil Justice in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Owusu-Dapaa (Ernest); E.A. Bediako (Ebenezer)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe demand for and availability of civil justice procedures for small claims can neither be disentangled nor extricated from the health of the economic climate of the relevant country concerned. In this article, it is argued that despite not being a developed country, Ghana was not

  17. Exploring the skills, knowledge and attitudes of successful female entrepreneurs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C.K. Buame

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Ghanaian woman entrepreneur, this study found exhibits many similarities with their counterparts in other countries in terms of their personality traits. However, they differed in other aspects such as their educational backgrounds and modes of entrepreneurial skills acquisition. Through their entrepreneurial activities the women have made substantial contributions to the economic growth of Ghana in terms of innovation, job creation, and reduction in poverty and unemployment. Using a survey methodology, this study concludes that to succeed as a female entrepreneur in Ghana, one requires some specific knowledge, skills and attitudes.

  18. Better health care: Ghana uses radiation technology to sterilize medical items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    Infections acquired from improperly sterilized equipment are recognized as a major impediment to safe health care delivery, with consequences that are often deadly for patients. Radiation technology plays a major role in many countries in making medical equipment safer. “The use of nuclear applications, such as exposing medical items to gamma radiation, helps Ghana protect its people from avoidable sicknesses that can occur if items like syringes are not properly sterilized,” said Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Manager of the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute in Accra.

  19. Ghana Health Services and the Irish health system – bridging the gap.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Akaateba, D

    2017-02-01

    The University of Limerick Hospitals Group (ULHG), and the University of Limerick (UL), are committed to fostering links with the developing world and contributing to solutions of the challenges these countries face. In 2016 a group from UL and ULHG visited the Upper West Region of Ghana1 to explore the possibility of establishing a partnership with Ghana Health Services (GHS). In this article, we describe aspects of GHS and outline some of the challenges for Irish institutions trying to engage with the realties of the developing world.

  20. Care Services in Periurban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa Kobina Turkson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs>10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana.

  1. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Ghana. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Ghana estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 15 000 to 40 000 tonnes of uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Proterozoic Panafrican Mobile Belt (up to 17 000 tonnes uranium) and the Paleozoic Obosum Beds of the Voltaian basin (up to 15 000 tonnes uranium), the remainder being associated with various other geological environments. The mission recommends that over a period of three (3) years approximately U.S. $5 million) would be spent on exploration in Ghana. A major part of this (U.S $2 million) would be spent on an airborne spectrometer survey over the Voltaian basin (Obosum beds), much of the remainder being spent on ground surveys, trenching and percussion drilling. (author)

  3. A Descriptive Assessment of Higher Education Access, Participation, Equity, and Disparity in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atuahene

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, Ghana has comparatively distinguished itself among many Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries in its educational developments. Tertiary education in Ghana over the past decade has witnessed tremendous growth in various frontages—increased access and participation, relative expansion of academic facilities, a growing private sector, and most importantly, a transformative policy environment. Despite these overwhelming developments, there remain inequalities in the higher education system in Ghana: access has not been broadened to include all social groups. Available data suggest unequal participation among women, minorities, individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and spatial-based disparities. Using enrollment data from universities, policy document from the Ministry of Education, and the National Council for Tertiary Education in Ghana, and academic research reports, the authors provide descriptive and critical analyses of the structures of inequalities and disparities in higher education in Ghana. The authors argue that in spite of the massive developments over the years, there exist accessibility and participation gap with respect to students’ socioeconomic status, gender, regions of origin, and the type and location of secondary schools attended.

  4. What Influences Where They Give Birth? Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamena Sekyi Dickson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner’s education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35–26.4 more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner’s education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana.

  5. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  6. Estimating solar radiation in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anane-Fenin, K.

    1986-04-01

    The estimates of global radiation on a horizontal surface for 9 towns in Ghana, West Africa, are deduced from their sunshine data using two methods developed by Angstrom and Sabbagh. An appropriate regional parameter is determined with the first method and used to predict solar irradiation in all the 9 stations with an accuracy better than 15%. Estimation of diffuse solar irradiation by Page, Lin and Jordan and three other authors' correlation are performed and the results examined. (author)

  7. Defining Health Research for Development: The perspective of stakeholders from an international health research partnership in Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire Leonie; Shaw, David; Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice

    2017-05-03

    The study uses a qualitative empirical method to define Health Research for Development. This project explores the perspectives of stakeholders in an international health research partnership operating in Ghana and Tanzania. We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders in an international multicenter partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Vaccine Developer) and the global health nonprofit organisation PATH and its Malaria Vaccine Initiative program (PATH/MVI, Funder-Development Partner), (RTS, S) (NCT00866619). The respondents included teams from four clinical research centres (two centres in Ghana and two in Tanzania) and various collaborating partners. This paper analyses responses to the question: What is Health Research for Development? Based on the stakeholders' experience the respondents offered many ways of defining Health Research for Development. The responses fell into four broad themes: i) Equitable Partnerships; ii) System Sustainability; iii) Addressing Local Health Targets, and iv) Regional Commitment to Benefit Sharing. Through defining Health Research for Development six key learning points were generated from the four result themes: 1) Ensure there is local research leadership working with the collaborative partnership, and local healthcare system, to align the project agenda and activities with local research and health priorities; 2) Know the country-specific context - map the social, health, legislative and political setting; 3) Define an explicit development component and plan of action in a research project; 4) Address the barriers and opportunities to sustain system capacity. 5) Support decentralised health system decision-making to facilitate the translation pathway; 6) Govern, monitor and evaluate the development components of health research partnerships. Overall, equity and unity between partners are required to deliver health research for development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HIV antiretroviral medication stock-outs in Ghana: contributors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poku, Rebecca A; Owusu, Adobea Yaa; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Markham, Christine; McCurdy, Sheryl A

    2017-09-01

    Drug stock-outs are an unfortunate yet common reality for patients living in low and middle income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where trouble with consistent stock of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) continues. Our study takes a snapshot of this problem in Ghana. Although the country launched its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2003, progress toward realising the full benefit of ART for treated individuals has been limited, in part, because of stock-outs. In Ghana's Greater Accra region, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women living with HIV (WLHIV) and 15 individuals with a history of HIV-related work in government or non-governmental organisations, or healthcare facilities. We used repeated review with coding and mapping techniques to analyse the transcripts and identify common themes. Stock-outs of ARVs result in inconsistent administration of therapy, increased indirect medical costs for WLHIV, and negative labelling of patients. Inefficiencies in drug supply, poor coordination with port authorities, inadequate government funding and dependence on international aid contribute to the stock-outs experienced in Ghana. Although using ARVs produced in-country could reduce supply problems, the domestically-manufactured product currently does not meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We recommend focused efforts to produce WHO standard ARVs in Ghana, and a review of current supply chain management to identify and mend pitfalls in the system.

  9. Challenges of decentralisation in Ghana: district assembly's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a ...

  10. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  11. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.

  12. Russia-Ghana relations in the past and the present: a time-proven partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Kulkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article of Russian and Ghanaian authors describes the evolution of political and economic relations between Soviet Union/Russia and Ghana throughout different historical periods (starting from 1950s to present. Great attention is paid to the basis of the cooperation laid in Soviet period. The article also observes current tendencies of the bilateral relations, which are quite friendly and fruitful. Moscow regards the Republic of Ghana as a reliable, time-proven partner especially on international issues: the establishment of a more democratic polycentric world order, ensuring regional and strategic stability, disarmament, combating international terrorism and other global challenges and threats. Russia and Ghana provide each other mutual support in the election of representatives of the two countries in international organizations. Russia and Ghana also develop their cooperation in the field of security. The participation of USSR/Russia in foreign trade of Ghana is analyzed. The significant increase in the number of Ghanaian trade partners is indicated while the share of Great Britain decreases and the share of Asian, African and other states increases. In recent years, the favorable conditions for the development of Russian-Ghanaian trade and economic relations were created. The cooperation of the two countries also develops in the field of nuclear energy. The main bilateral visits between Ghana and Russia are examined in the article. The special attention is paid to the first meeting of the Russian-Ghanaian Inter-governmental commission on trade, economic, academic and technical cooperation took place in Moscow in October 2014.

  13. Community interventions for dietary improvement in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K

    2014-12-01

    Background. Low caregiver income and poor nutrition knowledge and skills are important barriers to achieving optimal child feeding in rural Ghana. An integrated microcredit and nutrition education intervention was implemented to address these barriers. Using a quasi-experimental design, 134 caregivers of children 2 to 5 years of age in six intervention communities were enrolled into self-selected savings and loan groups. They received small individual loans over four 16-week cycles to support their income-generating activities. Nutrition and entrepreneurial education was provided during weekly loan repayment meetings. Another 261 caregivers in six comparison communities did not receive the intervention. Data on household sociodemographic and economic characteristics, perception of income-generating activity profits, and children's consumption of animal-source foods in the previous week were collected at baseline and at four additional time points. Differences according to group (intervention vs. control) and time (baseline vs. endline) were analyzed with chi-square and Student's t-tests. The intervention and comparison groups did not differ by caregivers' age and formal education; few (35) had previous experience with microcredit loans. At endline, more intervention than comparison caregivers perceived that their business profits had increased (59% vs. 23%, p < .001). In contrast to comparison children, after 16 months of intervention children consumed more livestock meat (p =.001), organ meat (p = .04), eggs (p = .001), and milk and milk products (p < .0001) in the previous week in comparison with baseline. Integrated food-centered strategies can improve children's diets, which will enhance their nutritional status, health, and cognitive outcomes.

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Coastal Communities on Waste Management in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Essuman, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Waste management has been a worldwide issue which most countries are finding the best ways of dealing with. Managing waste improperly poses threat to the health of individuals and the environment. Ghana as a developing country, its coastal communities are faced with a lot of challenges regarding waste management due to actions towards waste management. This research seeks to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of coastal communities on waste management and how their actions have a...

  15. Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence : a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Scholten, Willem; Lisman, John A; Subataite, Marija; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify

  16. Map Coordinate Referencing and the use of GPS Datasets in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Map Coordinate Referencing and the use of GPS Datasets in Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... systems used in Ghana (the Ghana war office system and also the Clarke1880 system) using the Bursa-Wolf model.

  17. Factors contributing to low uptake and renewal of health insurance: a qualitative study in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Ama Pokuaa; Kusi, Anthony; Arhinful, Daniel K; Asante, Felix Ankoma

    2016-01-01

    The effort to expand access to healthcare and reduce health inequalities in many low income countries have meant that many have adopted different levels of social health protection mechanisms. Ghana introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2005 with the aim of removing previous barriers created by the user fees financing system. Although the NHIS has made health accessible to some category of people, the majority of Ghanaians (60 %) are not enroled on the scheme. Earlier studies have looked at various factors that account for this low uptake. However, we recognise that this qualitative study will nuance the depth of these barriers to enrolment. Minimally structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the district, regional and national levels. Focus group discussions were also undertaken at the community level. Using an inductive and content analytic approach, the transcripts were analyzed to identify and define categories that explain low uptake of health insurance. The results are presented under two broad themes: sociocultural and systemic factors. Sociocultural factors identified were 1) vulnerability within certain groups such as the aged and the disabled groups which impeded access to the NHIS 2) cultural and religious norms which discouraged enrolment into the scheme. System-wide factors were 1) inadequate distribution of social infrastructure such as healthcare facilities, 2) weak administrative processes within the NHIS, and 3) poor quality of care. Mapping the interplay of these dynamic relations between the NHIS, its clients and service providers, the study identifies critical factors at the policy-making level, service provider level, and client level (reflective in household and community level institutional arrangements) that affect enrolment in the scheme. Our findings inform a number of potential reforms in the area of distribution of health resources and cost containment to expand coverage, increase

  18. City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-05-06

    To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Who uses outpatient healthcare services under Ghana's health protection scheme and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Arhinful, Daniel K; Kusi, Anthony; Parmar, Divya; Williams, Gemma

    2016-05-10

    The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was launched in Ghana in 2003 with the main objective of increasing utilisation to healthcare by making healthcare more affordable. Previous studies on the NHIS have repeatedly highlighted that cost of premiums is one of the major barriers for enrollment. However, despite introducing premium exemptions for pregnant women, older people, children and indigents, many Ghanaians are still not active members of the NHIS. In this paper we investigate why there is limited success of the NHIS in improving access to healthcare in Ghana and whether social exclusion could be one of the limiting barriers. The study explores this by looking at the Social, Political, Economic and Cultural (SPEC) dimensions of social exclusion. Using logistic regression, the study investigates the determinants of health service utilisation using SPEC variables including other variables. Data was collected from 4050 representative households in five districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah) in Ghana. Among 16,200 individuals who responded to the survey, 54 % were insured. Out of the 1349 who sought health care, 64 % were insured and 65 % of them had basic education and 60 % were women. The results from the logistic regressions show health insurance status, education and gender to be the three main determinants of health care utilisation. Overall, a large proportion of the insured who reported ill, sought care from formal health care providers compared to those who had never insured in the scheme. The paper demonstrates that the NHIS presents a workable policy tool for increasing access to healthcare through an emphasis on social health protection. However, affordability is not the only barrier for access to health services. Geographical, social, cultural, informational, political, and other barriers also come into play.

  20. What stage are low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) at with patient safety curriculum implementation and what are the barriers to implementation? A two-stage cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane R; Dhingra-Kumar, Neelam; Donaldson, Liam J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The improvement of safety in healthcare worldwide depends in part on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of staff providing care. Greater patient safety content in health professional education and training programmes has been advocated internationally. While WHO Patient Safety Curriculum Guides (for Medical Schools and Multi-Professional Curricula) have been widely disseminated in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the last several years, little is known about patient safety curriculum implementation beyond high-income countries. The present study examines patient safety curriculum implementation in LMICs. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out. First, 88 technical officers in Ministries of Health and WHO country offices were surveyed to identify the pattern of patient safety curricula at country level. A second survey followed that gathered information from 71 people in a position to provide institution-level perspectives on patient safety curriculum implementation. Results The majority, 69% (30/44), of the countries were either considering whether to implement a patient safety curriculum or actively planning, rather than actually implementing, or embedding one. Most organisations recognised the need for patient safety education and training and felt a safety curriculum was compatible with the values of their organisation; however, important faculty-level barriers to patient safety curriculum implementation were identified. Key structural markers, such as dedicated financial resources and relevant assessment tools to evaluate trainees’ patient safety knowledge and skills, were in place in fewer than half of organisations studied. Conclusions Greater attention to patient safety curriculum implementation is needed. The barriers to patient safety curriculum implementation we identified in LMICs are not unique to these regions. We propose a framework to act as a global standard for patient safety curriculum implementation

  1. A bibliography of studies on energy sources and uses in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    1993-05-01

    The primary aim for compiling this bibliography is to make policy-makers, planners and researchers in the energy sector aware of the studies that have been carried out in the country between 1976 to 1991, and for which the reports are available for consultation. The 102 documents listed comprise reports of policy and project feasibility and exploration on energy resources and uses in the country. These were carried out on behalf of the government by international organisations and public/private agencies in cooperation with the staff of the relevant energy sector institutions namely: Electricity Corporation of Ghana (ECG), Ghana Italian Petroleum (GHAIP), Ghana Oil Company Limited (GOIL), Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC), and Volta River Authority (VRA). The studies covered by the bibliography has been arranged in alphabetical order under title and has been grouped under the following sub-sector programmes: Energy Policy and Planning, Energy Efficiency and Conservation, Electricity, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Petroleum Gas, Petroleum and Renewable Energy. Abstracts have been provided to give readers an idea of the scope and the results of the projects covered. (CEM)

  2. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebo Tawiah Quartey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  3. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana. PMID:26308016

  4. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, Ebo Tawiah; Tosefa, Hero; Danquah, Kwasi Asare Baffour; Obrsalova, Ilona

    2015-08-20

    Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM) is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  5. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  6. Does the operations of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana align with the goals of Primary Health Care? Perspectives of key stakeholders in northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universa...

  7. Nuclear Power for Future Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Ennison, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  8. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  9. Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2 circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis

  10. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-04

    Dec 4, 2009 ... and the private health sectors, procuring MVA equipment has been particularly ... 1School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, USA; 2Alidor Maternity Home, PO Box ... identified as current employees for the ... acknowledged that lack of equipment ... nurse midwives working in lower-level.

  11. Synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence on non-financial access barriers: implications for assessment at the district level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Thomas S; Bedford, K Juliet A; Thiede, Michael; McIntyre, Di

    2015-06-09

    A key element of the global drive to universal health coverage is ensuring access to needed health services for everyone, and to pursue this goal in an equitable way. This requires concerted efforts to reduce disparities in access through understanding and acting on barriers facing communities with the lowest utilisation levels. Financial barriers dominate the empirical literature on health service access. Unless the full range of access barriers are investigated, efforts to promote equitable access to health care are unlikely to succeed. This paper therefore focuses on exploring the nature and extent of non-financial access barriers. We draw upon two structured literature reviews on barriers to access and utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services in Ghana, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Rwanda. One review analyses access barriers identified in published literature using qualitative research methods; the other in published literature using quantitative analysis of household survey data. We then synthesised the key qualitative and quantitative findings through a conjoint iterative analysis. Five dominant themes on non-financial access barriers were identified: ethnicity; religion; physical accessibility; decision-making, gender and autonomy; and knowledge, information and education. The analysis highlighted that non-financial factors pose considerable barriers to access, many of which relate to the acceptability dimension of access and are challenging to address. Another key finding is that quantitative research methods, while yielding important findings, are inadequate for understanding non-financial access barriers in sufficient detail to develop effective responses. Qualitative research is critical in filling this gap. The analysis also indicates that the nature of non-financial access barriers vary considerably, not only between countries but also between different communities within individual countries. To adequately understand access barriers as a

  12. Barriers to improving tracheostomy care in low and middle income countries: our experience of a 23 patient closed loop audit cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Liam; Mozaffari, Mona; Mintarti, Anna; Narula, Antony; Indrasari, Sagung Rai; Lechner, Matthias

    2018-05-26

    There is scope for improvement in tracheostomy care in low and middle income countries. Improvement in documentation can be achieved with professional staff education and does not require a costly intervention. Availability of equipment is a hurdle to the improvement of tracheostomy care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  14. Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success

  15. Socio-economic barriers and success factors in the development of low energy consumption housing. A comparative study in three European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beillan, Veronique (EDF Recherche and Developpement, ICAME Dept. (France)); Cayre, Emmanuelle (EDF Recherche and Developpement, ENERBAT Dept. (France)); Goater, Aurelie (Alpheeis Energy and Environment Consulting, Valbonne (France)); Laborgne, Pia; Huber, Andreas (EIFERifer (Germany)); Trotignon, Regine (ADEME (France)); Rochard, Ulrich (Eboek, Tuebingen (Germany)); Pouget, Andre (POUGET Consultants, Paris (France)); Novakov, Dusan (Novasystem En+) (Switzerland))

    2009-07-01

    This study, conducted in 2007-2008, analyses the key factors for allowing the offer of low energy buildings to meet the demand of the households and making low energy consumption operations succeed. It applies a qualitative (on-site survey of several houses) as well as a European comparative approach. Three countries with different levels of development of energy efficient buildings have been chosen: Germany, Switzerland and France. In each country several new single houses with a high-energy performance level - compared to the current regulatory level - have been selected. Around forty interviews have been conducted with inhabitants of the single-family house sector where the final users are also the decision-makers, and with professionals involved in the building of these low energy houses. Main results show the role of meso actors like professionals, association and local communities and the importance of regulations and constructions standards to be taken into account in future policies. Beforehand, an historical analysis in the three countries has enabled us to identify the main facts occurring these thirty last years and their effect on the implementation of low energy buildings: major societal events like the oil crisis, the evolution of the legislation and the regulation, governments' incentives, RandD progress, voluntary initiatives of market players. To provide a reliable comparative analysis, a detailed study has also been conducted on the three energy efficient building labels existing in the selected countries. This analysis showed in which point a comparison based only on a first reading of the objectives of energy consumptions to be reached doesn't correspond to the reality of the aimed performances: although expressed in kWh/m2, the requirements do not recover the same domain and are not calculated with equivalent hypotheses. This study has been carried out in a framework of a partnership between energy providers, public and private energy

  16. CERN servers donated to Ghana

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Cutting-edge research requires a constantly high performance of the computing equipment. At the CERN Computing Centre, computers typically need to be replaced after about four years of use. However, while servers may be withdrawn from cutting-edge use, they are still good for other uses elsewhere. This week, 220 servers and 30 routers were donated to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana.   “KNUST will provide a good home for these computers. The university has also developed a plan for using them to develop scientific collaboration with CERN,” said John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London and a visiting professor in CERN’s Theory Group.  John Ellis was heavily involved in building the relationship with Ghana, which started in 2006 when a Ghanaian participated in the CERN openlab student programme. Since 2007 CERN has hosted Ghanaians especially from KNUST in the framework of the CERN Summer Student Progr...

  17. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  18. Science for Development: Failure in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    Next to follow was the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, established at .... notion of science education and the predictions made by the model of science ..... banks, production and consumption armies, serve as a god for those who have.

  19. Gender, Migration and Remittances in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to strengthen social ties and networks of responsibility and affection. Indeed .... undocumented evidence in Ghana of the construction of second cycle schools, health .... business/financial operations, administration/secretarial and elementary ...

  20. EXPERIENCES OF FEMALE ACADEMICS IN GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of the research for social work practice are discussed. .... to female academics' rise to the top of their careers in Ghana. ... Saleebey (1996) identifies resilience, empowerment and membership as the key principles of the ...

  1. Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of topical issues on all aspects of engineering practice in Ghana and abroad ... Computer Aided Synthesis of a Four-Bar Mechanism For Soil Tilling ... Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation Design Software.

  2. Pharmacies as providers of expanded health services for people who inject drugs: a review of laws, policies, and barriers in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Phan, Son; Gaggin, Julia; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nicholas; Lutnick, Alexandra; Kral, Alex H; Fedorova, Ekaterina V; Heimer, Robert; Small, Will; Pollini, Robin; Beletsky, Leo; Latkin, Carl; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2014-06-17

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are underserved by health providers but pharmacies may be their most accessible care settings. Studies in the U.S., Russia, Vietnam, China, Canada and Mexico employed a three-level (macro-, meso-, and micro-) model to assess feasibility of expanded pharmacy services for PWID. Studies employed qualitative and quantitative interviews, review of legal and policy documents, and information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of key stakeholders. Studies produced a mixed assessment of feasibility. Provision of information and referrals by pharmacies is permissible in all study sites and sale and safe disposal of needles/syringes by pharmacies is legal in almost all sites, although needle/syringe sales face challenges related to attitudes and practices of pharmacists, police, and other actors. Pharmacy provision of HIV testing, hepatitis vaccination, opioid substitution treatment, provision of naloxone for drug overdose, and abscess treatment, face more serious legal and policy barriers. Challenges to expanded services for drug users in pharmacies exist at all three levels, especially the macro-level characterized by legal barriers and persistent stigmatization of PWID. Where deficiencies in laws, policies, and community attitudes block implementation, stakeholders should advocate for needed legal and policy changes and work to address community stigma and resistance. Laws and policies are only as good as their implementation, so attention is also needed to meso- and micro- levels. Policies, attitudes, and practices of police departments and pharmacy chains as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individual PWID, individual pharmacies, and police officers should support rather than undermine positive laws and expanded services. Despite the challenges, pharmacies remain potentially important venues for delivering health services to PWID.

  3. An oceanography summer school in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Johnson, W.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Nyarko, E.

    2016-02-01

    Because oceanography is a global science, it clearly benefits from the existence of a world-wide network of oceanographers. As with most STEM disciplines, sub-Saharan Africa is not as well represented in the field of oceanography as it should be, given its large population. The need for oceanographers in sub-Saharan Africa is great, due to a long list of ocean-related issues affecting African development, including but not limited to fishing, oil drilling, sea level rise, coastal erosion, shipping, and piracy. We view this as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Many of the world's fastest growing economies are in sub-Saharan Africa, and STEM capacity building could further fuel this growth. With support from the US National Science Foundation, we ran an oceanography summer school from August 24-27, 2015, at the Regional Maritime University (RMU) in Ghana, West Africa. This first summer school was lecture-based, with a focus on basic chemical oceanography, basic physical oceanography, ocean modeling, and satellite oceanography. About 35 participants came to almost every lecture, and about 20 other participants came to some of the lectures as their time permitted. The participants included RMU faculty, 12 students from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, one Associate Oceanographer from the University of Ghana, and some participants from private sector companies and Ghanaian governmental agencies. There were long and lively discussions at the end of each lecture, and there was a lengthy discussion at the conclusion of the school on how to improve future summer schools. In 2016 and 2017, we plan to divide into smaller groups so that participants can pursue their particular interests in greater depth, and to allow time for student presentations. We also plan to begin exploring the potential for research partnerships, and to utilize distance learning to involve more faculty and students from locations throughout Ghana and perhaps from even other

  4. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana: transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudie Gerrits

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users, and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for using public money, neither are they subsidized by international health organizations. Currently, ‘more affordable’ IVF is being introduced into Ghana, on initiative of the first Association of Childless Couples of Ghana (ACCOG, in collaboration with the Belgium based non-profit organization the Walking Egg (tWE, representing another form of transnational networking. The article underlines the scarcity of well-trained embryologists in Ghana, which turns the embryologists’ expertise and skills into a scarce and precious commodity and guarantees this expertise becomes a major challenge for the directors of the private clinics. Next to local Ghanaian couples, the clinics also attend to transnational reproductive travellers, including women and men from neighbouring countries and Ghanaians in the diaspora returning to their country of origin. Their manifold motivations to cross borders and visit the IVF clinics in Ghana provide insight into the structural conditions impeding or facilitating the use of assisted reproductive technologies at different local sites. Transnational movements also include the flow of new procreation practices (such as surrogacy and the use of donor material, which (re-shape existing cultural and societal notions regarding kinship and the importance of blood/genetic ties. Finally, the article lists a number of thematic and theoretical issues which require further exploration and studies.

  6. Deconstructing the dichotomies of solar photovoltaic (PV) dissemination trajectories in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe from the 1960s to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawakyillenuo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The profuse dissemination and utilisation of solar PV technology in the world is indispensable, especially in this era of climate change. However, in the African continent, between 1960 and 2007 Kenya and Zimbabwe were among countries with the highest PV dissemination, while Ghana was among countries with the least disseminations. Analysing empirical data through the lens of the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory, the article aims to uncover the drivers underpinning the disparate dissemination trends of PV in the three countries within the stated period and to tease out lessons apropos replicating the successes within Kenya and Zimbabwe in Ghana. SCOT theory is chosen because it provides an excellent framework for analysing the social shaping of PV's development and diffusion processes in these countries. This theory posits that the shape and meanings of a technology do not reside in it, but are acquired through the heterogeneity of social interactions. Findings in the paper reveal that a gamut of socio-economic and political antecedents informed the varied dissemination outcomes of the technology in these countries. Premised on these findings, the paper recommends critical steps, which Ghana needs to undertake to enhance the replication of the Kenyan and Zimbabwean PV success stories. - Highlights: ► I examined the disparate disseminations of PV in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ghana. ► Kenya's PV market successes not down to private sector alone. ► Varied antecedents underpin the dissimilar disseminations of PV in these countries. ► Replication of Kenya and Zimbabwe success stories in Ghana demands certain factors.

  7. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  8. Sexuality education in Ghana and Mozambique : An examination of colonising assemblages informing school-based sexuality education initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through,

  9. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkson, J.K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Amadu, M.B. [Kumasi Inst. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sector reform taking place in many countries are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power system in most countries in the region. Ghana, which is the focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient to meet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants. The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implications of changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor and enforce regulations in the emerging electricity industry. The study uses a spreadsheet-based simulation model to determine the potential levels of certain air pollutants - CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} - that would result from changes in fuel mix for electricity generation. Using different capacity expansion options proposed for The Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation. (au)

  10. Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control of the disease. ... Mango anthracnose is a major disease hampering the production of quality fruits for export in Ghana. The nature of the disease and ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Non-communicable diseases among children in Ghana: health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the health and social concerns of parents/caregivers on in-patient care for children with NCDs in Ghana. Methods: This ..... givers influence health seeking behaviours and medical .... among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Rus-.

  12. Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality? ... apolitical and less hypocritical way of discussing the issue devoid of criminalization, in the ... Key words: Globalization, homosexuality, male sex trade, sex culture, Ghana.

  13. What stage are low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) at with patient safety curriculum implementation and what are the barriers to implementation? A two-stage cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane R; Dhingra-Kumar, Neelam; Donaldson, Liam J

    2017-06-15

    The improvement of safety in healthcare worldwide depends in part on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of staff providing care. Greater patient safety content in health professional education and training programmes has been advocated internationally. While WHO Patient Safety Curriculum Guides (for Medical Schools and Multi-Professional Curricula) have been widely disseminated in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the last several years, little is known about patient safety curriculum implementation beyond high-income countries. The present study examines patient safety curriculum implementation in LMICs. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out. First, 88 technical officers in Ministries of Health and WHO country offices were surveyed to identify the pattern of patient safety curricula at country level. A second survey followed that gathered information from 71 people in a position to provide institution-level perspectives on patient safety curriculum implementation. The majority, 69% (30/44), of the countries were either considering whether to implement a patient safety curriculum or actively planning, rather than actually implementing, or embedding one. Most organisations recognised the need for patient safety education and training and felt a safety curriculum was compatible with the values of their organisation; however, important faculty-level barriers to patient safety curriculum implementation were identified. Key structural markers, such as dedicated financial resources and relevant assessment tools to evaluate trainees' patient safety knowledge and skills, were in place in fewer than half of organisations studied. Greater attention to patient safety curriculum implementation is needed. The barriers to patient safety curriculum implementation we identified in LMICs are not unique to these regions. We propose a framework to act as a global standard for patient safety curriculum implementation. Educating leaders through the system in

  14. Removing user fees in the health sector: a review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, Bruno; Hercot, David; Noirhomme, Mathieu; Ridde, Valéry; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Tashobya, Christine Kirunga; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. In this study, we review recent reforms in six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Liberia, Senegal and Uganda. The review describes the processes and strategies through which user fee removal reforms have been implemented and tries to assess them by referring to a good practice hypotheses framework. The analysis shows that African leaders are willing to take strong action to remove financial barriers met by vulnerable groups, especially pregnant women and children. However, due to a lack of consultation and the often unexpected timing of the decision taken by the political authorities, there was insufficient preparation for user fee removal in several countries. This lack of preparation resulted in poor design of the reform and weaknesses in the processes of policy formulation and implementation. Our assessment is that there is now a window of opportunity in many African countries for policy action to address barriers to accessing health care. Mobilizing sufficient financial resources and obtaining long-term commitment are obviously crucial requirements, but design details, the formulation process and implementation plan also need careful thought. We contend that national policy-makers and international agencies could better collaborate in this respect.

  15. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  16. A review of biogas applications across continents - Case study of Thailand, Ghana & Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Ackom, Emmanuel; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe

    This paper analyses the biogas development within Ghana, Thailand and Denmark to shed light on the different development patterns and future trends that is seen within the biogas sector. Literature review in the form of journal articles and reports is assessed, interviews with agricultural......, that large public support in the form of governmental grants and development aid has shaped the current platform for the technologies within all three countries, and that continuous support are needed. This is especially required in Ghana, where the need for finance and appropriate policy frameworks...... are required to move forward. Thailand and Denmark has set up support programs and emphasized on using industrial organic feedstock for biogas production, and Denmark has formulated political targets for utilizing organic household waste as biogas feedstock. For all three countries apply, despite...

  17. Religion, Ethnicity and Geography: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Demand for Education in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Most cross-cultural research of demand behavior is focused at cross-country studies. For Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the fact that the borders were more or less arbitrarily drawn by the colonial powers suggests that demand behavior - including the demand for education - in this context are more...... affected by within country factors such as ethnicity, geographical location and religion. On this premise, we analyze the demand for education in Ghana from a cross-cultural perspective. A substantial share of Ghanaian youth and young adults has never attended school. As education is an important vehicle...... for economic development this is (or should be) a point of concern to both the national government and international development organizations. On this background, this study analyzes the demand for education in Ghana to try to understand the main factors underlying this. The focus is on cross...

  18. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of power generation expansion plan of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awopone, Albert K.; Zobaa, Ahmed F.; Banuenumah, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the current electrical generation expansion plan of Ghana and compares it with proposed expansion pathways with higher penetration of Renewable Energy Technologies. An adaptation of Schwartz's Scenario Methodology was used to develop the scenarios which were then analysed using the Long-range Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model. Each of the scenarios represents policy options for generation expansion in Ghana up to 2040. Energy, economic and environmental analysis of the three alternative scenarios compared to the base scenarios was undertaken. Sensitivity results show that, if the country were to follow the generation expansion path described in the renewable energy scenarios, it could reap economic benefits of 0.5–13.23% depending on the developments in fuel prices and renewable technology capital cost. The analysis further quantifies benefits to be derived from a reduction in Greenhouse gases of the scenarios. Policy implications for the generation system of Ghana based on the results are also discussed. - Highlights: • LEAP demand projection for Ghana from 2010 to 2014. • Develop scenarios using an adaptation of Schwartz’s scenario approach. • Develop LEAP model for generation scenario. • Each scenario represents possible generation expansion strategy. • High renewable energy systems penetration results in net economic and environmental benefits.

  19. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  20. IWRM and developing countries: Implementation challenges in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyenim, J.B.; Gupta, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1990, there has been growing theoretical consensus on the need for integrated water resource management. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientific consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM in the developed and the developing

  1. Continental visions: Ann Seidman, Reginald H. Green and the economics of African unity in 1960s Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the history of the contribution of two American economists to a radical cause: the establishment of a socialist and politically united Africa. The setting is 1960s Ghana which under Kwame Nkrumah, the man who led the country to independence from British colonial rule, emerged as the epicentre of this Pan-African vision. Ann Seidman and Reginald H. Green became, as members of the research team on 'The Economics of African Unity' established at the University of Ghana in 1963...

  2. One-shot exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination in Denmark, Spain and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    in a lab. Participants play a minimum effort game repeated 5 times under fixed matching with a one-time behavioral instruction in either the first or second round. Since coordination behavior may vary across countries, we run experiments in Denmark, Spain and Ghana, and map cross-country rankings...... in coordination with known national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation. Our results show that exogenous interventions increase subsequent coordination, with earlier interventions yielding better coordination than later interventions. We also find that cross......-country rankings in coordination map with published national measures of fractualization, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation....

  3. Factors Associated with Parental Communication with Young People about Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, Abubakar; Kotoh, Agnes M.; Asante, Rexford Kofi Oduro; Ankomah, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Available studies on parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in Ghana have largely focused on assessing communication frequency, barriers, and who communicates with whom within the family. The purpose of this paper is to examine parental and family contextual factors that predict parental communication with young…

  4. Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryeetey, G.C.; Westeneng, J.; Spaan, E.J.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Agyepong, I.A.; Baltussen, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health

  5. Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in legumes. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... The Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, serving as the national gene bank of Ghana, together with other stakeholders, had made strenuous efforts in managing the legume genetic resources in ...

  6. Revising The Standards For Financial Reporting In Ghana | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to strengthen financial reporting through standard setting in Ghana has been examined. The roles of the Institute of Chartered Accountants (Ghana) and Ghana National Accounting Standards Board were found not to be addressing the revision and updating of the standards, and bringing the procedures and ...

  7. A review on food safety and food hygiene studies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, P. F.; Lovatt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Food safety and hygiene in Ghana was studied using desk top literature review. Food research was highly concentrated in the capital city of the country and most research focus were on commercial food operations specifically street foods and microbiological safety with limited information from institutional catering and other forms of food hazards. The media currently serves as the main source for reporting of food borne diseases. Food establishments and other sources contributing to food born...

  8. The case of Ghana's president's special initiative on oil palm (PSI-oil palm)

    OpenAIRE

    Asante, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    How can a programme fail when it is initiated and instituted by the most powerful politico-administrative elites of a country? Launched under the auspices of the President and Government of Ghana in 2001 and monitored by an Inter-Ministerial Facilitation Team, programmes coming under the President's Special Initiatives (PSI) have grounded to a halt by the end of 2007. This study analyses the politics of policy formulation and implementation with regard to the President Special Initiative Oil ...

  9. User experiences with clinical social franchising: qualitative insights from providers and clients in Ghana and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sieverding, Maia; Briegleb, Christina; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical social franchising is a rapidly growing delivery model in private healthcare markets in low- and middle-income countries. Despite this growth, little is known about providers? perceptions of the benefits and challenges of social franchising or clients? reasons for choosing franchised facilities over other healthcare options. We examine these questions in the context of three social franchise networks in Ghana and Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a purpo...

  10. International trends in health science librarianship part 15: West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulemani, Solomon Bayugo; Afarikumah, Ebenezer; Aggrey, Samuel Bentil; Ajuwon, Grace A; Diallo, Ousmane

    2015-09-01

    This is the 15th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. It is the third of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal). The next feature column will investigate trends in North Africa. JM. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  11. Green Marketing Potential as Assessed from Consumer's Purchasing Behaviors : The Case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adinyra, Noamesi; Gligui, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Green Marketing has become an important strategy in businesses since the international rise of environmental awareness among countries. With greater awareness rising among the public, especially with reference to the global warming and climate change phenomenon, people have become cautious with regards to their purchases, specifically towards the nature of purchased products. As green marketing continues therefore to evolve not only into a strategy but into a platform across the world, Ghana ...

  12. Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, E O

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development.

  13. Introduction of Nuclear Power in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboh, K.; Dzobo, M

    2010-01-01

    Ghana depends mainly on hydro-systems for electricity generation. In 1984, 1998, 2003 and 2007, there was drastic shortfalls in hydro-generation due to severe droughts. In 2007, the shortfall in generation was compounded by high prices of light crude oil. In May 2007, the government set-up a 7-man Presidential Committee on feasibility of a Nuclear Power Programme. Ghana’s electricity demand was projected to increase at 7.7% p.a. between 2004 and 2030. Per capita electricity demand is expected to increase from 253 kWh in 2004 to 1120 kWh in 2030. Peak electricity demand was expected to increase from 1095 MW in 2004 to 6700 MW in 2030. Ghana received IAEA assistance to undertake a national TCP GHA/0/011: “Evaluating the role of Nuclear Power in Future Generation Mix”. Under the national TCP GHA/0/011, a proposal for establishing NEPIO – (an Inter-ministerial Steering Committee to be chaired by the Minister of Energy) based on IAEA recommendations was submitted to the Minister of Energy. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission in partnership with other stakeholders and support from the IAEA did prepared a draft nuclear bill. The draft Ghana Nuclear Bill also proposed the establishment of an independent Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Authority is mandated to license and regulate all nuclear installations including power plants. No potential sites for nuclear power plant and waste disposal had been identified yet for evaluation. Potential sites for nuclear power plants and waste disposal were identified and assessed under the IAEA national TCP GHA/0/011. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (i.e. GAEC) and the University of Ghana with support from the IAEA have established the Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (i.e. SNAS) for training nuclear expert

  14. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  15. Barriers and Opportunities in Consent and Access Procedures in Low- and Middle-Income Country Biobanks: Meeting Notes from the BCNet Training and General Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawati, Ma'n H; Tassé, Anne Marie; Mendy, Maimuna; Caboux, Elodie; Lang, Michael

    2018-04-18

    As biobanking research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to grow, novel legal and policy considerations have arisen. Also, while an expansive literature has developed around these issues, the views and concerns of individual researchers in these contexts have been less actively studied. These meeting notes aim to contribute to the growing literature on biobanking in LMICs by communicating a number of challenges and opportunities identified by biobank researchers themselves. Specifically, we describe concerns that emerge in consent and access policy domains. First, we present a review of the literature on distinct policy and legal concerns faced in LMICs, giving special attention to the general absence of practitioner perspectives. From there, we outline and discuss considerations that were raised by meeting participants at a Biobank and Cohort Building Network (BCNet) Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues training program. We conclude by proposing that the unique perspectives of biobank researchers in LMICs should be given serious attention and further research on these perspectives should be conducted.

  16. The operations of the free maternal care policy and out of pocket payments during childbirth in rural Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Wang, Alex Y.; Homer, Caroline S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background To promote skilled attendance at births and reduce maternal deaths, the government of Ghana introduced the free maternal care policy under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008. The objective is to eliminate financial barriers associated with the use of services. But studies elsewhere showed that out of pocket (OOP) payments still exist in the midst of fee exemptions. The aim of this study was to estimate OOP payments and the financial impact on women during childbirt...

  17. Analysis of the Proposed Ghana Broadband Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne

    This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market....... The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding...

  18. Dietary diversity and child malnutrition in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Boadi Frempong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of children in Ghana has improved in recent years. However, the current prevalence rates of malnutrition remain above internationally acceptable levels. This study, therefore, revisits the determinants of child health by using Ghana’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to investigate the effect of infant feeding practices on child health. We used the World Health Organization’s Infant and Young Children Feeding guidelines to measure dietary quality. The econometric analyses show that dietary diversity may cause improvement in children’s health in Ghana. This suggests that educational campaigns on proper infant feeding and complementary dieting could be an effective means of improving the health of children in Ghana.

  19. Ghana Chemical Society eleventh national annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The publication contains the programme and abstracts of the eleventh annual conference of the Ghana Chemical Society. The aim of the conference was to examine the role of chemistry and the strategic role of chemistry practitioners in the overall development of Ghana in the twenty first century. Abstracts presented have been grouped in the following order: welcome address, professional lecture on the future direction of the Ghana Chemical Society, conference programme, plenary lectures on the role of chemistry in the critical areas of the economy such as energy, environment, education, health, agriculture, special seminar on chemistry and society highlighting the role of chemistry in fire prevention, crime detection, water quality, customs operations, scientific papers and selected industrial processes. A total of twenty five abstracts have been presented. (E.A.A)

  20. Ghana Chemical Society eleventh national annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains the programme and abstracts of the eleventh annual conference of the Ghana Chemical Society. The aim of the conference was to examine the role of chemistry and the strategic role of chemistry practitioners in the overall development of Ghana in the twenty first century. Abstracts presented have been grouped in the following order: welcome address, professional lecture on the future direction of the Ghana Chemical Society, conference programme, plenary lectures on the role of chemistry in the critical areas of the economy such as energy, environment, education, health, agriculture, special seminar on chemistry and society highlighting the role of chemistry in fire prevention, crime detection, water quality, customs operations, scientific papers and selected industrial processes. A total of twenty five abstracts have been presented. (E.A.A)

  1. Experience from a multi-country initiative to improve the monitoring of selected reproductive health indicators in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreix, Maria; Tunçalp, Özge; Mutombo, Namuunda; Adegboyega, Ayotunde A; Say, Lale

    2017-05-01

    Universal access to sexual and reproductive health remains part of the unfinished business of global development in Africa. To achieve it, health interventions should be monitored using programmatic indicators. WHO's Strengthening Measurement of Reproductive Health Indicators in Africa initiative, implemented in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, aimed to improve national information systems for routine monitoring of reproductive health indicators. Participating countries developed action plans employing a two-pronged strategy: (1) revising, standardizing, and harmonizing existing reproductive health indicators captured through routine information-systems; and (2) building data-collection capacity through training and supervision at select pilot sites. Country teams evaluated existing and new indicators, and outlined barriers to strengthening routine measurement. Activities included updating abortion-care guidelines (spontaneous and induced abortions), providing training on laws surrounding induced abortions, and improving feedback mechanisms. The country teams updated monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and attempted to build recording/reporting capacity in selected pilot areas. Barriers to implementing the initiative that were encountered included restrictive induced-abortion laws, staff turn-over, and administrative delays, including low capacity among healthcare staff and competing priorities for staff time. The areas identified for further improvement were up-scaling programs to a national level, creating scorecards to record data, increasing collaborations with the private sector, conducting related costing exercises, and performing ex-post evaluations. © 2017 World Health Organization; licensed by Wiley on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  3. Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Sara; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana's vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana's capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana's health innovation system. Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment

  4. The Impact of Chinese FDI on Employment Generation in the Building and Construction Sector of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Boakye – Gyasi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns of governments in Africa in general and Ghana in particular is unemployment and underemployment. Most developing countries especially African countries compete to attract foreign direct investment (FDI into their economies with the desire of improving employment level and securing a sustainable development leading to economic growth. In view of this, the creation of jobs for the unemployed and technology transfer through Chinese investments has become complementary since Chinese FDI can be an important source for employment, economic growth and transformation processes. This study focuses on the contribution of China’s FDI on employment generation in the building and construction sector of Ghana. By using a robust regression model, the results show that, Chinese FDI flows on employment through direct effects on building and construction sector of Ghana have positive and significance on employment growth. This means that, Chinese FDI contributes to an efficient workforce which benefits an economy from high productivity and leads to growth in individual household incomes.

  5. Assessment of formaldehyde levels in local and imported fresh fish in Ghana: a case study in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia; Atayure, Seidu Isaac; Adzitey, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Fish is an important source of protein all over the world, including in Ghana. The fishery sector plays a major role in meeting the domestic need of animal protein and also contributes greatly in foreign exchange earnings. The domestic supply of fish does not meet the demand, so Ghana imports fish and fish products from other countries. Media reports in Ghana have alleged the use of formaldehyde to preserve fish for increased shelf life and to maintain freshness. This research, therefore, sought to establish the levels of formaldehyde in imported and local fresh fish in the Tamale Metropolis by using a ChemSee formaldehyde and formalin detection test kit. Positive and negative controls were performed by using various concentrations of formalin (1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 300 ppm) and sterile distilled water, respectively. Three times over a 6-month period, different fish species were obtained from five wholesale cold stores (where fish are sold in cartons) and some local sales points (where locally caught fish are sold). A total of 32 samples were taken during three different sampling sessions: 23 imported fish (mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, salmon, and redfish) and 9 local tilapia. The fish were cut, and 50 g was weighed and blended with an equal volume (50 ml) of sterile distilled water. Samples were transferred to test tubes and centrifuged. A test strip was dipped into the supernatant and observed for a color change. A change in color from white to pink or purple indicated the presence of formaldehyde in fish. The study showed that no formaldehyde was present in the imported and local fish obtained. The appropriate regulatory agencies should carry out this study regularly to ensure that fish consumed in Ghana is safe for consumption.

  6. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  7. Towards Global De-Carbonization: Examining the Role of Freight Forwarders in Green Logistics in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofi Wireko, Joseph; Owusu, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    The problem of carbon emission is a global phenomenon and cross-border in nature. There is almost a dearth of literature on the practice of green logistics by freight forwarders in Ghana and for that matter in most countries within the West African sub-region. This paper examines the role...... of freight forwarders in reducing carbon emissions by adopting “green logistics” as part of the global efforts in addressing global warming. The study employs a pre-test and case study method, to ensure sufficient collection of relevant material, taking into account the lack of research in this subject...... in Ghana. Materials obtained from the interviews and the questionnaires were used to explore the knowledge of employees regarding green logistics, examine the challenges in implementing green logistics, and assess the internal and external pressures that impact on freight forwarders and the needed...

  8. The Relationship between On-Farm Shade Trees and Cocoa Yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a crop that is widely cultivated across West Africa with Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria contributing about 70% of the global production. In Ghana cocoa contributes significantly to the national economy as over 20% of the world’s cocoa production comes from...... the country, making it the world’s second largest producer with an annual production level of over 700,000 metric tons, and an estimated cultivation area of ca. 1.6 million ha. Cocoa is mostly cultivated by smallholder farmers either as a monocrop or in association with other food crops, tree crops and under...... the cover of shade trees – cocoa agroforestry. This thesis hypothesizes that canopy cover of shade trees in low input (low-to-no fertilizer application) cocoa growing systems can contribute to cocoa yield improvements. The main theme deals with shade trees diversity and its effects on cocoa production...

  9. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet

    2011-01-01

    of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated......The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore...... how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions...

  10. Determinants of women's non-family work in Ghana and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi D. Benefo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One objective of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of female non-family work in Africa. Selected labor force participation theories are tested using demographic and health survey data. The traditional kinship-oriented family organization in Africa, along with high fertility, have long been seen as factors that constrain women’s participation in the labor force, particularly in seeking formal sector employment. We use demographic and health survey data from two African countries, Ghana and Zimbabwe. Education emerges as the most important determinant of non-family work. Even if female education levels increase, single women may not gain easy entry into the informal economy managed by kinship-based social networks. A large proportion of these educated women may not find jobs if the formal economy does not expand. Results from Ghana and Zimbabwe are compared.

  11. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore

  12. Neglected populations: safeguarding the health of street-involved children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Twum, Jo-Ann; Wasan, Kishor M

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the health of street-involved children is a growing public health challenge. These children are vulnerable, neglected, and rarely a priority for basic service providers and governments. Sizable populations of street-involved children are present in major urban areas worldwide and current trends in urbanization suggest these populations will grow in the coming years. Although migration offers employment and training opportunities, the health and wellbeing of children is negatively impacted by their interactions with the streets. However, systemic barriers may also prevent these children from achieving an adequate health status. The situation of street-involved children in Ghana, West Africa will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana. Methods Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003–2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context. Results Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients’ trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (re)enrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper. Conclusions The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy

  14. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana. Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003-2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context. Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients' trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (re)enrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper. The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy makers and political actors.

  15. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana.Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003-2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context.Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients' trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (reenrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper.The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy makers and political actors.

  16. Need For Coastal Water Management Tool For Oil Spill Simulation In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghanaian water bodies have been under threats recently ranging from illegal mining sand winning reclamation of water bodies for the purposes of human settlement pollution etc. Civil and mechanical installations on the coastal waters have increase due to the discovery of oil recently and such situations are not spared by oil spills. Oil spills are an inevitable consequence of the need to produce store and transport oil. The commercialization of oil production has placed Ghana among High-Risk Zones which are characterised by high traffic density and the presence of navigational hazards. Despite Ghanas awareness about oil spill accidents in both preparedness and response it is likely it will be compromised when any accident occurs as it has more pressing demands on finite funds and resources. This situation might place Ghana among ill-prepared countries against oil spill combat. An important part of contingency plan is the prediction of locations that are susceptible to oil after spillage. This can be done by the use of satellite information reviewing and comparing previous incidents laboratory work or by fine tuning models which as of now the country is not having despite all the precautions to prevent oil spills. When spill models are used properly they provide ecological economic and social benefits. Hence the need for such decision-making tool for Ghana to create an environment for the contingency plans to be tested validated and upgraded. Such exercises not only maintain and increase the skills of the response personnel but also lead to improvements and fine tuning of the plan as weaknesses and gaps are identified.

  17. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  18. Journal of the Ghana Science Association: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unless otherwise stated, the first named author of a joint publication will be taken as ... be sent to The Editor, Journal of Ghana Science Association, P.O. Box 7, Legon. ... Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.

  19. Ghana Mining Journal - Vol 9 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields Limited (AGL), Ghana. JS Kuma, DN Asamoah. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gm.v9i1.42604 ... Application of Virtual Reality for Visual Presentation in the Mineral Industry. AA Mensah, PA Eshun. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gm.v9i1.42611 ...

  20. Assessing the Implementation of Ghana's Patient Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Manu, Abubakar; Atinga, Roger Ayimbillah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the implementation of Ghana's Patients' Charter by investigating the level of awareness and knowledge of the Charter's content, some socio-demographic factors that may influence awareness and knowledge of the Charter and how providers have discharged their responsibilities under the Charter.…

  1. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute.

  2. Ghana Library Journal - Vol 14 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Services, resources and benefits of the Internet available to academics in Ghana · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Evelyn D Markwei, 21-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/glj.v14i1.33946 ...

  3. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute

  4. Determinants of Antenatal Care Use in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbosch, G.B.; Nsowah-Nuamah, N.N.N.; van den Boom, G.J.M.; Damnyag, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of antenatal care use in Ghana. In particular, we study how economic factors affect the demand for antenatal care and the probability that the number of visits falls below the recommended number of four. Estimation results from a nested three-level multinomial

  5. Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana publishes papers describing research, observational or experimental and critical reviews in Agriculture and Food Science. Vol 10, No 1 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...

  6. ANALYSING INBOUND TOURISTS' PERCEPTIONS OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be created (either by official sources or by a marketing agency). and secondly ... that revenue from I Iotcls and Restaurants Customers' tax grew from GI I. 24 million in ..... market-driven specific tourism products in tandem with the various market ... strategy for Ghana· s tourism industry: A focus on the African-American market ...

  7. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  8. Mothers education and childhood mortality in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2003-01-01

    The significant extent to which maternal education affects child health has been advanced in several sociodemographic-medical literature, but not much has been done in analysing the spatial dimension of the problem; and also using graphic and linear regression models of representation. In Ghana,

  9. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  10. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated bloodstream infection improves accurate detection of preventable bacteremia rates at a pediatric cancer center in a low- to middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Dara; González, Miriam L; Loera, Adriana; Aguilera, Marco; Relyea, George; Aristizabal, Paula; Caniza, Miguela A

    2016-04-01

    The US National Healthcare Safety Network has provided a definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated, laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) to improve infection surveillance. To date there is little information about its influence in pediatric oncology centers in low- to middle-income countries. To determine the influence of the definition on the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI LCBI cases. We retrospectively applied the National Healthcare Safety Network definition to all CLABSIs recorded at a pediatric oncology center in Tijuana, Mexico, from January 2011 through December 2014. CLABSI events were reclassified according to the MBI-LCBI definition. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of MBI and non-MBI CLABSIs were compared. Of 55 CLABSI events, 44% (24 out of 55) qualified as MBI-LCBIs; all were MBI-LCBI subcategory 1 (intestinal flora pathogens). After the number of MBI-LCBI cases was removed from the numerator, the CLABSI rate during the study period decreased from 5.72-3.22 infections per 1,000 central line days. Patients with MBI-LCBI were significantly younger than non-MBI-LCBI patients (P = .029) and had a significantly greater frequency of neutropenia (100% vs 39%; P = .001) and chemotherapy exposure (87% vs 58%; P = .020) and significantly longer median hospitalization (34 vs 23 days; P = .008). A substantial proportion of CLABSI events at our pediatric cancer center met the MBI-LCBI criteria. Our results support separate monitoring and reporting of MBI and non-MBI-LCBIs in low- to middle-income countries to allow accurate detection and tracking of preventable (non-MBI) bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  12. Problems and Prospects of Millennium Development Goals in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olasupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghana, like other developing nations, was not left behind in embracing the eight time-bound Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in September 2000. The millennium development goals aimed towards peace and good standards of living have been faced with series of problems in its attainment in Ghana. These problems have undermined the extent to which Ghana could achieve the MDGs. The study adopting qualitative research method shows that Ghana is faced with difficulty in achieving these eight millennium development goals in certain portions of the nation most especially in the rural communities due to lack of infrastructure. The study therefore recommends that Ghana should focus more on improving the standard of living of the rural dwellers by increasing the public services in the area.  The need for Ghana to focus more on solving these problems is strategic for a better result in this new era of Sustainable Development Goals.

  13. Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI) - Annual Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established to exploit space science and technology for socio-economic development of Ghana. The report gives the structure of GSSTI and the detailed activities of the year. Various activities include: training and seminars, projects and workshops. Publications and their abstracts are also listed. The report also highlights some of the challenges, provides some recommendations and points to some expectation for the following year.

  14. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  15. GBEP pilot Ghana. Very valuable and successful - a follow-up is suggested. Conclusions and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanekamp, E.; Vissers, P.; De Lint, S. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The Global Bio-Energy Partnership (GBEP) has developed a set of 24 sustainability indicators applicable to all forms of bio-energy and aimed at voluntary use by national governments. The GBEP indicators enable governments to assess the bio-energy sector and to develop new policies related to sustainable bio-energy production and use. These indicators have been piloted in Ghana. Modern bio-energy is a big opportunity for the region, which is why NL Agency adopted and supported the pilot, together with the Global Bio-Energy Partnership (GBEP). The pilot project also was supported by the ECOWAS Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) and has been coordinated by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Ghana Energy Commission took the responsibility to involve policymakers. Partners for Innovation was commissioned by NL Agency to provide technical assistance for the pilot. The main aims of the project are: (a) Enhancing the capacity of the host country Ghana (and ECOWAS) to use the GBEP indicators as a tool for assessing the sustainability of its bio-energy sector and/or developing sustainable bio-energy policies; (b) Learning lessons on how to apply the indicators and how to enhance their practicality as a tool for policymakers and giving this as feedback to the GBEP community. Three Ghanaian research institutes (CSIR-FORIG, CSIR-IIR and UG-ISSER) have studied 11 out of the 24 GBEP indicators in the pilot. The pilot has been a success: the 24 sustainability criteria appear to be very valuable for Ghana. As such the indicators provide, also for other governments, a practical tool to assess sustainability of biomass sectors and policies. The report also shows important insights on data availability and quality, and on the applicability of the GBEP indicators in Ghana. The final report provides concrete recommendations on: (1) How Ghana can proceed with the GBEP sustainability indicators; and (2) The lessons learned for

  16. Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosu William K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. Methods The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented by a manual search of retrieved references. Fifteen unique population-based articles in non-pregnant humans were obtained. In addition, two relevant unpublished graduate student theses from one university department were identified after a search of its 1996-2008 theses. Results The age and sex composition of study populations, sampling strategy, measurement of blood pressure, definition of hypertension varied between studies. The prevalence of hypertension (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg ± antihypertensive treatment ranged from 19% to 48% between studies. Sex differences were generally minimal whereas urban populations tended to have higher prevalence than rural population in studies with mixed population types. Factors independently associated with hypertension included older age group, over-nutrition and alcohol consumption. Whereas there was a trend towards improved awareness, treatment and control between 1972 and 2005, less than one-third of hypertensive subjects were aware they had hypertension and less than one-tenth had their blood pressures controlled in most studies. Conclusion Hypertension is clearly an important public health problem in Ghana, even in the poorest rural communities. Emerging opportunities such as the national health insurance scheme, a new health policy emphasising health promotion and healthier lifestyles and effective treatment should help prevent and control hypertension.

  17. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M. B.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Amoako, J. K.; Hasford, F.; Akrobortu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board was established in 1993 by PNDC Law 308 as the National Competent Authority for the regulation of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. The mandate and responsibilities of RPB are prescribed in the legislative instrument, LI 1559 issued in 1993. The operational functions of the Board are carried out by the Radiation Protection Institute, which was established to provide technical support for the enforcement of the legislative instrument. The regulatory activities include among others: – Issuance permits for the import/export of any radiation producing device and radioactive materials into/out of the country. It therefore certifies the radioactivity levels in food and the environmental samples. – Authorization and Inspection of practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. – Undertakes safety assessment services and enforcement actions on practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in line with regulations. – Provides guidance and technical support in fulfilling regulatory requirement to users of radiation producing devices and radioactive materials nationwide by monitoring of monthly radiation absorbed doses for personnel working at radiation facilities. – Provides support to the management of practices in respect of nuclear and radioactive waste programme. – Calibrates radiation emitting equipment and nuclear instrumentation to ensure the safety of patients, workers and the general public. – Establish guidelines for the mounting (non-ionizing) communication masts. – Environmental monitoring (non-ionizing) programmes for communication masts. With the establishment of the national competent authority, facilities using radioactive sources and radiation emitting devices have been brought under regulatory control. Effective regulatory control of radiation emitting devices are achieved through established legal framework, independent Regulatory Authority supported by

  18. Tourism potentials of Mole National Park in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Wuleka Kuuder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor access and long distances from major cities/towns have always been major problems debarring the full utilization of nature-related touristic resources. Despite this, some adventuresome tourists still make efforts to such wildlife sanctuaries to have a feel of nature. This study explores tourism exploits at Mole National Park (the largest in Ghana which is located in the northern sector of the country. An inventory of facilities through field visits and observations were ‘exacted’ to identify different types of landforms, species of wildlife, vegetation and culture which were of touristic significance around the Park and also to have an overview of tourists’ “traffic” to the Park. With regard to data collection, the questionnaire method including personal observation were employed to obtain information from the four communities that surround the Park, the Park officials and tourists who visited the facility from April to May, 2011. The results analysed revealed that turn out was comparatively low due to the remote location of the Park including poor accessibility and low income among Ghanaians. Tourism awareness among community members was found to be high. Tourists found the Park impressive in terms of its variety in wildlife and services rendered therein. It was discovered that the Park has a high tourism potential which can be harnessed to attract both domestic and international tourists and bring socio-economic benefits to Ghana. The paper suggests that improvements in road network to and in the Park and stiffer sanctions to curb poaching were major ways to enhance tourism/recreation in the Park and making it sustainable.

  19. The politics of tuberculosis and HIV service integration in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Fosuah Amo, Hannah; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2014-09-01

    The need to integrate TB/HIV control programmes has become critical due to the comorbidity regarding these diseases and the need to optimise the use of resources. In developing countries such as Ghana, where public health interventions depend on donor funds, the integration of the two programmes has become more urgent. This paper explores stakeholders' views on the integration of TB/HIV control programmes in Ghana within the remits of contingency theory. With 31 purposively selected informants from four regions, semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted between March and May 2012, and the data collected were analysed using the inductive approach. The results showed both support for and opposition to integration, as well as some of the avoidable challenges inherent in combining TB/HIV control. While those who supported integration based their arguments on clinical synergies and the need to promote the efficient use of resources, those who opposed integration cited the potential increase in workload, the clinical complications associated with joint management, the potential for a leadership crisis, and the "smaller the better" propositions to support their stance. Although a policy on TB/HIV integration exists, inadequate 'political will' from the top management of both programmes has trickled down to lower levels, which has stifled progress towards the comprehensive management of TB/HIV and particularly leading to weak data collection and management structures and unsatisfactory administration of co-trimoxazole for co-infected patients. It is our view that the leadership of both programmes show an increased commitment to protocols involving the integration of TB/HIV, followed by a commitment to addressing the 'fears' of frontline service providers to encourage confidence in the process of service integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Open budget systems and participatory budgeting in Africa: A comparative analysis of Nigeria and Ghana, 2012 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Nwokedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and Ghana have so many things in common. Apart from sharing the same colonial history and being located in the same West African sub-region, they also practice the same executive presidential system of government. However, this study is an attempt to do a comparative analysis of the budgetary systems of both countries, with a view to understanding how open and transparent the processes are, and the extent to which they allow for public participation. The aim is to identify the differences and similarities (if any. The study was anchored on the Marxist theory of the state. Our analysis showed that in terms of openness and transparency of the system, budget processes in Ghana were more open and transparent both in 2012 and in 2015 than what obtained in Nigeria in those years. As regards public participation in the process, the study also discovered that the government of Ghana created more opportunities for the public to participate in the process than the government of Nigeria. The comprador bourgeois class in Nigeria, because of its interest in primitive accumulation, ensures that budgeting in Nigeria is its exclusive preserve. This is because it is through the budget that it allocates funds to service the interest of its members. Conversely, the national bourgeoisie in Ghana, to a large extent, carries the citizens along in the budget process. However, though Ghana has made appreciable progress in this regard, there is still room for improvement. Finally, the study made a case for participatory budgeting for both countries.

  1. An Analysis of Emergency Healthcare Delivery in Ghana: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana medical emergencies usually result from road traffic accidents, during which ..... electrocardiography, intravenous therapy, administration of medications, drugs and solutions, use of adjunctive medical devices and trauma care.

  2. Médias religieux, esprits voyageurs. Diffusion publique et secret dans le Pentecôtisme et dans la religion traditionnelle au Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the role of media in three religious movements in Ghana, a country where the mediascape has undergone fundamental changes since the 1990s. It shows how visual mediation, mobility and the spiritual domain are intertwined, and demonstrates how media evoke both a public and a

  3. New Border Crossings for the Interaction Hypothesis: The Effects of Feedback on Gonja Speakers Learning English in a Rural School in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherris, Ari; Burns, M. Susan

    2015-01-01

    While Ghanaians in urban and rural settings are multilingual, English is the language of Ghanaian newspapers, politicians, the courts, much of television and radio in the metropolitan centres of the country. Indeed, urban Ghanaian adolescents have expanding opportunities to use English, the only official language of Ghana, even when not in school.…

  4. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; van der Puije, Beatrice; Bekoe, Veronica; Adukpo, Rowland; Kotey, Nii A; Yao, Katy; Fonjungo, Peter N; Luman, Elizabeth T; Duh, Samuel; Njukeng, Patrick A; Addo, Nii A; Khan, Fazle N; Woodfill, Celia J I

    2014-11-03

    In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental training on internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors' salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such models promote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  5. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Nkrumah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. Objectives: To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Method: Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental trainingon internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM. Results: The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors’salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Conclusion: Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such modelspromote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  6. Waste electrical and electronic Equipment (E-Wastes) management in Ghana: environmental impacts at Agbogbloshie, Accra Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukure, Sampson Atiemo

    2016-07-01

    Ghana has relatively large volumes of e-wastes but inefficient recycling methods adopted by the informal sector causes both environmental contamination and potential loss of scarce metals. The control of pollution and management of e-wastes are twin challenges confronted by Ghana. The main objective of the study is to assess the extent to which the current methods employed in e-waste management in Ghana promote sound environmental management. Interviews and field observations were used to collect and collate data from key stakeholders on sustainable e-wastes management in Ghana. Soil samples were collected and analysed using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results of the field survey revealed that there were three main method of getting e-waste into the yard; house-to-house collection, business-to-business collection and e-waste from dump sites. Majority of the scrap dealers (72%) have not received any form of training in the handling of the hazardous fractions hence do not use any personal protection equipment (PPE). There is poor awareness on the association between disease symptoms and e-waste activity however, 46% of the workers associated symptoms such as headaches, fever, stomach ache and vomiting to e-wastes activities. The challenges of the scrap dealers identified include; rampant arrests and beatings of collectors, fluctuating prices of general scraps, transportation costs, lack of access to working capital as well as ethnic, political and religious difference among the scrap dealers. The results of the elemental analysis revealed that generally the different sampling locations in the study area exhibited an overall metallic dominance pattern of SC > RD > VG > MS > CS > RS > DS > SG > BS. Lead levels registered in the in the soil samples analyzed ranged from 14.2 mg/kg to 7,020.0 mg/kg while Cd was found to be in the range of DS>SG>RS>MS>RD>CS>VF>SC. All the sampling sites showed very high

  7. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of... Dem. Rep. of the Congo Djibouti Ethiopia Gambia, The Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Honduras India...

  8. Does the operations of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana align with the goals of Primary Health Care? Perspectives of key stakeholders in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James

    2016-09-05

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how Ghana's health insurance institutions interact with stakeholders and other health sector programmes in promoting primary health care (PHC). Specifically, the study identified the key areas of misalignment between the operations of the NHIS and that of PHC. Using qualitative and survey methods, this study involved interviews with various stakeholders in six selected districts in the Upper East region of Ghana. The key stakeholders included the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA), district coordinators of the National Health Insurance Schemes (NHIS), the Ghana Health Service (GHS) and District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) who supervise the district hospitals, health centers/clinics and the Community-based Health and Planning Services (CHPS) compounds as well as other public and private PHC providers. A stakeholders' workshop was organized to validate the preliminary results which provided a platform for stakeholders to deliberate on the key areas of misalignment especially, and to elicit additional information, ideas and responses, comments and recommendations from respondents for the achievement of the goals of UHC and PHC. The key areas of misalignments identified during this pilot study included: delays in reimbursements of claims for services provided by health care providers, which serves as a disincentive for service providers to support the NHIS; inadequate coordination among

  9. Education and perceptions of social status and power among women in Larteh, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K M

    1999-01-01

    In exploring the status of women in the developing world, most research emphasizes the impact of development indicators, like income or health, on women. This article goes beyond development indicators by discussing women's own perceptions of social status and power in rural Larteh, Ghana. It focuses primarily on the effects of gender and education on perception of social status and power. Section 1 offers a brief overview of the history of Ghana, reflecting the current position of women in the country. Definitions of social status and power within an African context are presented in section 2. Section 3 examines 24 interviews collected in Ghana, which asks respondents to discuss their own social status and power in relation to their community. In general, the results indicate that a woman's perception of increased social status and power is dependent on education and occupation. Other factors affecting perceptions of social status and power are wealth and culturally embedded positions held within the community, including elder, chief, and priestess.

  10. Caregivers’ views on stigmatization and discrimination of people affected by leprosy in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dako–Gyeke, Mavis; Oduro, Razak

    2018-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a condition that has long been associated with stigma and discrimination, even when infected persons have been cured. This paper describes stigma and discrimination as viewed by caregivers who are associated with people affected by leprosy in Ghana. Methods A qualitative interview with semi-structured interviews were conducted for twenty caregivers. Results Findings indicated that caregivers were of the view that people affected by leprosy in Ghana are stigmatized and discriminated against by the larger society thus making their movements and interactions restricted to the Leprosarium. Besides, employments opportunities are unavailable to them thus making them exposed to financial challenges. The livelihood Empowerment Against poverty (LEAP) money given them is not sufficient for their daily upkeep. Conclusion People affected by leprosy in Ghana are stigmatized and therefore find it difficult to interact freely with the public. The associated physical deformities with the disease also tend to impede their ability to relate to the general public. The LEAP cash given to people affected by leprosy is helpful however, it could be enhanced to keep pace with prevailing economic conditions in the country. PMID:29377890

  11. Challenges in the management of decommission waste of nuclear facilities in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    It is inevitable that every nuclear facility must one day be safely decommissioned. When considering decommissioning, large amounts of radioactive and non-radioactive waste have to be taken into account. Disposal of such materials can have large economic impact on the overall decommissioning cost. In developing countries like Ghana, the perception of environmental protection through waste management, is often not very high as compared to many other pressing needs. Therefore limited resources are allocated for environmental problems. Ghana operates a tank-in- pool type research reactor, 30kW output for research in neutron activation analysis, radioisotope preparation, education and training, a radiotherapy unit that utilizes a 185TBq Co-60 radioactive sources for the treatment of cancer and a gamma irradiation facility which utilizes 1.85PBq Co-60 radioactive source for the irradiation of various materials. All these facilities are operating without designed decommissioning in mind, an inadequate waste management infrastructure as well as a lack of a repository to handling the resulting waste. It is today's beneficials of the nuclear facility that has to deal with the legacies of the future decommissioning activities. The paper outlines some of the challenges and issues to be expected in the management of waste from future decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Ghana with the absence of a waste management infrastructure and inadequate financial resources. The paper puts forth a concept to perform meaningful and significant plans whilst the facilities are still operating. (author)

  12. Education reform for the expansion of mother-tongue education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

    2012-10-01

    In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts, including the intermittent of mother tongue in early childhood schooling to facilitate English language and literacy instruction, prospects for a bold move towards multilingual education have emerged from a coalescence of forces inside and outside of Ghanaian education policy circles. This article discusses how the inertia of a dated language policy and a historic disregard for Ghana's multilingual landscape by the country's own policy makers are being overcome, at least partially, by progressive powers of change, albeit not without challenge. It undertakes an analysis of how a policy environment that supports bilingual education was created in order to implement a comprehensive and innovative multilingual programme, the National Literacy Acceleration Program (NALAP), which was rolled out across the nation's schools in early 2010. Having been involved in the process of designing NALAP, the authors describe the development of standards of learning and materials, as well as innovative aspects of a constructivist teacher education approach. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research, including combining a change process for key stakeholders and randomised language and literacy assessment with social marketing research in a unified approach.

  13. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening among men in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M S; Amoateng, P

    2012-09-01

    The age-standardized mortality rate for cervical cancer in Ghana, West Africa is more than three times the global cervical cancer mortality rate (27.6/100,000 vs. 7.8/100,000 respectively). The Pap test and visual inspection with acetic acid are available at public and private hospitals in Ghana. Approximately, 2.7% of Ghanaian women obtain cervical cancer screenings regularly. Men in middle-income countries play a key role in cervical cancer prevention. Increasing spousal support for cervical cancer screening may increase screening rates in Ghana. Five focus groups were conducted with Ghanaian men (N = 29) to assess their cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening knowledge and beliefs. The qualitative data was analyzed via indexed coding. Targets for education interventions were identified including inaccurate knowledge about cervical cancer and stigmatizing beliefs about cervical cancer risk factors. Cultural taboos regarding women's health care behaviours were also identified. Several participants indicated that they would be willing to provide spousal support for cervical cancer screening if they knew more about the disease and the screening methods. Men play a significant role in the health behaviours of some Ghanaian women. Cervical cancer education interventions targeting Ghanaian men are needed to correct misconceptions and increase spousal support for cervical cancer screening.

  14. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  15. Malnutrition and the disproportional burden on the poor: the case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Jeanette

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in the developing world and in poor communities within these regions. Understanding the nature and determinants of socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition is essential in contemplating the health of populations in developing countries and in targeting resources appropriately to raise the health of the poor and most vulnerable groups. Methods This paper uses a concentration index to summarize inequality in children's height-for-age z-scores in Ghana across the entire socioeconomic distribution and decomposes this inequality into different contributing factors. Data is used from the Ghana 2003 Demographic and Health Survey. Results The results show that malnutrition is related to poverty, maternal education, health care and family planning and regional characteristics. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition is mainly associated with poverty, health care use and regional disparities. Although average malnutrition is higher using the new growth standards recently released by the World Health Organization, socioeconomic inequality and the associated factors are robust to the change of reference population. Conclusion Child malnutrition in Ghana is a multisectoral problem. The factors associated with average malnutrition rates are not necessarily the same as those associated with socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition.

  16. The New Oil Sector and the Dutch Disease: the Case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Nchor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of the new oil sector on the economic performance of major traditional sectors of the Ghanaian economy. The discovery of resource booming sectors in most countries often comes with several opportunities as well as challenges. Ghana discovered oil in 2007 and started subsequent commercial production and export in 2010. The results from the study show that, there is no clear case of declining performance of sectors in terms of output, growth and export earnings as a result of the oil production. The study could also not establish a sustained appreciation in the real effective exchange rate since commercial oil production commenced which is an indicator of the presence of the Dutch Disease phenomenon. The real effective exchange rate was also found to be highly influenced by oil production, oil prices, total exports and remittances. The study applied an autoregressive distributed lag model due to differences in the level of integration of variables. The data was obtained from the Bank of Ghana, the Ministry of Finance in Ghana and the Energy Information Administration.

  17. The mulberry plant (Morus alba), tool for combating desertification the experience of the sericulture promotion and development association (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntaanu, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Desertification may be defined as the loss of fertility of the land in semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the world. Its causes are broadly categorized into natural and anthropogenic and includes soil erosion (wind, water), soil exploitation (nutrients depletion), salination (primary and secondary) and others including soil compaction, contamination, etc. Desertification is on-going in all parts of Ghana but it is quite extensive and more visible in the north, upper-east and upper-west regions of the country. this area is desert prone and is in the guinea savannah agro-ecological zone. It occupies about 40% of the total area of the country. The desert prone region otherwise termed as semi-arid Ghana is located between latitude eight degrees north and eleven degrees north of the equator. (Author) 2 refs.

  18. The mulberry plant (Morus alba), tool for combating desertification the experience of the sericulture promotion and development association (Ghana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntaanu, P. K.

    2009-07-01

    Desertification may be defined as the loss of fertility of the land in semi-arid and sub-humid regions of the world. Its causes are broadly categorized into natural and anthropogenic and includes soil erosion (wind, water), soil exploitation (nutrients depletion), salination (primary and secondary) and others including soil compaction, contamination, etc. Desertification is on-going in all parts of Ghana but it is quite extensive and more visible in the north, upper-east and upper-west regions of the country. this area is desert prone and is in the guinea savannah agro-ecological zone. It occupies about 40% of the total area of the country. The desert prone region otherwise termed as semi-arid Ghana is located between latitude eight degrees north and eleven degrees north of the equator. (Author) 2 refs.

  19. Ghana's Integrated Nuclear Security Support Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    At the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital outside Accra, Pearl Lovelyn Lawson checks the records of the next patient to undergo radiotherapy and adjusts the dose settings of the teletherapy machine. It is business as usual at the facility that treats over fifty patients each day. But Lawson's routine now includes additional procedures to ensure that the highly radioactive cobalt-60 source located inside the machine remains secure. Nuclear security devices and systems such as double locks, motion sensors, and cameras that transmit images to a central alarm system have been installed to ensure that the source cannot be stolen, the facility sabotaged, or unauthorized access gained. At Korle Bu physical protection measures were upgraded as part of Ghana's Integrated Nuclear Security Support Plan (INSSP). Preventing, detecting and responding to criminal acts like the theft or illegal transfer of a radioactive source, is an international priority that could be addressed through an INSSP. As one of its key nuclear security services, the IAEA assists Member States in drafting such plans. An INSSP is developed jointly with the Member State, using a holistic approach to nuclear security capacity building. It reinforces the primary objective of a State's nuclear security regime to protect people, society, and the environment from the harmful consequences of a nuclear security event. Addressing five components - the legal and regulatory framework, prevention, detection, and sustainability - the jointly developed plan identifies the needs, responsible entities and organizations within the State, as well as the timeframe for the implementation of agreed nuclear security related activities. Ghana's INSSP, tailored to its specific needs, is based on findings and recommendations from advisory service missions carried out in Ghana, including an International Nuclear Security Advisory Service mission and an International Physical Protection Advisory Service mission. Ghana's INSSP was

  20. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  1. Treatment-seeking behaviour and social health insurance in Africa: the case of Ghana under the National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S

    2014-10-27

    Health insurance is attracting more and more attention as a means for improving health care utilization and protecting households against impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures. Currently about 52 percent of the resources for financing health care services come from out of pocket sources or user fees in Africa. Therefore, Ghana serves as in interesting case study as it has successfully expanded coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). The study aims to establish the treatment-seeking behaviour of households in Ghana under the NHI policy. The study relies on household data collected from three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones namely the coastal, forest and savannah.Out of the 1013 who sought care in the previous 4 weeks, 60% were insured and 71% of them sought care from a formal health facility. The results from the multinomial logit estimations show that health insurance and travel time to health facility are significant determinants of health care demand. Overall, compared to the uninsured, the insured are more likely to choose formal health facilities than informal care including self-medication when ill. We discuss the implications of these results as the concept of the NHIS grows widely in Ghana and serves as a good model for other African countries.

  2. A short history of HIV prevention programs for female sex workers in Ghana: lessons learned over 3 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondergem, Peter; Green, Kimberly; Wambugu, Samuel; Asamoah-Adu, Comfort; Clement, Nana Fosua; Amenyah, Richard; Atuahene, Kyeremeh; Szpir, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Ghana have a 10-fold greater risk for acquiring HIV than the general adult population, and they contribute a substantial proportion of the new HIV infections in the country. Although researchers have conducted behavioral and biological surveys, there has been no review of the contextual, programmatic, and epidemiological changes over time. The authors conducted a historical review of HIV prevention programs in Ghana. We reviewed the use of different interventions for HIV prevention among FSWs and data from program monitoring and Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Surveys. In particular, we looked at changes in service access and coverage, the use of HIV testing and counseling services, and the changing prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention interventions among FSWs increased greatly between 1987 and 2013. Only 72 FSWs were reached in a pilot program in 1987, whereas 40,508 FSWs were reached during a national program in 2013. Annual condom sales and the proportion of FSWs who used HIV testing and counseling services increased significantly, whereas the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia decreased. The representation of FSWs in national HIV strategic plans and guidelines also improved. Ghana offers an important historical example of an evolving HIV prevention program that-despite periods of inactivity-grew in breadth and coverage over time. The prevention of HIV infections among sex workers has gained momentum in recent years through the efforts of the national government and its partners-a trend that is critically important to Ghana's future.

  3. Health care workers indicate ill preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustina Angelina Annan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD epidemic that hit some countries in West Africa underscores the need to train front line high-risk health workers on disease prevention skills. Although Ghana did not record (and is yet to any case, and several health workers have received numerous training schemes, there is no record of any study that assessed preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWS regarding EVD and any emergency prone disease in Ghana. We therefore conducted a hospital based cross sectional study involving 101 HCWs from two facilities in Kumasi, Ghana to assess the level of preparedness of HCWs to respond to any possible EVD. Methods We administered a face-to-face questionnaire using an adapted WHO (2015 and CDC (2014 Checklist for Ebola Preparedness and assessed overall knowledge gaps, and preparedness of the Ghanaian HCWs in selected health facilities of the Ashanti Region of Ghana from October to December 2015. Results A total 92 (91.09% HCWs indicated they were not adequately trained to handle an EVD suspected case. Only 25.74% (n = 26 considered their facilities sufficiently equipped to handle and manage EVD patients. When asked which disinfectant to use after attending to and caring for a suspected patient with EVD, only 8.91% (n = 9 could correctly identify the right disinfectant (χ2 = 28.52, p = 0.001. Conclusion Our study demonstrates poor knowledge and ill preparedness and unwillingness of many HCWs to attend to EVD. Beyond knowledge acquisition, there is the need for more training from time to time to fully prepare HCWs to handle any possible EVD case.

  4. Alcohol consumption in relation to maternal deaths from induced-abortions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asamoah Benedict O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The fight against maternal deaths has gained attention as the target date for Millennium Development Goal 5 approaches. Induced-abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal deaths in developing countries which hamper this effort. In Ghana, alcohol consumption and unwanted pregnancies are on the ascendancy. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and maternal mortality from induced-abortion. We further analyzed the factors that lie behind the alcohol consumption patterns in the study population. Method The data we used was extracted from the Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007. This was a national survey conducted across the 10 administrative regions of Ghana. The survey identified 4203 female deaths through verbal autopsy, among which 605 were maternal deaths in the 12 to 49 year-old age group. Analysis was done using Statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 20. A case control study design was used. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between the different variables. Results Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with abortion-related maternal deaths. Women who had ever consumed alcohol (OR adjusted 2.6, 95% CI 1.38–4.87, frequent consumers (OR adjusted 2.6, 95% CI 0.89–7.40 and occasional consumers (OR adjusted 2.7, 95% CI 1.29–5.46 were about three times as likely to die from abortion-related causes compared to those who abstained from alcohol. Maternal age, marital status and educational level were found to have a confounding effect on the observed association. Conclusion Policy actions directed toward reducing abortion-related deaths should consider alcohol consumption, especially among younger women. Policy makers in Ghana should consider increasing the legal age for alcohol consumption. We suggest that information on the health risks posed by alcohol and abortion be disseminated to communities in the informal sector where

  5. Ethics-sensitivity of the Ghana national integrated strategic response plan for pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra

    2015-05-07

    Many commentators call for a more ethical approach to planning for influenza pandemics. In the developed world, some pandemic preparedness plans have already been examined from an ethical viewpoint. This paper assesses the attention given to ethics issues by the Ghana National Integrated Strategic Plan for Pandemic Influenza (NISPPI). We critically analyzed the Ghana NISPPI's sensitivity to ethics issues to determine how well it reflects ethical commitments and principles identified in our review of global pandemic preparedness literature, existing pandemic plans, and relevant ethics frameworks. This paper reveals that important ethical issues have not been addressed in the Ghana NISPPI. Several important ethical issues are unanticipated, unacknowledged, and unplanned for. These include guidelines on allocation of scarce resources, the duties of healthcare workers, ethics-sensitive operational guidelines/protocols, and compensation programs. The NISPPI also pays scant attention to use of vaccines and antivirals, border issues and cooperation with neighboring countries, justification for delineated actions, and outbreak simulations. Feedback and communication plans are nebulous, while leadership, coordination, and budgeting are quite detailed. With respect to presentation, the NISPPI's text is organized around five thematic areas. While each area implicates ethical issues, NISPPI treatment of these areas consistently fails to address them. Our analysis reveals a lack of consideration of ethics by the NISPPI. We contend that, while the plan's content and fundamental assumptions provide support for implementation of the delineated public health actions, its consideration of ethical issues is poor. Deficiencies include a failure to incorporate guidelines that ensure fair distribution of scarce resources and a lack of justification for delineated procedures. Until these deficiencies are recognized and addressed, Ghana runs the risk of rolling out unjust and ethically

  6. Through the lens of the clinician: autopsy services and utilization in a large teaching hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Alfred E; Tette, Edem; Tettey, Yao

    2014-12-23

    Declining hospital autopsy rates in many countries have generated considerable concern. The survey determined challenges of the autopsy service in a large Teaching Hospital in Ghana, from the perspective of clinicians. This was a cross-sectional study of doctors at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) over in 2012. The data was collected using a 69 item self-administered structured questionnaire. In all a total of 215 questionnaires were sent out and 119 doctors responded. Data was collected on the challenges of the autopsy services and barriers to autopsy request from the perspectives of clinicians. Survey data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics (i.e. proportions, ratios and percentages. Data from survey was analyzed with SPSS version 21. The most common reasons for requesting autopsies were to answer clinical questions, 55 (46.2%) and in cases of uncertain diagnosis, 54 (45.4%). Main demand side barriers to the use of autopsy services by clinicians were reluctance of family to give consent for autopsy 100 (84%), due to cultural and religious objections 89 (74.8%), extra funeral cost to family53 (44.5%) and increased duration of stay of body in the morgue 19 (16%). Health system barriers included delayed feedback from autopsy service 54 (45.4%), difficulties following up the autopsy process 40 (33.6%) due to uncertainties in the timing of particular events in the autopsy process, and long waiting time for autopsy reports 81 (68.1%). More than a third of clinicians 43 (36.2%), received full autopsy report beyond three weeks and 75 (63.1%) clinicians had concerns with the validity of reports issued by the autopsy service (i.e. reports lack specificity or at variance with clinical diagnosis, no toxicological, histological or tissue diagnoses are performed). The autopsy service should restructure itself efficiently and management should support the provision of histological and toxicological services. Strengthening internal and external quality

  7. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous...

  8. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  9. The Journey Towards Africanising Psychology in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has come a long way since its origin in Africa and Ghana in particular. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the current state of psychological knowledge in Ghana as well as the associated problems in the application of such knowledge. It was concluded that the approach to the study and application of psychological knowledge and tests has been too Eurocentric and westernized. As a result, it limits the applicability of the approach to the African setting, and yet, Western theorists may expect African psychologists to apply the theories to Africans. On the basis of this criticism, the scope of Pan-African psychology is defined and suggestions for pursuing an Africanisation project are presented. It is expected that the strategies that this paper advocates for indigenizing psychology in Africa can equally be useful to psychologists in other developing regions of the world.

  10. Two worlds apart: experiential learning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Sharon Douglass; Winters-Moorhead, Carol

    2009-07-01

    As our society becomes more diverse, it is important for nursing students to become culturally competent and to view the world from a global perspective. Traveling abroad enlightens the senses and expands the worldview. Traveling for study abroad is more than taking a vacation; it affords students the opportunity to learn experientially and it can be a transforming encounter that influences the way an evolving nurse will practice. Nursing students at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, had the opportunity to bridge two worlds, urban life at the university and village life in Dodowa, Ghana, West Africa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that studying abroad has in nurturing experiential learning. The experiences of students from a southern historically Black university that were enrolled concurrently in two summer independent study courses focusing on global healthcare in Ghana, West Africa, are described.

  11. Test of solar dryers in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S. [Teknologisk Institut. SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danmarks JordbrugsForskning, Tjele (Denmark); Agyei, F. [FAGOD Ltd. (Ghana); Larsen, T. [Clipper Design Ltd. (Ghana); Nketiah, K.S. [FORIG (Ghana)

    2002-06-01

    The report describes the tests carried out in Ghana on three solar dryers as part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat' financed by DANIDA. The main objective of the project was to develop and test solar dryers for crop, fish and wood in Ghana. Three dryers were erected: 1. Solar crop dryer: The solar crop dryer was erected at Silwood Farms at Pokuase about 30 km north of Accra. Silwood Farms grows primarily maize for seed and pineapples, 2. Solar fish dryer: The solar fish dryer was erected at Elite Enterprise Ltd. at Tema about 35 km east-north-east of Accra. Elite Enterprise Ltd. buys and dries fish, 3. Solar wood dryer: The solar wood dryers were erected at Clipper Design Ltd. at Mankoadze about 65 km west-south-west of Accra. Clipper Design Ltd. produces mainly doors. (BA)

  12. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  13. A review of the structure and function of vital registration system in Ghana: towards improvement in mortality data quality for health policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius N. Fobil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vital registration systems (VRS are important in the collection of routine data on indicators of development. These are particularly useful if they are properly built to address weaknesses in the system leading to poor data quality. For instance, routine data on health events (e.g. morbidity, mortality etc. are crucial for rapid assessment of disease burden and mortality trends in the population. They are also useful in the identification of vulnerable groups in populations. Despite their usefulness, VRS in many developing countries including Ghana are poorly structured raising questions about the quality of the output data from these systems. The present study aimed at assessing and documenting the structure and function of the VRS in Ghana, as well as at identifying the structural features that potentially compromise the reliability and validity of the output data the system. To perform this study, collection and review of policy and legal documents establishing the VRS, documentation and evaluation of component structures of the system, assessment of procedural protocols guiding data collection processes and in-depth interviews with staff at the Ghana Births and Deaths Registry were performed. The assessment of the structure of the Ghana VRS, policy documents setting it up and the operational procedures reveals important lapses (e.g. presence of outmoded practices, imperfections in Births and Deaths Registry Act, 1965, Act 301 and imperfect system design in the system that could compromise validity and reliability of the data generated from the registration in Ghana.

  14. Beyond dualism: Multisegmented labor markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  15. Trends in contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; Marrone, Gaetano; Johansson, Annika

    2011-06-01

    Within the past one and half decades many efforts have been made to improve the availability and access to adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. Despite these efforts, adolescents still face a number of sexual and reproductive health problems. This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys to examine changes in contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents (15-19 years old). The results show that between 2003 and 2008 there was a significant increase in the current use of any contraceptive method (from 23.7% to 35.1%, p = 0.03). It also indicates a shift from modern to traditional contraceptive methods. Traditional methods recorded about 60% (7.8 percentage points) increase as compared to 5.5% (2.6 percentage points) for modern methods. Also ever use of any traditional method recorded a higher increase as compared to any modem method. There was a slight decline 7% (4.4 parentage points) in the number of non-users who intended to use contraceptives in the future. On the whole the findings indicate increasing unmet need for modern contraception due to barriers such as limited access, cost and misconceptions about the effects of contraceptives.

  16. An exploratory survey of the applications of telemedicine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkwa, O

    2000-01-01

    We examined the use of telemedicine at two major medical institutions in Ghana. Doctors and administrators were surveyed to assess their knowledge of computers and familiarity with telemedicine. The use of modern telecommunications and information technology products within the health service was also examined. Thirty questionnaires were distributed to staff at the two hospitals, one urban and one rural. Twenty were returned (a response rate of 67%). Although most of the respondents were computer literate, they were less familiar with telemedicine applications. Only a minority of the respondents were participating in an information-sharing network, transmitting information by fax or telephone, or had Internet access. Financial constraint appeared to be the major barrier to establishing information-sharing networks. Other constraints were technological and organizational. The respondents expressed an interest in using telemedicine, having access to health-care databases and specific telemedicine applications such as tele-education and videoconferencing. Staff in the urban hospital were more likely to be familiar with telemedicine and more likely to have access to information technology than those in the rural hospital.

  17. Learning Transfer: The Missing Link to Learning among School Leaders in Burkina Faso and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Brion

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, billions of dollars are spent on development aid and training around the world. However, only 10% of this training results in the transfer of knowledge, skills, or behaviors learned in the training to the work place. Ideally, learning transfer produces effective and continued application by learners of the knowledge and skills they gained through their learning activities. Currently, there is a limited body of research examining the factors that hinder and promote learning transfer in professional development, particularly the professional development of school leaders in developing countries. This qualitative exploratory study sought to address the gap in the literature by examining six schools: three in Burkina Faso and three in Ghana, West Africa. This investigation explored what promoted and hindered learning transfer in both countries. The sample consisted of 13 West-African school leaders (6 in Burkina Faso and 7 in Ghana who attended a 3-day leadership training workshop. Data collection included in-depth interviews, document analysis, post-training site visits, and text messages to ascertain whether this mobile technology intervention enhanced learning transfer. The findings demonstrated that learning transfer occurred in both countries in all six schools. Data indicated that most of the transfer of learning happened in areas not requiring mindset and behavioral changes. Data suggested that the facilities in which the trainings took place, the facilitators’ dispositions and knowledge, the adequacy of the materials as well as the testimonials and certificate of completions enhanced the transfer of learning. Participants also indicated some inhibitors to the transfer of learning, such as financial, cultural, and human behavior constraints. This study helps increase our understanding of what promotes and inhibits learning transfer in educational settings in Burkina Faso and Ghana and provides suggestions for trainers and

  18. Conflicts in Northern Ghana: Search for Solutions, Stakeholders and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Northern Ghana that have drawn national attention, most of which were/are violent. It ... analysis of four case studies on the northern Ghana conflicts. ...... It will also be necessary to consider sponsorship of research and studies in ... more important to keep communications flows and avoid the creation of suspicion and.

  19. All projects related to Ghana | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change constitutes a real threat to the livelihood and well-being of the Ghanaian population. ... HEALTH STATISTICS, STATISTICAL DATA, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ... Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Flows on Poverty in Ghana. Project. Ghana will need considerable external assistance to achieve its Poverty ...

  20. Determinants of propensity of tertiary agricultural students in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to identify factors that affect the decision of tertiary agricultural students in Ghana to enter agribusiness as a self-employment venture after graduation. The results showed that tertiary agricultural students in Ghana were predominantly males with little or no farming background. They had a rather moderate ...