WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier system selection

  1. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  2. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  3. Visual selective attention with virtual barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that interference effects in the flanker task are reduced when physical barriers (e.g., hands) are placed around rather than below a target flanked by distractors. One explanation of this finding is the referential coding hypothesis, whereby the barriers serve as reference objects for allocating attention. In five experiments, the generality of the referential coding hypothesis was tested by investigating whether interference effects are modulated by the placement of virtual barriers (e.g., parentheses). Modulation of flanker interference was found only when target and distractors differed in size and the virtual barriers were beveled wood-grain objects. Under these conditions and those of previous studies, the author conjectures that an impression of depth was produced when the barriers were around the target, such that the target was perceived to be on a different depth plane than the distractors. Perception of depth in the stimulus display might have led to referential coding of the stimuli in three-dimensional (3-D) space, influencing the allocation of attention beyond the horizontal and vertical dimensions. This 3-D referential coding hypothesis is consistent with research on selective attention in 3-D space that shows flanker interference is reduced when target and distractors are separated in depth.

  4. Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole.

  5. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  6. Selected socioeconomic barriers of education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tillová, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Selected socioeconomic barriers of education in Sub-Saharan Africa Abstract The aim of bachelor thesis is to describe and understand the process of education in Sub-Saharan Africa and analyze components that cause limited access to education. The first part of the thesis describes the process of education in Sub-Saharan Africa using selected indicators. The second main part focuses on the description and possible relations between selected socioeconomic barriers and literacy. Selected barrier...

  7. Physical protection system using activated barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, R.E.; Zinneman, T.E.; Haumann, J.R.; Flaugher, H.A.; Reigle, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System, to upgrade its security. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The Argonne National Laboratory is the first Department of Energy facility to use this device. Recent advancements in electronic components provide the total system support that makes the use of an activated barrier viable and desirable. The premise of an activated barrier is that it is deployed after a positive detection of an adversary is made and before the adversary can penetrate vital area. To accomplish this detection, sophisticated alarms, assessment, and communications must be integrated into a system that permits a security inspector to make a positive evaluation and to activate the barrier. The alarm sensor locations are selected to provide protection in depth. Closed circuit television is used with components that permit multiple video frames to be stored for automated, priority-based playback to the security inspector. Further, algorithms permit look-ahead surveillance of vital areas so that the security inspector can activate the access denial system in a timely manner and not be restricted to following the adversaries' penetration path(s)

  8. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs

  9. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed

  10. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  11. Plan for metal barrier selection and testing for NNWSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada as a geological repository for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The Nuclear Waste Management Projects (NWMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for design, testing, and performance analysis of the NNWSI waste packages. One portion of this work is the selection and testing of the material for container construction. The anticipated container design is for this material to be a corrosion resistant metal called the metal barrier. This document is the publication version of the Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) for the Metal Barrier Selection and Testing Task. The SIP serves as a formal planning document for the investigation and is used to assign quality assurance levels to the activities of the task. This document is an informal version for information distribution and has the sections on ''Schedule and Milestones'' and the ''Quality Assurance Level Assignment Sheets'' removed

  12. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  14. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  15. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  17. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarek, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  18. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  19. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  20. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  1. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru [National Research Inst. for Earth sceince and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  2. Reliability modeling of an engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda, M.M.A.; Singh, A.K.; Flueck, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Weibull distribution is widely used in reliability literature as a distribution of time to failure, as it allows for both increasing failure rate (IFR) and decreasing failure rate (DFR) models. It has also been used to develop models for an engineered barrier system (EBS), which is known to be one of the key components in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW). The EBS failure time can more realistically be modelled by an IFR distribution, since the failure rate for the EBS is not expected to decrease with time. In this paper, we use an IFR distribution to develop a reliability model for the EBS

  3. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  4. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Jarek

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  5. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  6. International Collaboration Activities on Engineered Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-scale heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-scale experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier system (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.

  7. Applications of barrier bucket RF systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the barrier rf systems have become important tools in a variety of beam manipulation applications at synchrotrons. Four out of six proton synchrotrons at Fermilab are equipped with broad-band barrier rf systems. All of the beam manipulations pertaining to the longitudinal phase space in the Fermilab Recycler (synchrotron used for antiproton storage) are carried out using a barrier system. Recently, a number of new applications of barrier rf systems have been developed- the longitudinal momentum mining, longitudinal phase-space coating, antiproton stacking, fast bunch compression and more. Some of these techniques have been critical for the recent spectacular success of the collider performance at the Fermilab Tevatron. Barrier bunch coalescing to produce bright proton bunches has a high potential to increase proton antiproton luminosity significantly. In this paper, I will describe some of these techniques in detail. Finally, I make a few general remarks on issues related to barrier systems.

  8. Internal Transport Barrier Physics in Helical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Maassberg, H.; Ida, K.; Estrada, T.; Castejon, F.; Minami, T.; Fujisawa, A.; Yamagishi, O.; Shats, M. G.; Dinklage, A.; Tribaldos, V.; Beidler, C. D.; Shimozuma, T.; Takeiri, Y.; Herranz, J.; Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) in helical systems are reviewed. The common features are highly peaked Te profile with strongly positive Er in the core region. The transition nature of Er based on neoclassical (NC) ambipolarity, with the clear threshold feature such as ECH power and Ohmic current, is the common mechanism for the eITB formation. The electron heat confinement improvement has been revealed within the eITB region. The ECH power threshold can be lowered in the presence of ripple-trapped electrons-induced convective flux, and rational surfaces at the core region. The gyrokinetic calculations, for example eITB in LHD, have shown that the ETG mode is unstable in eITB region due to the large Te gradient. A larger zonal flow amplitude has been observed in eITB phase in CHS. The geodesic transfer of energy from stationary zonal flow to oscillatory modes (GAMs) recognized in H-1 implies that the stationary zonal flows can be maintained at a higher level by reducing the geodesic curvature in helical systems. This is the first report of the eITB branch in the framework of the International Stellarator Profile DataBase (ISPDB). (Author)

  9. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Wilder, D.G.

    1991-02-01

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  11. Deployment Efficiency and Barrier Effectiveness Testing of a Temporary Anti-Personnel (TAP) Barrier System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hedrick, Charles D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report documents tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of State to evaluate a temporary anti-personnel (TAP) barrier system developed by Mitigation Technologies. For this, the SNL Denial and Structural Assessment department developed a test protocol for the evaluation of the TAP barrier system on the basis of deployment efficiency and barrier effectiveness against a riotous/mob attack threat. The test protocol was then executed by SNL personnel and the results of the testing are documented.

  12. Development and Property Evaluation of Selected HfO2-Silicon and Rare Earth-Silicon Based Bond Coats and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si and rare earth Si based EBC bond coat EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. High temperature properties of the advanced EBC systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep and oxidation resistance have been studied and summarized. The advanced NASA EBC systems showed some promise to achieve 1500C temperature capability, helping enable next generation turbine engines with significantly improved engine component temperature capability and durability.

  13. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  14. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, Diosdado; León-Pérez, Fernando de; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Arriaga, J.

    2015-01-01

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices

  15. Transporter-Guided Delivery of Nanoparticles to Improve Drug Permeation across Cellular Barriers and Drug Exposure to Selective Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfa Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nano-drug delivery systems conjugated with specific ligands to target selective cell-surface receptors or transporters could enhance the efficacy of drug delivery and therapy. Transporters are expressed differentially on the cell-surface of different cell types, and also specific transporters are expressed at higher than normal levels in selective cell types under pathological conditions. They also play a key role in intestinal absorption, delivery via non-oral routes (e.g., pulmonary route and nasal route, and transfer across biological barriers (e.g., blood–brain barrier and blood–retinal barrier. As such, the cell-surface transporters represent ideal targets for nano-drug delivery systems to facilitate drug delivery to selective cell types under normal or pathological conditions and also to avoid off-target adverse side effects of the drugs. There is increasing evidence in recent years supporting the utility of cell-surface transporters in the field of nano-drug delivery to increase oral bioavailability, to improve transfer across the blood–brain barrier, and to enhance delivery of therapeutics in a cell-type selective manner in disease states. Here we provide a comprehensive review of recent advancements in this interesting and important area. We also highlight certain key aspects that need to be taken into account for optimal development of transporter-assisted nano-drug delivery systems.

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they

  17. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project

  18. Using a systems engineering process to develop engineered barrier system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Short, D.W.

    1991-05-01

    The methodology used to develop conceptual designs of the engineered barrier system and waste packages for a geologic repository is based on an iterative systems engineering process. The process establishes a set of general mission requirements and then conducts detailed requirements analyses using functional analyses, system concept syntheses, and trade studies identifications to develop preliminary system concept descriptions. The feasible concept descriptions are ranked based on selection factors and criteria and a set of preferred concept descriptions is then selected for further development. For each of the selected concept descriptions, a specific set of requirements, including constraints, is written to provide design guidance for the next and more detailed phase of design. The process documents all relevant waste management system requirements so that the basis and source for the specific design requirements are traceable and clearly established. Successive iterations performed during design development help to insure that workable concepts are generated to satisfy the requirements. 4 refs., 2 figs

  19. Study on vibration behaviors of engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Minowa, Chikahiro

    1998-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes have been buried underground by packing into a strong sealed container made from carbon steel (over-pack) with buffer material (bentonite). The engineered barrier system constructed with an overpack and buffer materials must be resistant to earthquakes as well as invasion of groundwater for a long period. Therefore, seismic evaluation of barrier system for earthquakes is indispensable especially in Japan to keep its structural safety. Here, the effects of earthquake vibration on the engineered barrier systems were investigated experimentally. Random-wave vibration and practical seismic wave one were loaded for the systems and fundamental data were obtained. For the former vibration the response characteristics of both engineered barrier models constructed with overpack and bentonite were non-linear. For the latter one, the stress in bentonite was increased in proportion to the vibration level. (M.N.)

  20. High-resolution reconstruction of a coastal barrier system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentary effects of Holocene sea-level rise on a modern coastal barrier system (CBS). Increasing concern over the evolution of CBSs due to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise calls for a better understanding of coastal barriers response.......5 ka ago. Back-barrier shoreline erosion due to sediment starvation in the back-barrier basin, was pronounced from 4.5 to 2.5 ka ago but the last 2.5 kyr barrier sedimentation has kept up with and outpaced sea-level. The last 0.4 kyr the CBS has been episodically prograding. Sediment accumulation shows...... considerable variation with periods of rapid sediment deposition and periods of non-deposition or erosion resulting in a highly punctuated sediment record....

  1. Dynamical characterization of transport barriers in nontwist Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaine, M.; Mathias, A. C.; Santos, M. S.; Batista, A. M.; Szezech, J. D.; Viana, R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The turnstile provides us a useful tool to describe the flux in twist Hamiltonian systems. Thus, its determination allows us to find the areas where the trajectories flux through barriers. We show that the mechanism of the turnstile can increase the flux in nontwist Hamiltonian systems. A model which captures the essence of these systems is the standard nontwist map, introduced by del Castillo-Negrete and Morrison. For selected parameters of this map, we show that chaotic trajectories entering in resonances zones can be explained by turnstiles formed by a set of homoclinic points. We argue that for nontwist systems, if the heteroclinic points are sufficiently close, they can connect twin-islands chains. This provides us a scenario where the trajectories can cross the resonance zones and increase the flux. For these cases the escape basin boundaries are nontrivial, which demands the use of an appropriate characterization. We applied the uncertainty exponent and the entropies of the escape basin boundary in order to quantify the degree of unpredictability of the asymptotic trajectories.

  2. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in

  3. Gas permeability of bentonite barriers: development, construction and testing of a measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes a testing device to quickly and reliably estimate the gas permeability of bentonite-based clay barriers used in landfill cover systems. The testing methodology is based on a transient gas flow regime that passes through the barrier, therefore not requiring the use of sophisticated equipment that aim to maintain constant differential pressure and measure the gas flow, common requirements for testing methods under a permanent flow regime. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, tests were performed on a pure hydrated bentonite layer, which subsequently encompassed samples of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL at different moisture contents. Geosynthetic clay liners are often selected as a part of the barrier layer for cover systems in solid waste landfills to prevent infiltration of rainfall and migration of biogas into the atmosphere. The results confirmed the equipment reliability and differentiate the different responses of the gas flow barriers studied, considering their different compositions and different moistures.

  4. Selected System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, F.; Puñal, O.; Klagges, K.; Kirsche, M.

    Apart from the general issue of modeling the channel, the PHY and the MAC of wireless networks, there are specific modeling assumptions that are considered for different systems. In this chapter we consider three specific wireless standards and highlight modeling options for them. These are IEEE 802.11 (as example for wireless local area networks), IEEE 802.16 (as example for wireless metropolitan networks) and IEEE 802.15 (as example for body area networks). Each section on these three systems discusses also at the end a set of model implementations that are available today.

  5. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  6. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion

  8. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  9. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  10. Prioritizing barriers to successful implementation of hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Nejad, Simin Salehi; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam; Nikkar, Somayeh Ezhari

    2014-12-01

    Hospital information systems (HIS) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care, as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of health care services. However, there are various barriers for their successful implementation. The aim of this paper is to prioritize these barriers. This research is a cross sectional analytic-descriptive study. The study populations were hospital managers, IT department administrators, and clinical supervisors at the academic and non-academic hospitals of two cities in Iran. The data was collected by a questionnaire that its content validity was confirmed by three specialists. Its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.78). Questionnaire contained five dimensions and 39 implementation barriers. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using the Kendall Rank Correlation Coefficient and Chi2 tests. The findings of the study revealed that lack of powerful information networks, error in data entry, technical problems related to system design, lack of organizational training, lack of users' knowledge about system and working with it, and negative attitudes of providers and patients toward systems are the most important barriers of HIS implementation. Prioritizing of these barriers helps policy makers to decide what to do when planning for HIS utilization.

  11. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  12. Overcoming barriers to evaluation of terminological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Arts, Daniëlle G. T.

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of terminological systems has been demonstrated to be a complicated task. This is due to the broad range of terminological systems, their application, and the clinical contexts in which they can be applied. We propose an evaluation framework that explicitly distinguishes an

  13. Quorum Sensing Peptides Selectively Penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynendaele, Evelien; Verbeke, Frederick; Stalmans, Sofie; Gevaert, Bert; Janssens, Yorick; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria communicate with each other by the use of signaling molecules, a process called 'quorum sensing'. One group of quorum sensing molecules includes the oligopeptides, which are mainly produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, these quorum sensing peptides were found to biologically influence mammalian cells, promoting i.a. metastasis of cancer cells. Moreover, it was found that bacteria can influence different central nervous system related disorders as well, e.g. anxiety, depression and autism. Research currently focuses on the role of bacterial metabolites in this bacteria-brain interaction, with the role of the quorum sensing peptides not yet known. Here, three chemically diverse quorum sensing peptides were investigated for their brain influx (multiple time regression technique) and efflux properties in an in vivo mouse model (ICR-CD-1) to determine blood-brain transfer properties: PhrCACET1 demonstrated comparatively a very high initial influx into the mouse brain (Kin = 20.87 μl/(g×min)), while brain penetrabilities of BIP-2 and PhrANTH2 were found to be low (Kin = 2.68 μl/(g×min)) and very low (Kin = 0.18 μl/(g×min)), respectively. All three quorum sensing peptides were metabolically stable in plasma (in vitro) during the experimental time frame and no significant brain efflux was observed. Initial tissue distribution data showed remarkably high liver accumulation of BIP-2 as well. Our results thus support the potential role of some quorum sensing peptides in different neurological disorders, thereby enlarging our knowledge about the microbiome-brain axis.

  14. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  15. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  16. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m 2 . The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m 2 . The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m 2 . The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m 2 , but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m 2 . Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m 2 for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m 2 and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m 2 . The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers

  17. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D. M.; Jarek, R.; Mariner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  18. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  19. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  20. YMP Engineered Barrier Systems Scaled Ventilation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Dunn; B. Lowry; B. Walsh; J.D. Mar; C. Howard; R. Johnston; T. Williams

    2002-11-22

    Yucca Mountain, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been selected as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high level nuclear waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is currently developing the design for the underground facilities. Ventilation is a key component of the design as a way to maintain the desired thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts prior to closure. As a means of determining the effects of continuous ventilation on heat removal from the emplacement drifts two series of scaled ventilation tests have been performed. Both test series were performed in the DOE/North Las Vegas Atlas facility. The tests provided scaled (nominally 25% of the full scale emplacement drift design) thermal and flow process data that will be used to validate YMP heat and mass transport codes. The Phase I Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of ambient ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow and input power conditions. The Phase II Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of pre-conditioned ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow, input temperature and moisture content, and simulated waste package input power conditions. Twenty-two distinct ventilation tests were run.

  1. Engineered barrier experiment. Power control and data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Gamero, E.; Martin, P.L.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.J.; Yuste, C.

    1997-01-01

    The engineered barrier concept for the storage of radioactive wastes is being tested at almost full scale at CIEMAT facilities. A data acquisition and control is an element of this experiment. This system would be operating for next three years. (Author)

  2. Alternative approaches to reliability modeling of a multiple engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda, M.M.A.; Singh, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The lifetime of the engineered barrier system used for containment of high-level radioactive waste will significantly impact the total performance of a geological repository facility. Currently two types of designs are under consideration for an engineered barrier system, single engineered barrier system and multiple engineered barrier system. Multiple engineered barrier system consists of several metal barriers and the waste form (cladding). Some recent work show that a significant improvement of performance can be achieved by utilizing multiple engineered barrier systems. Considering sequential failures for each barrier, we model the reliability of the multiple engineered barrier system. Weibull and exponential lifetime distributions are used through out the analysis. Furthermore, the number of failed engineered barrier systems in a repository at a given time is modeled using a poisson approximation

  3. Barriers and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Systems in Northeastern Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Janke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey responses of producers and institutional buyers in northeastern Kansas (United States were analyzed to understand barriers and opportunities for sustainable food systems in the region where their emergence has been limited. Producers and buyers identified barriers previously noted regarding mismatches of available quantities and prices. Producers’ enthusiasm to supply locally exceeded buyers’ interest to source locally. Transportation was identified as one of the major concerns by producers, and their responses to choice tasks revealed producers’ preferences to sell locally while pricing their products to secure sales revenue and to cover their logistics expenses at least partially.

  4. Natural and sexual selection giveth and taketh away reproductive barriers: models of population divergence in guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Jacques; Hendry, Andrew P

    2010-07-01

    The standard predictions of ecological speciation might be nuanced by the interaction between natural and sexual selection. We investigated this hypothesis with an individual-based model tailored to the biology of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We specifically modeled the situation where a high-predation population below a waterfall colonizes a low-predation population above a waterfall. Focusing on the evolution of male color, we confirm that divergent selection causes the appreciable evolution of male color within 20 generations. The rate and magnitude of this divergence were reduced when dispersal rates were high and when female choice did not differ between environments. Adaptive divergence was always coupled to the evolution of two reproductive barriers: viability selection against immigrants and hybrids. Different types of sexual selection, however, led to contrasting results for another potential reproductive barrier: mating success of immigrants. In some cases, the effects of natural and sexual selection offset each other, leading to no overall reproductive isolation despite strong adaptive divergence. Sexual selection acting through female choice can thus strongly modify the effects of divergent natural selection and thereby alter the standard predictions of ecological speciation. We also found that under no circumstances did divergent selection cause appreciable divergence in neutral genetic markers.

  5. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the

  6. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    na

    2005-05-30

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1 - 1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1 - 1). The

  7. Origin of Small Barriers in Jahn–Teller Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barriuso, M. T.; Ortiz-Sevilla, B.; Aramburu, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its relevance, the microscopic origin of the energy barrier, B, between the compressed and elongated geometries of Jahn–Teller (JT) systems is not well understood yet because of a lack of quantitative data about its various contributions. Seeking to clear up this matter, we have carried out...... both periodic and cluster ab initio calculations on the model system NaCl:Ni+. This system is particularly puzzling because, according to experimental data, its barrier is much smaller than that for other d9 and d7 ions in similar lattices. All calculations performed on the model system lead, in fact......, contrary to cases where the complex formed by d9 or d7 ions is elastically decoupled from the host lattice. Although the magnitude of B for NaCl:Ni+ is particularly small, the tunneling splitting, 3Γ, is estimated to be below 9 cm–1, thus explaining why the coherence is easily destroyed by random strains...

  8. A new physical barrier system for seawater intrusion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulhalik, Antoifi; Ahmed, Ashraf; Hamill, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The construction of subsurface physical barriers is one of various methods used to control seawater intrusion (SWI) in coastal aquifers. This study proposes the mixed physical barrier (MPB) as a new barrier system for seawater intrusion control, which combines an impermeable cutoff wall and a semi-permeable subsurface dam. The effect of the traditionally-used physical barriers on transient saltwater wedge dynamics was first explored for various hydraulic gradients, and the workability of the MPB was thereafter thoroughly analysed. A newly developed automated image analysis based on light-concentration conversion was used in the experiments, which were completed in a porous media tank. The numerical code SEAWAT was used to assess the consistency of the experimental data and examine the sensitivity of the performance of the barriers to various key parameters. The results show that the MPB induced a visible lifting of the dense saline flux upward towards the outlet by the light freshwater. This saltwater lifting mechanism, observed for the first time, induced significant reduction to the saline water intrusion length. The use of the MPB yielded up to 62% and 42% more reduction of the saltwater intrusion length than the semi-permeable dam and the cutoff wall, respectively. The performance achieved by the MPB with a wall depth of 40% of the aquifer thickness was greater than that of a single cutoff wall with a penetration depth of 90% of the aquifer thickness (about 13% extra reduction). This means that the MPB could produce better seawater intrusion reduction than the traditionally used barriers at even lower cost.

  9. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a combined multi-phase supplier selection model. The process repeatedly revisits the criteria and sourcing decision as the development process continues. This enables a structured adoption of product and production system innovation from strategic suppliers, where...... strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...... the literature on working with strategic suppliers. Specifically, we explicitly articulate the previously unreported issue of whether a supplier chosen for its innovation capabilities at the start of the new product development process will also be the most appropriate supplier during the production system...

  10. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  11. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  12. Experimental Approach of Fault Movement on an Engineered Barrier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Heuna

    2012-01-01

    Safety evaluation of an engineered barrier system against fault movement at underground disposal region for high level waste (HLW) is tried using a miniature bore-shear apparatus. For the purpose, a miniature bore-shear apparatus simulating an EBS (engineered barrier system) was manufactured in 1/30 scale. And using the developed apparatus, bore-shear tests were performed twice. During the tests, pressure variations were checked at 6 points around buffer zone, and then a rotational angle of the test vessel was checked. The achieved pressure data were compared with those from analytical modeling, which is based on Drucker-Prager model. At initial shearing step, high pressure was recorded at some point but it decreased rapidly. For the better understanding of fault movement, the modification of an analytical model and the accumulation of experimental experience were required

  13. Experimental Approach of Fault Movement on an Engineered Barrier System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Heuna [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Safety evaluation of an engineered barrier system against fault movement at underground disposal region for high level waste (HLW) is tried using a miniature bore-shear apparatus. For the purpose, a miniature bore-shear apparatus simulating an EBS (engineered barrier system) was manufactured in 1/30 scale. And using the developed apparatus, bore-shear tests were performed twice. During the tests, pressure variations were checked at 6 points around buffer zone, and then a rotational angle of the test vessel was checked. The achieved pressure data were compared with those from analytical modeling, which is based on Drucker-Prager model. At initial shearing step, high pressure was recorded at some point but it decreased rapidly. For the better understanding of fault movement, the modification of an analytical model and the accumulation of experimental experience were required.

  14. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  15. Down-regulation of selected Blood-brain Barrier Specific Genes from Capillaries to Bovine In Vitro Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Brodin, Birger

    Cultures of primary bovine brain endothelial cells (BECs) grown, often together with astrocytes, on permeable supports in two-compartment culture systems are commonly used as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While trans-endothelial electrical resistance, restriction...... the in vivo gene expression of brain capillary endothelial cells. Primary bovine endothelial cells and rat astrocytes were cultured in different culture configurations and the mRNA expression of selected genes (vWF, Glut-1, P-gp, claudin-1,-5, occludin, JAM-1, LAT-1, SLC16A1, MRP-1,-4, BCRP, ZO-1, AP, TPA...

  16. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grein, Arne; Pehnt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: → Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. → Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. → Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.→ Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  17. Prediction of Placental Barrier Permeability: A Model Based on Partial Least Squares Variable Selection Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the human placental barrier permeability of drugs is very important to guarantee drug safety during pregnancy. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR method was used as an effective assessing tool for the placental transfer study of drugs, while in vitro human placental perfusion is the most widely used method. In this study, the partial least squares (PLS variable selection and modeling procedure was used to pick out optimal descriptors from a pool of 620 descriptors of 65 compounds and to simultaneously develop a QSAR model between the descriptors and the placental barrier permeability expressed by the clearance indices (CI. The model was subjected to internal validation by cross-validation and y-randomization and to external validation by predicting CI values of 19 compounds. It was shown that the model developed is robust and has a good predictive potential (r2 = 0.9064, RMSE = 0.09, q2 = 0.7323, rp2 = 0.7656, RMSP = 0.14. The mechanistic interpretation of the final model was given by the high variable importance in projection values of descriptors. Using PLS procedure, we can rapidly and effectively select optimal descriptors and thus construct a model with good stability and predictability. This analysis can provide an effective tool for the high-throughput screening of the placental barrier permeability of drugs.

  18. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  19. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, M.A.; Kovac, C.P.; Norris, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  20. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Silvia; Wintergerst, Eva S; Beveridge, Stephen; Hornig, Dietrich H

    2007-10-01

    Adequate intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilization by altering metabolic pathways. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, in certain diseases, during pregnancy and lactation, and in the elderly. This paper summarises the roles of selected vitamins and trace elements in immune function. Micronutrients contribute to the body's natural defences on three levels by supporting physical barriers (skin/mucosa), cellular immunity and antibody production. Vitamins A, C, E and the trace element zinc assist in enhancing the skin barrier function. The vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid and the trace elements iron, zinc, copper and selenium work in synergy to support the protective activities of the immune cells. Finally, all these micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and iron, are essential for antibody production. Overall, inadequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body's natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity.

  1. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  2. Towards a barrier height benchmark set for biologically relevant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C. Kromann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have collected computed barrier heights and reaction energies (and associated model structures for five enzymes from studies published by Himo and co-workers. Using this data, obtained at the B3LYP/6- 311+G(2d,2p[LANL2DZ]//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory, we then benchmark PM6, PM7, PM7-TS, and DFTB3 and discuss the influence of system size, bulk solvation, and geometry re-optimization on the error. The mean absolute differences (MADs observed for these five enzyme model systems are similar to those observed for PM6 and PM7 for smaller systems (10–15 kcal/mol, while DFTB results in a MAD that is significantly lower (6 kcal/mol. The MADs for PMx and DFTB3 are each dominated by large errors for a single system and if the system is disregarded the MADs fall to 4–5 kcal/mol. Overall, results for the condensed phase are neither more or less accurate relative to B3LYP than those in the gas phase. With the exception of PM7-TS, the MAD for small and large structural models are very similar, with a maximum deviation of 3 kcal/mol for PM6. Geometry optimization with PM6 shows that for one system this method predicts a different mechanism compared to B3LYP/6-31G(d,p. For the remaining systems, geometry optimization of the large structural model increases the MAD relative to single points, by 2.5 and 1.8 kcal/mol for barriers and reaction energies. For the small structural model, the corresponding MADs decrease by 0.4 and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. However, despite these small changes, significant changes in the structures are observed for some systems, such as proton transfer and hydrogen bonding rearrangements. The paper represents the first step in the process of creating a benchmark set of barriers computed for systems that are relatively large and representative of enzymatic reactions, a considerable challenge for any one research group but possible through a concerted effort by the community. We end by outlining steps needed to expand and

  3. Enhanced TEX biodegradation in nutrient briquet-peat barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.M.; Borden, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    A two-layer barrier system has been developed to remediate gasoline-contaminated ground water. This system consists of a nutrient briquet layer to continuously supply nitrate as the electron acceptor for contaminant biodegradation and a peat layer to remove residual nitrate via biological denitrification and residual contaminants by sorption. Nitrate release rates from three different sizes of concrete briquets were used to estimate parameters for modeling solute diffusion in aggregated porous media with mobile and stagnant porewater regions. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (TEX) biodegradation rates in denitrifying microcosms at pH 8 and 9 were lower than in microcosms at pH 7.4. No degradation was observed at pH 10 under denitrifying conditions. A laboratory-scale, permeable barrier system was developed to evaluate TEX removal and to identify any operational problems. Average removal efficiencies were 86% for toluene, 71% for ethylbenzene, 43% for m-xylene, and 28% for o-xylene in the nutrient briquet and downstream soil column over a 45-day operating period. There was no evidence of benzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions in the batch microcosms or continuous-flow columns

  4. Sub-barrier fusion of Si+Si systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colucci G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The near- and sub-barrier fusion excitation function has been measured for the system 30Si+30Si at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro of INFN, using the 30Si beam of the XTU Tandem accelerator in the energy range 47 - 90 MeV. A set-up based on a beam electrostatic deflector was used for detecting fusion evaporation residues. The measured cross sections have been compared to previous data on 28Si+28Si and Coupled Channels (CC calculations have been performed using M3Y+repulsion and Woods-Saxon potentials, where the lowlying 2+ and 3− excitations have been included. A weak imaginary potential was found to be necessary to reproduce the low energy 28Si+28Si data. This probably simulates the effect of the oblate deformation of this nucleus. On the contrary, 30Si is a spherical nucleus, 30Si+30Si is nicely fit by CC calculations and no imaginary potential is needed. For this system, no maximum shows up for the astrophysical S-factor so that we have no evidence for hindrance, as confirmed by the comparison with CC calculations. The logarithmic derivative of the two symmetric systems highlights their different low energy trend. A difference can also be noted in the two barrier distributions, where the high-energy peak present in 28Si+28Si is not observed for 30Si+30Si, probably due to the weaker couplings in last case.

  5. Sub-barrier fusion of Si+Si systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, G.; Montagnoli, G.; Stefanini, A. M.; Bourgin, D.; Čolović, P.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Faggian, M.; Fioretto, E.; Galtarossa, F.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Urbani, M.; Szilner, S.; Zhang, G. L.

    2017-11-01

    The near- and sub-barrier fusion excitation function has been measured for the system 30Si+30Si at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro of INFN, using the 30Si beam of the XTU Tandem accelerator in the energy range 47 - 90 MeV. A set-up based on a beam electrostatic deflector was used for detecting fusion evaporation residues. The measured cross sections have been compared to previous data on 28Si+28Si and Coupled Channels (CC) calculations have been performed using M3Y+repulsion and Woods-Saxon potentials, where the lowlying 2+ and 3- excitations have been included. A weak imaginary potential was found to be necessary to reproduce the low energy 28Si+28Si data. This probably simulates the effect of the oblate deformation of this nucleus. On the contrary, 30Si is a spherical nucleus, 30Si+30Si is nicely fit by CC calculations and no imaginary potential is needed. For this system, no maximum shows up for the astrophysical S-factor so that we have no evidence for hindrance, as confirmed by the comparison with CC calculations. The logarithmic derivative of the two symmetric systems highlights their different low energy trend. A difference can also be noted in the two barrier distributions, where the high-energy peak present in 28Si+28Si is not observed for 30Si+30Si, probably due to the weaker couplings in last case.

  6. Management-retrieval code system of fission barrier parameter sub-library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Limin; Su Zongdi; Ge Zhigang

    1995-01-01

    The fission barrier parameter (FBP) library, which is a sub-library of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameter library (CENPL), stores various popular used fission barrier parameters from different historical period, and could retrieve the required fission barrier parameters by using the management retrieval code system of the FBP sub-library. The function, feature and operation instruction of the code system are described briefly

  7. Scientific investigation plan for initial engineered barrier system field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunan Lin.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) is to describe tests known as Initial Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (IEBSFT) and identified by Work Breakdown Structure as WBS 1.2.2.2.4. The IEBSFT are precursors to the Engineered Barrier System Field Test (EBSFT), WBS 1.2.2.2.4, to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The EBSFT and IEBSFT are designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers) and the surrounding rock mass, its vadose water, and infiltrated water. Heater assemblies will be installed in drifts or boreholes openings and heated to measure moisture movement during heat-up and subsequent cool-down of the rock mass. In some of the tests, infiltration of water into the heated rock mass will be studied. Throughout the heating and cooling cycle, instruments installed in the rock will monitor such parameters as temperature, moisture content, concentration of some chemical species, and stress and strain. Rock permeability measurements, rock and fluid (water and gas) sampling, and fracture pattern measurements will also be made before and after the test

  8. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  9. Anticipated Barriers to Open Schooling System in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Aliyu Wushishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop plans for making Education for All a reality, four agencies of the United Nations brought together over 150 governments in 1990 to Jomtien, Thailand, and also in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of making education equally accessible to all. Nigeria is one of the countries that signed the Jomtien declaration in 1990, and one of those with the highest number of out-of-school children in the world with about 10.5 million out-of-school children in 2010. This figure represents 42% of its primary age population and 3.6 million more children out of school than ten years ago. Nigeria is now committed towards bridging the gap especially with the attempt towards establishing open schools, but considering the numerous problems confronting the existing public primary and secondary schools and other educational programmes, there are certain barriers that may hinder the successful implementation and smooth running of the proposed open schooling system. This paper examines the anticipated barriers that includes; corruption, lack of consistency in programmes, problem of electricity, lack of access to Internet, lack of fund, inadequate manpower and problem of recognition. For open schooling system to see the light of the day, some recommendations were suggested which, if taken into consideration will be useful to policy makers towards the successful launching and smooth running of the open schools and other laudable educational programmes in Nigeria.

  10. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  11. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  12. Edge transport barrier formation in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S; Minami, T; Oishi, T; Suzuki, C; Ida, K; Isobe, M; Yoshimura, Y; Nagaoka, K; Toi, K; Fujisawa, A; Akiyama, T; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, R; Kado, S; Matsuoka, K; Matsushita, H; Nakamura, K; Nakano, H; Nishimura, S; Nishiura, M; Ohshima, S; Shimizu, A; Takagi, S; Takahashi, C; Takeuchi, M; Yoshinuma, M

    2004-01-01

    The edge transport barrier (ETB) for particle transport is formed in the neutral beam (NB) heated hydrogen discharges in compact helical system (CHS). The transition to the ETB formation and the back transition are controlled by the heating power. The existence of the heating power threshold is confirmed and it is roughly proportional to the density. The Hα emission signal shows a clear drop at the transition (the timescale of signal decrease is ∼1 ms for the high heating power case). The ETB formation continues for the full duration of NB injection (100 ms) with a moderate level of radiation power loss. Local density profile measurement shows increase of the edge density and the movement of the density gradient region towards the edge

  13. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  14. Interpretation of quasi-elastic barrier distributions for weakly bound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, D.S.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We verify that quasi-elastic (elastic + inelastic) backscattering barrier distributions for weakly bound systems do not strictly correspond to fusion barrier distributions, but rather to reaction threshold distribution, as proposed by Zagrebaev in a recent paper concerning very heavy systems. In this work, we investigate whether Zagrebaevs interpretation is valid by comparing experimental results obtained in two very recent works with the 6 Li + 144 Sm system. Monteiro et al derived the quasi-elastic barrier distribution (or reaction threshold distribution, following Zagrebaevs interpretation) by adding elastic and inelastic backscattering for this system. Rath et al obtained fusion barrier distribution for the same system from the measured complete fusion cross section for the same system. We conclude that the quasi-elastic barrier distributions can be associated with fusion barrier distributions only in situations where there are no relevant reaction channels apart from fusion. This is not the situation for very heavy nor for weakly bound systems. (author)

  15. Connectivity and systemic resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia's iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR continues to suffer from repeated impacts of cyclones, coral bleaching, and outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS, losing much of its coral cover in the process. This raises the question of the ecosystem's systemic resilience and its ability to rebound after large-scale population loss. Here, we reveal that around 100 reefs of the GBR, or around 3%, have the ideal properties to facilitate recovery of disturbed areas, thereby imparting a level of systemic resilience and aiding its continued recovery. These reefs (1 are highly connected by ocean currents to the wider reef network, (2 have a relatively low risk of exposure to disturbances so that they are likely to provide replenishment when other reefs are depleted, and (3 have an ability to promote recovery of desirable species but are unlikely to either experience or spread COTS outbreaks. The great replenishment potential of these 'robust source reefs', which may supply 47% of the ecosystem in a single dispersal event, emerges from the interaction between oceanographic conditions and geographic location, a process that is likely to be repeated in other reef systems. Such natural resilience of reef systems will become increasingly important as the frequency of disturbances accelerates under climate change.

  16. Connectivity and systemic resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Wolff, Nicholas H; Ortiz, Juan C; Condie, Scott A; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Blackwell, Paul G; Mumby, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    Australia's iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR) continues to suffer from repeated impacts of cyclones, coral bleaching, and outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), losing much of its coral cover in the process. This raises the question of the ecosystem's systemic resilience and its ability to rebound after large-scale population loss. Here, we reveal that around 100 reefs of the GBR, or around 3%, have the ideal properties to facilitate recovery of disturbed areas, thereby imparting a level of systemic resilience and aiding its continued recovery. These reefs (1) are highly connected by ocean currents to the wider reef network, (2) have a relatively low risk of exposure to disturbances so that they are likely to provide replenishment when other reefs are depleted, and (3) have an ability to promote recovery of desirable species but are unlikely to either experience or spread COTS outbreaks. The great replenishment potential of these 'robust source reefs', which may supply 47% of the ecosystem in a single dispersal event, emerges from the interaction between oceanographic conditions and geographic location, a process that is likely to be repeated in other reef systems. Such natural resilience of reef systems will become increasingly important as the frequency of disturbances accelerates under climate change.

  17. Representing solute transport through the multi-barrier disposal system by simplified concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Nordman, H.; Pulkkanen, V-M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kekaelaeinen, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. pf Physics; Hautojaervi, A.

    2012-02-15

    The repository system chosen in Finland for spent nuclear fuel is composed of multiple successive transport barriers. If a waste canister is leaking, this multi-barrier system retards and limits the release rates of radionuclides into the biosphere. Analysis of radionuclide migration in the previous performance assessments has largely been based on numerical modelling of the repository system. The simplified analytical approach introduced here provides a tool to analyse the performance of the whole system using simplified representations of the individual transport barriers. This approach is based on the main characteristics of the individual barriers and on the generic nature of the coupling between successive barriers. In the case of underground repository the mass transfer between successive transport barriers is strongly restricted by the interfaces between barriers leading to well-mixed conditions in these barriers. The approach here simplifies the barrier system so that it can be described with a very simple compartment model, where each barrier is represented by a single, or in the case of buffer, by not more than two compartments. This system of compartments could be solved in analogy with a radioactive decay chain. The model of well mixed compartments lends itself to a very descriptive way to represent and analyse the barrier system because the relative efficiency of the different barriers in hindering transport of solutes can be parameterised by the solutes half-times in the corresponding compartments. In a real repository system there will also be a delay between the start of the inflow and the start of the outflow from the barrier. This delay can be important for the release rates of the short lived and sorbing radionuclides, and it was also included in the simplified representation of the barrier system. In a geological multi-barrier system, spreading of the outflowing release pulse is often governed by the typical behaviour of one transport barrier

  18. Selection Method for COTS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Andersson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Historically, organizations developed their information systems in-house. Today, a large portion of information systems development is based on the acquisition of pre-made information systems, so-called commercially off-the-shelf (COTS) systems. This approach for developing information systems re...

  19. Dynamic, size-selective effects of protamine sulfate and hyaluronidase on the rat glomerular filtration barrier in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverrisson, Kristinn; Axelsson, Josefin; Rippe, Anna; Asgeirsson, Daniel; Rippe, Bengt

    2014-11-15

    The proteinuric actions of protamine sulfate (PS) have classically been, at least partly, attributed to alterations of the negatively charged glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. To investigate whether the charge-selective properties of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) would be altered by PS, we assessed the glomerular sieving of conventional, uncharged, polydispersed Ficoll (n-Ficoll) compared with charge modified, conformationally intact, anionic (carboxymethylated) Ficoll (a-Ficoll) before and after systemic infusions of PS in rats. For comparison, we also investigated the impact of hyaluronidase (hyase), which partially degrades the glycocalyx, on GFB permeability. In anaesthetized Wistar rats, blood access was achieved, and the left ureter was cannulated for urine collection. Rats were infused with either n-Ficoll or a-Ficoll before and during systemic infusions with either PS or hyase. Plasma and urine samples were taken repeatedly and analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography to assess glomerular sieving coefficients (θ) for Ficoll (radius 10-80 Å). The GFB showed a significant glomerular charge selectivity for Ficoll molecules of radius 20-35 Å. PS and hyase infusions reversibly increased θ for large Ficoll molecules (Ficoll molecules of radius 50-80 Å). Thus, for PS, θ for a-Ficoll molecules of radius 70 Å increased from 2.47 × 10(-5) ± 1.1(-5) to 7.25 × 10(-5) ± 1.1(-5) (P < 0.05) at 15 min. For hyase, changes in a-Ficoll molecules of radius 50-80 Å were, however, not statistically significant. Neither PS nor hyase had any effect on θ for n-Ficoll molecules of radius 20-45 Å or a-Ficoll molecules of radius 20-45 Å. It is concluded that systemically administered PS and hyase in moderate doses dynamically decreased the size selectivity of the rat GFB without affecting its charge selective properties. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. System barriers to the evidence-based care of acute coronary syndrome patients in China: qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Rong, Ye; Du, Xin; Wang, Yangfang; Gao, Runlin; Patel, Anushka; Wu, Yangfeng; Iedema, Rick; Hao, Zhixin; Hu, Dayi; Turnbull, Fiona

    2014-03-01

    Organizational and wider health system factors influence the implementation and success of interventions. Clinical Pathways in Acute Coronary Syndromes 2 is a cluster randomized trial of a clinical pathway-based intervention to improve acute coronary syndrome care in hospitals in China. We performed a qualitative evaluation to examine the system-level barriers to implementing clinical pathways in the dynamic healthcare environment of China. A qualitative descriptive analysis of 40 in-depth interviews with health professionals conducted in a sample of 10 hospitals purposively selected to explore barriers to implementation of the intervention. Qualitative data were analyzed using the Framework method. In-depth interviews identified 5 key system-level barriers to effective implementation: (1) leadership support for implementing quality improvement, (2) variation in the capacity of clinical services and quality improvement resources, (3) fears of patient disputes and litigation, (4) healthcare funding constraints and high out-of-pocket expenses, and (5) patient-related factors. System-level barriers affect the ability of acute coronary syndrome clinical pathways to change practice. Addressing these barriers in the context of current and planned national health system reform will be critical for future improvements in the management of acute coronary syndromes, and potentially other hospitalized conditions, in China. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/default.aspx. Register. Unique identifier: ACTRN12609000491268.

  1. [Female migrants in the health care system. Health care utilisation, access barriers and health promotion strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Puchinger, B; Wolf, H; Engleder, A

    2006-09-01

    Due to the evident interaction between social factors and health, migrants are exposed to specific risk factors and access barriers to health services. Some examples are the lower education level, the low social position and/or the insufficient language skills. This concept is further elaborated in the multi-factorial impacts of health literacy. Female migrants often experience additional discrimination because of their gender. Despite the lack of representative data, consistent studies show that female migrants do not regularly take advantage of health care prevention and present themselves with higher degrees of stress. The current "inadequate health care" manifests itself in a lack of care in the areas of prevention and health education and an abundance in the context of medication and diagnostic procedures. To meet these demands and to further reduce barriers, in particular language barriers, specific strategies for this target group involving both politics and the health care system have to be developed. Besides the employment of interpreters with a native cultural background and the distribution of information booklets, it is an important strategy to reduce structural obstacles such as cultural diversity. To contact these women in their living environment should help to increase their self-determined health promotion. Selected models of good practice in Austria with regard to the themes of FGM (female genital mutilation), violence, heart disease and breast cancer are presented to highlight the specific health situation and risk factors of female migrants as well as successful strategies to confront them.

  2. Safety indicators used to prove the role of natural barrier for Saligny near surface disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, Ortenzia; Durdun, I.; Ionita, Gh.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The siting process for a near surface repository suitable for the radioactive waste resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation and decommissioning (low level radioactive waste with small amounts of long lived radionuclides) started in 1992 and it included the collection of data from specific field and laboratory works for each site selection stage as well as different safety performance evaluation. According to the IAEA standards (Safety Guide No.111-G-3.1, 1994), the purpose of the siting process is not to get the best solution but to find out 'an acceptable solution, with sufficient safety reserves'. Since 1996, detailed field and investigation works were performed in Saligny preferred site including an experimental area to test the improvement method proposed for the foundation ground of repository, as well as detailed performance assessments using specific computer codes. The paper presents the results of recent performance assessments for the natural barrier of disposal system. The calculations were done using HYDRUS 2D, FEHM and AMBER computer codes. The endpoint of the Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site [CITON and SCN, Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site, 2007, pages 8.2.1-1 to 8.2.1-22 and 8-63 to 8-70] was the assessment of safety indicators. Individual annual effective dose for exposed peoples (both workers and general public) was the main safety indicator. In the same document, the radionuclide concentration in the disposal system compartments has been evaluated, as supplementary safety indicator of repository barriers (especially to confirm the natural barrier performance). The results confirmed the performance of natural barrier: the maximum extension of H-3 and Co-60 contaminant plume after repository closure remains more above underground water level. In the aquifer, iodine concentration reaches a value of 10 -15 mol/l, at the same magnitude order with the admitted limit from CFR

  3. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Mellat-Karkevandi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS). This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness. PMID:26941816

  4. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS. This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness.

  5. The advantages and barriers in the implementation of a substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Mellat-Karkevandi, Zahra

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in different systems of society. Studies show for planning of addiction prevention and treatment, it is necessary to create an information management system. Substance dependence information systems refer to systems which collect, analyse and report data related to substance dependence information. The aim of this study was to identify advantages and barriers to implement Substance Dependence Treatment Information System (SDTIS). This study was a narrative review. Our review divided into three phases: literature collection, assessing, and selection. We employed the following keywords and their combinations in different areas of articles. In this study, 22 of collected articles and reports were selected based on their relevancy. We found many advantages for a substance dependence treatment information system such as recording sufficient, complete and accurate information and easy and timely access to them and monitoring and enhancing the quality of care received by patients. But we may face some concerns for implementing this information system like taking time and funds from client services, being expensive or even problems regarding the quality of data contained in these information systems. There are some important problems in the way of implementing. In order to overcome these issues, we need to raise community awareness.

  6. Sedimentary architecture and depositional controls of a Holocene wave-dominated barrier-island system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2018-01-01

    control. This study investigates the relative role of forcing conditions, such as antecedent topography, sea-level rise, sediment supply, storms and climate changes, on the evolution of a Holocene wave-dominated barrier-island system. This article presents temporal reconstruction of the depositional...... history of the barrier-island system of Rømø in the Wadden Sea in unprecedented detail, based on ground-penetration radar profiles, sediment cores, high-resolution dating and palynological investigations, and shows that ca 8000 years ago the barrier island formed on a Pleistocene topographic high. During...... the initial phase of barrier evolution the long-term sea-level rise was relatively rapid (ca 9 mm/yr) and the barrier was narrow and frequently overwashed. Sediment supply kept pace with sea-level rise and the barrier-island system mainly aggraded through the deposition of a ca 7 m thick stack of overwash...

  7. Development of guidelines for cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  8. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  9. Analysis of Barriers against Wheat Farmers' Participation in the Formation of Water Users Association: the Case of Dez Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali pazhuhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at analyzing the barriers against wheat farmers' participation in the formation of water users association within the framework of a descriptive survey. The sample of this study included 375 wheat farmers in Dez irrigation system who were selected through random cluster sampling and were studied through a questionnaire. The reliability index of this questionnaire was estimated to be 0.89. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts and scholars in the field. After the participants filled the questionnaires and the data were collected, the SPSS software package was used to analyze the data. In addition, the results of factor analysis related to the items of barriers led to the extraction of four barriers. These barriers, in order of importance, include the lack of proper infrastructures and economic facilities, social barriers, inadequate structural characteristics and lack of risk-taking, local organizations and lack of attention to extension activities that explain 60.78 percent of the variance of all the barriers.

  10. Modelled in vivo HIV fitness under drug selective pressure and estimated genetic barrier towards resistance are predictive for virological response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deforche, Koen; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Theys, Kristof

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A method has been developed to estimate a fitness landscape experienced by HIV-1 under treatment selective pressure as a function of the genotypic sequence thereby also estimating the genetic barrier to resistance. METHODS: We evaluated the performance of two estimated fitness landsca...

  11. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance. It can also lead to paralysis. Current treatments for autoimmune disorders involve the use of immunosuppressant drugs. These work by tamping down immune system activity. However, they can also leave patients susceptible to infections and increase their risk of ...

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Stormwater Decision Support Tools for Infrastructure Selection and the Barriers to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, K.; Hogue, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Selecting the most appropriate green, gray, and / or hybrid system for stormwater treatment and conveyance can prove challenging to decision markers across all scales, from site managers to large municipalities. To help streamline the selection process, a multi-disciplinary team of academics and professionals is developing an industry standard for selecting and evaluating the most appropriate stormwater management technology for different regions. To make the tool more robust and comprehensive, life-cycle cost assessment and optimization modules will be included to evaluate non-monetized and ecosystem benefits of selected technologies. Initial work includes surveying advisory board members based in cities that use existing decision support tools in their infrastructure planning process. These surveys will qualify the decisions currently being made and identify challenges within the current planning process across a range of hydroclimatic regions and city size. Analysis of social and other non-technical barriers to adoption of the existing tools is also being performed, with identification of regional differences and institutional challenges. Surveys will also gage the regional appropriateness of certain stormwater technologies based off experiences in implementing stormwater treatment and conveyance plans. In additional to compiling qualitative data on existing decision support tools, a technical review of components of the decision support tool used will be performed. Gaps in each tool's analysis, like the lack of certain critical functionalities, will be identified and ease of use will be evaluated. Conclusions drawn from both the qualitative and quantitative analyses will be used to inform the development of the new decision support tool and its eventual dissemination.

  13. Volumetric analysis of a New England barrier system using ground-penetrating-radar and coring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heteren, S.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Barber, D.C.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) profiles calibrated with core data allow accurate assessments of coastal barrier volumes. We applied this procedure successfully to the barrier system along Saco Bay, Maine (USA), as part of a sediment-budget study that focused on present-day sand volumes in various coastal, shoreface, and inner-shelf lith-osomes, and on sand fluxes that have affected the volume or distribution of sand in these sediment bodies through time. On GPR profiles, the components of the barrier lithosome are readily differentiated from other facies, except where the radar signal is attenuated by brackish or salty groundwater. Significant differences between dielectric properties of the barrier lithosome and other units commonly result in strong boundary reflectors. The mostly sandy barrier sediments allow deep penetration of GPR waves, in contrast to finer-grained strata and till-covered bedrock. Within the Saco Bay barrier system, 22 ??3 x 106 m3 of sediment are unevenly distributed. Two-thirds of the total barrier volume is contained within the northern and southern ends of the study area, in the Pine Point spit and the Ferry Beach/Goosefare complex, respectively. The central area around Old Orchard Beach is locally covered by only a thin veneer of barrier sand, averaging <3 m, that unconformably overlies shallow pre-Holocene facies. The prominence of barrier-spit facies and the distribution pattern of back-barrier sediments indicate that a high degree of segmentation, governed by antecedent topography, has affected the development of the Saco Bay barrier system. The present-day configuration of the barrier and back-barrier region along Saco Bay, however, conceals much of its early compartmentalized character.

  14. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  15. Building barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, Kursad

    2017-10-02

    Formation of tissue barriers starts in early development where it is critical for normal cell fate selection, differentiation and organogenesis. Barrier maintenance is critical to the ongoing function of organs during adulthood and aging. Dysfunctional tissue barrier formation and function at any stage of the organismal life cycle underlies many disease states.

  16. Oil Impregnated Pressboard Barrier Systems Based on Ester Fluids for an Application in HVDC Insulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Rumpelt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ester-based insulation fluids are being increasingly used in high-voltage insulation systems. The reasons are the advantages in the area of ecological compatibility and resource-saving provision. The intention to use ester-based insulation fluids in high voltage direct current (HVDC equipment is new. The major challenge in designing the HVDC insulation system is, that the systems do not only experience an alternating voltage, but also a direct voltage Offset. This presents a challenge to predict the electric field distribution. For this purpose, basic investigations are carried out in the form of conductivity investigations for various insulation barrier systems. In addition, a mineral oil serves as a reference oil for estimating existing insights. The results show the influence of the ester-based insulating liquids on the direct current (DC conductivity for basic arrangements, consisting of pressboard barriers and mixed insulations.

  17. Selection strategy for the most Suitable CEC method for clay barrier characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is one of the most relevant properties of clay barriers. CEC results often are used for characterization of the clay host rock or for sensitive detection of degradation of the barrier material, e.g. bentonite buffer. Numerous methods exist for the determination of the CEC and exchangeable cations. However, a lot of methods suffer from systematic errors. These errors are caused by interactions (that differ from cation exchange) of the exchange solutions used with minerals in the barrier material: i) Dissolution of soluble minerals such as calcite, gypsum, or dolomite which causes inflated exchangeable calcium (magnesium) values. Other reactions of carbonates or gypsum not only affect exchangeable cations but also the CEC (index cation) values in a way that ii) witherite (barium carbonate) is formed and dissolved later (barium chloride method) which causes inflated CEC values or iii) rests of gypsum are present during reexchange with magnesium chloride (barium chloride method) which then leads to drastic CEC underestimation by formation of barium sulphate (here simultaneously barium ions are desorbed from exchange positions and sulphate enters the solution due to gypsum dissolution). When the ammonium acetate method is used for CEC determination of calcareous clays/bentonites another mechanism for a systematic CEC decrease occurs: iv) ammonium acetate is first used to saturate the clay components in a regular way (cation exchange), but during washing for removal of excess salt, ammonium is desorbed again from exchange positions by calcium which is liberated (dissolved) from remaining calcite of calcareous clays studied. Other errors may be v) the degradation of cationic complexes (silver thiourea, if pH > 8) or vi) substances which are added to adjust the pH of the exchange solutions such as triethanolamine in barium chloride exchange solution which may be protonated and adsorbed in

  18. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Descriptor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices it is often the case that the system, which...... is needed to be controlled, is either in the descriptor form or can be represented in the descriptor form. Singular systems and the differential algebraic equation (DAE) systems are among these systems. Descriptor systems appear in the variety of fields to describe the practical processes ranging from power...... systems, hydraulic systems to heat transfer, and chemical processes. The focus of this paper is on the problem of control configuration selection for multivariable descriptor systems. A gramian-based interaction measure for control configuration selection of such processes is described in this paper...

  19. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.; Cantrell, K.; Stewart, W.

    1996-10-01

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by placing a reactant material (in this experiment, metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  20. Assessment of dual selection in grid based selectivity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sistiaga, Manu; Herrmann, Bent; Grimaldo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Herein we propose a method to assess dual selection in grid based selectivity systems. This method takes into account the parameter “grid contact likelihood” (Cgrid), which can be interpreted as the proportion of fish that actually makes an attempt to escape through the grid. In a case study...... of the Barents Sea cod and haddock trawl fishery, we demonstrate that our model describes the experimental data better than the models previously used to fit similar data. For both cod and haddock, Cgrid was significantly smaller than 1.0, which demonstrated the relevance of the proposed model. Cgrid was higher......-compartment setup to avoid imprecise estimates of Cgrid, L50grid, SRgrid, L50codend, and SRcodend. In general, only the combined selectivity of the grid and the codend could be estimated with acceptable precision using a standard two-compartment sampling approach....

  1. Selective HDAC6 inhibition prevents TNF-α-induced lung endothelial cell barrier disruption and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinyan; Ma, Zhongsen; Shetty, Sreerama; Ma, Mengshi; Fu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Lung endothelial damage contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. New strategies against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction may provide therapeutic benefits against lung vascular injury. Cell-cell junctions and microtubule cytoskeleton are basic components in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. HDAC6, a deacetylase primarily localized in the cytoplasm, has been reported to modulate nonnuclear protein function through deacetylation. Both α-tubulin and β-catenin are substrates for HDAC6. Here, we examined the effects of tubastatin A, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor, on TNF-α induced lung endothelial cell barrier disruption and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema. Selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A blocked TNF-α-induced lung endothelial cell hyperpermeability, which was associated with increased α-tubulin acetylation and microtubule stability. Tubastatin A pretreatment inhibited TNF-α-induced endothelial cell contraction and actin stress fiber formation with reduced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A also induced β-catenin acetylation in human lung endothelial cells, which was associated with increased membrane localization of β-catenin and stabilization of adherens junctions. HDAC6 knockdown by small interfering RNA also prevented TNF-α-induced barrier dysfunction and increased α-tubulin and β-catenin acetylation in endothelial cells. Furthermore, in a mouse model of endotoxemia, tubastatin A was able to prevent endotoxin-induced deacetylation of α-tubulin and β-catenin in lung tissues, which was associated with reduced pulmonary edema. Collectively, our data indicate that selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A is a potent approach against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcia, G; Anderson, C A; Brown, N M D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report and discuss a surface treatment method, using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of random filamentary type. This offers a convenient, reliable and economic alternative for the controlled modification (so far, largely dependent on surface oxidation) of various categories of material surfaces. Remarkably uniform treatment and markedly stable modified surface properties result over the entire area of the test surfaces exposed to the discharge even at transit speeds simulating those associated with continuous on-line processing. The effects of air-DBD treatment on the surfaces of various polymer films and polymer-based fabrics were studied. The dielectric barrier concerned has been characterized in terms of the energy deposited by the discharge at the processing electrodes and the resultant modifications of the surface properties of the treated samples were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle/wickability measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the surface treatment parameters, such as the energy deposited by the discharge, the inter-electrode gap and the treatment time were examined and related to the post-treatment surface characteristics of the materials processed. Relationships between the processing parameters and the properties of the DBD treated samples were thus established. Of the three process variables investigated, the duration of the treatment was found to have a more significant effect on the surface modifications found than did the discharge energy or the inter-electrode gap. Very short air-DBD treatments (fractions of a second in duration) markedly and uniformly modified the surface characteristics for all the materials treated, to the effect that wettability, wickability and the level of oxidation of the surface appear to be increased strongly within the first 0.1-0.2 s of treatment. Any subsequent surface modification following longer treatment (>1.0 s) was less important

  3. Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcia, G.; Anderson, C. A.; Brown, N. M. D.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we report and discuss a surface treatment method, using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of random filamentary type. This offers a convenient, reliable and economic alternative for the controlled modification (so far, largely dependent on surface oxidation) of various categories of material surfaces. Remarkably uniform treatment and markedly stable modified surface properties result over the entire area of the test surfaces exposed to the discharge even at transit speeds simulating those associated with continuous on-line processing. The effects of air-DBD treatment on the surfaces of various polymer films and polymer-based fabrics were studied. The dielectric barrier concerned has been characterized in terms of the energy deposited by the discharge at the processing electrodes and the resultant modifications of the surface properties of the treated samples were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle/wickability measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the surface treatment parameters, such as the energy deposited by the discharge, the inter-electrode gap and the treatment time were examined and related to the post-treatment surface characteristics of the materials processed. Relationships between the processing parameters and the properties of the DBD treated samples were thus established. Of the three process variables investigated, the duration of the treatment was found to have a more significant effect on the surface modifications found than did the discharge energy or the inter-electrode gap. Very short air-DBD treatments (fractions of a second in duration) markedly and uniformly modified the surface characteristics for all the materials treated, to the effect that wettability, wickability and the level of oxidation of the surface appear to be increased strongly within the first 0.1-0.2 s of treatment. Any subsequent surface modification following longer treatment (>1.0 s) was less important

  4. Overcoming energy efficiency barriers through systems approach—A conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Kah-Hin; Yeo, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework which categorizes energy efficiency barriers based on the stage at which the barriers exist. Barriers to energy efficiency have been widely studied but to our knowledge, except for a few studies, we found inadequate consideration for barrier–barrier interactions when proposing policy measures for improving energy efficiency. Leveraging systems thinking's power as a problem solver which identifies underlying structure that explains (similar) patterns of behavior in a variety of different situations, we attempted to identify patterns of barriers to adoption of energy efficiency measures in industrial companies. Inspired by systems thinking, the proposed framework has four stages, namely, Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results, as well as a feedback loop. Using a case study, we show that following the four stages will lead to positive feedback for future energy efficiency implementations. The framework highlights the interconnected nature of the barriers and a need for policymakers to address these barriers in a holistic manner. We argue that the overall effectiveness of energy efficiency policies is only as strong as the weakest link in the four-stage framework. This differs from most prior research that addressed barriers in isolation, where a solution is proposed for each of the barriers without considering the relationship between the barriers. Our framework also offers a way to understand the roles and responsibilities of major stakeholders such as governments and energy service companies (ESCOs) in driving energy efficiency. This allows the assessment and identification of weak links in energy efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► We propose a systems approach to overcome energy efficiency barriers. ► Barriers are grouped into Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results. ► Case study shows that there is a feedback loop from Results to Motivation. ► Current Results will affect future Motivation.

  5. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Komareji, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices, it is often the case that systems, which...... diagonal controller structure. The interaction measure is used for control configuration selection of the nonlinear quadruple-tank process....

  6. Barriers for Students' Learning of Holistic Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Madsen, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Ud fra aktionsforskning af faget Informationsbehandling på bachelorprogrammet HA/DØK ved Copenhagen Business School undersøger vi i denne artikel hvilke barriere de studerende oplever i forbindelse med læring af holistisk systemudvikling og hvorfor. Siden 1980'erne har man i (dele af) litterature...

  7. Understanding the barriers to physician error reporting and disclosure: a systemic approach to a systemic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Bianca; Knych, Stephen A; Weaver, Sallie J; Liberman, Aaron; Abel, Eileen M; Oetjen, Dawn; Wan, Thomas T H

    2014-03-01

    The issues of medical errors and medical malpractice have stimulated significant interest in establishing transparency in health care, in other words, ensuring that medical professionals formally report medical errors and disclose related outcomes to patients and families. However, research has amply shown that transparency is not a universal practice among physicians. A review of the literature was carried out using the search terms "transparency," "patient safety," "disclosure," "medical error," "error reporting," "medical malpractice," "doctor-patient relationship," and "physician" to find articles describing physician barriers to transparency. The current literature underscores that a complex Web of factors influence physician reluctance to engage in transparency. Specifically, 4 domains of barriers emerged from this analysis: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and societal. Transparency initiatives will require vigorous, interdisciplinary efforts to address the systemic and pervasive nature of the problem. Several ethical and social-psychological barriers suggest that medical schools and hospitals should collaborate to establish continuity in education and ensure that knowledge acquired in early education is transferred into long-term learning. At the institutional level, practical and cultural barriers suggest the creation of supportive learning environments and private discussion forums where physicians can seek moral support in the aftermath of an error. To overcome resistance to culture transformation, incremental change should be considered, for example, replacing arcane transparency policies and complex reporting mechanisms with clear, user-friendly guidelines.

  8. Barriers and opportunities: A review of selected successful energy-efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements

  9. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  10. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development: Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M.A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  11. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arbore...

  12. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Selecting a Computerized Library Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherron, Gene T.; Gattone, Dean R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of microcomputers in libraries is making online processing less expensive and more effective than traditional manual and batch processes. Procedures followed by the University of Maryland in selecting a computerized library information system from among several turnkey, online circulation systems are described. (MLW)

  14. Selecting Telephone Systems for a School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Steve

    1989-01-01

    A tried and tested formula for selecting the right telephone system includes the following elements: determining telephone system needs, considering future growth, using written proposals to make comparisons, and shopping for quality products with excellent references. Flagstaff (Arizona) Uified School District's experience is used to illustrate…

  15. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier - marshes - lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Trueba, J.; Mariotti, G.

    2015-12-01

    Low-lying coasts are often characterized by barriers islands, shore-parallel stretches of sand separated from the mainland by marshes and lagoons. We built an exploratory numerical model to examine the morphological feedbacks within an idealized barrier - marshes -lagoon system and predict its evolution under projected rates of sea level rise and sediment supply to the backbarrier environment. Our starting point is a recently developed morphodynamic model, which couples shoreface evolution and overwash processes in a dynamic framework. As such, the model is able to capture dynamics not reproduced by morphokinematic models, which advect geometries without specific concern to processes. These dynamics include periodic barrier retreat due to time lags in the shoreface response to barrier overwash, height drowning due to insufficient overwash fluxes as sea level rises, and width drowning, which occurs when the shoreface response rate is insufficient to maintain the barrier geometry during overwash-driven landward migration. We extended the model by coupling the barrier model with a model for the evolution of the marsh platform and the boundary between the marsh and the adjacent lagoon. The coupled model explicitly describes marsh edge processes and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with lagoon width (fetch). Model results demonstrate that changes in factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers, such as the lagoon width and the rate of export/import of sediments from and to the lagoon, can lead to previously unidentified complex responses of the coupled system. In particular, a wider lagoon in the backbarrier, and/or a reduction in the supply of muddy sediments to the backbarrier, can increase barrier retreat rates and even trigger barrier drowning. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of incorporating backbarrier dynamics in models that aim at predicting the response of barrier systems.

  16. Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-04-01

    This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The models results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. A look at computer system selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, E. W.; Flowers, F. L.; Stanley, W. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    There is no difficulty in identifying the criteria involved in the computer selection process; complexity arises in objectively evaluating various candidate configurations against the criteria, based on the user's specific needs. A model for formalizing the selection process consists of two major steps: verifying that the candidate configuration is adequate to the user's programming requirements, and determining an overall system evaluation rating based on cost, usability, adaptability, and availability. A 36 step instruction for computer sizing evaluation is included in the appendix along with a sample application of the configuration adequacy model. Selection criteria and the weighting process are also discussed.

  18. Predicting the continuum between corridors and barriers to animal movements using Step Selection Functions and Randomized Shortest Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzacchi, Manuela; Van Moorter, Bram; Strand, Olav; Saerens, Marco; Kivimäki, Ilkka; St Clair, Colleen C; Herfindal, Ivar; Boitani, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat everywhere on Earth prompts increasing attention to identifying landscape features that support animal movement (corridors) or impedes it (barriers). Most algorithms used to predict corridors assume that animals move through preferred habitat either optimally (e.g. least cost path) or as random walkers (e.g. current models), but neither extreme is realistic. We propose that corridors and barriers are two sides of the same coin and that animals experience landscapes as spatiotemporally dynamic corridor-barrier continua connecting (separating) functional areas where individuals fulfil specific ecological processes. Based on this conceptual framework, we propose a novel methodological approach that uses high-resolution individual-based movement data to predict corridor-barrier continua with increased realism. Our approach consists of two innovations. First, we use step selection functions (SSF) to predict friction maps quantifying corridor-barrier continua for tactical steps between consecutive locations. Secondly, we introduce to movement ecology the randomized shortest path algorithm (RSP) which operates on friction maps to predict the corridor-barrier continuum for strategic movements between functional areas. By modulating the parameter Ѳ, which controls the trade-off between exploration and optimal exploitation of the environment, RSP bridges the gap between algorithms assuming optimal movements (when Ѳ approaches infinity, RSP is equivalent to LCP) or random walk (when Ѳ → 0, RSP → current models). Using this approach, we identify migration corridors for GPS-monitored wild reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus) in Norway. We demonstrate that reindeer movement is best predicted by an intermediate value of Ѳ, indicative of a movement trade-off between optimization and exploration. Model calibration allows identification of a corridor-barrier continuum that closely fits empirical data and demonstrates that RSP

  19. Barriers and opportunities: A review of selected successful energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-03-20

    In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements.

  20. Barriers to Mitigate Carbon Footprint in a Selected Academic Institution in Bacoor City, Cavite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanza, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon footprint is an environmental menace that needs to be addressed at once. Various mitigating measures were proposed and yet manifestations of its proliferation are very much observable. This study seeks to determine primarily the barriers of non-adherence to identified measures to mitigate carbon footprint in the environment. Using the mixed…

  1. An investigation of enhanced capability thermal barrier coating systems for diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, R. L.; Layne, J. L.; Schechter, B.

    1984-01-01

    Material systems and processes for the development of effective and durable thermal barriers for heavy duty diesel engines were investigated. Seven coating systems were evaluated for thermal conductivity, erosion resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance. An advanced coating system based on plasma sprayed particle yttria stabilized zirconia (PS/HYSZ) was judged superior in these tests. The measured thermal conductivity of the selected coating was 0.893 W/m C at 371 C. The PS/HYSZ coating system was applied to the piston crown, fire deck and valves of a single cylinder low heat rejection diesel engine. The coated engine components were tested for 24 hr at power levels from 0.83 MPa to 1.17 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The component coatings survived the engine tests with a minimum of distress. The measured fire deck temperatures decreased 86 C (155 F) on the intake side and 42 C (75 F) on the exhaust side with the coating applied.

  2. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier-marsh-lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Mariotti, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    The long-term dynamic evolution of an idealized barrier-marsh-lagoon system experiencing sea-level rise is studied by coupling two existing numerical models. The barrier model accounts for the interaction between shoreface dynamics and overwash flux, which allows the occurrence of barrier drowning. The marsh-lagoon model includes both a backbarrier marsh and an interior marsh, and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with changes in lagoon width and depth. Overwash, the key process that connects the barrier shoreface with the marsh-lagoon ecosystems, is formulated to account for the role of the backbarrier marsh. Model results show that a number of factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers can enhance the rate of overwash-driven landward migration by increasing backbarrier accommodation space. For instance, lagoon deepening could be triggered by marsh edge retreat and consequent export of fine sediment via tidal dispersion, as well as by an expansion of inland marshes and consequent increase in accommodation space to be filled in with sediment. A deeper lagoon results in a larger fraction of sediment overwash being subaqueous, which coupled with a slow shoreface response sending sediment onshore can trigger barrier drowning. We therefore conclude that the supply of fine sediments to the back-barrier and the dynamics of both the interior and backbarrier marsh can be essential for maintaining the barrier system under elevated rates of sea-level rise. Our results highlight the importance of considering barriers and their associated backbarriers as part of an integrated system in which sediment is exchanged.

  3. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  4. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  5. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  6. Proxy records of Holocene storm events in coastal barrier systems: Storm-wave induced markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jérôme; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storm events in the coastal zone are one of the main forcing agents of short-term coastal system behavior. As such, storms represent a major threat to human activities concentrated along the coasts worldwide. In order to better understand the frequency of extreme events like storms, climate science must rely on longer-time records than the century-scale records of instrumental weather data. Proxy records of storm-wave or storm-wind induced activity in coastal barrier systems deposits have been widely used worldwide in recent years to document past storm events during the last millennia. This review provides a detailed state-of-the-art compilation of the proxies available from coastal barrier systems to reconstruct Holocene storm chronologies (paleotempestology). The present paper aims (I) to describe the erosional and depositional processes caused by storm-wave action in barrier and back-barrier systems (i.e. beach ridges, storm scarps and washover deposits), (ii) to understand how storm records can be extracted from barrier and back-barrier sedimentary bodies using stratigraphical, sedimentological, micro-paleontological and geochemical proxies and (iii) to show how to obtain chronological control on past storm events recorded in the sedimentary successions. The challenges that paleotempestology studies still face in the reconstruction of representative and reliable storm-chronologies using these various proxies are discussed, and future research prospects are outlined.

  7. A modelling strategy to design hedgerow barrier systems for water conservation in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van E.E.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2000-01-01

    Heterogeneity in space and time makes it difficult to evaluate the hydrologic effects of hedgerows in between crops. In this study a robust modelling system for designing hedgerow barrier systems is introduced. The system is demonstrated with experimental data over three years from a site in central

  8. Selecting RMF Controls for National Security Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the United States Department of Defense started tra nsitioning the way it performs risk management and accreditation of informatio n systems to a process entitled Risk Management Framework for DoD Information Technology or RMF for DoD IT. There are many more security and privacy contro ls (and control enhancements) from which to select in RMF, than there w ere in the previous Information Assurance process. This report is an attempt t o clarify the way security controls and enhancements are selected. After a brief overview and comparison of RMF for DoD I T with the previously used process, this report looks at the determination of systems as National Security Systems (NSS). Once deemed to be an NSS, this report addr esses the categorization of the information system with respect to impact level s of the various security objectives and the selection of an initial baseline o f controls. Next, the report describes tailoring the controls through the use of overl ays and scoping considerations. Finally, the report discusses organizatio n-defined values for tuning the security controls to the needs of the information system.

  9. Barriers to change in engineering the system of health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Jonathan F; Johns, Michael M E

    2010-01-01

    Significant reform of the health care system sufficient to achieve universal coverage, a value-driven system and administrative simplification faces enormous barriers at the level of our societal ecosystem - barriers as large as any that can be faced in public policy. These barriers exist within the health system itself as a complex adaptive system, and are structured by our economic, legal, cultural and political systems. Because there are so many barriers, significant reform is a relatively rare occurrence. Yet it does happen and there are some important examples of major health care reforms. There are a number of lessons to be learned from the successful enactment of the Medicare and Medicaid programs that appear relevant to current and future reform efforts. First, a necessary condition for achieving significant reform is the existence of large and sufficiently enduring social forces sufficient to disrupt legislative and policy stasis and drive the necessary political solutions. Second, public sentiment and electoral "mandates" might be necessary to significant reform, but they are not sufficient. Third, assuming the theoretical capacity to manage the constellation of systemic, economic, legal, cultural and legislative barriers, there remains a political "tipping point" that must be crossed and translated into a Congressional super-majority in order to enact significant nationwide reform.

  10. Selective evolutionary generation systems: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A.

    This dissertation is devoted to the problem of behavior design, which is a generalization of the standard global optimization problem: instead of generating the optimizer, the generalization produces, on the space of candidate optimizers, a probability density function referred to as the behavior. The generalization depends on a parameter, the level of selectivity, such that as this parameter tends to infinity, the behavior becomes a delta function at the location of the global optimizer. The motivation for this generalization is that traditional off-line global optimization is non-resilient and non-opportunistic. That is, traditional global optimization is unresponsive to perturbations of the objective function. On-line optimization methods that are more resilient and opportunistic than their off-line counterparts typically consist of the computationally expensive sequential repetition of off-line techniques. A novel approach to inexpensive resilience and opportunism is to utilize the theory of Selective Evolutionary Generation Systems (SECS), which sequentially and probabilistically selects a candidate optimizer based on the ratio of the fitness values of two candidates and the level of selectivity. Using time-homogeneous, irreducible, ergodic Markov chains to model a sequence of local, and hence inexpensive, dynamic transitions, this dissertation proves that such transitions result in behavior that is called rational; such behavior is desirable because it can lead to both efficient search for an optimizer as well as resilient and opportunistic behavior. The dissertation also identifies system-theoretic properties of the proposed scheme, including equilibria, their stability and their optimality. Moreover, this dissertation demonstrates that the canonical genetic algorithm with fitness proportional selection and the (1+1) evolutionary strategy are particular cases of the scheme. Applications in three areas illustrate the versatility of the SECS theory: flight

  11. Barriers to serving clients with co-occurring disorders in a transformed mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwa, Howard; Guerrero, Erick G; Braslow, Joel T; Fenwick, Karissa M

    2015-05-01

    The publication of the President's New Freedom Commission Report in 2003 led to hope and anticipation that system transformation would address barriers that have impeded the delivery of integrated services for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Have problems been resolved? This study analyzed providers' perspectives on serving clients with co-occurring disorders in a large mental health system that has undergone transformation. Six focus groups were conducted with providers at specialty mental health treatment organizations that received funding to transform services. Using content analysis, the authors identified major themes of the focus group discussions. Participants reported several barriers within the mental health system and challenges associated with collaborating with specialty substance abuse treatment providers that impede the delivery of integrated care. In spite of efforts to improve co-occurring disorder service delivery in a transformed mental health system, barriers that have historically impeded integrated treatment persist.

  12. Manufacture and test of prototype water pipe chase barrier in ITER Magnet Feeder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Kun, E-mail: lukun@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wen, Xinjie; Liu, Chen; Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui (China); Niu, Erwu [ITER China, 15B Fuxing Road, Beijing 100862 (China); Gung, Chenyu; Su, Man [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    The Magnet Feeder system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) deploys electrical currents and supercritical helium to the superconducting magnets and the magnet diagnostic signals to the operators. In the current design, the feeders located in the upper L3 level of the Tokamak gallery penetrate the Tokamak coolant water system vault, the biological shield and the cryostat. As a secondary confinement to contain the activated coolant water in the vault in the case of water pipe burst accident, a water barrier is welded between the penetration in the water pipe chase outer wall and the mid-plane of the vacuum jacket of the Feeder Coil Terminal Box (CTB). A thin-wall stainless steel diaphragm with an omega shape profile is welded around the CTB as the water barrier to endure 2 bar hydraulic pressure. In addition, the barrier is designed as a flexible compensator to withstand a maximum of 15 mm of axial displacement of the CTB in case of helium leak accident without failure. This paper presents the detail configuration, the manufacturing and assembly processes of the water barrier. Test results of the prototype water barrier under simulated accident conditions are also reported. Successful qualification of the design and manufacturing process of the water barrier lays a good foundation for the series production of this subsystem.

  13. Sub-barrier fusion and transfers in the 40Ca + 58,64Ni systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgin D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The 40Ca beam was delivered by the XTU Tandem accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and evaporation residues were measured at very forward angles with the LNL electrostatic beam deflector. Coupled-channels calculations were performed which highlight possible strong effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni system. Microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations have also been performed for both systems. Preliminary results are shown.

  14. QUANTIFYING BARRIERS TO TRADE IN SERVICES THROUGHCOMMERCIAL PRESENCE: SELECTED SERVICES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirwan Noh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The services sector in Malaysia is slowlyliberalising in terms of equityownership. However, trade and investment barriers in the services sector aredifficult to measure since it is not easily quantifiable. Previous studies weremainly macro-level, multi-country cross-sectional assessments while there are nocountry level studies over time. This paper has two objectives. The first is tomeasure barriers to trade in services carried out through commercial presence(Mode 3 in Malaysia in several industries over time. The second objective is toassess the policy implications of the measurement obtained.Based on availabledata, the industries covered in this study include communications, construction,distribution, higher education, financial, healthcare, tourism and transportationand logistics services from 2001-2010.This assessment is important asMalaysiahopes to attract more foreign direct investment (FDI intoitsservices sector.Information is gathered throughsurveys, focus group discussions andcontentanalysis ofsecondary sources.Restrictive policies on FDI aretransformed intoanindex to measure the extent of liberalisation for each subsector.Based on theindex, it can be seen that theliberalisationprocessis still slow. To facilitatefurther progress inliberalising the services sector, it is important toliberalisebarriersbeyond mere equityownership.

  15. Selection of hospital information systems: user participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Motivated by economic and quality management issues, many hospitals strive for the introduction of information systems into the clinical environment. To introduce the most suitable software product, a systematic selection procedure is required involving all affected staff. The paper describes a methodology that guides the clinical users to an objective motivated decision. This semi-formal methodology is necessary in view of missing standard models for the description of hospital information systems and leads to high acceptance in practical use. The methodology consists of structured product demonstrations with a quantitative assessment, benefit-value-analyses based on step weights for the functions needed, and test installations. Prerequisite of this procedure was the definition of objectives and priorities in a standard catalog that was used as reference in the whole project. Selecting a software product following this systematic procedure establishes a sound basis for a successful application in the clinical environment.

  16. Analysis of an appropriate CRM system selection

    OpenAIRE

    Leitmančík, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Using three different real CRM products (Salesforce.com, MS Dynamics CRM, e-CRM Way)solves a number of sample problems and requirements of three exemplar companies. The right configuration of CRM system may lead to lower costs of obtaining information for managers, obtain information about customer for sales representatives and better overall cooperation with the customer. A problem that may arise and that is solved it this work is selection of the right CRM solution for the company after eva...

  17. Fusion and particle transfer around the Coulomb-Barrier in intermediate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The most important characteristics of fusion reactions below and around the Coulomb-barrier are summarized. Experimental fusion cross sections for typical systems are discussed and compared with current formulae obtained from semi-classical and quantum tunneling approaches. The influence of nucleons transfer in the enhancement of the fusion cross section below the Coulomb-barrier is also shown. Sub-barrier fusion cross sections for the systems 35,37 Cl + 58,64 Ni and 33 S + 90,91,92 Zr, and near-barrier cross sections of all important transfer channels have been measured using the XTU-TANDEM at Legnaro, Italy. In 35,37 Cl + 58,64 Ni systems, the motivation further investigated was the influence of the valence proton in the enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross section. The data are discussed in comparison with the similar data of 34,36 S + 58,64 Ni with the aim of revealing the influence of coupled proton transfer channels. Calculations were performed using the simplified coupled channel code CCFUS including ''pick-up'' of one and two neutrons and ''stripping'' of two neutrons channels. Signatures of positive Q-values transfer channels coupled to fusion were clearly identified. For the 33 S + 90,91,92 Zr systems taking into account the coupling effects between transfer and fusion and using the semi-classical approach, transfer form-factors were extracted and succesfully employed to described the isotopic effects in fusion enhancement. (Author) [es

  18. Impact of vertical barriers on performance of pump-and-treat systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.; Rabideau, A.

    1997-01-01

    Although aquifer remediation by Pump-and-treat (PAT) is widely practiced, it is generally implemented as an effective means of plume containment, rather than as an efficient means of contaminant mass removal. The use of slurry cutoff walls has been recognized as a means of improving the performance of PAT with respect to hydraulic control. As part of a study on the use of decision analysis in the design of aquifer remediation systems, the economic tradeoffs between capital costs and risk reduction were compared for several alternative PAT strategies. This work included an evaluation of the use of vertical barriers as components of PAT systems, using numerical experiments to examine the impacts of vertical barriers on PAT reliability. The results indicated that the use of vertical barriers in conjunction with PAT can significantly improve the simulated system performance, but that the magnitude of the predicted enhancement and cost-effectiveness of the barrier system are dependent on site characteristics, barrier placement, and modeling assumptions

  19. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  20. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-05-31

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  1. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed. PMID:27137379

  2. Quantitative performance allocation of multi-barrier system for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joon-Hong; Ikeda, Takao; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment of each barrier consisting of geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive wastes is carried out quantitatively, and key radionuclides and parameters are pointed out. Chemical compositions and solubilities of radionuclides under repository conditions are determined by PHREEQE code staring from compositions of granitic groundwater observed in Japan. Glass dissolution analysis based on mass transfer theory and precipitation analysis have been done in order to determine the inner boundary condition for radionuclide diffusion through a bentonite-filled buffer region, where multi-member decay chain and isotopic sharing of solubility at the inner boundary are considered. Natural barrier is treated as homogeneous porous rock, or porous rock with infinite planar fractures. Performance of each barrier is evaluated in terms of non-dimensionalized hazard defined as the ratio of annual radioactivity release from each barrier to the annual limit on intake. At the outer edge of the engineered barriers, 239 Pu is the key unclide to the performance, whereas at the exit of the natural barrier, weakly-sorbing fission product nuclides such as 135 Cs, 129 I and 99 Tc dominate the hazard. (author) 50 refs

  3. Maskless selective laser patterning of PEDOT:PSS on barrier/foil for organic electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnakis, Dimitris; Stephens, Tim; Chabrol, Gregoire

    2013-03-01

    Rapid developments in organic electronics promise low cost devices for applications such as OLED, organic transistors and organic photovoltaics on large-area glass or flexible substrates in the near future. The technology is very attractive as most device layers can be solution printed. But when directly patterned deposition is impossible, a post-patterning step is required and laser processing is gradually emerging as a key-enabling tool. DPSS lasers offer several advantages including maskless, non-contact, dry patterning, but also scalable large area processing, well suited to roll-to-roll manufacturing at μm resolutions. However, very few reports discuss in detail the merits of DPSS laser patterning technology, especially on flexible substrates. This paper describes the potential of ultrafast DPSS laser technology for OLED fabrication on foil and, specifically, picosecond laser ablation of PEDOT:PSS on multilayered barrier/foil or metal grids aimed as a synthetic alternative to inorganic transparent conductive electrodes. Key requirements include: (a) the complete removal of PEDOT layers without residue, (b) the complete absence of surface contamination from redeposited laser debris to avoid short circuiting and (c) no loss in performance of from laser exposure. We will demonstrate that with careful optimisation and appropriate choice of ultrafast laser, the above criteria can be fulfilled. A suitable process window exists resulting in clean laser structuring without damage to the underlying heat sensitive barrier layers whilst also containing laser debris. A low temperature ablation most likely proceeds via a stress-assisted (film fracture and ejection) process as opposed to vaporisation or other phase change commonly encountered with longer pulse lasers.

  4. Engineered barrier systems (EBS) in the context of the entire safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled 'Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case' was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project's scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  5. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...

  6. Organizational, interface, and financial barriers to the commercial development of community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schladale, R.; Ritschard, R.

    1979-12-01

    The scope of this analysis was limited to systems producing electricity - the output of a community energy system typically falling in the range 10 kW to 150 MW. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that groups and individuals will face when attempting to commercialize community energy systems. Three particular classes of barriers were investigated: those within the organization attempting the commercialization, those that arise from attempts to link the community system with an electric utility, and those that impede the flow of investment capital into community energy systems. In summary, three general observations regarding community energy systems may be distilled from this study. First, although many barriers exist to the commercialization of the systems, few if any appear unresolvable. Perhaps most challenginng will be the problem of expanding the use of cogeneration and municipal sold waste while at the same time maintaining or improving ambient air quality. Second, the financial subsidies required to make community systems competitive are not extraordinary. Indeed, with the exception of photovoltaics they should not amount to more than about 10% of capital cost of the new systems, and mass production may eliminate the need for subsidies altogether at some point in the future. Third, the administrative and regulatory procedures required to make community energy systems viable appear to be taking shape in a positive and timely fashion.

  7. Investigating the Potential Barrier Function of Nanostructured Materials Formed in Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) Designed for Nuclear Waste Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Ruiz, Ana Isabel; Fernández, Raúl

    2018-02-21

    Clay and cement are known nano-colloids originating from natural processes or traditional materials technology. Currently, they are used together as part of the engineered barrier system (EBS) to isolate high-level nuclear waste (HLW) metallic containers in deep geological repositories (DGR). The EBS should prevent radionuclide (RN) migration into the biosphere until the canisters fail, which is not expected for approximately 10 3  years. The interactions of cementitious materials with bentonite swelling clay have been the scope of our research team at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) with participation in several European Union (EU) projects from 1998 up to now. Here, we describe the mineral and chemical nature and microstructure of the alteration rim generated by the contact between concrete and bentonite. Its ability to buffer the surrounding chemical environment may have potential for further protection against RN migration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Engineered Barrier System - Manufacturing, Testing and Quality Assurance. Report from a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, with the focus on manufacturing, testing and quality assurance. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify critical issues in the demonstration of how long-term safety requirements could be fulfilled for the engineered barriers. The workshop included presentations related to engineered barrier manufacturing and testing held by external experts, and working group sessions to prepare questions to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB). SKB presentations were followed by an informal questioning and discussion with SKB representatives. This report includes a presentation of the questions posed by the working groups, SKB's replies to these questions as well as a summary of the working group discussions. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. During the workshop many issues regarding manufacturing, testing and quality assurance of the engineered barriers were discussed. The central themes in the questions and discussions are summarised as follows: There is a need to specify how the functional requirements for the buffer and backfill will be achieved in practise. Issues of particular interest are material selection, compaction density, initial water content and manufacturing methods for bentonite blocks. A major problem that must be addressed is the long period required to obtain relevant results from large-scale testing. The uncertainties relating to the wetting and subsequent swelling processes of the bentonite buffer have implications for analysis of the canister. It is necessary to know now non-uniform the bentonite swelling pressure could be in a worst case pressure differential, in order to evaluate the sufficiency of 'as tested' canister performance. Regarding the copper shell of the

  9. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  10. Unsupervised Calculation of Free Energy Barriers in Large Crystalline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburne, Thomas D.; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin

    2018-03-01

    The calculation of free energy differences for thermally activated mechanisms in the solid state are routinely hindered by the inability to define a set of collective variable functions that accurately describe the mechanism under study. Even when possible, the requirement of descriptors for each mechanism under study prevents implementation of free energy calculations in the growing range of automated material simulation schemes. We provide a solution, deriving a path-based, exact expression for free energy differences in the solid state which does not require a converged reaction pathway, collective variable functions, Gram matrix evaluations, or probability flux-based estimators. The generality and efficiency of our method is demonstrated on a complex transformation of C 15 interstitial defects in iron and double kink nucleation on a screw dislocation in tungsten, the latter system consisting of more than 120 000 atoms. Both cases exhibit significant anharmonicity under experimentally relevant temperatures.

  11. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  12. Effect of inter-species selective interactions on the thermodynamics and nucleation free-energy barriers of a tessellating polyhedral compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    The phase behavior and the homogeneous nucleation of an equimolar mixture of octahedra and cuboctahedra are studied using thermodynamic integration, Gibbs-Duhem integration, and umbrella sampling simulations. The components of this mixture are modeled as polybead objects of equal edge lengths so that they can assemble into a space-filling compound with the CsCl crystal structure. Taking as reference the hard-core system where the compound crystal does not spontaneously nucleate, we quantified the effect of inter-species selective interactions on facilitating the disorder-to-order transition. Facet selective and facet non-selective inter-species attractions were considered, and while the former was expectedly more favorable toward the target tessellating structure, the latter was found to be similarly effective in nucleating the crystal compound. Ranges for the strength of attractions and degree of supersaturation were identified where the nucleation free-energy barrier was small enough to foretell a fast process but large enough to prevent spinodal fluctuations that can trap the system in dense metastable states lacking long-range order. At those favorable conditions, the tendency toward the local orientational order favored by packing entropy is amplified and found to play a key role seeding nuclei with the CsCl structure.

  13. Jumping the nuclear envelop barrier: Improving polyplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency by a selective CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefei; Liu, Xiangrui; Zhao, Bingxiang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dingcheng; Qiu, Nasha; Zhou, Quan; Piao, Ying; Zhou, Zhuxian; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing

    2016-07-28

    Successful transfection of plasmid DNA (pDNA) requires intranuclear internalization of pDNA effectively and the nuclear envelope appears to be one of the critical intracellular barriers for polymer mediated pDNA delivery. Polyethylenimine (PEI), as the classic cationic polymer, compact the negatively charged pDNA tightly and make up stable polyplexes. The polyplexes are too large to enter the nuclear through nuclear pores and it is believed that the nuclear envelope breakdown in mitosis could facilitate the nuclear entry of polyplexes. To jump the nuclear envelope barrier, we used a selective and reversible CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306 to control the G2/M transition of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of mitotic cells which have disappeared nuclear envelope during transfection. Herein, we show that RO-3306 remarkably increases the transfection efficiency of PEI polyplexes through enhanced nuclear localization of PEI and pDNA. However, RO-3306 is less effective to the charge-reversal polymer poly[(2-acryloyl)ethyl(p-boronic acid benzyl)diethylammonium bromide] (B-PDEAEA) which responses to cellular stimuli and releases free pDNA in cytoplasm. Our findings not only offer new opportunities for improving non-viral based gene delivery but also provide theoretical support for the rational design of novel functional polymers for gene delivery. We also report current data showing that RO-3306 synergizes TRAIL gene induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers to installing innovative energy systems in existing housing stock identified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Several barriers to upgrading existing social housing with innovative energy systems (IES) have been identified by a study of eight large-scale renovation projects in the Netherlands. These include a lack of trust between stakeholders, opposition from tenants on grounds of increased costs or delays,

  15. Nuclear reactions of the system 6 Li on 58 Ni near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Garcia M, H.; Martinez Q, E.

    2004-01-01

    Protons, alpha particles and deuterons coming from the reactions 6 Li + 58 Ni are detected to three different energy around the Coulomb barrier. The possible effects of the weakly bound character of the projectile are studied and the results are compared with previous data for the system 6 Li + 59 Co. (Author)

  16. Measurement of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coating systems by a barb pullout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.Q.; Mumm, D.R.; Karlsson, A.M.; Kagawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A test technique has been developed to facilitate evaluation of the fracture characteristics of coatings and interfaces in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The methodology has particular application in analyzing delamination crack growth, where crack propagation occurs under predominantly mode II loading. The technique has been demonstrated by quantitatively measuring the effective delamination fracture resistance of an electron-beam physical vapor deposition TBC

  17. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  18. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  19. Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza kadhodazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers are one of the most vital parts of supply chain whose operation has significant indirect effect on customer satisfaction. Since customer's expectations from organization are different, organizations should consider different standards, respectively. There are many researches in this field using different standards and methods in recent years. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach for choosing a supplier in a food manufacturing company considering cost, quality, service, type of relationship and structure standards of the supplier organization. To evaluate supplier according to the above standards, the fuzzy inference system has been used. Input data of this system includes supplier's score in any standard that is achieved by AHP approach and the output is final score of each supplier. Finally, a supplier has been selected that although is not the best in price and quality, has achieved good score in all of the standards.

  20. Design studies on the engineered barrier system and on the in-situ experiments under the conditions of geological environment in Horonobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yuji; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    Following studies have been done in this papers in order to apply the technologies based on H12 report to the actual geological conditions of Horonobe underground research laboratory. 1) Reconsidering the process of repository design, the design process charts of a repository were presented. In the H12 report, the design process of the engineering barrier system was followed by the facility design process. In this paper, the both processes were placed in parallel position. 2) The relation between geological conditions and the performance of engineering barrier systems and the specifications of engineering barrier systems was arranged and the geological information needed for design of engineering barrier were selected. 3) The appropriate form of geological information as input-data for design were showed and the procedure for setting input-data was presented. 4) Based on the state of geological investigations at Horonobe, mechanical input-data were arranged for the design of the in-situ experiments on engineered barrier system at HORONOBE. 5) The stability of the hall for the in-situ experiments was studied by numerical analysis and the results indicated that there are difference in stability between the depth of 500 m and 570 m. (author)

  1. Effect on municipal waste combustion ash monofill leachate on selected containment barrier components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Janszen, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effects of municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash monofill leachate on lining components of an MWC monofill. This included geosynthetic materials and natural clay (soil) liners. The ability of these materials to perform their design function for the life of the facility and post-closure period is best estimated through accelerated test methods described herein. The study consisted of two separate testing efforts, one aimed at evaluating selected natural clay linings and the other at evaluating selected geosynthetics. Both tests were performed using the same waste. Leachate was collected from two sources, one considered modern, and the other considered older technology. Site A was a state-of-the-art MWC ash monofill leachate facility. This facility had a scrubber, and ash disposed of in the monofill contained bottom ash, fly ash, and scrubber residue. Site B was an older MWC ash monofill leachate facility. This facility did not have a scrubber. Ash disposed of in the monofill contained bottom ash and fly ash. The following generic geomembrane types were selected at random to be tested: high-density polyethylene (HDPE), reinforced chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE-R), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). One filtration/separation geosynthetic was tested: a nonwoven polyester geotextile. Three compacted soils (Illinois, Lufkin, and Nacogodoches) were evaluated to determine their resistance of the two MWC ash leachates

  2. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  3. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  4. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  5. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  6. Intestinal Dysbiosis, Barrier Dysfunction, and Bacterial Translocation Account for CKD-Related Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kirstin; Kesper, Marie Sophie; Marschner, Julian A; Konrad, Lukas; Ryu, Mi; Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Romoli, Simone; Demleitner, Jana; Schiller, Patrick; Dietrich, Alexander; Müller, Susanna; Gross, Oliver; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Huson, Daniel H; Stecher, Bärbel; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    CKD associates with systemic inflammation, but the underlying cause is unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of intestinal microbiota. We report that collagen type 4 α3-deficient mice with Alport syndrome-related progressive CKD displayed systemic inflammation, including increased plasma levels of pentraxin-2 and activated antigen-presenting cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and Th17- or IFNγ-producing T cells in the spleen as well as regulatory T cell suppression. CKD-related systemic inflammation in these mice associated with intestinal dysbiosis of proteobacterial blooms, translocation of living bacteria across the intestinal barrier into the liver, and increased serum levels of bacterial endotoxin. Uremia did not affect secretory IgA release into the ileum lumen or mucosal leukocyte subsets. To test for causation between dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in CKD, we eradicated facultative anaerobic microbiota with antibiotics. This eradication prevented bacterial translocation, significantly reduced serum endotoxin levels, and fully reversed all markers of systemic inflammation to the level of nonuremic controls. Therefore, we conclude that uremia associates with intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and bacterial translocation, which trigger the state of persistent systemic inflammation in CKD. Uremic dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction may be novel therapeutic targets for intervention to suppress CKD-related systemic inflammation and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Barriers to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Within the Military Healthcare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-25

    most at risk are people who live in the inner cities and those who live in rural locations (Earnest, 1991; Friedman, 1994; Horner et al., 1994...BARRIERS TO HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION WITHIN THE MILITARY HEALTHCARE SYSTEM 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT MCLAUGHLIN GAYLA D 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION WITHIN THE MILITARY HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Gayla D. McLaughlin APPROVED: Barbara M. Sylvia, Ph.D., R.R, Cftair ßW- l

  8. Selection of fluids for tritium pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1984-02-01

    The degradation characteristics of three types of vacuum pump fluids, polyphenyl ethers, perfluoropolyethers and hydrocarbon oils were reviewed. Fluid selection proved to be a critical factor in the long-term performance of tritium pumping systems and subsequent tritium recovery operations. Thermal degradation and tritium radiolysis of pump fluids produce contaminants which can damage equipment and interfere with tritium recovery operations. General characteristics of these fluids are as follows: polyphenyl ether has outstanding radiation resistance, is very stable under normal diffusion pump conditions, but breaks down in the presence of oxygen at anticipated operating temperatures. Perfluoropolyether fluids are very stable and do not react chemically with most gases. Thermal and mechanical degradation products are inert, but the radiolysis products are very corrosive. Most of the degradation products of hydrogen oils are volatile and the principal radiolysis product is methane. Our studies show that polyphenyl ethers and hydrocarbon oils are the preferred fluids for use in tritium pumping systems. No corrosive materials are formed and most of the degradation products can be removed with suitable filter systems

  9. Work system barriers to patient, provider, and caregiver use of personal health records: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Valdez, Rupa S

    2016-05-01

    This review applied a human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) paradigm to assess individual, work system/unit, organization, and external environment factors generating barriers to patient, provider, and informal caregiver personal health record (PHR) use. The literature search was conducted using five electronic databases for the timeframe January 2000 to October 2013, resulting in 4865 citations. Two authors independently coded included articles (n = 60). Fifty-five, ten and five articles reported barriers to patient, provider and caregiver PHR use, respectively. Barriers centered around 20 subfactors. The most frequently noted were needs, biases, beliefs, and mood (n = 35) and technology functions and features (n = 32). The HF/E paradigm was effective in framing the assessment of factors creating barriers to PHR use. Design efforts should address literacy, interoperability, access to health information, and secure messaging. A deeper understanding of the interactions between work systems and the role of organization and external environment factors is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation of the fire barrier system thermo-lag 330-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of three fire endurance tests and one ampacity derating test set of the fire barrier system Thermo-Lag 330-1 Subliming Coating. Each test was performed using cable tray specimens protected by a nominal three-hour fire barrier envelope comprised of two layers of nominal 1/2 inch thick material. The fire barrier systems for two of the three fire endurance test articles and for the ampacity derating test article were installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installations procedures. The barrier system for the third fire endurance test article was a full reproduction of one of the original manufacturer's qualification test articles. This final test article included certain installation enhancements not considered typical of current nuclear power plant installations. The primary criteria for fire endurance performance evaluation was based on cable circuit integrity testing. Secondary consideration was also given to the temperature rise limits set forth in the ASTM E119 standard fire barrier test procedure. All three of the fire endurance specimens failed prematurely. Circuit integrity failures for the two fire endurance test articles with procedures-based installations were recorded at approximately 76 and 59 minutes into the exposures for a 6 inch wide and 12 inch wide cable tray respectively. Temperature excursion failures (single point) for these two test articles were noted at approximately 65 and 56 minutes respectively. The first circuit integrity failure for the full reproduction test article was recorded approximately 119 minutes into the exposure, and the first temperature excursion failure for this test article was recorded approximately 110 minutes into the exposure

  11. Selective imitation for a private sign system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, D C

    2001-11-21

    A distinctive feature of all human languages is the diverse and arbitrary nature of the sign (signifier). This can be interpreted as stating that the mapping between signals and referents is established by convention rather than by functional constraints. This property of the sign provides for a great deal of linguistic flexibility and is a key component of symbolic communication. Game theoretic models to describe signal imitation are investigated with a view to understanding how non-arbitrary (indexical) animal-style signals might 'evolve' culturally into diverse, arbitrary signs. I explore the evolutionary hypothesis that private, arbitrary signs emerge as a result of selective imitation within a socially structured population. Once arbitrary signs have emerged, they contribute towards greater assortative interactions among individuals using a shared sign system. In natural populations, the models for imitation will very often be close kin. Hence, kinship provides one mechanism for the creation of true symbols. An imitation-structured population can support many more sign systems than an equivalent non-structured population and is one in which symbols become the dominant force in assortative interactions.

  12. Internal resistor of multi-functional tunnel barrier for selectivity and switching uniformity in resistive random access memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangheon; Woo, Jiyong; Lee, Daeseok; Cha, Euijun; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we analyzed the multi-functional role of a tunnel barrier that can be integrated in devices. This tunnel barrier, acting as an internal resistor, changes its resistance with applied bias. Therefore, the current flow in the devices can be controlled by a tunneling mechanism that modifies the tunnel barrier thickness for non-linearity and switching uniformity of devices. When a device is in a low-resistance state, the tunnel barrier controls the current behavior of the device because most of the bias is applied to the tunnel barrier owing to its higher resistance. Furthermore, the tunnel barrier induces uniform filament formation during set operation with the tunnel barrier controlling the current flow.

  13. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  14. Barriers and enablers of kangaroo mother care implementation from a health systems perspective: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace; Bergelson, Ilana; Smith, Emily R; Skotnes, Tobi; Wall, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention that reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, adoption among health systems has varied. Understanding the interaction between health system functions-leadership, financing, healthcare workers (HCWs), technologies, information and research, and service delivery-and KMC is essential to understanding KMC adoption. We present a systematic review of the barriers and enablers of KMC implementation from the perspective of health systems, with a focus on HCWs and health facilities. Using the search terms 'kangaroo mother care', 'skin to skin (STS) care' and 'kangaroo care', we searched Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and World Health Organization Regional Databases. Reports and hand searched references from publications were also included. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two independent reviewers using standardized forms. A conceptual model to assess KMC adoption themes was developed using NVivo software. Our search strategy yielded 2875 studies. We included 86 studies with qualitative data on KMC implementation from the perspective of HCWs and/or facilities. Six themes emerged on barriers and enablers to KMC adoption: buy-in and bonding; social support; time; medical concerns; training; and cultural norms. Analysis of interactions between HCWs and facilities yielded further barriers and enablers in the areas of training, communication, and support. HCWs and health facilities serve as two important adopters of Kangaroo Mother Care within a health system. The complex components of KMC lead to multifaceted barriers and enablers to integration, which inform facility, regional, and country-level recommendations for increasing adoption. Further research of methods to promote context-specific adoption of KMC at the health systems level is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  15. Barriers in the Implementation of Health Information Systems: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. A well-developed health information system which is implemented according to present standards allows a healthcare quality increase. Our study aims at providing an overview of the barriers which were encountered in the process of implementing the health information systems by reviewing the literature connected to Europe and the United States of America. Methodology. We searched within five databases (Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus for the exact phrase ‘implementation health information system’ along with the name of each European country/USA state. Relevance was then tested by scanning titles and abstracts. The third and final step involved assessing all the articles in order to set their relevance and a data extraction tool was created, containing the name of the state/country that the article reports data on, the article citation and the challenges identified. Results. The barriers identified were classified in four major categories: technical, organizational, behavioral/human and financial. Seemingly, Europe (41 articles and USA (20 articles are facing the same issues in the implementation of a health information system. No major difference between EU and non-EU countries was found after our analysis with regards to the identified barriers. Discussion. Even if recommendations and solutions are continuously being developed in order to solve these barriers, the implementation of a new health information system must be very detailed in order to face all these problems. Additionally, further research is required in order to evaluate their impact on the successful implementation of a health information system.

  16. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el...... are of neutral buoyancy with regard to the base fluid. The invention is contemplated to having utility not only in the oil-drilling industry but also in the plugging of fractures in sewer drains, pipelines etc.......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...... into an elastomer, and c) at least one crosslinking agent; ii) Placing the treatment fluid in a fracture-containing system; iii) Allowing the elastomeric material to crosslink with itself to form a barrier in said fracture-containing system; wherein the elastomeric material and/or the crosslinking agent...

  17. Assessment on mechanical effect of engineering barrier system to fault movement. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takashi; Tanai, Kenji; Takaji, Kazuhiko; Ohnuma, Satoshi

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this report is to clarify mechanical effect of engineering barrier system to the unavoidable fault movement. From the basic policy of the second progress report by JNC, natural phenomenon which affect strongly to the geological disposal system should be avoided. However, small faults as sliprate ''C'' far from principal fault zone, are difficult to be found out completely. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of these fault movements and to clarify stability and safety of the engineered barrier system. Accordingly, the effect of a rock displacement across a deposition holl was considered and the midium scale test was carried out. Then midium scale test was simulated by Finit Element Method in which the constitutive model of Tresca was adopted to analyze elastoplastic behavior of buffer material. From the result of the midium scale test and the analysis, it was realized that the buffer material diminish shear stress acting on the overpack. Further analytical study was conducted to evaluate the real scale engineered barrier system designed in the second progress report by JNC. From the study, it was appeared that stress in buffer corresponded to the stress calculated for the midium scale test model. Consequently, it was obvious that rock displacement, 80% of buffer didn't affect overpack if velocity of fault movement was under 10 cm/sec. (author)

  18. Land containment system: Horizontal grout barrier: A method for in situ waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridenour, D.E.; Saugier, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The DOE has a number of sites where wastes can potentially leak into the ground and escape into the environment. Both the DOE and others are faced with a need to control a wide variety of pollutants on land: leaking underground storage tanks, unstabilized soluble wastes entering the groundwater, leachates from dump sites and other sources. Current technologies require either removal and repackaging of the waste from its existing location or, the ability to tie vertical barrier walls into an underlying impermeable layer to contain leaking wastes. Necessary elements in control are land containment systems capable of completely surrounding and holding the contamination until it is removed, stabilized and/or treated in situ. Horizontal barrier placement technology as currently practiced is not highly developed. A search of the barrier industry indicates that no other existing/developed technique is as capable as the innovative horizontal grout barrier method promises to be in providing means for vertical containment of preexisting land disposed materials. The primary competitive technologies are triple rod jet grouting and freeze walls

  19. Immunologic privilege in the central nervous system and the blood–brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Leslie L; Alvarez, Jorge I; Begley, David J; Boado, Ruben J; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Doolittle, Nancy D; Engelhardt, Britta; Hallenbeck, John M; Lonser, Russell R; Ohlfest, John R; Prat, Alexandre; Scarpa, Maurizio; Smeyne, Richard J; Drewes, Lester R; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    The brain is in many ways an immunologically and pharmacologically privileged site. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) of the cerebrovascular endothelium and its participation in the complex structure of the neurovascular unit (NVU) restrict access of immune cells and immune mediators to the central nervous system (CNS). In pathologic conditions, very well-organized immunologic responses can develop within the CNS, raising important questions about the real nature and the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of this immune privilege. We assess the interactions of immune cells and immune mediators with the BBB and NVU in neurologic disease, cerebrovascular disease, and intracerebral tumors. The goals of this review are to outline key scientific advances and the status of the science central to both the neuroinflammation and CNS barriers fields, and highlight the opportunities and priorities in advancing brain barriers research in the context of the larger immunology and neuroscience disciplines. This review article was developed from reports presented at the 2011 Annual Blood-Brain Barrier Consortium Meeting. PMID:23072749

  20. Non-Technical Barriers to the Commercialization of PV Power Systems in the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiffert, P.; International Energy Agency (IEA) PVPS Task 7

    2003-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) requires institutional support to become a viable technology and a sustainable solution. Between 1990 and 2000, the solar industry demonstrated the viability of BIPV technology by installing hundreds of thousands of successful systems around the world. Architects have created award-winning, elegant solar buildings. Utility companies and municipalities have adopted this technology to augment their infrastructure and electricity services network. The potential for BIPV is widely recognized as significant; however, institutional barriers can slow its deployment. Our research emphasizes institutional issues related to introducing and commercializing photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the built environment. This overview includes an assessment of barriers in the marketplace, the potential for PV in the built environment, the determination of the value and economic considerations and guidelines, and an overview of current international market strategies.

  1. Conceptual Design and Experimental Plans for the In-situ Test of Engineered Barrier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Gi

    2009-12-01

    The overseas state-of-the-art of the in-situ test for the engineered barrier system was analyzed and the preliminary characterization of the fracture distribution in the test area of the KURT was carried out. Based upon these, the conceptual design of experimental apparatus for the in-situ test was completed and the detailed action plan was also established for its implementation

  2. Launcher Systems Development Cost: Behavior, Uncertainty, Influences, Barriers and Strategies for Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will report on the activities of the IAA Launcher Systems Economics Working Group in preparations for its Launcher Systems Development Cost Behavior Study. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions. The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

  3. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  4. The intestinal barrier in irritable bowel syndrome: subtype-specific effects of the systemic compartment in an in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samefko Ludidi

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a disorder with multifactorial pathophysiology. Intestinal barrier may be altered, especially in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D. Several mediators may contribute to increased intestinal permeability in IBS.We aimed to assess effects of tryptase and LPS on in vitro permeability using a 3-dimensional cell model after basolateral cell exposure. Furthermore, we assessed the extent to which these mediators in IBS plasma play a role in intestinal barrier function.Caco-2 cells were grown in extracellular matrix to develop into polarized spheroids and were exposed to tryptase (10 - 50 mU, LPS (1 - 50 ng/mL and two-fold diluted plasma samples of 7 patients with IBS-D, 7 with constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C and 7 healthy controls (HC. Barrier function was assessed by the flux of FITC-dextran (FD4 using live cell imaging. Furthermore, plasma tryptase and LPS were determined.Tryptase (20 and 50 mU and LPS (6.25 - 50 ng/mL significantly increased Caco-2 permeability versus control (all P< 0.05. Plasma of IBS-D only showed significantly elevated median tryptase concentrations (7.1 [3.9 - 11.0] vs. 4.2 [2.2 - 7.0] vs. 4.2 [2.5 - 5.9] μg/mL; P<0.05 and LPS concentrations (3.65 [3.00 - 6.10] vs. 3.10 [2.60-3.80] vs. 2.65 [2.40 - 3.40] EU/ml; P< 0.05 vs. IBS-C and HC. Also, plasma of IBS-D increased Caco-2 permeability versus HC (0.14450 ± 0.00472 vs. 0.00021 ± 0.00003; P < 0.001, which was attenuated by selective inhibition of tryptase and LPS (P< 0.05.Basolateral exposure of spheroids to plasma of IBS-D patients resulted in a significantly increased FD4 permeation, which was partially abolished by selective inhibition of tryptase and LPS. These findings point to a role of systemic tryptase and LPS in the epithelial barrier alterations observed in patients with IBS-D.

  5. Addressing access barriers to health services: an analytical framework for selecting appropriate interventions in low-income Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bart; Ir, Por; Bigdeli, Maryam; Annear, Peter Leslie; Van Damme, Wim

    2012-07-01

    While World Health Organization member countries embraced the concept of universal coverage as early as 2005, few low-income countries have yet achieved the objective. This is mainly due to numerous barriers that hamper access to needed health services. In this paper we provide an overview of the various dimensions of barriers to access to health care in low-income countries (geographical access, availability, affordability and acceptability) and outline existing interventions designed to overcome these barriers. These barriers and consequent interventions are arranged in an analytical framework, which is then applied to two case studies from Cambodia. The aim is to illustrate the use of the framework in identifying the dimensions of access barriers that have been tackled by the interventions. The findings suggest that a combination of interventions is required to tackle specific access barriers but that their effectiveness can be influenced by contextual factors. It is also necessary to address demand-side and supply-side barriers concurrently. The framework can be used both to identify interventions that effectively address particular access barriers and to analyse why certain interventions fail to tackle specific barriers.

  6. Influences of specific ions in groundwater on concrete degradation in subsurface engineered barrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Many disposal concepts currently show that concrete is an effective confinement material used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) at a number of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Cement-based materials have properties for the encapsulation, isolation, or retardation of a variety of hazardous contaminants. The reactive chemical transport model of HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 was applied to simulate the effect of hydrogeochemical processes on concrete barrier degradation in an EBS which has been proposed to use in the LLW disposal site in Taiwan. The simulated results indicated that the main processes that are responsible for concrete degradation are the species induced from hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride. The EBS with the side ditch drainage system effectively discharges the infiltrated water and lowers the solute concentrations that may induce concrete degradation. The redox processes markedly influence the formations of the degradation materials. The reductive environment in the EBS reduces the formation of ettringite in concrete degradation processes. Moreover, the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers maintain an alkaline condition after 300 years in the proposed LLW repository. This study provides a detailed picture of the long-term evolution of the hydrogeochemical environment in the proposed LLW disposal site in Taiwan.

  7. Nagra technical report 14-03, characteristic dosage intervals and documentation for the assessment of barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This comprehensive technical report published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Nagra discusses the procedure for selecting sites for deep geological repositories for all categories of radioactive waste produced in Switzerland, as defined in the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories (BFE 2008). Analyses are presented and discussed that determine the priority host rocks for the disposal of low, intermediate and high level radioactive wastes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the barrier systems is discussed. Also, analyses are presented and discussed in connection with the regions where sites for the repositories may be located. Important site-specific geological information is examined which is to be used in the assessment of possible repository sites from the safety analysis point of view

  8. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  9. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  10. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space. (b) The fire detection system must be designed to minimize false alarms. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a...

  11. Some Danish experience with product-service systems and their potentials and barriers to sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2003-01-01

    This paper is one of the first attempts to scan the Danish experience with product-service systems and analyse the experiences with respect to potentials and barriers to sustainable development, i.e. reduced resource consumption and reduced environmental impact. The scan shows a variety of product-service......-systems: some have been around for many years and have not be set up for sustainability purposes, while others are rather new and are attempts to contribute to a more sustainable development. Some of the systems identified are so to say born as product-service-systems (like food catering), while others have...... been developed from being a product system into being a product-service-systems in order to support the marketing of more environmental friendly products....

  12. Motivations and barriers to implementing electronic health records and ED information systems in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nakamura, Kensuke; Aoki, Yuta; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Gunshin, Masataka; Matsubara, Takehiro; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Yahagi, Naoki; Nakajima, Susumu

    2014-07-01

    Although electronic health record systems (EHRs) and emergency department information systems (EDISs) enable safe, efficient, and high-quality care, these systems have not yet been studied well. Here, we assessed (1) the prevalence of EHRs and EDISs, (2) changes in efficiency in emergency medical practices after introducing EHR and EDIS, and (3) barriers to and expectations from the EHR-EDIS transition in EDs of medical facilities with EHRs in Japan. A survey regarding EHR (basic or comprehensive) and EDIS implementation was mailed to 466 hospitals. We examined the efficiency after EHR implementation and perceived barriers and expectations regarding the use of EDIS with existing EHRs. The survey was completed anonymously. Totally, 215 hospitals completed the survey (response rate, 46.1%), of which, 76.3% had basic EHRs, 4.2% had comprehensive EHRs, and 1.9% had EDISs. After introducing EHRs and EDISs, a reduction in the time required to access previous patient information and share patient information was noted, but no change was observed in the time required to produce medical records and the overall time for each medical care. For hospitals with EHRs, the most commonly cited barriers to EDIS implementation were inadequate funding for adoption and maintenance and potential adverse effects on workflow. The most desired function in the EHR-EDIS transition was establishing appropriate clinical guidelines for residents within their system. To attract EDs to EDIS from EHR, systems focusing on decreasing the time required to produce medical records and establishing appropriate clinical guidelines for residents are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels ( -2 s -1 ) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables

  14. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  15. Studies on an advanced repository system with enhanced engineered barriers (a framework)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Tashiro, S.; Ikari, S.; Suzuki, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to propose advanced designs of repositories with enhanced engineered barriers of relatively high radioactive wastes such as burnable poisons, channel boxes, control rods and highly irradiated metals, studies started in 1987 and completed the first phase in 1992. This paper presents the framework and brief results of the first phase. The studies set preliminary design concepts of the repositories with various combinations with engineered barriers and natural barriers for different models and locations such as a silo type in shallow land or a tunnel type in intermediate depth. Through the designs, four component technics were picked up and studied for (1) construction of the components in repository; (2) performance evaluation to realize repository design; (3) improvement of circumstances inside or around repository; and (4) surveillance of repository performance to realize the repository designs. Finally, some repository systems were provided using obtained results, and then the applicability and the economy were evaluated. The studies will continue to the second phase focusing on the long-term performance of the repositories

  16. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  17. Health system and societal barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) services - lessons from World Diabetes Foundation supported GDM projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; de Courten, Maximilian; Kapur, Anil

    2012-01-01

    included lack of trained health care providers - especially female doctors; high staff turnover; lack of standard protocols, consumables and equipment; financing of health services and treatment; lack of or poor referral systems, feedback mechanisms and follow-up systems; distance to health facility...... for the offspring. A better understanding of the barriers hindering detection and treatment of GDM is needed. Based on experiences from World Diabetes Foundation (WDF) supported GDM projects this paper seeks to investigate societal and health system barriers to such efforts. Methods Questionnaires were filled out...... woman move to her maternal home for delivery. Conclusions A number of barriers within the health system and society exist. Programmes need to consider and address these barriers in order to improve GDM care and thereby maternal health in LMIC....

  18. A Fast Adaptive Receive Antenna Selection Method in MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna selection has been regarded as an effective method to acquire the diversity benefits of multiple antennas while potentially reduce hardware costs. This paper focuses on receive antenna selection. According to the proportion between the numbers of total receive antennas and selected antennas and the influence of each antenna on system capacity, we propose a fast adaptive antenna selection algorithm for wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems. Mathematical analysis and numerical results show that our algorithm significantly reduces the computational complexity and memory requirement and achieves considerable system capacity gain compared with the optimal selection technique in the same time.

  19. Understanding the modifiable health systems barriers to hypertension management in Malaysia: a multi-method health systems appraisal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Balabanova, Dina; Majid, Fadhlina; Ng, Kien Keat; Yusoff, Khalid; Mustapha, Feisul; Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-03

    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia. A health systems appraisal was undertaken in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and poorer-resourced rural sites in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. Building on two systematic reviews of barriers to hypertension control, a conceptual framework was developed that guided analysis of survey data, documentary review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, health professionals and patients. The analysis followed the patients as they move through the health system, exploring the main modifiable system-level barriers to effective hypertension management, and seeking to explain obstacles to improved access and health outcomes. The study highlighted the need for the proposed intervention to take account of how Malaysian patients seek treatment in both the public and private sectors, and from western and various traditional practitioners, with many patients choosing to seek care across different services. Patients typically choose private care if they can afford to, while others attend heavily subsidised public clinics. Public hypertension clinics are often overwhelmed by numbers of patients attending, so health workers have little time to engage effectively with patients. Treatment adherence is poor, with a widespread belief, stemming from concepts of traditional medicine, that hypertension is a transient disturbance rather than a permanent asymptomatic condition. Drug supplies can be erratic in rural areas. Hypertension awareness and education material are limited, and what exist are poorly developed and ineffective. Despite having a relatively well funded health system offering good access to

  20. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal Systems (PV/T Systems) combine Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies into one system with both electrical and thermal energy output. PV/T systems have several perceived advantages to stand-alone PV or solar-thermal systems. The increased efficiency and dual nature of the systems make suitable for situations where installation space is limited, and for homeowners who are forced to decide between meeting thermal or electrical needs. The financial benefit of the combined system is also significant, as the long payback of PV systems is joined with a relatively short payback of solar thermal systems. A background of PV/T was presented, with details of classifications and the International Energy Association's program to evaluate the technical status of PV/T systems and formulate a roadmap for future development. It was noted that input from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) is needed to help identify market barriers in PV/T systems. This paper reviewed existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status, and reported on the methodology established by IEA group 35. The systems were grouped according to thermal collector types of unglazed water collectors, glazed water collectors, unglazed air collectors, glazed air collectors, air-flow windows, and concentrating collectors. It was noted that a number of new systems are currently being developed, including concentrating collectors with water and air heating, unglazed air heating systems, and unglazed water heating systems. It was noted that apart from technical barriers, efficient design and performance prediction are also problematic, as tools for predicting performance do not exist. The same tools will be used to optimize PV/T system designs. It was suggested that standardized reporting methods, simulation and sizing tools and demonstration products need to be created and that regional certification issues need to be identified. Environmental

  1. Professional perspectives on systemic barriers to admission avoidance: learning from a system dynamics study of older people's admission pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bronagh; Lattimer, Valerie; Wintrup, Julie; Brailsford, Sally

    2015-06-01

    There is debate worldwide about the best way to manage increased healthcare demand within ageing populations, particularly rising rates of unplanned and avoidable hospital admissions. To understand health and social care professionals' perspectives on barriers to admission avoidance throughout the admissions journey, in particular: the causes of avoidable admissions in older people; drivers of admission and barriers to use of admission avoidance strategies; and improvements to reduce unnecessary admissions. A qualitative framework analysis of interview data from a System dynamics (SD) modelling study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty health and social care professionals with experience of older people's admissions. The interviews were used to build understanding of factors facilitating or hindering admission avoidance across the admissions system. Data were analysed using framework analysis. Three overarching themes emerged: understanding the needs of the patient group; understanding the whole system; and systemwide access to expertise in care of older people. There were diverse views on the underlying reasons for avoidable admissions and recognition of the need for whole-system approaches to service redesign. Participants recommended system redesign that recognises the specific needs of older people, but there was no consensus on underlying patient needs or specific service developments. Access to expertise in management of older and frailer patients was seen as a barrier to admission avoidance throughout the system. Providing access to expertise and leadership in care of frail older people across the admissions system presents a challenge for service managers and nurse educators but is seen as a prerequisite for effective admission avoidance. System redesign to meet the needs of frail older people requires agreement on causes of avoidable admission and underlying patient needs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 Deg. C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S; Bansal, Narottam P; Miller, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    ... systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore-, and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated...

  3. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  4. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  5. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  6. Engineered barrier systems and canister orientation studies for the Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1990-07-01

    Emplacement borehole orientation directly impacts many aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and interactions with the near field environment. This paper considers the impacts of orientation on the hydrologic portion of the environment and its interactions with the EBS. The hydrologic environments is considered from a conceptual standpoint, the numerical analyses are left for subsequent work. As reported in this paper, several aspects of the hydrological environment are more favorable for long term performance of vertically oriented rather than horizontally oriented Waste Packages. 19 refs., 15 figs

  7. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier...... than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research notes is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption...

  8. Waste form performance assessment in the YUCCA Mountain engineered barrier system, American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    This work demonstrates a technique for comparing the performance of waste forms in a repository environment when one or more of the waste forms constitute a small part of the total amount of waste planned for the repository. In applying the technique, it is important to identify radionuclides that are highly soluble in the transport fluid since it is only for these that the release is controlled by the dissolution rate of the waste form matrix. The techniques presented here have been applied to an evaluation of the performance of waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel in the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Engineered Barrier System (EBS)

  9. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  10. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, M.; Amantia, D.; Vázquez-Campos, S.; Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J. M.; Aubouy, L.

    2011-07-01

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  11. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, M; Amantia, D; Vazquez-Campos, S; Aubouy, L [LEITAT Technological Center, Passeig 22 de Juliol, 218, 08221 Terrassa (Spain); Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J M, E-mail: mfaccini@leitat.org [Tecnalia, P.T. Alava - C/ Leonardo Da Vinci, 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  12. Nanofiber-based filters as novel barrier systems for nanomaterial exposure scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, M; Amantia, D; Vazquez-Campos, S; Aubouy, L; Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J M

    2011-01-01

    In this article our latest advances in the development of efficient barrier systems against micro- and nano-particulate materials are presented. Nanofibrous polyamide 6 (PA6) mats were fabricated by electrospinning onto a nonwoven viscose substrate. The influence of electrospinning parameters including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, were studied for the production of nonwovens with different fiber size distribution ranging from 74 to 261 nm in diameters. Moreover, the formation of nanowebs (30-40 nm) which are widely distributed among fibers was observed. By varying several process parameters, membranes with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and therefore air permeability and nanoparticle filtration efficiency were obtained.

  13. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2013-01-01

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS

  14. Reviews of the In-situ Demonstration Test of the Engineered Barrier System in Many Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Many nations considering the deep geologic disposal of HLW are now planning or executing in-situ demonstration experiments on their regional EBS (Engineering barrier system) at their deep underground research facilities. The main purpose of the in-situ EBS test is the experimental confirmation of its performance, and the prediction of its long-term evolution through the modeling of EBS based on the experimental data. Additionally, the engineering feasibility for the construction of an engineering barrier system can also be checked through full scale construction of an in-situ test. KAERI is currently preparing an in-situ test at a large 1/3 scale, called IN-DEBS (In-situ Demonstration of EBS) at KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) for the generic EBS suggested in A-KRS (Advanced KAERI Reference System), which was developed to treat the HLW from pyroprocessing. As the first step for the design of IN-DEBS, the foreign in-situ demonstrations of EBS were reviewed in this paper. The demonstration projects, which were completed or are still being executed in some countries such as Sweden, France, Finland, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, and Japan, were surveyed and summarized. In particular, hardware constitutions such as the heating element or compact bentonite, and the experimental procedures, have focused more on reviews than on experimental results in this survey, since their hardware information is very important for the design of the IN-DEBS.

  15. Benefits, barriers, and limitations on the use of Hospital Incident Command System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shooshtari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital Incident Command System (HICS has been established with the mission of prevention, response, and recovery in hazards. Regarding the key role of hospitals in medical management of events, the present study is aimed at investigating benefits, barriers, and limitations of applying HICS in hospital. Employing a review study, articles related to the aforementioned subject published from 1995 to 2016 were extracted from accredited websites and databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, and SID by searching keywords such as HICS, benefits, barriers, and limitations. Then, those articles were summarized and reported. Using of HICS can cause creating preparedness in facing disasters, constructive management in strategies of controlling events, and disasters. Therefore, experiences indicate that there are some limitations in the system such as failure to assess the strength and severity of vulnerabilities of hospital, no observation of standards for disaster management in the design, constructing and equipping hospitals, and the absence of a model for evaluating the system. Accordingly, the conducted studies were investigated for probing the performance HICS. With regard to the role of health in disaster management, it requires advanced international methods in facing disasters. Using accurate models for assessing, the investigation of preparedness of hospitals in precrisis conditions based on components such as command, communications, security, safety, development of action plans, changes in staff's attitudes through effective operational training and exercises and creation of required maneuvers seems necessary.

  16. Compact Surface Plasmon Resonance System with Au/Si Schottky Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Takuya; Kuroda, Yuta; Noda, Kentaro; Binh-Khiem, Nguyen; Kan, Tetsuo; Shimoyama, Isao

    2018-01-30

    Ethanol concentration was quantified by the use of a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system, which electrically detects hot electrons via a Schottky barrier. Although it is well known that SPR can be used as bio/chemical sensors, implementation is not necessarily practical, due to the size and cost impediments associated with a system with variable wavelength or angle of incidence. However, scanning capability is not a prerequisite if the objective is to use SPR in a sensor. It is possible to build a small, inexpensive SPR sensor if the optics have no moving parts and a Schottky barrier is used for electrical current detection in place of a photodetector. This article reports on the design and performance of such a novel SPR sensor, and its application for quantifying ethanol concentration. As the concentration of ethanol is increased, the change in the angle dependence of the SPR current is observed. This change can be understood as a superposition of contributions of SPR coupled with the +3rd- and -3rd-order diffraction. Moreover, real-time monitoring of ethanol concentration was demonstrated using the proposed SPR system.

  17. Addressing access barriers to health services: an analytical framework for selecting appropriate interventions in low-income Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Bart; Ir, Por; Bigdeli, Maryam; Annear, Peter Leslie; Van Damme, Wim

    2017-01-01

    While World Health Organization member countries embraced the concept of universal coverage as early as 2005, few low-income countries have yet achieved the objective. This is mainly due to numerous barriers that hamper access to needed health services. In this paper we provide an overview of the various dimensions of barriers to access to health care in low-income countries (geographical access, availability, affordability and acceptability) and outline existing interventions designed to ove...

  18. Microfluidic systems with ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2014-01-01

    When integrated into microfluidic chips, ion-selective nanoporous polymer and solid-state membranes can be used for on-chip pumping, pH actuation, analyte concentration, molecular separation, reactive mixing, and molecular sensing. They offer numerous functionalities and are hence superior to paper-based devices for point-of-care biochips, with only slightly more investment in fabrication and material costs required. In this review, we first discuss the fundamentals of several nonequilibrium ion current phenomena associated with ion-selective membranes, many of them revealed by studies with fabricated single nanochannels/nanopores. We then focus on how the plethora of phenomena has been applied for transport, separation, concentration, and detection of biomolecules on biochips.

  19. Collective and transfer modes in the sub-barrier fusion of several ACN ∼ 100 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.

    2002-01-01

    By using some simple model assumptions, the relative contribution of collective and transfer degrees of freedom to the sub-barrier fusion of several systems is investigated. Previously measured data for 32 S + 58,64 Ni, 37 Cl + 58,60,62,64 Ni, 37 Cl + 70,72,73,74,76 Ge, and 27 Al + 70,72,73,74,76 Ge are analyzed. Even though the effects of collective degrees of freedom are dominant, transfer effects are shown to be important for many systems in order to account for the trend of the lower energy points. Under simplified assumptions for the transfer strength, a distance for transfer is estimated for some systems. An apparent inconsistency found in previous analysis of the Cl + Ge data is solved. (author)

  20. Incentives and barriers for wind power expansion and system integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg; Meyer, Niels I

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark expansion of on-shore, near-shore and off-shore wind power is planned to increase the wind power share to 50% of electricity consumption by 2020. In this situation a continuation of past policies will not suffice, and a dual-track incentive system that both establishes incentives...... for investing in wind power and integration infrastructure with integration between the electricity, heating and transportation sectors, is required. The current Danish taxation system discourages electricity use and works against this integration. Likewise, the current day-ahead electricity spot market...... is not appropriate for a high-wind future as wind reduces price levels, but integration across sectors can partly assist in increasing demand and prices. The European Emission Trading System does not suffice in providing a level playing field for wind power and thus needs a revision. Another barrier for on...

  1. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs van de Westelaken; Bas Terwee; Pascal Ravesteijn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However

  2. Analysis of the storage system in the selected company

    OpenAIRE

    BÄUML, Vítězslav

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis is an analysis the stock system and storage system of a selected company with the focus on material and information flow, storage processes, logistics costs and related logistics indexes.

  3. Select PC/windows flat to develop data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin

    1993-01-01

    Through needing analysis, and also, considering user's ability of payment, the characteristic of China computer market, the computer developing tending, and the system's compatibility and up grade capability, PC/Windows flat are selected to develop a data acquisition system

  4. Selection of nuclear power information database management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuxin; Wu Jianlei

    1996-01-01

    In the condition of the present database technology, in order to build the Chinese nuclear power information database (NPIDB) in the nuclear industry system efficiently at a high starting point, an important task is to select a proper database management system (DBMS), which is the hinge of the matter to build the database successfully. Therefore, this article explains how to build a practical information database about nuclear power, the functions of different database management systems, the reason of selecting relation database management system (RDBMS), the principles of selecting RDBMS, the recommendation of ORACLE management system as the software to build database and so on

  5. Performance Confirmation for the Engineered Barrier System. Report of a Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, David G.

    2004-08-01

    As part of preparations for review of future license applications, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) organised a workshop on the engineered barrier system for the KBS-3 concept, focused on Performance Confirmation (PC). The workshop was held during 12 - 14 May, 2004 at Oskarshamn. The main purpose of the workshop was to identify key issues relating to the demonstration of long-term safety using a system of engineered barriers. The workshop began with introductory presentations on Performance Confirmation, on monitoring, and on long-term experiments in underground research laboratories. Working groups were then convened to discuss these topics and identify questions to put to the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) the following day. On the second day, SKB made several presentations, mainly on long-term experiments conducted at the Aespoe underground research laboratory. These presentations were followed by an informal session during which the questions identified by the working groups on the first day were discussed with SKB and its representatives. This report includes the questions identified by the working groups and a summary of the workshop discussions. Extended abstracts for the introductory presentations are included in an appendix. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in this report are those of one or several workshop participants. They do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI

  6. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  7. Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona

  8. Overcoming barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice concepts in athletic training education: perceptions of select educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manspeaker, Sarah; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The need to include evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts in entry-level athletic training education is evident as the profession transitions toward using evidence to inform clinical decision making. To evaluate athletic training educators' experience with implementation of EBP concepts in Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)-accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in reference to educational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Qualitative interviews of emergent design with grounded theory. Undergraduate CAATE-accredited athletic training education programs. Eleven educators (3 men, 8 women). The average number of years teaching was 14.73 ± 7.06. Interviews were conducted to evaluate perceived barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers to implementation of evidence-based concepts in the curriculum. Interviews were explored qualitatively through open and axial coding. Established themes and categories were triangulated and member checked to determine trustworthiness. Educators identified 3 categories of need for EBP instruction: respect for the athletic training profession, use of EBP as part of the decision-making toolbox, and third-party reimbursement. Barriers to incorporating EBP concepts included time, role strain, knowledge, and the gap between clinical and educational practices. Suggested strategies for surmounting barriers included identifying a starting point for inclusion and approaching inclusion from a faculty perspective. Educators must transition toward instruction of EBP, regardless of barriers present in their academic programs, in order to maintain progress with other health professions' clinical practices and educational standards. Because today's students are tomorrow's clinicians, we need to include EBP concepts in entry-level education to promote critical thinking, inspire potential research interest, and further develop the available body of knowledge in our

  9. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  10. The system of employees motivation in a selected company

    OpenAIRE

    BEEROVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The system of employees motivation in a selected company is the title of this thesis that closely analyzes the system of employees motivation in a selected company and outlines some suggestions that could improve the management and performance in this area. Moreover, the focus is placed towards the motivation of employees in the workplace.

  11. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  12. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  13. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered the function of Cu-ATPases, thereby contributing to the etiology of Mn-induced parkinsonian disorder. Studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed that both Cu-ATPases expressed abundantly in BBB and BCB. Transport kinetic studies by in situ brain infusion and ventriculo-cisternal (VC) perfusion in Sprague Dawley rat suggested that the BBB was a major site for Cu entry into brain, whereas the BCB was a predominant route for Cu efflux from the CSF to blood. Confocal evidence showed that the presence of excess Cu or Mn in the choroid plexus cells led to ATP7A relocating toward the apical microvilli facing the CSF, but ATP7B toward the basolateral membrane facing blood. Mn exposure inhibited the production of both Cu-ATPases. Collectively, these data suggest that Cu is transported by the BBB from the blood to brain, which is mediated by ATP7A in brain capillary. By diffusion, Cu ions move from the interstitial fluid into the CSF, where they are taken up by the BCB. Within the choroidal epithelial cells, Cu ions are transported by ATP7B back to the blood. Mn exposure alters these processes, leading to Cu dyshomeostasis-associated neuronal injury. PMID:24614235

  14. Pulse selection system for the Oslo cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messelt, S.

    1984-09-01

    The beam from a cyclotron usually consists of short beam bursts with a time separation corresponding to the cyclone frequency. The report deals with a system for increasing the time separation in order to avoid ambiguities resulting from time overlap of events due to successive beam pulses. This is done by using a pair of electrostatic deflection plates driven at some integer fraction of the cyclotron frequency. This pulse selectrion system, which is used for the Oslo cyclotron, is described. The pulsing system has been tested by measuring gamma-rays from a thick target in one of the beam lines down-stream from the exit slit of the 90degr. magnet. The resuls of tests with 13 MeV and 23 MeV protons and division factor of 3 and 4, respectively, are shown. (RF)

  15. Selected methods of rehabilitation in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gerkowicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a chronic connective tissue disease characterized by microvascular abnormalities, immune disturbances and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Skin involvement may result in contractures, leading to marked loss of hand mobility, adversely affecting the performance of daily activities and decreasing the quality of life. Face involvement not only causes functional loss, but also lowers the self-esteem of patients. Increasing attention has recently been focused on the need to rehabilitate patients with systemic sclerosis in order to prevent the development of joint contractures and loss of mobility. The study presents a review of the current literature on rehabilitation possibilities in patients with systemic sclerosis, with a special focus on physiotherapy methods.

  16. Coincidence system for absolute measuring of radionuclide activity using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma radionuclides has been developed at IPEN. Two surface barrier detectors are coupled to two thin-window NaI(Tl) crystals, suitable for low energy gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of a Am-241 solution. The absolute activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4πα-γ coincidence technique. The alpha efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the source or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained by the linear extrapolation method, using a flow-gas 4π proportional counter. The agreement between the results were around 99.5%. (Author) [pt

  17. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Model Systems to Measure ABC Transporter Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Nienke M; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E

    2016-01-01

    With the aging population the occurrence of central nervous system diseases such as cancer, mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, is expected to increase and hence, the demand for effective drugs. However, the passage of drugs across the blood-brain barrier represents a major challenge in accomplishing efficient brain delivery of therapeutic agents. This highly efficient barrier is composed of a monolayer of capillary endothelial cells supported by pericytes and astrocytic end-feet, that together effectively shield the brain from the blood. The brain microvascular endothelial cells form a physical and metabolic barrier where paracellular and transcellular transport of molecules in and out of the brain is closely regulated, allowing nutrients to pass but preventing the entry of harmful neurotoxic substances, including drugs. For this purpose brain endothelial cells express efficient efflux pumps, such as ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which limit the delivery of drugs into the brain. To treat the above-mentioned chronic central nervous system disorders, it is crucial to design compounds that can pass the blood-brain barrier and thus the ABC transporters. In order to achieve this, representative models of the blood-brain barrier with predictive validity are necessary. This review discusses the current in vitro and ex vivo model systems that are used to measure ABC transporter activity in order to study potential in vivo efficacy of blood-brain barrier-drug passage.

  18. Optimalization of selected RFID systems Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestenicky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes procedure for maximization of RFID transponder read range. This is done by optimalization of magnetics field intensity at transponder place and by optimalization of antenna and transponder coils coupling factor. Results of this paper can be used for RFID with inductive loop, i.e. system working in near electromagnetic field.

  19. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  20. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  1. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  2. Increased blood-brain barrier vulnerability to systemic inflammation in an Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuko; Sato, Naoyuki; Ikimura, Kazuko; Nishino, Hirohito; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-08-01

    Behavioral and psychological problems are often observed in patients with dementia such as that associated with Alzheimer disease, and these noncognitive symptoms place an extremely heavy burden on the family and caregivers. Although it is well know that these symptoms often are triggered by infection of peripheral organs, the underlying mechanisms for these pathological conditions are still unclear. In this study, using an Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mouse, we analyzed behavioral changes and brain inflammatory response induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide. Application of a unique in vivo microdialysis system revealed that the increase in brain inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6) level was significantly higher in APP-Tg than in wild-type mice after peripheral lipopolysaccharide injection, which was associated with more severe sickness behaviors. The blood-brain barrier became more permeable in APP-Tg mice during peripherally evoked inflammation, suggesting the increased vulnerability of the blood-brain barrier to inflammation in this animal model of Alzheimer's disease. These findings might provide insight into the pathogenesis of noncognitive symptoms in dementia and a basis to develop new therapeutic treatments for them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Progress report for project modeling Arctic barrier island-lagoon system response to projected Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Storlazzi, Curt; B.M. Jones,

    2012-01-01

    Changes in Arctic coastal ecosystems in response to global warming may be some of the most severe on the planet. A better understanding and analysis of the rates at which these changes are expected to occur over the coming decades is crucial in order to delineate high-priority areas that are likely to be affected by climate changes. In this study we investigate the likelihood of changes to habitat-supporting barrier island – lagoon systems in response to projected changes in atmospheric and oceanographic forcing associated with Arctic warming. To better understand the relative importance of processes responsible for the current and future coastal landscape, key parameters related to increasing arctic temperatures are investigated and used to establish boundary conditions for models that simulate barrier island migration and inundation of deltaic deposits and low-lying tundra. The modeling effort investigates the dominance and relative importance of physical processes shaping the modern Arctic coastline as well as decadal responses due to projected conditions out to the year 2100.

  4. Rheumatologists' perception of systemic lupus erythematosus quality indicators: significant interest and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Carolyn; Chung, Cecilia P; Crofford, Leslie J; Barnado, April

    2017-01-01

    Differences in quality of care may contribute to health disparities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies show low physician adherence rates to the SLE quality indicators but do not assess physician perception of SLE quality indicators or quality improvement. Using a cross-sectional survey of rheumatologists in the southeastern USA, we assessed the perception and involvement of rheumatologists in quality improvement and the SLE quality indicators. Using electronic mail, an online survey of 32 questions was delivered to 568 rheumatologists. With a response rate of 19% (n = 106), the majority of participants were male, Caucasian, with over 20 years of experience, and seeing adult patients in an academic setting. Participants had a positive perception toward quality improvement (81%) with a majority responding that the SLE quality indicators would significantly impact quality of care (54%). While 66% of respondents were familiar with the SLE quality indicators, only 18% of respondents reported using them in everyday practice. The most commonly reported barrier to involvement in quality improvement and the SLE quality indicators was time. Rheumatologists had a positive perception of the SLE quality indicators and agreed that use of the quality indicators could improve quality of care in SLE; however, they identified time as a barrier to implementation. Future studies should investigate methods to increase use of the SLE quality indicators.

  5. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    the effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed......Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate......) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months...

  6. Zebrafish as a visual and dynamic model to study the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across the biological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Miao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tongkai; Yi, Xiang; Wang, Ruibing; Zhao, Haitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Xueqing; Zheng, Ying

    2017-08-01

    With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations. Based on our previously established coumarin 6 nanocrystals (C6-NCs), which have two different sizes, the present study investigates the transportation of C6-NCs across four biological barriers, including the chorion, blood brain barrier (BBB), blood retinal barrier (BRB) and gastrointestinal (GI) barrier, using zebrafish embryos and larvae as in vivo models. The biodistribution and elimination of C6 from different organs were quantified in adult zebrafish. The results showed that compared to 200nm C6-NCs, 70nm C6-NCs showed better permeability across these biological barriers. A FRET study suggested that intact C6-NCs together with the free dissolved form of C6 were absorbed into the larval zebrafish. More C6 was accumulated in different organs after incubation with small sized NCs via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis in adult zebrafish, which is consistent with the findings from in vitro cell monolayers and the zebrafish larvae model. C6-NCs could be gradually eliminated in each organ over time. This study demonstrated the successful application of zebrafish as a simple and dynamic model to simultaneously assess the transport of nanosized drug delivery systems across several biological barriers and biodistribution in different organs, especially in the brain, which could be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug and delivery system screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  7. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young adults…

  8. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System Mooring array: Monitoring the Western Boundary Currents of the Coral Sea and Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, C. R.; McAllister, F.; Brinkman, B. W.; Pitcher, C.; Luetchford, J.; Rigby, P.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1987 Great Barrier Reef weather and water temperature observations have been transmitted in near real time using HF radio from pontoons or towers on coral reefs by AIMS. In contrast oceanographic measurements have however been restricted to loggers serviced at quarterly to half yearly downloads. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System (GBROOS) is a regional node of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS is an Australian Government initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and has been supported by Queensland Government since 2006. GBROOS comprises real time observations from weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. This paper focuses on an array of in-line moorings that have been deployed along the outer Great Barrier Reef in order to monitor the Western Boundary currents of the Coral Sea. The Westward flowing Southern Equatorial Current bifurcates into the poleward flowing East Australian Current and the equatorward North Queensland Current. The 4 mooring pairs consist of a continental slope mooring, nominally in 200m of water and one on the outer continental shelf within the GBR matrix in depths of 30 to 70m. The array is designed to detect any changes in circulation, temperature response, mixed layer depth and ocean-shelf interactions. A review of likely impacts of climate change on the physical oceanography of the GBR is providing a basis upon which to explore what processes may be affected by climate change. Sample data and results from the initial year of observations will be presented.

  9. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  10. Self-care Barriers Reported by Emergency Department Patients With Acute Heart Failure: A Sociotechnical Systems-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J; Schubert, Christiane C; Eiland, Eugene C; Storrow, Alan B; Miller, Karen F; Collins, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    We pilot tested a sociotechnical systems-based instrument that assesses the prevalence and nature of self-care barriers among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute heart failure. A semistructured instrument for measuring self-reported self-care barriers was developed and administered by ED clinicians and nonclinician researchers to 31 ED patients receiving a diagnosis of acute heart failure. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Feasibility was assessed by examining participant cooperation rates, instrument completion times, item nonresponse, and data yield. Of 47 distinct self-care barriers assessed, a median of 15 per patient were indicated as "sometimes" or "often" present. Thirty-four specific barriers were reported by more than 25% of patients and 9 were reported by more than 50%. The sources of barriers included the person, self-care tasks, tools and technologies, and organizational, social, and physical contexts. Seven of the top 10 most prevalent barriers were related to patient characteristics; the next 3, to the organizational context (eg, life disruptions). A preliminary feasibility assessment found few item nonresponses or comprehension difficulties, good cooperation, and high data yield from both closed- and open-ended items, but also found opportunities to reduce median administration time and variability. An instrument assessing self-care barriers from multiple system sources can be feasibly implemented in the ED. Further research is required to modify the instrument for widespread use and evaluate its implementation across institutions and cultural contexts. Self-care barriers measurement can be one component of broader inquiry into the distributed health-related "work" activity of patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Siriwardena, K.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed implementation, combined planning with other sectors of the economy, incorporating environmental cost in planning and investment incentives as strategies for IGCC and LNG based technologies.

  12. Protection of blood retinal barrier and systemic vasculature by insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagna P R Jarajapu

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that insulin growth factor (IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, independent of IGF-1, reduces pathological angiogenesis in a mouse model of the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR. The current study evaluates novel endothelium-dependent functions of IGFBP-3 including blood retinal barrier (BRB integrity and vasorelaxation. To evaluate vascular barrier function, either plasmid expressing IGFBP-3 under the regulation of an endothelial-specific promoter or a control plasmid was injected into the vitreous humor of mouse pups (P1 and compared to the non-injected eyes of the same pups undergoing standard OIR protocol. Prior to sacrifice, the mice were given an injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP. IGFBP-3 plasmid-injected eyes displayed near-normal vessel morphology and enhanced vascular barrier function. Further, in vitro IGFBP-3 protects retinal endothelial cells from VEGF-induced loss of junctional integrity by antagonizing the dissociation of the junctional complexes. To assess the vasodilatory effects of IGFBP-3, rat posterior cerebral arteries were examined in vitro. Intraluminal IGFBP-3 decreased both pressure- and serotonin-induced constrictions by stimulating nitric oxide (NO release that were blocked by L-NAME or scavenger receptor-B1 neutralizing antibody (SRB1-Ab. Both wild-type and IGF-1-nonbinding mutant IGFBP-3 (IGFBP-3NB stimulated eNOS activity/NO release to a similar extent in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. NO release was neither associated with an increase in intracellular calcium nor decreased by Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII blockade; however, dephosphorylation of eNOS-Thr(495 was observed. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K activity and Akt-Ser(473 phosphorylation were both increased by IGFBP-3 and selectively blocked by the SRB1-Ab or PI3K blocker LY294002. In conclusion, IGFBP-3 mediates protective effects on BRB integrity and mediates robust NO release to stimulate

  13. Adaptive NN Control Using Integral Barrier Lyapunov Functionals for Uncertain Nonlinear Block-Triangular Constraint Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip; Li, Dong-Juan

    2017-11-01

    A neural network (NN) adaptive control design problem is addressed for a class of uncertain multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems in block-triangular form. The considered systems contain uncertainty dynamics and their states are enforced to subject to bounded constraints as well as the couplings among various inputs and outputs are inserted in each subsystem. To stabilize this class of systems, a novel adaptive control strategy is constructively framed by using the backstepping design technique and NNs. The novel integral barrier Lyapunov functionals (BLFs) are employed to overcome the violation of the full state constraints. The proposed strategy can not only guarantee the boundedness of the closed-loop system and the outputs are driven to follow the reference signals, but also can ensure all the states to remain in the predefined compact sets. Moreover, the transformed constraints on the errors are used in the previous BLF, and accordingly it is required to determine clearly the bounds of the virtual controllers. Thus, it can relax the conservative limitations in the traditional BLF-based controls for the full state constraints. This conservatism can be solved in this paper and it is for the first time to control this class of MIMO systems with the full state constraints. The performance of the proposed control strategy can be verified through a simulation example.

  14. Systems and methods for selective hydrogen transport and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C

    2013-10-29

    Systems and methods for selectively removing hydrogen gas from a hydrogen-containing fluid volume are disclosed. An exemplary system includes a proton exchange membrane (PEM) selectively permeable to hydrogen by exclusively conducting hydrogen ions. The system also includes metal deposited as layers onto opposite sides or faces of the PEM to form a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA), each layer functioning as an electrode so that the MEA functions as an electrochemical cell in which the ionic conductors are hydrogen ions, and the MEA functioning as a hydrogen selective membrane (HSM) when located at the boundary between a hydrogen-containing fluid volume and a second fluid.

  15. Regulatory review and barriers for the electricity supply system for distributed generation in EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Skytte, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from di...... distributed generation. This paper reviews the current regulation of the grids with respect to distributed generation in EU-15 Member States and compares the different systems. Several barriers are identified.......When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from...

  16. Monte Carlo approach to the decay rate of a metastable system with an arbitrarily shaped barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Jing-Dong; Bi, Lei; Jia, Ying

    2007-01-01

    A path integral Monte Carlo method based on the fast-Fourier transform technique combined with the important sampling method is proposed to calculate the decay rate of a metastable quantum system with an arbitrary shape of a potential barrier. The contribution of all fluctuation actions is included which can be used to check the accuracy of the usual steepest-descent approximation, namely, the perturbation expansion of potential. The analytical approximation is found to produce the decay rate of a particle in a cubic potential being about 20% larger than the Monte Carlo data at the crossover temperature. This disagreement increases with increasing complexity of the potential shape. We also demonstrate via Langevin simulation that the postsaddle potential influences strongly upon the classical escape rate

  17. Microstructure Evolution and Durability of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Evans, Laura J.; McCue, Terry R.; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coated SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced HfO2 and rare earth silicate environmental barrier coatings (EBCs), along with multicomponent hafnium and rare earth silicide EBC bond coats have been developed. The coating degradation mechanisms in the laboratory simulated engine thermal cycling, and fatigue-creep operating environments are also being investigated. This paper will focus on the microstructural and compositional evolutions of an advanced environmental barrier coating system on a SiC-SiC CMC substrate during the high temperature simulated durability tests, by using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS). The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will also be discussed. The detailed analysis results help understand the EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements to achieve more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings.

  18. Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain

    OpenAIRE

    KALUSOVÁ, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the thesis Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain is to explore and analyze the sphere in which the retailer chain operates, and evaluate their financial situation. At the same time, the selected retail chain will compare with the selected sectoral competition. The first part of thesis covers the theoretical information about issues, in particular the definition of basic terms of trade and retail. The second part of thesis includes application theoretical knowledg...

  19. AskFuse Origins: System Barriers to Providing the Research That Public Health Practice and Policy Partners Say They Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmer, Rosemary; Shucksmith, Janet

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the development of askFuse is used as a case study to illustrate contextual and system barriers to universities providing useful, usable and timely research evidence in response to local practice and policy partners' stated public health research needs. Entrenched systems (research excellence framework, academic career pathways,…

  20. Optimistic Selection Rule Better Than Majority Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takuya; Obata, Takuya; Hoki, Kunihito; Ito, Takeshi

    A recently proposed ensemble approach to game-tree search has attracted a great deal of attention. The ensemble system consists of M computer players, where each player uses a different series of pseudo-random numbers. A combination of multiple players under the majority voting system would improve the performance of a Shogi-playing computer. We present a new strategy of move selection based on the search values of a number of players. The move decision is made by selecting one player from all M players. Each move is selected by referring to the evaluation value of the tree search of each player. The performance and mechanism of the strategy are examined. We show that the optimistic selection rule, which selects the player that yields the highest evaluation value, outperforms the majority voting system. By grouping 16 or more computer players straightforwardly, the winning rates of the strongest Shogi programs increase from 50 to 60% or even higher.

  1. Inference of selection in the adaptive immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhanati, Yuval; Callan, Curtis; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Alexandra

    The adaptive immune system can recognize many threats by maintaining a large diversity of immune cells with different membrane receptors. This receptor diversity is based on initial random sequence generation, using a recombination mechanism, followed by functional selection stages via interactions with self and foreign peptides. These selection processes shape the initially random receptor ensemble into a functional repertoire that can bind many foreign pathogens. We analyzed high throughput data of human receptor sequences to infer the selection pressures on particular elements of the receptors using maximum likelihood methods. We can quantify the global and site-specific selection pressures and disentangle selection on amino acids from biases in the generated repertoire. We find correlations between generation and initial selection of receptors, and a significant reduction of diversity during selection, suggesting natural evolution of the generating mechanisms.

  2. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel synthesis reaction routes from palm oil using plasma electro-catalysis process over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma reactor were studied. The study was focused on finding possible reaction mechanism route during plasma electro-catalysis process. The prediction was performed based on the changes of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR analyses to the biodiesel products with respect to time length of plasma treatment. It was found that main reaction mechanism occurred in the plasma electro-catalysis system was non-thermal pyrolysis rather than transesterification. The main reactions within the plasma treatment were due to collision between high energetic electrons (supplied from high voltage power supply through high voltage electrode and the reaction mixtures. The high energetic electrons affected the electrons pair of covalent bonding to be excited or dissociated even ionized at higher energy. Therefore, this plasma electro-catalysis system was promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to only very short time reaction was needed, even no need a catalyst, no soap formation, and no glycerol by-product. This system could produce fatty acid methyl ester yield of 75.65% at 120 seconds and other possible chemicals, such as alkynes, alkanes, esters, carboxylic acid, and aldehydes. However, during the plasma process, the reaction mechanisms were still difficult to be controlled due the action of available high energetic electrons. The advanced studies on how to control the reaction mechanism selectively in the plasma electro-catalysis will be published elsewhere. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd January 2014; Revised: 20th March 2014; Accepted: 23rd March 2014[How to Cite: Istadi, I., Yudhistira, A.D., Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L. (2014. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor

  3. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  4. A systematic and practical method for selecting systems engineering tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    . The tremendous number of available tools makes it difficult to get an overview and identify the best choice. Selecting wrong tools due to inappropriate analysis can have severe impact on the success of the company. This paper presents a systematic method for selecting systems engineering tools based on thorough...

  5. Optimization of the warehouse system in the selected production plant

    OpenAIRE

    KOVÁŘOVÁ, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis was optimization of the warehouse system according to suitability for use in assortment in a selected production company focusing on material and information flows, decay processes, warehouse technology, logistic costs and relevant logistics indicators. The partial objective was to determine the critical factors in terms of management and operation in the warehouse of the selected manufacturing enterprise.

  6. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  7. Matching People and Jobs: Value Systems and Employee Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflich, Debra L.

    1981-01-01

    Offers strategies, based on six value systems, to reduce employee turnover. Maintains that understanding the value systems of people as they relate to jobs is the key to improving the selection process, and that employees should be chosen in accordance with how well their value systems match their work and work environments.

  8. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  9. Development of a alpha spectrometer system with the surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Marcus Alexandre Vallini de

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an α spectrometer of low cost and home made technology. The spectrometer is mounted in a double NIM module and includes a surface barrier detector and dedicate electronic system. Six barrier surface detectors were made, three of which with η type silicon wafer 3350 Ω.cm, 270mm 2 and three other with ρ type silicon wafer 5850 Ω.cm and 220mm 2 . The rectifier and the ohmic contacts were prepared at high vacuum (10 -2 to 10 -3 Pa) evaporation with 40μg/cm 2 of Au and Al respectively for the η type detectors, and with Al and Au respectively for the ρ type detectors. The electronic system is composed by a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier with the operational amplifier LF-356 mounted with 1OOMΩ feedback resistor and a 0.5 pF capacitor. The linear amplifier is also based in the LF-356 and the LM-310 operational amplifier. The bipolar output is formatted through a (CR) 2- (RC) 4 shaping network and the unipolar output is obtained through a CR-(RC) 4 shaping system which is sufficient to realize a almost true Gaussian shaping pulse with a time constant of 3.0μs. This format was chosen because we can expect a low counting rate and the gaussian pulse can improve the signal/noise ratio. The first CR differentiation has also a active pole-zero cancellation network.The resolution of detectors for 241 Am α particles at room temperature (24 degree) vary 21 to 44 keV FWHM. The electronic noise of the noise of the system is 7.5 keV FWHM at OpF input capacitance. The overall resolution of the spectrometer was found to be 62 keV FWHM at room temperature. The simplicity of the electronic system, the low cost of the construction and the overall resolution show that this alpha spectrometer can be readily used in measurements where high resolution is not a premium. (author)

  10. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  11. Risk analysis of the governance system affecting outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allan P; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Gooch, Margaret; Potts, Ruth; Eberhard, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The state and trend of the Great Barrier Reef's (GBR's) ecological health remains problematic, influencing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) statements regarding GBR governance. While UNESCO's concerns triggered separate strategic assessments by the Australian and Queensland governments, there has been no independent and integrated review of the key risks within the overall system of governance influencing GBR outcomes. As a case study of international significance, this paper applies Governance Systems Analysis (GSA), a novel analytical framework that identifies the governance themes, domains and subdomains most likely to influence environmental and socio-economic outcomes in complex natural systems. This GBR-focussed application of GSA identifies governance subdomains that present high, medium, or low risk of failure to produce positive outcomes for the Reef. This enabled us to determine that three "whole of system" governance problems could undermine GBR outcomes. First, we stress the integrative importance of the Long Term Sustainability Plan (LTSP) Subdomain. Sponsored by the Australian and Queensland governments, this subdomain concerns the primary institutional arrangements for coordinated GBR planning and delivery, but due to its recent emergence, it faces several internal governance challenges. Second, we find a major risk of implementation failure in the achievement of GBR water quality actions due to a lack of system-wide focus on building strong and stable delivery systems at catchment scale. Finally, we conclude that the LTSP Subdomain currently has too limited a mandate/capacity to influence several high-risk subdomains that have not been, but must be more strongly aligned with Reef management (e.g. the Greenhouse Gas Emission Management Subdomain). Our analysis enables exploration of governance system reforms needed to address environmental trends in the GBR and reflects on the potential application of GSA in

  12. System selection for coal combustion by-product transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-01-01

    Coal combustion by-product transportation and handling systems are presented within the context of underground placement of the by-products in the old workings of the coal mines. The factors affecting the system selection are presented along with the tools and procedures developed to aid the selection process. A hypothetical case applicable to southern and central Illinois is given to illustrate the use of the developed products. 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Differential Rollover Risk in Vehicle-to-Traffic Barrier Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2009-01-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  14. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    ) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months......Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate...

  15. Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie W McCallum

    Full Text Available Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants, who may negatively impact native species.

  16. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  17. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance. Paper no. IGEC-1-136

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the International Energy Association's (IEA) Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (PVSP) initiated IEA Task 7 to evaluate the technical status of combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal systems (PV/T), and to formulate a roadmap for future development. Because the Task was initiated by the PVSP, however, individuals from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) were not invited to participate, and the Task Group lacked any significant expertise with solar-thermal systems. When the Task submitted its final report in 2002, it consisted of an accounting of existing systems and a list of the perceived market barriers. Without input from the SHCP, however, no move could be made to actually address those barriers. IEA Task 7, however, did recognize that the participation of the SHCP was needed, and in 1999 made an effort to initiate some discussion between the PVSP and the SHCP. The result was IEA Task 35 - PV/T Systems, which met for the first time in January of 2005. The new group intends to reevaluate the findings of Task 7, and to develop the means by which these market barriers can be overcome. The current discussion will provide an overview of existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status. Further, it will report on the methodology established by the Task 35 work group to overcome the aforementioned market barriers. (author)

  18. Numerical investigation of damage protective oxide mechanisms in thermal barrier system for aeronautical turbine blade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khelifa hocine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a material for a given application requires insuring a good durability in its conditions of employment, in particular environmental. It is especially true for the systems destined to work in corrosive hot atmospheres. For it, the knowledge and the understanding of the corrosion phenomena, oxidization, ageing and damage are indispensable in order to anticipate the life period of the structures and to propose the adapted protective solutions. The study of the corrosion in high temperature is therefore a greatly interdisciplinary topic, into the interface of the physico-chemistry, metallic and ceramic materials and mechanics. We propose in this work a finite element method for the simulation of EBPVD TBCs spallation. Our studies concern one of several systems that we call thermal barrier coatings, which are a Composite materials deposited in layers on the hot components to isolate them chemically and thermally at high temperatures. This is the last operational technology adapted on aircraft engines but it is still studied and not fully exploited.This comprehensive article describes the systems currently used and the problem of interaction between mechanical and environment in the turbine.

  19. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Allan; Vella, Karen; Potts, Ruth; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Yorkston, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  20. Examining Barriers to Internationalisation Created by Diverse Systems and Structures in Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Shaw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global society, all educational sectors need to recognise internationalism as a core, foundational principle. Whilst most educational sectors are taking up that challenge, vocational education and training (VET is still being pulled towards the national agenda in terms of its structures and systems, and the policies driving it, disadvantaging those who graduate from VET, those who teach in it, and the businesses and countries that connect with it. This paper poses questions about the future of internationalisation in the sector. It examines whether there is a way to create a VET system that meets its primary point of value, to produce skilled workers for the local labour market, while still benefitting those graduates by providing international skills and knowledge, gained from VET institutions that are international in their outlook. The paper examines some of the key barriers created by systems and structures in VET to internationalisation and suggests that the efforts which have been made to address the problem have had limited success. It suggests that only a model which gives freedom to those with a direct vested interest, students, teachers, trainers and employers, to pursue international co-operation and liaison will have the opportunity to succeed.

  1. Goal Selection for Embedded Systems with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  2. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars.

  3. Informal waste management system in Nigeria and barriers to an inclusive modern waste management system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, O O

    2012-05-01

    To explore the activities of the informal waste management sector in Nigeria, and barriers to integrating them in an inclusive waste management system. Literature review. A literature review was undertaken to evaluate the informal waste management system and formal waste management system in Nigeria and other developing countries with similar settings. Nine databases were searched and 34 studies met the following inclusion criteria: evaluation of the role of informal waste collectors, recycling and solid waste management in developing countries. Most of the evaluated studies (97%, n = 33) acknowledged the significant environmental and socio-economic roles played by the informal waste collectors and scavengers in developing countries. The studies identified the following as barriers to inclusive waste management in Nigeria: repressive policy, unhygienic waste collection methods, lack of evidence to support activity, and low quality and quantity of secondary materials. Scavengers and other groups of informal recyclers see waste as a source of income and livelihood, whilst the general public see it as an aesthetic problem and see the people engaged in resource recovery as a social nuisance. Integrating their informal services with the formal waste management system is a potential tool to empower these people to increase their skills in resource recovery and improve their working and living conditions. Inclusive waste management is a process, and observable changes are taking place in some developing countries where waste pickers and informal waste collectors have become environmental agents. A major limitation to the integration of informal waste collectors and scavengers is the social acceptance of their activity as a viable source of income, and of themselves as environmental agents in the sustainability of virgin resources. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and Environmental Factors Contributing to the Failure of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Matthew David

    Gas turbine engines are a staple of 21st century air and sea propulsion systems and are also a critical component in large-scale electricity generation. The hot-section components of these engines are protected by a complex ceramic and metal multi-layer coating called a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. The failure of TBC systems occurs as a result of both thermo-chemical and thermo-mechanical degradation. This research involves exploring both of these mechanisms for two distinctly different issues. The United States Navy is currently making a push to implement the use of alternative fuels by 2012, but the use of these fuels (syngas, high hydrogen content, and alternatives to JP-8) presents significant materials durability challenges. Initial data suggests that high water vapor levels, high sulfur concentrations, and ash deposits from fuel impurities lead to unique, and severe, degradation modes. This research is aimed at addressing the effects of differing combustion environment characteristics on the corrosion and oxidation of TBC systems. On the industrial front, there is a constant driver to better understand and predict coating failure, particularly in air-plasma sprayed (APS) TBC systems. The morphology of the metal-ceramic interface is known to play a key role in the generation of compressive and tensile stresses that eventually cause coating failure in typical engine environments. Experimental evidence and field experience have shown that a tortuous interface is generally beneficial to coating lifetime. Nevertheless, for the past 40 years engineers have struggled to find a functional correlation between BC topology and coating system lifetime. This document also addresses the progress that has been made toward the establishment of this functional correlation.

  5. On the relationship between perceived importance of ERP systems selection characteristics and satisfaction with selected ERP systems in these characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja; Lenart, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been widely adopted not only by large but still more even by small and medium enterprises. Although there had been some research conducted in ERP systems selection criteria and ERP systems satisfaction characteristics, very little was done in resear...

  6. Feasibility study of a single-element transcranial focused ultrasound system for blood-brain barrier opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Fabrice; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular system that impedes entry of all large and the vast majority of small molecules including the most potent CNS disease therapeutic agents from entering from the lumen into the brain parenchyma. Microbubble-enhanced, focused ultrasound (ME-FUS) has been previously shown to disrupt noninvasively, selectively, and transiently the BBB in small animals in vivo. The study addresses the focusing properties of single-element transducers at intermediate frequencies (500 kHz) through primate and human skulls, targeting clinically relevant targets extracted from 3D brain atlases such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A preliminary in vivo study was performed to study the frequency dependence of BBB opening parameters in mice. Then, feasibility of transcranial ME-FUS BBB opening in non-human primates was demonstrated with subsequent BBB recovery. Sonications were combined with two different types of microbubbles (custom made 4-5 μm and Definity®). 3T MRI was used to confirm the BBB disruption and to assess brain damage.

  7. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  8. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-11-30

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems.

  9. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems

  10. UK innovation systems for new and renewable energy technologies: drivers, barriers and systems failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Gross, R.; Chase, A.; Howes, J.; Arnall, A.; Anderson, D.

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the systemic processes by which innovation occurs is useful, both conceptually and to inform policy-making in support of innovation in more sustainable technologies. This paper analyses current innovation systems in the UK for a range of new and renewable energy technologies, and generates policy recommendations for improving the effectiveness of these innovation systems. Although incentives are in place in the UK to encourage innovation in these technologies, system failures - or 'gaps' - are identified in moving technologies along the innovation chain, preventing their successful commercialisation. Sustained investment will be needed for these technologies to achieve their potential. It is argued that a stable and consistent policy framework is required to help create the conditions for this. In particular, such a framework should be aimed at improving risk/reward ratios for demonstration and pre-commercial stage technologies. This would enhance positive expectations, stimulate learning effects leading to cost reductions, and increase the likelihood of successful commercialisation

  11. Determining Barriers and Facilitators Associated With Willingness to Use a Personal Health Information Management System to Support Worksite Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, David M; Childers, Ashley Kay

    2017-07-01

    To determine the barriers and facilitators associated with willingness to use personal health information management (PHIM) systems to support an existing worksite wellness program (WWP). The study design involved a Web-based survey. The study setting was a regional hospital. Hospital employees comprised the study subjects. Willingness, barriers, and facilitators associated with PHIM were measured. Bivariate logit models were used to model two binary dependent variables. One model predicted the likelihood of believing PHIM systems would positively affect overall health and willingness to use. Another predicted the likelihood of worrying about online security and not believing PHIM systems would benefit health goals. Based on 333 responses, believing PHIM systems would positively affect health was highly associated with willingness to use PHIM systems (p systems. Participants in exercise-based components of WWPs were 3.03 times more likely to be willing to use PHIM systems. Those who worried about online security were 5.03 times more likely to believe PHIM systems would not help obtain health goals. Comfort with personal health information online and exercise-based WWP experience was associated with willingness to use PHIM systems. However, nutrition-based WWPs did not have similar effects. Implementation barriers relate to technology anxiety and trust in security, as well as experience with specific WWP activities. Identifying differences between WWP components and addressing technology concerns before implementation of PHIM systems into WWPs may facilitate improved adoption and usage.

  12. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  13. Quantifying system safety: A comparison of the SBOAT & Safety Barrier Manager tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Markert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two software tools for analyzing safety risks, SBOAT (Stochastic BPMN Optimisation and Analysis Tool) and SBM (SafetyBarrierManagerr). SBOAT employs principles from stochastic model checking to allow for the quantitative verification of workflows. SBM supports the creation...... of valid safety-barrier diagrams and allows the quantitative analysis of the probability of all possible end states of the barrier diagram, i.e. the outcomes if one or several of the barriers fail to perform their barrier function. We compare the foundations of these tools and describe how they can be used...... and how they complement each other by means of the analysis of a production workflow inspired by a real-world industry case....

  14. Foliation impact on the dynamic properties of selected samples of the barrier dam site Prvonek: Right side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Prvonek' dam was built in tight asymmetric Banjska river valley about 100 meters downstream from the river Gradasnica. Barrier at the dam site built predominantly slate series of high crystallinity Vranjska Banja, alternately layered double mica, gneiss, leptinolite and micaschist. For the construction of this place were carried out extensive field and laboratory geotechnical investigations. Part of laboratory geotechnical investigations related to the testing of dynamic properties in the perpendicular and parallel direction to the foliation of gneiss and micashist samples on the right side. The aim of investigations is definition of anisotropy tested dynamic parameters.

  15. Barriers and enablers to geothermal district heating system development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur H.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    2010-01-01

    According to the US Energy Information Administration, space and hot water heating represented about 20% of total US energy demand in 2006. Given that most of this demand is met by burning natural gas, propane, and fuel oil, an enormous opportunity exists for directly utilizing indigenous geothermal energy as a cleaner, nearly emissions-free renewable alternative. Although the US is rich in geothermal energy resources, they have been frequently undervalued in America's portfolio of options as a means of offsetting fossil fuel emissions while providing a local, reliable energy source for communities. Currently, there are only 21 operating GDHS in the US with a capacity of about 100 MW thermal. Interviews with current US district heating operators were used to collect data on and analyze the development of these systems. This article presents the current structure of the US regulatory and market environment for GDHS along with a comparative study of district heating in Iceland where geothermal energy is extensively utilized. It goes on to review the barriers and enablers to utilizing geothermal district heating systems (GDHS) in the US for space and hot water heating and provides policy recommendations on how to advance this energy sector in the US.

  16. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalam Adil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives

  17. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Adil; King, Abigail; Moret, Ellen; Weerasinghe, Upekha

    2012-04-23

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives aimed at a CHP market dominated primarily by large-scale (and

  18. Selecting The ' Best ' Visual System: A Guide For Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    Choice of the "best" visual system for a given set of simulation training tasks is considered by many as a black magic process. Considerable confusion, misunderstanding and misapplication of visual requirements exists within the simulation community. Several elementary mistakes are frequently made, so that the simulation visual system is unsatisfactory for the simulation user. This paper presents management methodology for selection of the optimum visual system for a given set of simulation training tasks. Discussion of several current "pitfalls" in visual system use is given to increase confidence in choice methodology. Comparison tables are developed for current state-of-the-art visual systems to provide understanding of visual systems strengths and weaknesses.

  19. A multi-purpose unit concept to integrate storage, transportation, and the engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Rozier, R.; Nitti, D.A.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Unit (MPU) is a new concept for standardizing and integrating the waste management functions of spent fuel storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The MPU concept would use one unit, composed of a relatively thick-walled inner canister with a multi-purpose overpack, to meet the requirements for storage in 10 CFR 72, transportation in 10 CFR 71, and the engineered barrier system in 10 CFR 60. The MPU concept differs from the recently proposed Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) concept in that the MPU concept uses a single multi-purpose overpack for storage, transportation, and geologic disposal, while the MPC concept uses separate and unique overpacks for each of these system functions. A design concept for the MPU is presented along with an estimate of unit costs. An initial evaluation of overall system cost showed that the MPU concept could be economically competitive with the current reference system. The MPU concept provides the potential for significant reduction, simplification, and standardization of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWMS) facilities and operations, including those at the utilities, during waste acceptance and transportation, and at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and the repository. The primary issues for the MPU concept relate to uncertainties with respect to licensing, and the programmatic risks associated with implementing the MPU concept before the repository design is finalized. The strong potential exhibited by the MPU concept demonstrates that this option merits additional development and should be considered in the next phase of work on multi-purpose concepts for the CRWMS

  20. Review of underground logistic systems in the Netherlands : An ex-post evaluation of barriers, enablers and spin-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Visser, J.; Konings, R.; Pielage, B.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Now, 10 years after the first plans, we analyse in this paper what has happened with Underground Logistic Systems (ULS). The major question in this paper is: Which barriers and enablers led to the failure of ULS and what ULS spin-offs can be found nowadays? Several factors can be classified as

  1. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers for Patient Safety in a Medicine Label Design System Using Patient Simulation and Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Clemmensen, Marianne Hald; Sørensen, Trine Kart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medicine label design plays an important role in improving patient safety. This study aimed at identifying facilitators and barriers in a medicine label system to prevent medication errors in clinical use by health care professionals. Methods The study design is qualitative and explora...

  2. Combined Thermomechanical and Environmental Durability of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is essential to the EBC-CMC system durability, ensuring the successful implementations of the high temperature and lightweight engine component technologies for engine applications.This paper will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating and CMC developments for SiC/SiC turbine airfoil components, utilizing advanced coating compositions and processing methods. The emphasis has been particularly placed on thermomechanical and environment durability evaluations of EBC-CMC systems. We have also addressed the integration of the EBCs with advanced SiC/SiC CMCs, and studied the effects of combustion environments and Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) deposits on the durability of the EBC-CMC systems under thermal gradient and mechanical loading conditions. Advanced environmental barrier coating systems, including multicomponent rare earth silicate EBCs and HfO2-Si based bond coats, will be discussed for the performance improvements to achieve better temperature capability and CMAS resistance for future engine operating conditions.

  3. Monitoring active species in an atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge: Observation of the Herman-infrared system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Annušová, A.; Čermák, P.; Rakovský, Jozef; Martišovitš, V.; Veis, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2017), s. 67-75 ISSN 0863-1042 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : dielectric-barrier discharge * Herman-infrared system * nitrogen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016

  4. Attitude towards the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste in a municipal solid waste management system. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad-Beltrán, D; Simó, A; Bovea, M D

    2014-12-01

    European waste legislation has been encouraging for years the incorporation of selective collection systems for the biowaste fraction. European countries are therefore incorporating it into their current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. However, this incorporation involves changes in the current waste management habits of households. In this paper, the attitude of the public towards the incorporation of selective collection of biowaste into an existing MSWM system in a Spanish municipality is analysed. A semi-structured telephone interview was used to obtain information regarding aspects such as: level of participation in current waste collection systems, willingness to participate in selective collection of biowaste, reasons and barriers that affect participation, willingness to pay for the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste and the socioeconomic characteristics of citizens who are willing to participate and pay for selective collection of biowaste. The results showed that approximately 81% of the respondents were willing to participate in selective collection of biowaste. This percentage would increase until 89% if the Town Council provided specific waste bins and bags, since the main barrier to participate in the new selective collection system is the need to use specific waste bin and bags for the separation of biowaste. A logit response model was applied to estimate the average willingness to pay, obtaining an estimated mean of 7.5% on top of the current waste management annual tax. The relationship of willingness to participate and willingness to pay for the implementation of this new selective collection with the socioeconomic variables (age, gender, size of the household, work, education and income) was analysed. Chi-square independence tests and binary logistic regression was used for willingness to participate, not being obtained any significant relationship. Chi-square independence tests, ordinal logistic regression and

  5. Reducing barriers to interoperability through collaborative development of standards for Earth science information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G. S.; Arctur, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Increasingly, Earth science research must make effective use of interdisciplinary data sources and processes. Non-interoperability impedes sharing of data and computing resources. Standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and other organizations are the basis for successfully deploying a seamless, distributed information infrastructure for the geosciences. Collaborative development of the standards has proven effective in reducing barriers to standards adoption. Standards are the basis for the success of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A standard describes a set of rules that have been agreed to in some consensus forum, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or the OGC. As described in The Importance of Going Open, “non-interoperability causes organizations to spend much more than necessary on geospatial information technology development”. In the context of e-Science, the National Science Foundation’s Cyberinfrastructure Council argues that “The use of standards creates economies of scale and scope for developing and deploying common resources, tools, software, and services that enhance the use of cyberinfrastructure in multiple science and engineering communities.” Barriers to adoption include misperceptions and misuse of standards. “Adhering to standards costs more” - typically this statement is made when a research program considers implementing standards as a one-time modification to an existing system. Multiple economic studies have shown lower development costs when using standards over the life of a project. “Standards stifle innovation” - a key decision in research is to consider what assumptions to consider fixed and what to challenge. The long history of standards in research, e.g., SI units, is fundamental to assessing repeatable results by independent researchers. Similar need for common standards exist in the information systems used for Earth

  6. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; D'Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  7. Operator psychological selection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed job analysis of nuclear power plant operator including operation procedures analysis, interview with personnel familiar with operator job, and 9 events happened in the past in the plant involved operator error analysis, several operator work characteristics and performance influence factors are obtained. According to these specific characteristics and factors, referring to the psychological selection research results in the other related critical occupational fields, a full psychological selection system of nuclear power plant operator is forwarded in this paper, including 21 dimensions in 3 facets as general psychological ability, personality and psychological healthy. Practical measurement methods for the proposed selection dimensions are discussed in the end

  8. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, H.-G.; Stollenwerk, L.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  9. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwins, H-G; Stollenwerk, L

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  10. Durability and CMAS Resistance of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper will emphasize advanced environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, by using advanced coating compositions and processing, in conjunction with mechanical and environment testing and durability validations. The coating-CMC degradations and durability in the laboratory simulated engine fatigue-creep and complex operating environments are being addressed. The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will be discussed. The results help understand the advanced EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements of more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings for successful applications of the component technologies and lifing methodologies.

  11. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita I. Henderson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  12. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  13. Preliminary test on filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer in the engineering barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka

    2002-12-01

    In geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the engineered barrier system (EBS) (buffer, waste packages (capsulate the vitrified waste)) is installed in the space of a repository using the remote control technique due to protect workers from radiation. The block type buffer, as one of the candidate options of the installation of the buffer, has the gap between buffer and rock or waste package. In this case, the highly compacted buffer will be used to fill the gap by the swollen buffer. Swelling of the buffer is considered to begin from the surface of the buffer where groundwater infiltrates. Infiltration of groundwater into the buffer is considered to be 3 dimensional, because the gap and the infiltration points of the buffer are distributed spatially. Therefore, the scatter of the swelling points of the buffer causes the non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer. Such non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer will affect the thickness of the buffer between waste package and rock mass. Then, preliminary tests that simulate 3 dimensional filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer were performed. The test results showed the swollen buffer filled the gap rapidly. There is scatter of the density of the buffer early, but the tendency that the density of the buffer became uniformity with time was observed. It is considered that the swelling and fluidity of the buffer occurs simultaneously, the swelling of the buffer for filling the gap will affect the thickness of the buffer. (author)

  14. Mini-med school for Aboriginal youth: experiential science outreach to tackle systemic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rita I; Williams, Keri; Crowshoe, Lynden Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15-25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.

  15. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study plant is to describe tests known as Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT), which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The EBSFT is designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers), the surrounding rock mass, and its vadose water. The Yucca Mountain site is being characterized to determine its suitability as a potential deep geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. Water is the main medium by which radioactive nuclides travel to the accessible environment. Therefore, the movement of water over the approximate 10,000--year lifetime required for radioactive nuclide decay must be understood. Development of a repository and emplacement of nuclear wastes impose stress loadings on the repository rock mass. The stress loadings include (1) thermal energy and irradiation from the waste packages, and (2) mechanical stress due to the mining of openings, and the transporting of waste canisters. The influence f the thermal stress may extend to all lithological units, including the saturated zone under the ground water table, in Yucca Mountain. In general, the purpose of this study is to investigate the movement of water in the rock mass under the influence of the thermal loading of the waste packages. Specifically, the study will investigate heat flow mechanism, relationship between boiling and dry-out, and the rewetting of the dry-out region when the repository is cooled down

  16. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  17. The density-driven circulation of the coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamena, Gerry G; Martins, Flávio; Ridd, Peter V

    2016-04-15

    The coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in the dry season, was investigated for the first time using a 3D baroclinic model. In the shallow coastal embayments, salinity increases to c.a. 1‰ above typical offshore salinity (~35.4‰). This salinity increase is due to high evaporation rates and negligible freshwater input. The hypersalinity drifts longshore north-westward due to south-easterly trade winds and may eventually pass capes or headlands, e.g. Cape Cleveland, where the water is considerably deeper (c.a. 15m). Here, a pronounced thermohaline circulation is predicted to occur which flushes the hypersalinity offshore at velocities of up to 0.08m/s. Flushing time of the coastal embayments is around 2-3weeks. During the dry season early summer, the thermohaline circulation reduces and therefore, flushing times are predicted to be slight longer due to the reduced onshore-offshore density gradient compared to that in the dry season winter period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of Sudanese medical diaspora to the healthcare delivery system in Sudan: exploring options and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Maye Abu; Badr, Elsheikh Elsiddig

    2016-06-30

    Medical diaspora options, including the engagement of expatriate physicians in development efforts within their home country, are being called for to reverse the effects of brain drain from developing countries. This paper presents the results of a study exploring the potential contributions for the Sudanese Medial Diaspora Options to the healthcare delivery system (HCDS) in Sudan, focusing on the options of temporal and permanent returns and the likely obstacles faced in their implementation. This was a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods design including quantitative and qualitative approaches. For the quantitative approach, the study, which focused on the possible contribution of the diaspora to healthcare delivery in Sudan, was based on an online survey using random purposive and snowballing sampling techniques involving 153 Sudanese physicians working in Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, and the United States of America. The qualitative approach involved in-depth interviews with returnee physicians and key informants in Sudan, focusing on the return experiences, the barriers for return, and the options to improve future contributions. Despite contributions of the Sudanese medical diaspora being of a small scale considering the size of the phenomenon, as well as infrequent and not appropriately organized, their inputs to academia and the links built with overseas institutions and specialist clinical services were nevertheless remarkable. The main barrier to temporal return was inappropriate organization by the local counterparts, while those for permanent return of physicians were poor work environment, insufficient financial payment, unsecured accommodation, and offspring education. The study identified short-term return as a feasible option considering the country's current conditions. Proper coordination mechanisms for short-term returns and facilitation of permanent return through stakeholders

  19. Database system selection for marketing strategies support in information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamically changing environment marketing has a significant role. Creating successful marketing strategies requires large amount of high quality information of various kinds and data types. A powerful database management system is a necessary condition for marketing strategies creation support. The paper briefly describes the field of marketing strategies and specifies the features that should be provided by database systems in connection with these strategies support. Major commercial (Oracle, DB2, MS SQL, Sybase and open-source (PostgreSQL, MySQL, Firebird databases are than examined from the point of view of accordance with these characteristics and their comparison in made. The results are useful for making the decision before acquisition of a database system during information system’s hardware architecture specification.

  20. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  1. Blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip: Microphysiological systems that capture the complexity of the blood-central nervous system interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Duc Tt; Bender, R Hugh F; Andrejecsk, Jillian W; Sobrino, Agua; Hachey, Stephanie J; George, Steven C; Hughes, Christopher Cw

    2017-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface. Current research relies heavily on animal models (mostly mice) or on two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models, neither of which fully capture the complexities of the human blood-brain barrier. Physiological differences between humans and mice make translation to the clinic problematic, while monolayer cultures cannot capture the inherently three-dimensional (3D) nature of the blood-brain barrier, which includes close association of the abluminal side of the endothelium with astrocyte foot-processes and pericytes. Here we discuss the central nervous system diseases associated with blood-brain barrier pathology, recent advances in the development of novel 3D blood-brain barrier -on-a-chip systems that better mimic the physiological complexity and structure of human blood-brain barrier, and provide an outlook on how these blood-brain barrier-on-a-chip systems can be used for central nervous system disease modeling. Impact statement The field of microphysiological systems is rapidly evolving as new technologies are introduced and our understanding of organ physiology develops. In this review, we focus on Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) models, with a particular emphasis on how they relate to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, cancer, and vascular malformations. We emphasize the importance of capturing the three-dimensional nature of the brain and the unique architecture of the BBB - something that until recently

  2. Morphological response of a barrier island system on a catastrophic event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Kroon, Aart

    2016-01-01

    The AD 1634 North Sea storm is one of the most catastrophic storms along the Wadden Sea coast of Denmark. In this study we show how pre-1634 storm morphology exerted a strong control on the resulting post-storm coastal morphology. Erosional responses associated with the storm were barrier breaching......, dune scarping and shoreface erosion and accretionary responses were washover deposition, shoreface healing and barrier-island formation. Local sediment sources appeared to have a particularly strong influence on post-storm coastal evolution and allowed a very rapid formation of a barrier shoal which...... resulted in several kilometres of coastal progradation. Sediment budgets suggest that formation of the barrier shoal was possible, but the sediment transport rates in the decades after the 1634 storm, must have been two to three times higher than present-day rates. The study demonstrates that catastrophic...

  3. A Fuzzy-MOORA approach for ERP system selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Karande

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global and dynamic business environment, manufacturing organizations face the tremendous challenge of expanding markets and meeting the customer expectations. It compels them to lower total cost in the entire supply chain, shorten throughput time, reduce inventory, expand product choice, provide more reliable delivery dates and better customer service, improve quality, and efficiently coordinate demand, supply and production. In order to accomplish these objectives, the manufacturing organizations are turning to enterprise resource planning (ERP system, which is an enterprise-wide information system to interlace all the necessary business functions, such as product planning, purchasing, inventory control, sales, financial and human resources into a single system having a shared database. Thus to survive in the global competitive environment, implementation of a suitable ERP system is mandatory. However, selecting a wrong ERP system may adversely affect the manufacturing organization’s overall performance. Due to limitations in available resources, complexity of ERP systems and diversity of alternatives, it is often difficult for a manufacturing organization to select and install the most suitable ERP system. In this paper, two ERP system selection problems are solved using fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA method and it is observed that in both the cases, SAP is the best solution.

  4. Selecting a Relational Database Management System for Library Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhel, Alex; O'Brien, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of four relational database management systems (RDBMSs) (Informix Turbo, Oracle 6.0 TPS, Unify 2000 and Relational Technology's Ingres 5.0) to determine which is best suited for library automation. The evaluation criteria used to develop a benchmark specifically designed to test RDBMSs for libraries are discussed. (CLB)

  5. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  6. Design and construction of a system for determination of Radon-222 by a surface-barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work the design and construction of a system for the determination of 222 Rn is described, which utilizes silicon surface-barrier detectors. The 222 Rn gas was obtained a source of 226 Ra electrodeposited on stainless-steel discs. The well separated energies with this system makes possible the measurement and identification of alpha particles of 222 Rn, and its daughters 210 Po, 218 Po and 214 Po. (Author) 3 figs, 19 refs

  7. Political, policy and social barriers to health system interoperability: emerging opportunities of Web 2.0 and 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwishin, Donald W M

    2009-01-01

    Achieving effective health informatics interoperability in a fragmented and uncoordinated health system is by definition not possible. Interoperability requires the simultaneous integration of health care processes and information across different types and levels of care (systems thinking). The fundamental argument of this paper is that information system interoperability will remain an unfulfilled hope until health reforms effectively address the governance (accountability), structural and process barriers to interoperability of health care delivery. The ascendency of Web 2.0 and 3.0, although still unproven, signals the opportunity to accelerate patients' access to health information and their health record. Policy suggestions for simultaneously advancing health system delivery and information system interoperability are posited.

  8. The Immune System Bridges the Gut Microbiota with Systemic Energy Homeostasis: Focus on TLRs, Mucosal Barrier, and SCFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiljar, Martina; Merkler, Doron; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for the development and regulation of the immune system and the metabolism of the host. Germ-free animals have altered immunity with increased susceptibility to immunologic diseases and show metabolic alterations. Here, we focus on two of the major immune-mediated microbiota-influenced components that signal far beyond their local environment. First, the activation or suppression of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) by microbial signals can dictate the tone of the immune response, and they are implicated in regulation of the energy homeostasis. Second, we discuss the intestinal mucosal surface is an immunologic component that protects the host from pathogenic invasion, is tightly regulated with regard to its permeability and can influence the systemic energy balance. The short chain fatty acids are a group of molecules that can both modulate the intestinal barrier and escape the gut to influence systemic health. As modulators of the immune response, the microbiota-derived signals influence functions of distant organs and can change susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  9. The Immune System Bridges the Gut Microbiota with Systemic Energy Homeostasis: Focus on TLRs, Mucosal Barrier, and SCFAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiljar, Martina; Merkler, Doron; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for the development and regulation of the immune system and the metabolism of the host. Germ-free animals have altered immunity with increased susceptibility to immunologic diseases and show metabolic alterations. Here, we focus on two of the major immune-mediated microbiota-influenced components that signal far beyond their local environment. First, the activation or suppression of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) by microbial signals can dictate the tone of the immune response, and they are implicated in regulation of the energy homeostasis. Second, we discuss the intestinal mucosal surface is an immunologic component that protects the host from pathogenic invasion, is tightly regulated with regard to its permeability and can influence the systemic energy balance. The short chain fatty acids are a group of molecules that can both modulate the intestinal barrier and escape the gut to influence systemic health. As modulators of the immune response, the microbiota-derived signals influence functions of distant organs and can change susceptibility to metabolic diseases. PMID:29163467

  10. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  11. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  12. The Lefkada barrier and beachrock system (NW Greece) — Controls on coastal evolution and the significance of extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Vött, Andreas; Brückner, Helmut; Grapmayer, Ralf; Handl, Mathias; Wennrich, Volker

    2012-02-01

    The Lefkada-Preveza coastal zone, NW Greece, is characterised by an active barrier system and related extensive beachrock sequences. Besides the gradual coastal processes of longshore drift and spit evolution, the presence of active tectonics and the occurrence of tsunamis have been documented in previous studies and are part of the coastal geomorphological system. In this paper, we present the results of detailed multi-proxy sedimentological and geomorphological investigations carried out along the northern part of the barrier system and in back-beach positions. Our findings suggest that extreme wave events contributed to coastal and environmental changes and involved temporary breakdown of the barrier system. Sedimentary findings suggest that one generation of event deposits may be related to the 365 AD Crete earthquake and associated tsunami. According to our results, the Lefkada coastal system formed by the interaction of both long-term, gradual and sudden, impulsive littoral geomorphodynamics. Extreme wave events are assumed to have played a significant role in the evolution of the present coastline, acting as recurrent impulsive disturbances of the coastal system. Subsequently, the onset of long-term gradual coastal processes, such as longshore drift, re-established a state of natural coastal balance by re-arranging the coastal sediments.

  13. Neural mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysaj, Kristjana; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention allows organisms to extract behaviorally relevant information while ignoring distracting stimuli that compete for the limited resources of their central nervous systems. Attention is highly flexible, and it can be harnessed to select information based on sensory modality, within-modality feature(s), spatial location, object identity, and/or temporal properties. In this review, we discuss the body of work devoted to understanding mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system. In particular, we describe the effects of attention on tactile behavior and corresponding neural activity in somatosensory cortex. Our focus is on neural mechanisms that select tactile stimuli based on their location on the body (somatotopic-based attention) or their sensory feature (feature-based attention). We highlight parallels between selection mechanisms in touch and other sensory systems and discuss several putative neural coding schemes employed by cortical populations to signal the behavioral relevance of sensory inputs. Specifically, we contrast the advantages and disadvantages of using a gain vs. spike-spike correlation code for representing attended sensory stimuli. We favor a neural network model of tactile attention that is composed of frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas that controls somatosensory cells encoding the relevant stimulus features to enable preferential processing throughout the somatosensory hierarchy. Our review is based on data from noninvasive electrophysiological and imaging data in humans as well as single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates. PMID:27334956

  14. Neural mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Hysaj, Kristjana; Niebur, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Selective attention allows organisms to extract behaviorally relevant information while ignoring distracting stimuli that compete for the limited resources of their central nervous systems. Attention is highly flexible, and it can be harnessed to select information based on sensory modality, within-modality feature(s), spatial location, object identity, and/or temporal properties. In this review, we discuss the body of work devoted to understanding mechanisms of selective attention in the somatosensory system. In particular, we describe the effects of attention on tactile behavior and corresponding neural activity in somatosensory cortex. Our focus is on neural mechanisms that select tactile stimuli based on their location on the body (somatotopic-based attention) or their sensory feature (feature-based attention). We highlight parallels between selection mechanisms in touch and other sensory systems and discuss several putative neural coding schemes employed by cortical populations to signal the behavioral relevance of sensory inputs. Specifically, we contrast the advantages and disadvantages of using a gain vs. spike-spike correlation code for representing attended sensory stimuli. We favor a neural network model of tactile attention that is composed of frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas that controls somatosensory cells encoding the relevant stimulus features to enable preferential processing throughout the somatosensory hierarchy. Our review is based on data from noninvasive electrophysiological and imaging data in humans as well as single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Multilevel mutation-selection systems and set-valued duals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Donald A

    2018-01-01

    A class of measure-valued processes which model multilevel multitype populations undergoing mutation, selection, genetic drift and spatial migration is considered. We investigate the qualitative behaviour of models with multilevel selection and the interaction between the different levels of selection. The basic tools in our analysis include the martingale problem formulation for measure-valued processes and a generalization of the function-valued and set-valued dual representations introduced in Dawson-Greven (Spatial Fleming-Viot models with selection and mutation. Lecture notes in mathematics, vol 2092. Springer, Cham, 2014). The dual is a powerful tool for the analysis of the long-time behaviour of these processes and the study of evolutionary systems which model phenomena including altruism, the emergence of cooperation and more complex interactions.

  16. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mandušić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to select the one that meets all defined parameters, with low costs/investment. Proper evaluation can save time and money.

  17. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  18. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ

  19. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  20. Dentists' Most Common Practices when Selecting an Implant System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahadni, Ahed; Barakat, Mohamed S; Abu Afifeh, Khladoon; Khader, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    To report a comprehensive description of dental implant system selection practices among dentists practicing implantology worldwide. An online questionnaire was designed and sent to members of 15 dental implant organizations. The survey questions addressed: dental implant system selection criteria, implant design variables, dentists' perspective to implant quality stamps, and dentists' satisfaction with their implant system(s). Responses were compiled and analyzed to determine correlation of responses using the chi-squared test (level of significance α ≤ 0.05). Out of 4264 invitations sent, a total of 2001 (response rate = 46.9%) dentists participated in the survey. Approximately half of survey respondents (48.7%) were general dentists. More than two-thirds of the survey respondents (72.5%) were performing both the surgical and prosthetic implant phases. Implant-abutment connections were the most important dental implant system selection criterion (84.7%), followed by scientific evidence available on the implant system (82.8%), and simplicity of prosthetic steps (81.4%). Patient preferences (19.8%) were rated as the least important aspect. Sandblasted large gritted acid etched implant surfaces (SLA) were the most commonly used implant surfaces (75.8%); fluoride coated surfaces were the least commonly used (15.4%). According to the results of this survey, most survey respondents practiced both surgical and prosthetic phases of dental implantology. The majority of survey respondents agreed on the importance of implant-abutment connections, scientific evidence available on implant systems, and simplicity of prosthetic steps when selecting implant systems. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. System of selective disemination of information at ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the systems of selective dissemination of information (SDI) is presented, the concepts for such systems outlined, and their developments traced in advanced countries, its forms of operation and implications for the special libraries. Also the operation of INIS at CIDN (Centro de Informacion y Documentacion Nuclear) is presented, together with recommendations and conclusions to improve the development of this service in Mexico. (author)

  2. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  3. Selective maintenance of multi-state systems with structural dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dao Duc Cuong, Cuong; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the selective maintenance problem for multi-state systems with structural dependence. Each component can be in one of multiple working levels and several maintenance actions are possible to a component in a maintenance break. The components structurally form multiple hierarchical

  4. Looking for Improvement in Last Planner System: Defining Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Last Planner System has been critiqued for an inconsistent application of flows. Central for this critique was that the sequence of activities was determined based on only duration and interrelationships. In an attempt to improve the on-site scheduling processes, an in-depth analysis of selection...

  5. System for illuminating a region for isotopically selective photoexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaryshe, P.G.; Janes, G.S.; Levy, R.H.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described to improve laser beam utilization in isotope separation techniques (using laser induced isotopically selective photoexcitation) by increasing the probability of photon absorption without extreme beam propagation lengths. For this purpose an optical reflection system has been designed for illuminating substantially all of three-dimensional space of a transversely flowing vapor with multiple traversals of a beam of radiation. (UK)

  6. Innovation and organization : Value and competition in selection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, NM

    2004-01-01

    New definitions are proposed for the concepts 'innovation' and 'organization' by looking at the concepts in terms of value and competition and using the framework of the selection system. Also, new definitions are proposed for 'importance of an innovation' and 'stylistic innovation'. Some results

  7. Accounting and Control Systems in selected Small and Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting and Control Systems in selected Small and Micro Enterprise in Botswana. CR Sathyamoorthi. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.10(1) 2001: 96-109. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Corneal manifestations of selected systemic diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D.H. Gillan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corneal manifestations of several selected systemic diseases are reviewed. Metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory and infectious diseases are included. A brief overview of each disease and how it manifests in the cornea is discussed. The importance of conducting a slit-lamp examination on every patient is emphasised.

  9. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Using a prototype implementation of our scheme, we compare the results of human-selected, derived passwords and system generated to reveal the practical viability of our approach in terms of results achieved, ease of implementation and use. Keywords: Security, Biometric, Behavioral, Keystroke dynamics, Password.

  10. A Comparison between Human Selected, Derived and System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a prototype implementation of our scheme, we compare the results of human-selected, derived passwords and system generated to reveal the practical viability of our approach in terms of results achieved, ease of implementation and use. Keywords: Security, Biometric, Behavioral, Keystroke dynamics, Password ...

  11. Corneal manifestations of selected systemic diseases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D.H. Gillan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corneal manifestations of several selected systemic diseases are reviewed. Metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory and infectious diseases are included. A brief overview of each disease and how it manifests in the cornea is discussed. The importance of conducting a slit-lamp examination on every patient is emphasised.

  12. Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment, Part 1: Patient Selection “The 50% Barrier and the Capillary Index Score”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Firas; Elias, John J.; Filipkowski, Danielle E.; Faber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The current strategy for intra-arterial treatment (IAT) of acute ischemic stroke focuses on minimizing time from ictus to revascularization and maximizing revascularization. Employing this strategy has yet to lead to improved rates of successful outcomes. However, the collateral blood supply likely plays a significant role in maintaining viable brain tissue during ischemia. Based on our prior work, we believe that only approximately 50% of patients are genetically predisposed to have sufficient collaterals for a good outcome following treatment, a concept we call the 50% barrier. The Capillary Index Score (CIS) has been developed as a tool to identify patients with a sufficient collateral blood supply to maintain tissue viability prior to treatment. Patients with a favorable CIS (f CIS) may be able to achieve a good outcome with IAT beyond an arbitrary time window. The CIS is incorporated into a proposed patient treatment algorithm. For patients suffering from a large stroke without aphasia, a non-enhanced head CT should be followed by CT angiography (CTA). For patients without signs of stroke mimics or visible signs of structural changes due to large irreversible ischemia, CTA can help confirm the vascular occlusion and location. The CIS can be obtained from a diagnostic cerebral angiogram, with IAT offered to patients categorized as f CIS. PMID:25954243

  13. Selection and implementation of a laboratory computer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, V A; McMaster, R; Dillon, T; Mayall, B

    1995-07-01

    The process of selection of a pathology computer system has become increasingly complex as there are an increasing number of facilities that must be provided and stringent performance requirements under heavy computing loads from both human users and machine inputs. Furthermore, the continuing advances in software and hardware technology provide more options and innovative new ways of tackling problems. These factors taken together pose a difficult and complex set of decisions and choices for the system analyst and designer. The selection process followed by the Microbiology Department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital included examination of existing systems, development of a functional specification followed by a formal tender process. The successful tenderer was then selected using predefined evaluation criteria. The successful tenderer was a software development company that developed and supplied a system based on a distributed network using a SUN computer as the main processor. The software was written using Informix running on the UNIX operating system. This represents one of the first microbiology systems developed using a commercial relational database and fourth generation language. The advantages of this approach are discussed.

  14. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Mick; Arthur, Randy [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Savage, Dave [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (GB)] (eds.)

    2005-09-15

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations.

  15. Preliminary test on filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer in the engineered barrier system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Tanai, Kenji

    2003-11-01

    In geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the engineered barrier system (EBS) (buffer, waste packages (capsulate the vitrified waste)) is installed in the space of a repository using the remote control technique due to protect workers from radiation. The block type buffer, as one of the candidate options of the installation of the buffer, has the gap between buffer and rock or waste package. In this case, the highly compacted buffer will be used to fill the gap by the swollen buffer. Swelling of the buffer is considered to begin from the surface of the buffer where groundwater infiltrates. Infiltration of groundwater into the buffer is considered to be 3 dimensional, because the gap and the infiltration points of the buffer are distributed spatially. Therefore, non-uniformity of the swelling of the buffer will affect the thickness of the buffer between waste package and rock mass. Long term experiments of preliminary tests that simulate 3 dimensional filling gap behavior of the swollen buffer were performed. Other test simulates the vertical emplacement option was performed, too. The test results showed that as follows; In Horizontal emplacement option, swelling of the buffer began from the surface of the buffer. Swollen buffer infiltrated into gap region there is no stress against infiltration of the buffer. Distribution of the density of the buffer was changed with time. In vertical emplacement option, there is scatter of the density of the buffer also. In center region which has the buffer initial, density was still high. Near the surface of test cell, density of the buffer was low. In this case, since the buffer was installed at the center of the test cell, density of the buffer was uniform in a circumference section. In case of swelling of the buffer with the gap, initial condition, swelling behavior and change of the density after filled the gap of the buffer should be observed. (author)

  16. Experimental Studies of Engineered Barrier Systems Conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (FY16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Over the past five years the Used Fuel Campaign has investigated Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at higher heat loads (up to 300°C) and pressure (150 bar). This past year experimental work was hindered due to a revamping of the hydrothermal lab. Regardless, two experiments were run this past year, EBS-18 and EBS-19. EBS-18 was run using Low Carbon Steel (LCS) and opalinus clay in addition to the bentonite and opalinus brine. Many of the past results were confirmed in EBS-18, such as the restriction of illite formation due to the bulk chemistry, pyrite degradation, and zeolite formation dependent on the bentonite and opalinus clay. The LCS show vast amounts of pit corrosion (over 100μm of corrosion in six weeks), leading a corrosion rate of 1083 μm/year. In addition, a mineral goethite, an iron-bearing hydroxide, formed in the pits of the LCS. Preliminary results from EBS-19 water chemistry are included but SEM imaging, micro probe and XRD are still needed for further results. Copper corrosion was investigated further and over 850 measurements were taken. It was concluded that pitting and pyrite degradation drastically increase the corrosion rate from 0.12 to 0.39 μm/day. However, the growth of a layer of the mineral chalcocite is thought to subdue the corrosion rate to 0.024 μm/day as observed in the EBS-13, a sixth month experiment. This document presents the findings of this past year.

  17. Engineered Barrier System - Long-term Stability of Buffer and Backfill. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Mick; Arthur, Randy; Savage, Dave

    2005-09-01

    SKI is preparing to review the license applications being developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for an encapsulation plant and a deep repository for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As part of its preparation, SKI is conducting a series of technical workshops on key aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) of the repository. This workshop concerns the longterm stability of the buffer and the backfill. Previous workshops have addressed the overall concept for long-term integrity of the EBS, the manufacturing, testing and QA of the EBS and the performance confirmation for the EBS. The goal of this work is to achieve a comprehensive overview of all aspects of SKB's EBS work prior to the handling of forthcoming license applications. The reports from the EBS workshops will be used as one important basis in future review work. The workshops involve the gathering of a sufficient number of independent experts in different subjects of relevance to the particular aspect of EBS. A workshop starts with presentations and discussions among these experts. Following this, SKB presents recent results and responds to questions as part of an informal hearing. Finally, the independent experts and the SKI staff examine the SKB responses from different viewpoints. This report aims to summarise the issues discussed at the buffer and backfill workshop and to extract the essential viewpoints that have been expressed. The report is not a comprehensive record of the discussions and individual statements made by workshop participants should be regarded as opinions rather than proven facts. This reports includes apart from the workshop synthesis, questions to SKB identified prior or during the workshop, and extended abstracts for introductory presentations

  18. Hybrid feature selection for supporting lightweight intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianglong; Zhao, Wentao; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Redundant and irrelevant features not only cause high resource consumption but also degrade the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), especially when coping with big data. These features slow down the process of training and testing in network traffic classification. Therefore, a hybrid feature selection approach in combination with wrapper and filter selection is designed in this paper to build a lightweight intrusion detection system. Two main phases are involved in this method. The first phase conducts a preliminary search for an optimal subset of features, in which the chi-square feature selection is utilized. The selected set of features from the previous phase is further refined in the second phase in a wrapper manner, in which the Random Forest(RF) is used to guide the selection process and retain an optimized set of features. After that, we build an RF-based detection model and make a fair comparison with other approaches. The experimental results on NSL-KDD datasets show that our approach results are in higher detection accuracy as well as faster training and testing processes.

  19. Differential effect of ethanol and hydrogen peroxide on barrier function and prostaglandin E2 release in differentiated Caco-2 cells: selective prevention by growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalioto, Rose-Marie; Festa, Carla; Triolo, Antonio; Altamura, Maria; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Giuliani, Sandro

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of ethanol and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the barrier function and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), the transport of reference compounds and lactate dehydrogenase leakage, the PGE(2) release by enzyme immunoassay. Ethanol and H(2)O(2) decreased TEER and increased the transport of lucifer yellow without affecting that of propranolol and phenylalanine. Only the effects of ethanol were accompanied by PGE(2) production and were reversible without causing long-term cytotoxicity. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, NS-398, prevented the effect of ethanol on both PGE(2) release and TEER, while inhibition of both cyclooxygenase-2 and tyrosine kinase drastically compromised cell viability and TEER recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor or insulin prevented the effect of ethanol on cell permeability, but not on PGE(2) release. Their combination prevented the effect of H(2)O(2). In conclusion, ethanol and H(2)O(2) increased paracellular permeability in differentiated Caco-2 cells without affecting transcellular and active transport. Cyclooxygenase-2 stimulated PGE(2) release mediated the reversible effect of ethanol on tight junctions and, meanwhile, contributed to cell survival. Growth factors, normally present in the intestine, exerted a selective protective effect toward paracellular permeability increase induced by irritants.

  20. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10/sup -14/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/ for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10/sup -10/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/ include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO/sub 4//sup -/, iodide, I/sup -/, and selenite, SeO/sub 3//sup -2/. Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10/sup -12/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/. The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s -1 include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SeO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. A new system for depth-selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancholi, S.C.; Waard, H. de; Petersen, J.L.W.; Wijk, A. van der; Klinken, J. van

    1984-01-01

    A conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometer has been constructed in which a mini-orange magnetic filter focuses conversion electrons emitted by a moving absorber onto a thin window silicon surface barrier detector. This detector serves as an electron spectrometer. A special multi-scalar is used to record a number of Moessbauer spectra, corresponding to different conversions electron energy groups, simultaneously. A large reduction in counting time compared to other methods of energy differential conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy is achieved by the relatively high transmission of the mini-orange (approx.= 2%), the high efficiency of the detector and the feature of simultaneous recording. Depth selectivity is mainly limited by the resolution (600-900 eV) of the Si-detector. The system has been tested with a sandwich absorber of 57 Fe evaporated onto stainless steel enriched in 57 Fe irradiated by a 57 CoRh source. (orig.)

  3. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System - NA-243 FNI/UKC FY2017 Task 1-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-03

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only the pass/fail result is displayed as a “Mass <= Threshold Amount” or “Mass >= Threshold Amount” as shown in Figure 4. This can easily be adapted to a red/green “lights” display similar to the Detective IB system for Pu isotopics as shown in Figure 6. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  4. Optimal Subinterval Selection Approach for Power System Transient Stability Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobae Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  5. Barriers to the success of an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting system in Kenya: an evaluation three years post implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoro, Oscar O; Kibira, Sarah W; Freeman, Jenny V; Fraser, Hamish S F

    2017-10-12

    Electronic pharmacovigilance reporting systems are being implemented in many developing countries in an effort to improve reporting rates. This study sought to establish the factors that acted as barriers to the success of an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting system in Kenya 3 years after its implementation. Factors that could act as barriers to using electronic reporting systems were identified in a review of literature and then used to develop a survey questionnaire that was administered to pharmacists working in government hospitals in 6 counties in Kenya. The survey was completed by 103 out of the 115 targeted pharmacists (89.5%) and included free-text comments. The key factors identified as barriers were: unavailable, unreliable, or expensive Internet access; challenges associated with a hybrid system of paper and electronic reporting tools; and system usability issues. Coordination challenges at the national pharmacovigilance center and changes in the structure of health management in the country also had an impact on the success of the electronic reporting system. Different personal, organizational, infrastructural, and reporting system factors affect the success of electronic reporting systems in different ways, depending on the context. Context-specific formative evaluations are useful in establishing the performance of electronic reporting systems to identify problems and ensure that they achieve the desired objectives. While several factors hindered the optimal use of the electronic pharmacovigilance reporting system in Kenya, all were considered modifiable. Effort should be directed toward tackling the identified issues in order to facilitate use and improve pharmacovigilance reporting rates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  7. Universal system of logic electronics for preliminary event selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.I.; Mikhajlov, Yu.V.; Shagin, P.M.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Experience in development of the system for preliminary selection of events for experiments on the ''Sigma'' and the GAMS spectrometers is generalized. The unit structure of the system permits to effectively use it in different experiments. Selection of events is carried out at two levels in the described syste. Signals from a small number (<=12) of detectors are analyzed at the first level during extremely short time period, only simplest algorithms are used for this purpose. Time synchronization signal (strobe-pulse) and blocking signal are generated in case of positive solution. At the second level signals from detectors are remembed by trigger strobe pulse, then these data are analyzed aiming at recording of the given event. The considered system is under operation since 1974 at the IHEP accelerator and it appeared convinient and reliable in operation

  8. The divergence and natural selection of autocatalytic primordial metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marakushev, Sergey A; Belonogova, Ol'ga V

    2013-06-01

    The diversity of the central metabolism of modern organisms is caused by the existence of a few metabolic modules, combination of which produces multiple metabolic pathways. This paper analyzes biomimetically reconstructed coupled autocatalytic cycles as the basis of ancestral metabolic systems. The mechanism for natural selection and evolution in autocatalytic chemical systems may be affected by natural homeostatic parameters such as ambient chemical potentials, temperature, and pressure. Competition between separate parts of an autocatalytic network with positive-plus-negative feedback resulted in the formation of primordial autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic metabolic systems. This work examined the last common ancestor of a set of coupled metabolic cycles in a population of protocells. Physical-chemical properties of these cycles determined the main principles of natural selection for the ancestral Bacteria and Archaea taxa.

  9. The Divergence and Natural Selection of Autocatalytic Primordial Metabolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marakushev, Sergey A.; Belonogova, Ol'ga V.

    2013-06-01

    The diversity of the central metabolism of modern organisms is caused by the existence of a few metabolic modules, combination of which produces multiple metabolic pathways. This paper analyzes biomimetically reconstructed coupled autocatalytic cycles as the basis of ancestral metabolic systems. The mechanism for natural selection and evolution in autocatalytic chemical systems may be affected by natural homeostatic parameters such as ambient chemical potentials, temperature, and pressure. Competition between separate parts of an autocatalytic network with positive-plus-negative feedback resulted in the formation of primordial autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic metabolic systems. This work examined the last common ancestor of a set of coupled metabolic cycles in a population of protocells. Physical-chemical properties of these cycles determined the main principles of natural selection for the ancestral Bacteria and Archaea taxa.

  10. A novel method to achieve selective emitter for silicon solar cell using low cost pattern-able a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent phosphorus diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da Ming; Liang, Zong Cun; Zhuang, Lin; Lin, Yang Huan; Shen, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► a-Si thin films as semitransparent phosphorus diffusion barriers for solar cell. ► a-Si thin films on silicon wafers were patterned by the alkaline solution. ► Selective emitter was formed with patterned a-Si as diffusion barrier for solar cell. -- Abstract: Selective emitter for silicon solar cell was realized by employing a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent diffusion barrier. The a-Si thin films with various thicknesses (∼10–40 nm) were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation technique. Emitters with sheet resistances from 37 to 145 Ω/□ were obtained via POCl 3 diffusion process. The thickness of the a-Si diffusion barrier was optimized to be 15 nm for selective emitter in our work. Homemade mask which can dissolve in ethanol was screen-printed on a-Si film to make pattern. The a-Si film was then patterned in KOH solution to form finger-like design. Selective emitter was obtainable with one-step diffusion with patterned a-Si film on. Combinations of sheet resistances for the high-/low-level doped regions of 39.8/112.1, 36.2/88.8, 35.4/73.9 were obtained. These combinations are suitable for screen-printed solar cells. This preparation method of selective emitter based on a-Si diffusion barrier is a promising approach for low cost industrial manufacturing.

  11. Elastic scattering and transfer in the 8Li+208Pb system near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolata, J.J.; Goldberg, V.Z.; Lamm, L.O.; Marino, M.G.; O'Keeffe, C.J.; Rogachev, G.; Aguilera, E.F.; Garcia-Martinez, H.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Rosales, P.; Becchetti, F.D.; O'Donnell, T.W.; Roberts, D.A.; Brown, J.A.; DeYoung, P.A.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Shaheen, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of 8 Li with 208 Pb has been studied over a range of energies near the nominal Coulomb barrier. An excitation function for the total reaction cross section is obtained from elastic-scattering angular distributions and compared with existing data for 6,7 Li scattering. The result of this comparison indicates that the interaction barrier for 8 Li+ 208 Pb is reduced by approximately 4 MeV relative to that of 7 Li. The yields of 7 Li and 4 He from breakup and/or transfer processes are determined, and compared with similar data for other light, weakly bound projectiles

  12. Sensor Selection method for IoT systems – focusing on embedded system requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirayama Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various types of sensors have been developed. Using these sensors, IoT systems have become hot topics in embedded system domain. However, sensor selections for embedded systems are not well discussed up to now. This paper focuses on embedded system’s features and architecture, and proposes a sensor selection method which is composed seven steps. In addition, we applied the proposed method to a simple example – a sensor selection for computer scored answer sheet reader unit. From this case study, an idea to use FTA in sensor selection is also discussed.

  13. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  14. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  15. Machine-Vision Systems Selection for Agricultural Vehicles: A Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems are becoming increasingly common onboard agricultural vehicles (autonomous and non-autonomous for different tasks. This paper provides guidelines for selecting machine-vision systems for optimum performance, considering the adverse conditions on these outdoor environments with high variability on the illumination, irregular terrain conditions or different plant growth states, among others. In this regard, three main topics have been conveniently addressed for the best selection: (a spectral bands (visible and infrared; (b imaging sensors and optical systems (including intrinsic parameters and (c geometric visual system arrangement (considering extrinsic parameters and stereovision systems. A general overview, with detailed description and technical support, is provided for each topic with illustrative examples focused on specific applications in agriculture, although they could be applied in different contexts other than agricultural. A case study is provided as a result of research in the RHEA (Robot Fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management project for effective weed control in maize fields (wide-rows crops, funded by the European Union, where the machine vision system onboard the autonomous vehicles was the most important part of the full perception system, where machine vision was the most relevant. Details and results about crop row detection, weed patches identification, autonomous vehicle guidance and obstacle detection are provided together with a review of methods and approaches on these topics.

  16. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  17. Automated simulation and evaluation of autostereoscopic multiview 3D display designs by time-sequential and wavelength-selective filter barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmey, Mathias; Jurk, Silvio; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René

    2015-09-01

    A novel simulation tool has been developed for spatial multiplexed 3D displays. Main purpose of our software is the 3D display design with optical image splitter in particular lenticular grids or wavelength-selective barriers. As a result of interaction of image splitter with ray emitting displays a spatial light-modulator generating the autostereoscopic image representation was modeled. Based on the simulation model the interaction of optoelectronic devices with the defined spatial planes is described. Time-sequential multiplexing enables increasing the resolution of such 3D displays. On that reason the program was extended with an intermediate data cumulating component. The simulation program represents a stepwise quasi-static functionality and control of the arrangement. It calculates and renders the whole display ray emission and luminance distribution on viewing distance. The degree of result complexity will increase by using wavelength-selective barriers. Visible images at the viewer's eye positon were determined by simulation after every switching operation of optical image splitter. The summation and evaluation of the resulting data is processed in correspondence to the equivalent time sequence. Hereby the simulation was expanded by a complex algorithm for automated search and validation of possible solutions in the multi-dimensional parameter space. For the multiview 3D display design a combination of ray-tracing and 3D rendering was used. Therefore the emitted light intensity distribution of each subpixel will be evaluated by researching in terms of color, luminance and visible area by using different content distribution on subpixel plane. The analysis of the accumulated data will deliver different solutions distinguished by standards of evaluation.

  18. Why are IPTp coverage targets so elusive in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review of health system barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Sylla; Kimotho, Victoria; Gatonga, Patrick

    2013-10-03

    Use of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) is a proven cost-effective intervention for preventing malaria in pregnancy. However, despite the roll-out of IPTp policies across Africa more than ten years ago, utilization levels remain low. This review sought to consolidate scattered evidence as to the health system barriers for IPTp coverage in the continent. Relevant literature from Africa was systematically searched, reviewed and synthesized. Only studies containing primary data were considered. Studies reveal that: (i) poor leadership and governance contribute to slow decentralization of programme management, lack of harmonized guidelines, poor accountability mechanisms, such as robust monitoring and evaluation systems; (ii) low budgetary allocation towards policy implementation slows scale-up, while out-of-pocket expenditure deters women from seeking antenatal services that include IPTp; (iii) there are rampant human resource challenges including low staff motivation levels attributed to such factors as incorrect knowledge of IPTp recommendations and inadequate staffing; (iv) implementation of IPTp policies is hampered by prevailing service delivery barriers, such as long waiting time, long distances to health facilities and poor service provider/client relations; and (v) drug stock-outs and poor management of information and supply chains impair sustained availability of drugs for IPTp. For successful IPTp policy implementation, it is imperative that malaria control programmes target health system barriers that result in low coverage and hence programme ineffectiveness.

  19. Waste package/engineered barrier system design concepts for the direct disposal of spent fuel in the potential United States' repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, D.; Harrison, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package development program is to design a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level waste (HLW) in a geologic repository. Attainment of this goal relies on a multi-barrier approach, the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site, consideration of technical alternatives, and sufficient resolution of technical and regulatory uncertainties. To accomplish this, an iterative system engineering approach will be used. The NWPA of 1982 limits the content of the first US repository to 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM). The DOE Mission Plan describes the implementation of the provisions of the NWPA for the waste management system. The Draft 1988 approach will involve selecting candidate designs, evaluating them against performance requirements, and then selecting one or two preferred designs for further detailed evaluation and final design. The reference design of the waste package described in the YMP Site Characterization Plan is a thin-walled, vertical borehole-emplaced waste package with an air gap between the package and the rock wall. The reference design appeared to meet the design requirement. However, the degree of uncertainty was large. This uncertainty led to considering several more-robust design concepts during the Advanced Conceptual Design phase of the program that include small, drift-emplaced packages and higher capacity, drift-emplaced packages, both partially and totally self-shielded. Metallic as well as ceramic materials are being considered

  20. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system.

  1. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system

  2. Systems pharmacology and blood-brain barrier functionality in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenstijn, Paulien Gerarda Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is composed of many components, each caused by interplay of a number of genetic and nongenetic causes. As the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key player in the relationship between plasma and brain pharmacokinetics, the influences

  3. No runoff, no soil loss : soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiepe, P.

    1995-01-01

    Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times

  4. Perceived barriers of heart failure nurses and cardiologists in using clinical decision support systems in the treatment of heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Arjen E.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; de Jong, Richard M.; van Dijk, Rene B.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans L.; Jorna, Rene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) can support guideline adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the use of CDSSs is limited and barriers in working with CDSSs have been described as a major obstacle. It is unknown if barriers to CDSSs are present and differ between HF

  5. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  6. Quality assurance considerations for nuclear power system selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.

    1977-01-01

    The key quality assurance principle to be applied in nuclear system selection is to establish that the technological basis is understood and used properly. Knowledgeable and capable personnel with experience in the application are needed, and they must have access to appropriate engineering, laboratory, and manufacturing facilities. A suitable balance must be maintained between the responsibilities of the seller-supplier and the purchaser-owner to assure an even-handed treatment of the implementation program. Safety and reliability must be inherent to the regulatory framework. There must be flexibility in the purchaser-owner resources to overcome unanticipated adversity. Given these quality assurance elements, the nuclear system selection process should result in a high probability that the performance objectives will be satisfied

  7. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA) Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities.

  8. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites

  9. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  10. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) - Theoretical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Buonomo, Roberta; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-05-01

    The development of plant-based Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) is a requirement for the realization of long-duration exploratory-class manned missions in so far as they help fulfilling astronauts' needs including nutritional demands, air regeneration and psychological support. The program ESA - MELiSSA (European Space Agency - Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) aims to conceive an artificial bioregenerative ecosystem based on both microorganisms and higher plants. Soybean is one of the four crops studied within this program as a candidate for cultivation in forthcoming BLSS. Within this project, the aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the selection of soybean candidate cultivars for BLSS. Our scope was to identify an objective and repeatable procedure to choose the best cultivar at each time, overcoming the variability of the market supply. This purpose was pursued with an approach based on a two-steps procedure: (a) the development of an objective criterion for the selection of the most suitable soybean cultivars (cultivated varieties) based on theoretical considerations and (b) the behaviour evaluation of the 4 best cultivars with a cultivation trial in a controlled environment. In this paper, we report the first phase of the selection procedure. We started with a literature survey to look for data about environmental needs, potential yields and nutritional traits of soybean cultivars already tested in cultivation trials (disregarding Gene Modified Organisms). Afterwards, a preliminary screening based on information about the main European companies and the most commercialized cultivars, as well as on the criteria suggested by ESA, allowed to select 93 cultivars among the 297 admitted in EU. Finally, an algorithm, based on the relevance of each considered characteristic, was created to attribute a score to each cultivar and to rank it for the identification of the best cultivars for subsequent cultivation trials.

  11. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  12. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Maggini, Silvia; Wintergerst, Eva S.; Beveridge, Stephen; Hornig, Dietrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Adequate intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilizatio...

  13. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-07

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems.

  14. Risk-informed decision-making analysis for the electrical raceway fire barrier systems on a BWR-4 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ching-Hui; Lin, Tsu-Jen; Kao, Tsu-Mu; Chen, Chyn-Rong

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a risk-informed decision-making approach used to resolve the fire barrier issue in a BWR-4 nuclear plant where Appendix R separation requirements cannot be met without installing additional fire protection features such as electrical raceway fire barrier system. The related risk measures in CDF (core damage frequency) and LERF (large early release frequency) of the fire barrier issue can be determined by calculating the difference in plant risks between various alternative cases and that met the requirement of the Appendix R. In some alternative cases, additional early-detection and fast-response fire suppression systems are suggested. In some other cases, cable re-routing of some improper layout of non-safety related cables are required. Sets of fire scenarios are re-evaluated more detailed by reviewing the cable damage impact for the BWR-4 plant. The fire hazard model, COMPBRM III-e, is used in this study and the dominant results in risk measures are benchmarked with the CFD code, FDS 2.0, to ensure that the risk impact of fire barrier is estimated accurately in the risk-informed decision making. The traditional deterministic qualitative methods, such as defense-in-depth, safety margin and post-fire safety shutdown capability are also proceeded. The value-impact analysis for proposed alternatives of fire wrapping required by Appendix R has been completed for technical basis of the exemption on Appendix R application. The outcome of the above analysis should be in compliance with the regulatory guidelines (RG) 1.174 and 1.189 for the applications in the risk-informed decision-making of the fire wrapping issues. (author)

  15. A high-performance ultrasonic system for the simultaneous transmission of data and power through solid metal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawry, Tristan J; Wilt, Kyle R; Ashdown, Jon D; Scarton, Henry A; Saulnier, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a system capable of simultaneous high-power and high-data-rate transmission through solid metal barriers using ultrasound. By coaxially aligning a pair of piezoelectric transducers on opposite sides of a metal wall and acoustically coupling them to the barrier, an acoustic- electric transmission channel is formed which prevents the need for physical penetration. Independent data and power channels are utilized, but they are only separated by 25.4 mm to reduce the system's form factor. Commercial off-the-shelf components and evaluation boards are used to create realtime prototype hardware and the full system is capable of transmitting data at 17.37 Mbps and delivering 50 W of power through a 63.5-mm thick steel wall. A synchronous multi-carrier communication scheme (OFDM) is used to achieve a very high spectral efficiency and to ensure that there is only minor interference between the power and data channels. Also presented is a discussion of potential enhancements that could be made to greatly improve the power and data-rate capabilities of the system. This system could have a tremendous impact on improving safety and preserving structural integrity in many military applications (submarines, surface ships, unmanned undersea vehicles, armored vehicles, planes, etc.) as well as in a wide range of commercial, industrial, and nuclear systems.

  16. Nuclear rainbow in the 16O + 27AL system: The role of couplings at energies far above the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.; Linares, R.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Lubian, J.; Chamon, L.C.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2012-01-01

    High precision elastic and inelastic angular distributions have been measured for the 16 O + 27 Al system at a beam energy of 100 MeV. The data analysis confirms a rainbow formation as already predicted by parameter-free Coupled Channel calculations. It also helps to reveal the crucial role of inelastic couplings in the rainbow formation for heavier systems even at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. This feature, well known in atomic/molecular scattering, is experimentally studied for the first time in Nuclear Physics.

  17. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic constraints on the chemical buffering properties of natural and engineered-barrier systems are derived in this study from theoretical descriptions, incorporated in the reaction-path model, of reversible and irreversible mass transfer in multicomponent, multiphase systems. The buffering properties of such systems are conditional properties because they refer to a specific aqueous species in a system that is open with respect to a specific reactant. The solution to a mathematical statement of this concept requires evaluation of the dependence of the activity of the buffered species on incremental changes in the overall reaction-progress variable. This dependence can be represented by a truncated Taylor's series expansion, where the values of associated derivatives are calculated using finite-difference techniques and mass-balance, charge-balance and mass-action constraints. Kinetic constraints on buffering behavior can also be described if the relation between reactant flux and reaction rate is well defined. This relation is explicit for the important case of advective groundwater flow and water-rock interaction. We apply the theoretical basis of the chemical buffering concept to processes that could affect the performance of a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Specifically, we focus on the likelihood that an inverse relation must exist between the buffer intensity and the migration velocity of reaction fronts in systems involving advective or diffusive mass transport. A quantitative understanding of this relation would provide the basis for evaluating the potential role of chemical buffering in achieving the isolation and retardation functions, of the EBS and geosphere in a KBS-3 repository. Our preliminary evaluation of this role considers the effects of chemical buffering on the propagation velocity of a pH front in both the near- and far field. We use a geochemical modeling technique compatible with the reaction-path model

  18. Study of selective amorphous silicon etching to silicon nitride using a pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Se-Jin; Park, Jae-Beom; Lee, June-Hee; Lim, Jong-Tae; Yeom, Geun-Young

    2007-08-01

    Remote-type atmospheric pressure plasmas were generated using a modified dielectric barrier discharge with the powered electrode consisting of multipins instead of a conventional blank planar plate. For the N2/NF3 gas mixture, a high etch rate of a :Si close to 115nm/s was obtained by adding 300SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) of NF3 to N2 [50SLM (standard liters per minute)] at an ac rms voltage of 8.5kV (2.5kW, 30kHz). However, the selectivity of a :Si to Si3N4 was as low as 1.3. A selectivity of a :Si/Si3N4>5.0 could be obtained while maintaining an etch rate of a :Si at 110nm/s by adding 250SCCM CF4 to the N2 (50SLM )/NF3 (300SCCM) mixture through the formation of a C-F polymer layer preferentially on the Si3N4 surface.

  19. Disentangling complete and incomplete fusion for 9Be+187Re system at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Rajiv Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The breakup of projectile before fusion leads to some unusual fusion mechanisms like incomplete fusion (ICF) and sequential complete fusion (SCF). Experimentally, it is not possible to separate SCF events from direct complete fusion (DCF). However, the complete fusion and incomplete fusion can be measured separately. Theoretically it is very difficult to calculate the complete and incomplete fusion cross section separately using different models. Very recently A. Diaz-Torres has developed a computer code platypus based on classical dynamical model wherein the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections are calculated separately. But this model is found to work very well at energies above the barrier energy. Here we have attempted to extrapolate the results of the code platypus by using simple Wong's formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in the below barrier energy region

  20. Hindrance of complete fusion in the 8Li+208Pb system at above-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Rosales, P.; Kolata, J. J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Mears, P.; Guess, C.; Becchetti, F. D.; Lupton, J. H.; Chen, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The 211,212 At yields resulting from the interaction of the radioactive projectile 8 Li with a 208 Pb target have been measured at energies between 3 and 8.5 MeV above the Coulomb barrier. They are signatures for fusion of the whole charge but not necessarily the whole mass of the projectile, so they are included in a corresponding operational definition of complete fusion. Within this definition, a fusion suppression factor of 0.70±0.02 (stat.) ±0.04 (syst.) is deduced from a comparison to a one-dimensional barrier-penetration-model calculation using parameters extrapolated from values for 6,7 Li+ 209 Bi and 9 Be+ 208 Pb taken from the literature. Possible incomplete fusion processes are discussed and the results are fitted with a phenomenological model assuming breakup prior to fusion followed by capture of a 7 Li fragment.

  1. Near-Barrier Fusion of the 8B+58Ni Proton-Halo System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E. F.; Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Lizcano, D.; Rosales, P.; Garcia-Martinez, H.; Gomez-Camacho, A.; Kolata, J. J.; Roberts, A.; Lamm, L. O.; Rogachev, G.; Guimaraes, V.; Becchetti, F. D.; Villano, A.; Ojaruega, M.; Febbraro, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, H.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Fusion cross sections were measured for the exotic proton-halo nucleus 8 B incident on a 58 Ni target at several energies near the Coulomb barrier. This is the first experiment to report on the fusion of a proton-halo nucleus. The resulting excitation function shows a striking enhancement with respect to expectations for normal projectiles. Evidence is presented that the sum of the fusion and breakup yields saturates the total reaction cross section.

  2. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. BiOSS: A system for biomedical ontology selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Vázquez-Naya, José M; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    In biomedical informatics, ontologies are considered a key technology for annotating, retrieving and sharing the huge volume of publicly available data. Due to the increasing amount, complexity and variety of existing biomedical ontologies, choosing the ones to be used in a semantic annotation problem or to design a specific application is a difficult task. As a consequence, the design of approaches and tools addressed to facilitate the selection of biomedical ontologies is becoming a priority. In this paper we present BiOSS, a novel system for the selection of biomedical ontologies. BiOSS evaluates the adequacy of an ontology to a given domain according to three different criteria: (1) the extent to which the ontology covers the domain; (2) the semantic richness of the ontology in the domain; (3) the popularity of the ontology in the biomedical community. BiOSS has been applied to 5 representative problems of ontology selection. It also has been compared to existing methods and tools. Results are promising and show the usefulness of BiOSS to solve real-world ontology selection problems. BiOSS is openly available both as a web tool and a web service. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  5. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-08-09

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  6. An Antibiotic Selection System For Protein Overproducing Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Protein overproduction is a major bottleneck for analyses of membrane proteins and for the construction of cell factories. Screening for optimized protein production can be very time consuming. In this study we show that the coupling of antibiotic resistance to poorly produced...... membrane proteins of Escherichia coli can be used as a fast and simple selection system for protein overproduction.Methods: We designed an expression plasmid encoding the gene of interest and an additional, inducible antibiotic resistance marker. Both genes were linked by a hairpin structure...... that translationally couples the genes. Consequently, high expressing gene variants also allow for higher production of the coupled antibiotic resistance marker. Therefore, high expressing gene variants in a library can be determined either by plating the expression library on selection plates or by growing...

  7. Spectral selective fluorescence molecular imaging with volume holographic imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlu Lv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact volume holographic imaging (VHI method that can detect fluorescence objects located in diffusive medium in spectral selective imaging manner is presented. The enlargement of lateral field of view of the VHI system is realized by using broadband illumination and demagnification optics. Each target spectrum of fluorescence emitting from a diffusive medium is probed by tuning the inclination angle of the transmission volume holographic grating (VHG. With the use of the single transmission VHG, fluorescence images with different spectrum are obtained sequentially and precise three-dimensional (3D information of deep fluorescent objects located in a diffusive medium can be reconstructed from these images. The results of phantom experiments demonstrate that two fluorescent objects with a sub-millimeter distance can be resolved by spectral selective imaging.

  8. Bacteriophage-based genetic system for selection of nonsplicing inteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Isaac K O; Amaya, Kensey R; Southworth, Maurice W; Perler, Francine B

    2004-05-01

    A genetic selection system that detects splicing and nonsplicing activities of inteins was developed based on the ability to rescue a T4 phage strain with a conditionally inactive DNA polymerase. This phage defect can be complemented by expression of plasmid-encoded phage RB69 DNA polymerase. Insertion of an intein gene into the active site of the RB69 DNA polymerase gene renders polymerase activity and phage viability dependent on protein splicing. The effectiveness of the system was tested by screening for thermosensitive splicing mutants. Development of genetic systems with the potential of identifying protein splicing inhibitors is a first step towards controlling proliferation of pathogenic microbes harboring inteins in essential proteins.

  9. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  10. Improvement of the thermal stability of the HfO{sub 2}/Si(100) system using a diffusion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, D.; Schuermann, M.; Fluechter, C.; Westphal, C. [Experimentelle Physik 1 - Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Sievro, A. de; Landers, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carazzolne, M.; Pancotti, A.; Kleiman, G. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The ongoing miniaturisation of transistor devices requires a new gate dielectric to replace silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) that has been used for the last decades. The possible substitutes have to fulfill several requirements like band gap alignment to the silicon, a good interface quality, and a thermal stability. HfO{sub 2} meets most of the requirements, but it is shown in many studies that it's thermal stability is one of the main problems of the system HfO{sub 2}/Si(100) due to silicide formation at high temperature annealing. In this work a film of silicon nitride was deposited on the silicon substrate via sputtering and annealing. The silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is stable when a high temperature annealing up to approximately 1100 C is applied. Thus, it can be used as a diffusion barrier for the HfO{sub 2} in the high temperature range. We will show several heating cycles for different diffusion barrier thicknesses and we compare them with similar cycles for HfO{sub 2}/Si(100) films without a diffusion barrier. It is shown that it is possible to increase the thermal stability of HfO{sub 2} with a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer.

  11. A Systematic Investigation on Barriers and Critical Success Factors for Clinical Information Systems in Integrated Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbst, A; Schweitzer, M

    2015-08-13

    Clinical Information Systems (CIS) have ever since the introduction of information technology in healthcare played an important role to support healthcare professionals and the process of treatment. With the rise of the concept of integrated care organizational borders, the sole focus on data aggregation or healthcare professionals as users disappear more and more. The manuscript discusses the concept of CISs and investigates critical success factors for CISs in the context of integrated care and in the course of time. In order to identify critical success factors and barriers for CISs a systematic literature review was conducted based on the results from PubMed and Cochrane, using MaxQDA. Search results were thereby limited to reviews or meta-analysis. We have found 1919 references of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the manuscripts resulted in a comprehensive list of success factors and barriers related to CISs in integrated care settings. Most barriers were user-related whereas for the success factors an even distribution of organizational, technical and user-related factors was observed. The vast majority of publications was focused on healthcare professionals. It is important to incorporate experiences made/ collected over time, as the problems encountered seem to remain almost unvaried. In order to support further systematic investigations on the topic it is necessary to rethink existing concepts and definitions to realign them with the ideas of integrated care.

  12. [Barriers to the normalization of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Francesc; Saigí, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Despite the clear political will to promote telemedicine and the large number of initiatives, the incorporation of this modality in clinical practice remains limited. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers perceived by key professionals who actively participate in the design and implementation of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts. We performed a qualitative study based on data from semi-structured interviews with 17 key informants belonging to distinct Catalan health organizations. The barriers identified were grouped in four areas: technological, organizational, human and economic. The main barriers identified were changes in the healthcare model caused by telemedicine, problems with strategic alignment, resistance to change in the (re)definition of roles, responsibilities and new skills, and lack of a business model that incorporates telemedicine in the services portfolio to ensure its sustainability. In addition to suitable management of change and of the necessary strategic alignment, the definitive normalization of telemedicine in a mixed healthcare model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts requires a clear and stable business model that incorporates this modality in the services portfolio and allows healthcare organizations to obtain reimbursement from the payer. 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Andrew D; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei

    2011-11-01

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+55%) and decrease (-56%) in CSF Cu levels (pBCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (pBCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  16. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  17. Classification systems and selection systems: the risks of radical innovation and category spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the relations between classification and competition, using the theoretical framework of selection system theory. In a particular competitive arena more than one classification system can be in use. The proportion of classification systems in use by consumers that are also in use

  18. Physicochemical and Geotechnical Alterations to MX-80 Bentonite at the Waste Canister Interface in an Engineered Barrier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Davies

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the basic geomechanical and mineralogical evolution of the bentonite barrier under various experimental boundary conditions which replicated the near-field Thermo-Hydro-Chemico (THC conditions in a repository. The relationships between the physicochemical alterations and changes in the geotechnical properties have seldom been studied, especially on a consistent dataset. This paper attempts to link the physicochemical properties of Na-bentonite (MX-80 to the macro-scale engineering functionality of the bentonite post THC exposure. Experiments investigated the impact of THC variables on the engineering and physicochemical functionality of the bentonite with respect to its application within a High-Level Waste (HLW engineered barrier system. Intrinsic alterations to the MX-80 bentonite under relatively short-term exposure to hydrothermal and chemical conditions were measured. Additionally, two long-term tests were conducted under ambient conditions to consider the impact of exposure duration. The intrinsic measurements were then related to the overall performance of the bentonite as a candidate barrier material for application in a UK geological disposal facility. Findings indicate that exposure to thermo-saline-corrosion conditions (i.e., corrosion products derived from structural grade 275 carbon steel inhibits the free swell capacity and plasticity of the bentonite. However, the measured values remained above the design limits set out for the Swedish multi-barrier concept, from which the UK concept may take a lead. Corrosion alone does not appear to significantly affect the geotechnical measurements compared with the influence of thermal loading and high saline pore water after relatively short-term exposure. Thermal and corrosion exposure displayed no impact on the intrinsic swelling of the smectite component, indicating that no significant structural alteration had occurred. However, when exploring more complex saline

  19. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  20. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  1. Development of Operational Protocols for Electric Barrier Systems on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal: Induction of Passage-Preventing Behaviors in Small Sizes of Silver Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Barrier Systems incorporate environmental water into an electrical circuit composed of conductors (the submersed electrodes) and a source of...arrays and flow of electric current in the system’s conductors and electrodes creating a waterborne electric field. The quantity of electric current...aquaculture systems housing silver carp prior to testing. Estimates of the voltage, pulse duration, and pulse frequency output capabilities of Electric Barrier

  2. [Implementation of a new prescription system. A qualitative survey of organizational barriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2002-09-16

    The aim of this study was to identify organisational difficulties faced by physicians and nurses when using drug prescribing sheets for the recording of both drug prescriptions and drug administration. Qualitative interviews with seven physicians and eight nurses from two general internal medicine wards. Main outcome measures were the difficulties explicitly identified during the interviews. The implementation of procedures conflicted with existing structure, culture, and routines. Insufficient competence within the system to use the drug prescribing sheets created resistance and made people create their own solutions to the problems they faced. A total of nine difficulties were identified: 1) insufficient knowledge and uncertainty about procedures, 2) ignorance of sources of error, 3) unclear responsibilities, 4) low community spirit, 5) insufficient communication, 6) clinician autonomy and low acceptance of change, 7) strong professional identity, 8) low priority task, and 9) logistic problems. Unawareness of procedures, insufficient dissemination of knowledge, and insufficient cooperation and skepticism among those who put drug handling into practice is likely to have an impact on the quality of health care. The identification of these obstacles may help managers to improve the quality of the drug handling process and make it possible to select a framework for changing the clinical behavior of doctors and nurses.

  3. Transforming Education: Overcoming Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jane L.; Goren, Paul D.

    Barriers to progress in educational reform exist inside and outside the education system. Some arise where new practices encounter traditional expectations and boundaries, but others go much deeper than education, such as poverty, racism, local political conflicts, and human resistance to change. The following five categories of barriers are…

  4. Shuttle systems evaluation and selection. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The major issues affecting the selection of a space shuttle system were considered. These included the HO orbiter/ballistic recoverable booster series-burn configuration; the HO orbiter/ballistic recoverable booster parallel-burn (rocket-assisted orbiter-RAO) configuration; and the HO orbiter/flyback LOX/RP booster configuration. The booster studies emphasized the series-burn ballistic design, but the differences required for RAO application were identified and evaluated. Definition of the RAO configuration parameters and technical problem areas, establishing approaches to possible solutions, and developing program costs are discussed.

  5. Distributive estimation of frequency selective channels for massive MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2015-12-28

    We consider frequency selective channel estimation in the uplink of massive MIMO-OFDM systems, where our major concern is complexity. A low complexity distributed LMMSE algorithm is proposed that attains near optimal channel impulse response (CIR) estimates from noisy observations at receive antenna array. In proposed method, every antenna estimates the CIRs of its neighborhood followed by recursive sharing of estimates with immediate neighbors. At each step, every antenna calculates the weighted average of shared estimates which converges to near optimal LMMSE solution. The simulation results validate the near optimal performance of proposed algorithm in terms of mean square error (MSE). © 2015 EURASIP.

  6. Diffusion chamber system for testing of collagen-based cell migration barriers for separation of ligament enthesis zones in tissue-engineered ACL constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahner, J; Hoyer, M; Hillig, S; Schulze-Tanzil, G; Meyer, M; Schröpfer, M; Lohan, A; Garbe, L-A; Heinrich, G; Breier, A

    2015-01-01

    A temporary barrier separating scaffold zones seeded with different cell types prevents faster growing cells from overgrowing co-cultured cells within the same construct. This barrier should allow sufficient nutrient diffusion through the scaffold. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two variants of collagen-based barriers on macromolecule diffusion, viability, and the spreading efficiency of primary ligament cells on embroidered scaffolds. Two collagen barriers, a thread consisting of a twisted film tape and a sponge, were integrated into embroidered poly(lactic-co-caprolactone) and polypropylene scaffolds, which had the dimension of lapine anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). A diffusion chamber system was designed and established to monitor nutrient diffusion using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran of different molecular weights (20, 40, 150, 500 kDa). Vitality of primary lapine ACL cells was tested at days 7 and 14 after seeding using fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide staining. Cell spreading on the scaffold surface was measured using histomorphometry. Nuclei staining of the cross-sectioned scaffolds revealed the penetration of ligament cells through both barrier types. The diffusion chamber was suitable to characterize the diffusivity of dextran molecules through embroidered scaffolds with or without integrated collagen barriers. The diffusion coefficients were generally significantly lower in scaffolds with barriers compared to those without barriers. No significant differences between diffusion coefficients of both barrier types were detected. Both barriers were cyto-compatible and prevented most of the ACL cells from crossing the barrier, whereby the collagen thread was easier to handle and allowed a higher rate of cell spreading.

  7. The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fujitaka; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Makino, Hitoshi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density, one of the buffer design, on radionuclides migration behavior is important from the viewpoint of performance assessment since they have relation to radionuclides migration retardation. It is also considered to help investigation of buffer design that satisfy both safety and economy to condition of the disposal site, which may be required with development of disposal project in the future. Therefore we have performed a sensitivity analysis used buffer thickness and dry density as parameter and considered their combination in this report. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system. And, we have considered about radionuclides migration retardation quality of the buffer which is based on the design (relationship between thickness and dry density) set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. In results, the maximum release rates from the engineered barrier system for the nuclides which have high distribution coefficients and short half lives are sensitive to changes in buffer thickness and dry density. And, using dose converted from the nuclide release rates from the engineered barrier system as a convenient index, it is almost shown that the maximum of total dose is less than 10 μ Sv/y in the cases which buffer thickness and dry density are based on the buffer design set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. These can be used as an information when design of buffer thickness and dry density is set by synthetically judgement of balance of safety and economy. (author)

  8. CONQuEST - Menu-selectable database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeko, J.D. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The well database unit of the Illinois State Geological Survey Oil and Gas section began to design and develop a technically advanced oil and gas database system in 1988. The CONQuEST system integrates and replaces the existing oil and gas, water, coal, and geotechnical database systems. CONQuEST uses a distributed relational data model that allows integrated storage and retrieval of different data and well types in an almost unlimited variety of report forms. The software, written in C, consists of five menu-selectable modules that allow a novice computer user to enter, edit, retrieve, and report data. The GeoDES module is used to enter data from paper records and consists of numerous fill-in-the-blank screens. The TIDE module is used to edit or delete any existing data. There are two modules for data retrieval. QuARTz is used for quick, preplanned retrievals and ToPAz is used for self-designed retrievals. ToPAz retrieval designs may be saved and added to the menu systems and then accessed through the QuARTz module. The COReS module consists of numerous predesigned report options. Standard Query Language (SQL) is also available as an option. CONQuEST is currently run on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX, that is interfaced to a series of PCs; however, all software can be run on a PC only. Benefits of the CONQuEST system over the previous system are increased speed, greater flexibility, the ability to run on a PC, and the menu system that allows for successful access and use of the data by novice computer users. Data system use is available to the general public for a fee.

  9. Report to Congress: Coastal Barrier Resources System with recommendations as required by Section 10 of Public Law 97-348, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. shoreline bordering the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico contains one of the longest and best defined chains of coastal barriers in the world. In recognition of the fact, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) (16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) was enacted in October 1982. The Act established the Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) consisting of 186 coastal barrier units along 670 mi of shoreline on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. The philosophy behind the CBRA is that the risk associated with new development in these areas should be borne by those who choose to live and work along the coast, and not by all American taxpayers. By restricting Federal expenditures and financial assistance on specific undeveloped coastal barriers, the Federal Government can minimize the loss of human life, reduce the wasteful expenditure of Federal revenues, and reduce the damage to fish and wildlife and other natural resources that can accompany development of these fragile areas. Section 10 of the CBRA directs the Department of the Interior to study the CBRS and prepare for Congress a report which includes recommendations for changes in the CBRS based on an evaluation of management alternatives that would foster conservation of the natural resources of the CBRS

  10. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E Foster

    Full Text Available Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m. We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh. Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities

  11. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tammy E; Stolen, Eric D; Hall, Carlton R; Schaub, Ronald; Duncan, Brean W; Hunt, Danny K; Drese, John H

    2017-01-01

    Society needs information about how vegetation communities in coastal regions will be impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change, particularly sea level rise. Due to anthropogenic influences which have significantly decreased natural coastal vegetation communities, it is important for us to understand how remaining natural communities will respond to sea level rise. The Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex (CCBIC) on the east central coast of Florida is within one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in North America and has the largest number of threatened and endangered species on federal property in the contiguous United States. The high level of biodiversity is susceptible to sea level rise. Our objective was to model how vegetation communities along a gradient ranging from hydric to upland xeric on CCBIC will respond to three sea level rise scenarios (0.2 m, 0.4 m, and 1.2 m). We used a probabilistic model of the current relationship between elevation and vegetation community to determine the impact sea level rise would have on these communities. Our model correctly predicted the current proportions of vegetation communities on CCBIC based on elevation. Under all sea level rise scenarios the model predicted decreases in mesic and xeric communities, with the greatest losses occurring in the most xeric communities. Increases in total area of salt marsh were predicted with a 0.2 and 0.4 m rise in sea level. With a 1.2 m rise in sea level approximately half of CCBIC's land area was predicted to transition to open water. On the remaining land, the proportions of most of the vegetation communities were predicted to remain similar to that of current proportions, but there was a decrease in proportion of the most xeric community (oak scrub) and an increase in the most hydric community (salt marsh). Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important

  12. A review and guidance for pattern selection in spatiotemporal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunni; Ma, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Pattern estimation and selection in media can give important clues to understand the collective response to external stimulus by detecting the observable variables. Both reaction-diffusion systems (RDs) and neuronal networks can be treated as multi-agent systems from molecular level, intrinsic cooperation, competition. An external stimulus or attack can cause collapse of spatial order and distribution, while appropriate noise can enhance the consensus in the spatiotemporal systems. Pattern formation and synchronization stability can bridge isolated oscillators and the network by coupling these nodes with appropriate connection types. As a result, the dynamical behaviors can be detected and discussed by developing different spatial patterns and realizing network synchronization. Indeed, the collective response of network and multi-agent system depends on the local kinetics of nodes and cells. It is better to know the standard bifurcation analysis and stability control schemes before dealing with network problems. In this review, dynamics discussion and synchronization control on low-dimensional systems, pattern formation and synchronization stability on network, wave stability in RDs and neuronal network are summarized. Finally, possible guidance is presented when some physical effects such as polarization field and electromagnetic induction are considered.

  13. Natural selection and self-organization in complex adaptive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The central theme of this work is self-organization "interpreted" both from the point of view of theoretical biology, and from a philosophical point of view. By analysing, on the one hand, those which are now considered--not only in the field of physics--some of the most important discoveries, that is complex systems and deterministic chaos and, on the other hand, the new frontiers of systemic biology, this work highlights how large thermodynamic systems which are open can spontaneously stay in an orderly regime. Such systems can represent the natural source of the order required for a stable self-organization, for homoeostasis and for hereditary variations. The order, emerging in enormous randomly interconnected nets of binary variables, is almost certainly only the precursor of similar orders emerging in all the varieties of complex systems. Hence, this work, by finding new foundations for the order pervading the living world, advances the daring hypothesis according to which Darwinian natural selection is not the only source of order in the biosphere. Thus, the article, by examining the passage from Prigogine's dissipative structures theory to the contemporary theory of biological complexity, highlights the development of a coherent and continuous line of research which is set to individuate the general principles marking the profound reality of that mysterious self-organization characterizing the complexity of life.

  14. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  15. System Quality Characteristics for Selecting Mobile Learning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SARRAB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased recognition and adoption by different organizations. With the high number of M-learning applications available today, making the right decision about which, application to choose can be quite challenging. To date there is no complete and well defined set of system characteristics for such M-learning applications. This paper presents system quality characteristics for selecting M-learning applications based on the result of a systematic review conducted in this domain.

  16. Multicriteria analysis in selecting the optimal variant of solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziejowska Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative energy sources are becoming more serious competition to traditional ways of generating energy. It becomes real integration of eco-energy with ecology, as well as the innovative technologies with low-energy construction. Apart from the cost an important issue are technical parameters of the equipment, durability, ease of installation, etc. The investor therefore is facing with the problem of decision-making to choose the best solution from the point of view of many criteria. In the article, the authors present the proposal to apply the methods of multi-criteria analysis to select the most beneficial variant of the solar system solutions. In this purpose will be use among other method: multivariate analysis of Saaty’s AHP, the taxonomic method of weighting factors and, belonging to a group of methods using outranking relations, the Promethee II method. Proposed comparative analysis can be used as a method for decision support during the selection of the most beneficial technological solution of solar installation and to evaluate operational efficiency existing buildings which will have implemented new systems.

  17. Selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs in health care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Hayden B Bosworth1–4 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Practitioners and researchers often design behavioral programs that are effective for a specific population or problem. Despite their success in a controlled setting, relatively few programs are scaled up and implemented in health care systems. Planning for scale-up is a critical, yet often overlooked, element in the process of program design. Equally as important is understanding how to select a program that has already been developed, and adapt and implement the program to meet specific organizational goals. This adaptation and implementation requires attention to organizational goals, available resources, and program cost. We assert that translational behavioral medicine necessitates expanding successful programs beyond a stand-alone research study. This paper describes key factors to consider when selecting, adapting, and sustaining programs for scale-up in large health care systems and applies the Knowledge to Action (KTA Framework to a case study, illustrating knowledge creation and an action cycle of implementation and evaluation activities. Keywords: program sustainability, diffusion of innovation, information dissemination, health services research, intervention studies 

  18. Landfill site selection by using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Başak; Süzen, M. Lütfi; Doyuran, Vedat

    2006-01-01

    One of the serious and growing potential problems in most large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. Although there are some efforts to reduce and recover the waste, disposal in landfills is still the most common method for waste destination. An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental, economic and ecological impacts. Therefore, it should be selected carefully by considering both regulations and constraints on other sources. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in the vicinity of Ankara are determined by using the integration of geographic information systems and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). For this purpose, 16 input map layers including topography, settlements (urban centers and villages), roads (Highway E90 and village roads), railways, airport, wetlands, infrastructures (pipelines and power lines), slope, geology, land use, floodplains, aquifers and surface water are prepared and two different MCDA methods (simple additive weighting and analytic hierarchy process) are implemented to a geographical information system. Comparison of the maps produced by these two different methods shows that both methods yield conformable results. Field checks also confirm that the candidate sites agree well with the selected criteria.

  19. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perides, George; Zhuge, Yuzheng; Lin, Tina; Stins, Monique F; Bronson, Roderick T; Wu, Julian K

    2006-01-01

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg -/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg -/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  1. Perceived Promoters of and Barriers to Use of a Learning Management System in an Undergraduate Nursing Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Alhosban

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective presentation of information is essential in teaching and learning. We assessed the promoters of and barriers to utilization of a learning man-agement system, namely Blackboard (Blackboard Inc., Washington DC, USA, by undergraduate nursing students. We investigated their utilization of Blackboardand provided recommendations to improve their teaching and learning. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 304 women in their second to fourth years of study using a validated questionnaire that evalu-ated their perceptions of Blackboard utilization. Data were collected be-tween January and February 2017 and analyzed using descriptive and com-parative statistics. The response rate was 67.5%. The most frequently report-ed promoters of Blackboard utilization were factors related to obtaining course specifications, materials, and grades (means: 3.54  1.18, 3.54  1.25, and 3.55  1.34, respectively. The most commonly mentioned barriers to Blackboard utilization were factors related to loss of communication and feedback from educators (mean: 4.21  1.05. Our results revealed that students experiences of using such systems are often negative, especially in terms of communication, interaction, and feedback. Investment in staff training and creation of new roles to monitor, maintain, and audit the quali-ty of such systems are recommended.

  2. Marine debris is selected as nesting material by the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) within the Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlis, K M; Campbell, M L; Wilson, S P

    2014-10-15

    Many seabirds are impacted by marine debris through its presence in foraging and nesting areas. To determine the extent of this problem, marine debris use in nest material of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, was investigated. Nine cays were examined using beach and nest surveys. On average, four marine debris items were found per nest (n=96) with 58.3% of surveyed nests containing marine debris. The source of marine debris in nests and transects were primarily oceanic. Hard plastic items dominated both nest (56.8%) and surveyed beaches (72.8%), however only two item types were significantly correlated between these surveys. Nest surveys indicated higher levels of black and green items compared to beach transects. This selectivity for colours and items suggest these nests are not good indicators of environmental loads. This is the first study to examine S. leucogaster nests for marine debris in this location. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Representative Survey of Knowledge, Use, Perceived Benefits, Barriers, and Risks of Select Herbal Drugs Among Female Students in Gorgan City (Northeast Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Mohammad R; Lotfalinezhad, Elham; Lotfalinezhad, Elahe; Bhalla, Devender

    2016-02-17

    We conducted a representative survey among young women to determine knowledge, use, and perceptions on barriers, benefits, and risks related to selected herbal drugs (Crocus sativus, Borago officinalis, Citrus aurantium, Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria chamomilla, Lavandula angustifolia, Valeriana officinalis, Hypericum perforatum, and Panax ginseng) in Gorgan by using an internally validated questionnaire. There were 344 participants (mean age 16.3 years; 16.2% in science course). Saffron had most reported knowledge (n = 265, 77.0%) and ever use (n = 324, 94.1%). The average number of source of knowledge was 2.5; parents (n = 224, 65.1%) were the single most frequent source. Media (combined magazine, the Internet, TV, radio) was the source of knowledge for 283 (82.2%) participants. Actual use was "harmful" for the majority (n = 182, 52.9%; no idea n = 83, 24.1%). Parents and media provided knowledge on herbal drugs for most, supporting unsurprisingly high perceived knowledge but harmful actual experience. Programs to educate people are needed to not take herbal drugs lightly. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Compliant Thermal Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Compliant thermal barriers play a pivotal role in the thermal protection systems of advanced aerospace vehicles. Both the thermal properties and mechanical performance of these barriers are critical in determining their successful implementation. Due to the custom nature of many thermal barriers, designers of advanced spacecraft have little guidance as to the design, selection, and implementation of these elements. As part of an effort to develop a more fundamental understanding of the interrelationship between thermal barrier design and performance, mechanical testing of thermal barriers was conducted. Two different types of thermal barriers with several core insulation density levels ranging from 62 to 141 kg/cu m were investigated. Room-temperature compression tests were conducted on samples to determine load performance and assess thermal barrier resiliency. Results showed that the loading behavior of these thermal barriers was similar to other porous, low-density, compliant materials, such as elastomeric foams. Additionally, the insulation density level had a significant non-linear impact on the stiffness and peak loads of the thermal barriers. In contrast, neither the thermal barrier type nor the level of insulation density significantly influenced the room-temperature resiliency of the samples.

  5. Barriers and drivers of new interconnections between EU and non-EU electricity systems. Economic and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2006-05-01

    Interconnection of different electricity systems offers several advantages and benefits. In the first place it provides reliability and increases the robustness of the system. Furthermore, it increases economic efficiency and reduces the possibility to abuse market power. Price differences are the signal that efficiency gains can be obtained. To make a sound decision whether to invest in new interconnection capacity, the causes behind the price differences should be well understood. Price differences must originate from structural, long-term causes. Differences in primary resources, fuel mix and load patterns are such causes. It is important to note that price differences that result from the difference between regulatory structures (lack of level playing field) may not be structural and therefore may not justify investment in interconnection capacity. Next to advantages and benefits, interconnection is faced with costs and barriers. Firstly, there are investment costs, which are high for building new interconnections, and there are energy losses that are caused by transporting electricity. A third possible barrier is congestion within the EU, which impedes the imported electricity to freely flow to demand areas (and hinders the export of electricity to neighbouring regions). Furthermore, interconnection may create loop flows. In addition, interconnection could lead to an increasing import dependency, which may create political resistance. And finally, there may be opposition from residents in the areas where the transmission and interconnection lines have to be built. Concerning regulatory issues, trade between markets is more likely to be impeded or distorted if market designs and rules between countries/regions differ substantially. Regulatory issues that are of relevance comprise rules concerning the timing of gate closure, imbalance arrangements, the firmness of transmission access rights, the type of tariff regulation, unbundling, the ownership of

  6. SELECTING A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM HOSPITAL BY A METHOD MULTICRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino, Sidney L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to assess how the multi-criteria method Analytic Hierarchy Process [HP] can help a hospital complex to choose a more suitable management system, known as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP. The choice coated is very complex due to the novelty of the process of choosing and conflicts generated between areas that did not have a single view of organizational needs, generating a lot of pressure in the department responsible for implementing systems. To assist in this process, he was hired an expert consultant in decision-making and AHP, which in its role of facilitator, contributed to the criteria for system selection were defined, and the choice to occur within a consensual process. We used the study of a single case, based on two indepth interviews with the consultant and the project manager, and documents generated by the advisory and the tool that supported the method. The results of this analysis showed that the method could effectively collaborate in the system acquisition process, but knowledge of the problems of employees and senior management support, it was not used in new decisions of the organization. We conclude that this method contributed to the consensus in the procurement process, team commitment and engagement of those involved.

  7. The real time event selection system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, K

    2002-01-01

    In the paper we present tasks of the ATLAS event filter (trigger) system and proposed implementation, which uses commodity computers and network components. The system should find events containing interesting interactions, and select not more than a hundred in every second out of a billion generated by an accelerator. To achieve this reduction rate, the system was split into 3 levels: the first one implemented in hardware, and the higher ones as a farm of commodity PC-based processors and a computer network in Ethernet technology. Using the information from the first level, which describes areas in the detector where an interesting interaction happened, allows for loosening the requirements for network throughput and computing power. It is estimated that required network throughput would reach 6 GB/s, whilst the second and third level of the trigger system will use approximately 500 processors with 4 GHz clock speed. Because of the size and costs of the project, building a full-scale prototype is not feasibl...

  8. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  9. Reaction dynamics studies for the system 7Be + 208Pb at Coulomb barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzocco M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering process of the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be from a 208Pb target was measured at three near-barrier energies. The quasi-elastic angular distributions were analyzed within the framework of the optical model to extract the reaction cross sections. The results are compared with those obtained for the reactions induced by the mirror projectile 7Li and by the lightest particle-stable lithium isotope 6Li on the same target. The angular distributions for the production of the two 7Be constituent clusters, namely 3He and 4He, were also measured. In agreement with what observed for the interaction of 7Be with lighter targets, the production of the heavier helium isotope resulted to be much more abundant than that of its lighter counterpart.

  10. Reaction dynamics studies for the system 7Be + 208Pb at Coulomb barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Di Meo, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Nicoletto, M.; Pakou, A.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sava, T.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stroe, L.

    2017-11-01

    The scattering process of the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be from a 208Pb target was measured at three near-barrier energies. The quasi-elastic angular distributions were analyzed within the framework of the optical model to extract the reaction cross sections. The results are compared with those obtained for the reactions induced by the mirror projectile 7Li and by the lightest particle-stable lithium isotope 6Li on the same target. The angular distributions for the production of the two 7Be constituent clusters, namely 3He and 4He, were also measured. In agreement with what observed for the interaction of 7Be with lighter targets, the production of the heavier helium isotope resulted to be much more abundant than that of its lighter counterpart.

  11. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  12. Acanthamoeba produces disseminated infection in locusts and traverses the locust blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis remain poorly understood, including host susceptibility and chronic colonization which represent important features of the spectrum of host-pathogen interactions. Previous studies have suggested locusts as a tractable model in which to study Acanthamoeba pathogenesis. Here we determined the mode of parasite invasion of the central nervous system (CNS. Results Using Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to the T1 and T4 genotypes, the findings revealed that amoebae induced sickness behaviour in locusts, as evidenced by reduced faecal output and weight loss and, eventually, leading to 100% mortality. Significant degenerative changes of various tissues were observed by histological sectioning. Both isolates produced disseminated infection, with viable amoebae being recovered from various tissues. Histological examination of the CNS showed that Acanthamoeba invaded the locust CNS, and this is associated with disruption of the perineurium cell/glial cell complex, which constitutes the locust blood-brain barrier. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Acanthamoeba invades locust brain by modulating the integrity of the insect's blood-brain barrier, a finding that is consistent with the human infection. These observations support the idea that locusts provide a tractable model to study Acanthamoeba encephalitis in vivo. In this way the locust model may generate potentially useful leads that can be tested subsequently in mammalian systems, thus replacing the use of vertebrates at an early stage, and reducing the numbers of mammals required overall.

  13. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biringer, K.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Buden, D.; Foreman, J.; Harrison, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs

  14. Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined

  16. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  17. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  18. Development Status and Performance Comparisons of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft turbine engine systems, because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper presents current NASA EBC-CMC development emphases including: the coating composition and processing improvements, laser high heat flux-thermal gradient thermo-mechanical fatigue - environmental testing methodology development, and property evaluations for next generation EBC-CMC systems. EBCs processed with various deposition techniques including Plasma Spray, Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposition, and Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) will be particularly discussed. The testing results and demonstrations of advanced EBCs-CMCs in complex simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic fatigue, oxidizing-steam and CMAS environments will help provide insights into the coating development strategies to meet long-term engine component durability goals.

  19. Facies heterogeneity and brine-disposal potential of miocene barrier-island, fluvial, and deltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Large volumes of brine must be produced from watered out, geopressured gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast to recover remaining gas in solution. Secondary-gas recovery in an upper Frio (Oligocene) reservoir in Northeast Hitchcock and Alta Loma fields in Galveston County, Texas, requires the disposal of approximately 20,000 barrels of brine per day into several disposal wells. Lower and middle Miocene barrier-island sands in these fields contain reservoir volumes sufficient for brine disposal at rates of more than 5,000 barrels per well per day for 10 years or more. These sands are continuous and homogeneous and have permeabilities in excess of 2,000 millidarcys. Optimal areas for brine disposal are where new wells contact several of these sands. In contrast, there are fewer well sites for brine disposal in upper Miocene fluvial and deltaic sands in Northeast Hitchcock and Alta Loma fields because these sands are heterogeneous and discontinuous. This book provides core data and net-sand and log-facies maps of several Miocene sands and evaluates sites in these fields for cost-efficient disposal of large volumes of brine.

  20. 76 FR 27355 - Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... of Justice Programs Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection... public, the ``Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application Guide.'' The opportunity to provide comments on these documents is open to industry technical...

  1. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  2. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  3. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The patient work system: An analysis of self-care performance barriers among elderly heart failure patients and their informal caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J.; Schubert, Christiane C.; Mickelson, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics approaches have been successfully applied to study and improve the work performance of healthcare professionals. However, there has been relatively little work in “patient-engaged human factors,” or the application of human factors to the health-related work of patients and other nonprofessionals. This study applied a foundational human factors tool, the systems model, to investigate the barriers to self-care performance among chronically ill elderly patients and their informal (family) caregivers. A Patient Work System model was developed to guide the collection and analysis of interviews, surveys, and observations of patients with heart failure (n=30) and their informal caregivers (n=14). Iterative analyses revealed the nature and prevalence of self-care barriers across components of the Patient Work System. Person-related barriers were common and stemmed from patients’ biomedical conditions, limitations, knowledge deficits, preferences, and perceptions as well as the characteristics of informal caregivers and healthcare professionals. Task barriers were also highly prevalent and included task difficulty, timing, complexity, ambiguity, conflict, and undesirable consequences. Tool barriers were related to both availability and access of tools and technologies and their design, usability, and impact. Context barriers were found across three domains—physical-spatial, social-cultural, and organizational—and multiple “spaces” such as “at home,” “on the go,” and “in the community.” Barriers often stemmed not from single factors but from the interaction of several work system components. Study findings suggest the need to further explore multiple actors, context, and interactions in the patient work system during research and intervention design, as well as the need to develop new models and measures for studying patient and family work. PMID:25479983

  5. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Examine Barriers to Healthcare Access for Hispanic and Latino Immigrants in the U.S. South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Jean; Biddle, Donald J

    2017-04-01

    Geographic barriers to accessing timely and appropriate primary health care services have been identified as significant social determinants of health that contribute to the growing health inequities among Hispanic and Latino immigrants in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the geographic factors that serve as barriers to healthcare access for Hispanic and Latino immigrants in the southern community of Louisville, Kentucky. Accessibility to healthcare services was examined using spatial analysis techniques, a Geographic Information System and geographic data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Louisville and Jefferson County Information Consortium. Results from this study indicated that physical location, socioeconomic factors, distance, and transportation served as barriers to accessing healthcare services. Findings provide significant implications for future research and policy-based interventions focused on eliminating geographic barriers and promoting social and health equity for the underserved.

  6. 77 FR 27263 - Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM Computer Matching Between the Selective Service System and the Department of Education AGENCY: Selective Service System. Action: Notice. In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L...

  7. Evaluation of ceramic and polymeric materials for use in engineered barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.; Skiens, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    Ceramic materials evaluated in the screening studies were Al 2 O 3 (99.8%), mullite, vitreous silica, BaTiO 3 , CaTiO 3 , CaZrO 3 , CaTiSiO 5 , TiO 2 , ZrSiO 4 , basalt, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor code 9658 machinable glass ceramic. One grade of graphite (Toyotanso IB-11) was also evaluated. Demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford groundwater, and a synthetic NaCl brine solution were used in the screening tests. Demineralized water was used in all five of the leach tests, but the other solutions were only used in the static leach tests at 150 and 250 0 C. Based on the results obtained, graphite appears to be the most leach resistant of the materials tested with the two grades of alumina being the best of the ceramic materials. Titanium dioxide and ZrO 2 are the most leach resistant of the remaining materials. Candidate materials from all three general classes of polymers (thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers) were considered in the selection of materials. Selected groups of polymers were tested in the flowing autoclave at 150, 200, and 250 0 C with some polymers being further tested at the next higher temperature. Next, selected samples were exposed to gamma radiation. These samples were then submitted for tensile and elongation measurements. Selected samples which appeared promising from both autoclave and radiation testing were further evaluated by impact tests. The materials that appeared most promising after autoclave testing were the EPDM rubbers, polyphenylene sulfide, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) copolymer, and polyfurfuryl alcohol. The radiation dose had little effect on polyfurfuryl alcohol and polyphenylene sulfide samples; very significant decreases in elongation were observed for the fluorocarbon copolymer and the EPDM rubbers. While the polyphenylene sulfide and polyfurfuryl alcohol showed little change in impact strength, poly(ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene) decreased in impact strength

  8. Origin of the Energy Barrier to Chemical Reactions of O2 on Al(111): Evidence for Charge Transfer, Not Spin Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    change of O2 spin, at the barrier [Fig. 3]; i.e., the corresponding diabatic surfaces cross. Far from the Al surface, the triplet state is...previous theoretical models, in particular nonadiabatic [17] or diabatic [16] approaches, which also find an energy barrier consistent with experiment...crossings of different diabatic O2 spin configuration sur- faces are accommodated by small spin fluctuations within the metal surface. For parallel

  9. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  10. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie Alley

    2017-01-01

    Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers. 432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62%) participating. The survey assessed participants' (A) demographic and global health background, (B) perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C) detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D) potential solutions. Thirty-four (of 66) barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale), Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a) Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b) Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC) but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications) negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness. That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type) were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional was

  11. A review on the current issues and barriers of Industrialised Building System (IBS) adoption in Malaysia’s construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. A. Mohd; Abas, N. H.; Shahidan, S.; Rahmat, M. H.; Suhaini, N. A.; Nagapan, S.; Rahim, R. Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia considers the construction industry as one of the main contributors to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, there are some unresolved issues arising from the ongoing and widespread adoption of the conventional method of construction such as the resultant fragmentation of the industry itself; delays in production and delivery time of unnecessary wastages and lack of sustainability practice. Malaysian Government has been continuously encouraging the industry to use, partly or if not wholly, the Industrialized Building System (IBS), which is considered to be an important part of sustainable construction initiative. IBS was introduced to Malaysia as the solution to issues related to dependencies of foreign workers, raising demand for affordable accommodations and improving image, quality and productivity of construction industry. However, the IBS adoption in Malaysia remains low. This paper presents the review of the current issues and barriers of IBS adoption in Malaysian construction industry.

  12. Benefits and Barriers of Implementation and Utilization of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems in Transfusion Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Cunningham, Brian; Deslich, Stacie; Willson, Eric; Meadows, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is used by hospital supply chains to track medical products and monitor inventories. Hospitals have also begun incorporating RFID technology as part of their transfusion processes. The purpose of this review was to analyze how healthcare organization supply chains can benefit from the utilization of RFID systems in transfusion service departments. The methodology for this study was a literature review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 52 sources referenced. RFID technology is used to manage and track blood products from the initial donor phlebotomy to final disposition or product transfusion. RFID-enabled transfusion practices have successfully increased provider productivity and product quality through work-time reduction and error reduction. Findings of this research study suggest that RFID has provided improvements in quality of care and efficiency, while initial costs, security, and privacy appear to be the principal barriers to adoption.

  13. Role of Transporters in Central Nervous System Drug Delivery and Blood-Brain Barrier Protection: Relevance to Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Brzica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The only approved pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke is thrombolysis via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA. A short therapeutic window and serious adverse events (ie, hemorrhage, excitotoxicity greatly limit r-tPA therapy, which indicates an essential need to develop novel stroke treatment paradigms. Transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB provide a significant opportunity to advance stroke therapy via central nervous system delivery of drugs that have neuroprotective properties. Examples of such transporters include organic anion–transporting polypeptides (Oatps and organic cation transporters (Octs. In addition, multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps are transporter targets in brain microvascular endothelial cells that can be exploited to preserve BBB integrity in the setting of stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on stroke pharmacotherapy and demonstrate how endogenous BBB transporters can be targeted for improvement of ischemic stroke treatment.

  14. Effect of Residual Stresses and Prediction of Possible Failure Mechanisms on Thermal Barrier Coating System by Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.; Shahidi, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work is focused on the effect of the residual stresses resulting from the coating process and thermal cycling on the failure mechanisms within the thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. To reach this objective, we studied the effect of the substrate preheating and cooling rate on the coating process conditions. A new thermomechanical finite element model (FEM) considering a nonhomogeneous temperature distribution has been developed. In the results, we observed a critical stress corresponding to a low substrate temperature and high cooling rate during spraying of the top-coat material. Moreover, the analysis of the stress distribution after service shows that more critical stresses are obtained in the case where residual stresses are taken into account.

  15. Ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption for targeted drug delivery in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Muna; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Alexander, Phillip M.; McDannold, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The physiology of the vasculature in the central nervous system (CNS),