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Sample records for barrier energy difference

  1. Barriers and drivers for energy efficiency: Different perspectives from an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Trianni, Andrea; Abeelen, Christiaan; Worrell, Ernst; Miggiano, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the perception of barriers and drivers and mechanisms regulating them. • Firms agree on the most important barriers and drivers. • Firms agree on the most critical decision-making steps and actors promoting drivers. • Major external actors perceive barriers, drivers and mechanisms differently. • Success of voluntary agreements depends on the link to other policy instruments. - Abstract: Increased energy efficiency represents a crucial opportunity for European industrial sustainability, but several barriers still need to be tackled. Thus, it is crucial to understand the existing mismatches between the perception of enterprises and what the major actors promoting energy efficiency believe enterprises suffer from and need within the decision-making process. To do so, we have performed an exploratory investigation analysing a set of manufacturing enterprises participating in the Dutch voluntary agreements. The study involved the major external actors, i.e. the national energy agency, governmental and industrial organisations, to map their views on the decision-making process. Results show that enterprises agree not only on the most important barriers and drivers, but also on the mechanisms underlying them. However, even a general common understanding of the barriers is disputed when major external actors are considered, as they only agree on the primary role of economic barriers. Mismatches appear when considering how single barriers affect the decision-making process and which drivers – and actors promoting them – need to be addressed. Although voluntary agreements represent the most popular instrument on energy efficiency in the Netherlands, they do not seem to be considered by small and medium-sized enterprises as a stimulus for improving energy efficiency. Crucial for future success are the link with other policy instruments, and the degree to which the instruments trigger the right drivers and barriers at the right

  2. Testing Convergence of Different Free-Energy Methods in a Simple Analytical System with Hidden Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alexis Paz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the influence of hidden barriers on the convergence behavior of three free-energy calculation methods: well-tempered metadynamics (WTMD, adaptive-biasing forces (ABF, and on-the-fly parameterization (OTFP. We construct a simple two-dimensional potential-energy surfaces (PES that allows for an exact analytical result for the free-energy in any one-dimensional order parameter. Then we chose different CV definitions and PES parameters to create three different systems with increasing sampling challenges. We find that all three methods are not greatly affected by the hidden-barriers in the simplest case considered. The adaptive sampling methods show faster sampling while the auxiliary high-friction requirement of OTFP makes it slower for this case. However, a slight change in the CV definition has a strong impact in the ABF and WTMD performance, illustrating the importance of choosing suitable collective variables.

  3. Energy barriers in patterned media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fact that thermal activation aids in overcoming the energy barrier, the required field for reversal varies from instance to instance for the same island. This thermally induced switching field distribution can be used to determine the difference in energy barrier of magneticallyweak and

  4. Barriers and drivers for energy efficiency : Different perspectives from an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cagno, Enrico; Trianni, Andrea; Worrell, Ernst; Miggiano, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Increased energy efficiency represents a crucial opportunity for European industrial sustainability, but several barriers still need to be tackled, as recent policies have not often succeeded as expected. Thus, it is crucial to understand the existing mismatches between the perception of

  5. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  6. Energy barrier to decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizel, Ari; Mitchell, M. W.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a ground-state approach to realizing quantum computers. This scheme is time-independent and inherently defends against decoherence by possessing an energy barrier to excitation. We prove that our time-independent qubits can perform the same algorithms as their time-dependent counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of the time-independent approach are described. A model involving quantum dots is provided for illustration

  7. Barriers in the energy of deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interaction energy between two nuclei considering to their deformations is studied. Coulomb and nuclear in-teraction energies, as well as the deformation energies of both nuclei, are taken into account at evaluation of the interaction energy. It is shown that the barrier related to the interaction energy of two nuclei depends on the de-formations and the height of the minimal barrier is evaluated. It is obtained that the heavier nucleus-nucleus sys-tems have large deformation values at the lowest barrier. The difference between the barrier between spherical nuclei and the lowest barrier between deformed nuclei increases with the mass and the charge of the interacting nuclei.

  8. Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.

  9. Highway renewable energy : photovoltaic noise barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) represent the combination of noise barrier systems and photovoltaic systems in order to mitigate traffic noise while simultaneously producing renewable energy. First deployed in Switzerland in 1989, PVNBs a...

  10. Institutional distributed energy interconnection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided an introduction to Encorp Inc., a leading provider of network technology and infrastructure management solutions for the distributed energy market. Encorp develops and markets software and hardware technology solutions for communications, control and networking of distributed energy. It is developing and implementing real-time, distributed energy-focused solutions for a wide variety of applications through new products and services which are technology neutral, and easily networked. Encorp controls more than 500 MW of distributed power with a total of 127 customers. This paper reviewed 3 barriers (regulatory, contractual/tariffs, and business practices) based on US experience. The challenge remaining is to determine if microgrids can be used effectively, and to determine the limitations of bi-directional power flows. The key issues regarding how end-users can share the costs and maximize on the benefits of distributed energy resources include: standby service charges, departing load charges, regulatory uncertainty, rate class degradation, lack of incentives for utility cost reduction, and lack of ability to create experimental tariffs. tabs., figs

  11. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  12. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  13. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  14. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  15. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  16. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  17. Investing in Energy Efficiency. Removing the Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Investing in improving energy efficiency has the clear advantages of reducing energy costs, improving security of supply and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. And still, many viable opportunities for higher energy efficiency are not tapped because of the existence of numerous barriers to such investments. These lost opportunities imply costs to the individual energy consumers and to the society as a whole and they are particularly important in economies in transition. This report identifies various types of barriers for making energy efficiency investments (be they of legal, administrative, institutional or financial nature), mainly in buildings, district heating and efficient lighting. The role of various bodies and organisations for the facilitation of energy efficiency investments is analysed, from public authorities and regulators to banks and international financing institutions

  18. Linear and non-linear energy barriers in systems of interacting single-domain ferromagnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrila, Iulian; Bodale, Ilie; Rotarescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    A comparative analysis between linear and non-linear energy barriers used for modeling statistical thermally-excited ferromagnetic systems is presented. The linear energy barrier is obtained by new symmetry considerations about the anisotropy energy and the link with the non-linear energy barrier is also presented. For a relevant analysis we compare the effects of linear and non-linear energy barriers implemented in two different models: Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis. The differences between energy barriers which are reflected in different coercive field dependence of the temperature are also presented. -- Highlights: → The linear energy barrier is obtained from symmetry considerations. → The linear and non-linear energy barriers are calibrated and implemented in Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis models. → The temperature and time effects of the linear and non-linear energy barriers are analyzed.

  19. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  20. Language Barriers of the Culturally Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Paul Conrad

    Language differences peculiar to the disadvantaged are discussed as they relate to reading. Linguistic differences, including the interdependence among language, operant feedback, thought, and experience, and the power of these to reconstruct and reassociate through reading constitute one barrier. Another is the effects of language on the total…

  1. Addressing and overcoming barriers for energy savings in business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome these barr......Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome...

  2. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  3. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  4. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  5. Identifying barriers in the diffusion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriadis, Iordanis M.; Anagnostopoulou, Evgenia G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity power sector is crucial if the EU wants to fulfill its 2050 CO 2 reduction commitments. For this reason, identifying and alleviating all barriers that hinder the development of RES is necessary to the successful deployment of these technologies. This paper discusses the main barriers in the diffusion of wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar power in the Greek electricity sector by drawing on the literature of technological innovation systems and system functions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of the different diffusion rates between the two technologies. Inadequate financial resources, low grid capacity, delays in the issuance of building permits, opposition from local communities to the construction of wind farms and the lack of a stable institutional framework are among the most important barriers that inhibit the diffusion of the wind and PV solar power. The nature of the barriers identified in this study calls for policy intervention. - Highlights: • Firms in the Greek wind and solar power sectors assess RES barriers. • Lack of financial resources is the most important RES barrier. • Lack of a stable institutional framework negatively affects RES deployment. • The support of the public sector is crucial to the diffusion of RES. •Wind power faces strong legitimization barriers

  6. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  7. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalan, Cicek Bezir; Murat, Oeztuerk; Nuri, Oezek

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  8. Energy education: breaking up the rational energy use barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R.A.; Mattos, C.R.; Balestieri, J.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    Human development is associated directly or indirectly with the energy use, and because of this the energetic sources were dealt with in the recent past, as fully available to human necessities. The reality shows that the energy availability, considering the non-renewable sources, is limited, and beyond that, the exploration, the processing and the use of energy impose considerable impacts on the environment. There is not a system which operates with no losses and without imposing changes to the environment. Therefore, the energy conservation incorporates the concepts and the actions applied to the research of sustainable balance between nature and the energy availability and use. Such actions can be presented both in the short term, in which the energy system is close to a collapse, or in the medium/long term, in which those responsible for the energy policies are concerned with the structure of the socio-economic development. Such a situation requires more responsibility in the treatment of energy questions, mainly through education, which represents long-term investments. This paper discusses barriers that are present in the projects applied to energy conservation, by making clear that education is one of the best ways to transform the human behavior in for the rational use of energy

  9. Identifying barriers to aboriginal renewable energy deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Joel

    2012-01-01

    As one of the largest and wealthiest countries in the world, Canada stands well-positioned to take advantage of ongoing growth in North American demand for primary energy supply by expanding domestic delivery of renewable energy generation to internationally interconnected electric grids across the country. There are myriad benefits of adopting the renewable energy approach to development—as the province of Ontario has acknowledged through the implementation of their 2009 Green Energy Act—including drastic reductions in carbon emissions, the decommissioning of existing fossil fuel power generation that cause serious public health problems, and opportunities for sustainable development at the community level. One group in particular stands poised to shape these debates. In Canada, historically marginalized Aboriginal peoples remain one of the groups with the greatest potential for meeting these enormous renewable energy deployment needs. Aboriginal involvement in renewable energy generation in Canada has been as diverse as Canada's Aboriginal peoples and groups have already adopted a range of different solutions to meet energy supply needs. However, many significant barriers exist that prevent this diverse cultural group from reaching its full potential. The article identifies some of these shortcomings and analyzes their roots. - Highlights: ► Renewable energy is one of the most important sustainable development opportunities today. ► Aboriginal-led renewable development could dramatically increase Canadian supply. ► Surmountable barriers are identified.

  10. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  11. Addressing barriers to low carbon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Fiona; Dunstan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Two energy solutions gaining attention are cogeneration and trigeneration, mostly fuelled by natural gas, although other renewable sources can be used, such as sewage, agricultural waste and municipal waste. Trigeneration has become increasingly popular in Australia's urban centres as a relatively cost-effective means to cut the carbon-intensity of energy supply by more than half compared to traditional coal- fired electricity. Some examples of trigeneration projects include the City of Sydney's planned 360 megawatt trigeneration networks by 2030, the University of Technology Sydney's campus master plan and the six star Green Star Commonwealth Bank Place building in Sydney. Trigeneration and cogeneration can present opportunities such as addressing the issue of rising peak demand, which is a major driver for the current $9 billion per annum of network infrastructure spending. They can also face barriers. For example, depending on the current state of the network, additional network costs can be required to accommodate trigeneration. Furthermore, under the current National Electricity Market regulations and conventions, challenges do exist to timely and financially viable connection to the grid. Here we present two examples of barriers to trigeneration and cogeneration and solutions being considered and implemented. The University of Technology Sydney campus master plan is underway, with approximately 100,000sq.m of floor area being built by 2019 and includes plans for trigeneration. During the master planning phase of development, the university considered small trigeneration units in individual buildings in order to reduce the carbon intensity of electricity supply and deliver high ratings under Green Star ratings. When considering connecting trigeneration with the grid at multiple buildings on an individual basis, a number of barriers were encountered by UTS. The largest barrier was appropriate charging for connecting to and using the grid. However

  12. Free energy barriers to evaporation of water in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-11-08

    We use umbrella sampling Monte Carlo and forward and reverse forward flux sampling (FFS) simulation techniques to compute the free energy barriers to evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of the gap width, at 1 bar and 298 K. The evaporation mechanism for small (1 × 1 nm(2)) surfaces is found to be fundamentally different from that for large (3 × 3 nm(2)) surfaces. In the latter case, the evaporation proceeds via the formation of a gap-spanning tubular cavity. The 1 × 1 nm(2) surfaces, in contrast, are too small to accommodate a stable vapor cavity. Accordingly, the associated free energy barriers correspond to the formation of a critical-sized cavity for sufficiently large confining surfaces, and to complete emptying of the gap region for small confining surfaces. The free energy barriers to evaporation were found to be of O(20kT) for 14 Å gaps, and to increase by approximately ~5kT with every 1 Å increase in the gap width. The entropy contribution to the free energy of evaporation was found to be independent of the gap width.

  13. Overcoming energy efficiency barriers through systems approach—A conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Kah-Hin; Yeo, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework which categorizes energy efficiency barriers based on the stage at which the barriers exist. Barriers to energy efficiency have been widely studied but to our knowledge, except for a few studies, we found inadequate consideration for barrier–barrier interactions when proposing policy measures for improving energy efficiency. Leveraging systems thinking's power as a problem solver which identifies underlying structure that explains (similar) patterns of behavior in a variety of different situations, we attempted to identify patterns of barriers to adoption of energy efficiency measures in industrial companies. Inspired by systems thinking, the proposed framework has four stages, namely, Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results, as well as a feedback loop. Using a case study, we show that following the four stages will lead to positive feedback for future energy efficiency implementations. The framework highlights the interconnected nature of the barriers and a need for policymakers to address these barriers in a holistic manner. We argue that the overall effectiveness of energy efficiency policies is only as strong as the weakest link in the four-stage framework. This differs from most prior research that addressed barriers in isolation, where a solution is proposed for each of the barriers without considering the relationship between the barriers. Our framework also offers a way to understand the roles and responsibilities of major stakeholders such as governments and energy service companies (ESCOs) in driving energy efficiency. This allows the assessment and identification of weak links in energy efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► We propose a systems approach to overcome energy efficiency barriers. ► Barriers are grouped into Motivation, Capability, Implementation and Results. ► Case study shows that there is a feedback loop from Results to Motivation. ► Current Results will affect future Motivation.

  14. 7Li breakup polarization potential at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubian, J. . E-mail lubian@if.uff.br; Correa, T.; Paes, B.; Figueira, J.M.; Abriola, D.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O.A.; de Barbara, E.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Negri, A.E.; Pacheco, A.J.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic and one neutron transfer cross sections at energies around the Coulomb barrier were used to derive dynamic polarization potential (DPP) for the 7 Li + 27 Al system. The DPP due to breakup, obtained in a simple way, indicates that its real part is repulsive at near barrier energies

  15. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  16. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  17. Reactions with weakly bound nuclei at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanal, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    In reactions with weakly bound nuclei, the effect of breakup on fusion process has attracted much attention in recent years. The experimental study shows that breakup channel leads to suppression of complete fusion at above barrier energies due to loss of flux. The fusion barrier distribution can provide a further insight into understanding the influence of coupling to the breakup channels. Similar information could be obtained from the elastic and quasielastic (QEL) scattering because of the conservation of the reaction flux (i.e. R+T= 1), where R is the reflection probability and T is the transmission probability. Thus, quasi-elastic scattering at backward angles is the counterpart of the fusion process and it is expected that the barrier distributions extracted from two processes, namely, QEL and fusion should be similar. While this is true for tightly bound reaction systems, in reactions involving weakly bound projectiles significant differences have been observed for QEL barrier distributions with and without inclusion of breakup processes. This talk will present the recent results for fusion and quasi-elastic scattering in "6","7Li + "1"9"7Au system. Developmental efforts towards a momentum achromatic separator, MARIE, to extract projectile-like secondary ion beams following the reactions of heavy-ion beams from superconducting LINAC booster at Mumbai will also be presented. (author)

  18. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  19. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Thollander, Patrik; Solding, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies

  20. Parametric modeling of energy filtering by energy barriers in thermoelectric nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zianni, Xanthippi, E-mail: xzianni@teiste.gr, E-mail: xzianni@gmail.com [Department of Aircraft Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Sterea Ellada, 34400 Psachna (Greece); Department of Microelectronics, INN, NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Narducci, Dario [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-21

    We present a parametric modeling of the thermoelectric transport coefficients based on a model previously used to interpret experimental measurements on the conductivity, σ, and Seebeck coefficient, S, in highly Boron-doped polycrystalline Si, where a very significant thermoelectric power factor (TPF) enhancement was observed. We have derived analytical formalism for the transport coefficients in the presence of an energy barrier assuming thermionic emission over the barrier for (i) non-degenerate and (ii) degenerate one-band semiconductor. Simple generic parametric equations are found that are in agreement with the exact Boltzmann transport formalism in a wide range of parameters. Moreover, we explore the effect of energy barriers in 1-d composite semiconductors in the presence of two phases: (a) the bulk-like phase and (b) the barrier phase. It is pointed out that significant TPF enhancement can be achieved in the composite structure of two phases with different thermal conductivities. The TPF enhancement is estimated as a function of temperature, the Fermi energy position, the type of scattering, and the barrier height. The derived modeling provides guidance for experiments and device design.

  1. Exercise motivation and barriers among men and women of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise motivation and barriers among men and women of different age groups. ... The motives changed when comparisons were made between different age and gender groups. ... Common barriers for exercise included 'lack of time', focus on 'other priorities', the perception that 'daily routine ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Comparative studies for different proximity potentials applied to sub-barrier fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.L. [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); Beihang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beijing (China); Qu, W.W. [Medical College of Soochow University, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow (China); Guo, M.F.; Qian, J.Q. [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhang, H.Q. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Wolski, R. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Cracow (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Coulomb barrier heights calculated by using 14 different versions of proximity potentials are studied and applied for experimental data of fusion in terms of a recently proposed energy scaling approach. The results show that the descriptions of proximity potentials 77 and 88 for the barrier heights seem to be closest to the values required by the systematics. On the basis of proximity potential 77, the parameterized formulas of the barrier height and radius are obtained. These formulas can calculate the barrier positions and barrier heights reasonably well within the error, respectively. Thus it provides a simple and direct way to calculate the barrier positions and barrier heights for heavy-ion fusion reactions. (orig.)

  3. Barriers to renewable energy penetration. A framework for analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Painuly, Jyoti P.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy has the potential to play an important role in providing energy with sustainability to the vast populations in developing countries who as yet have no access to clean energy. Although economically viable fur several applications, renewable energy has not been able to realise its...... potential due to several barriers to its penetration. A framework has been developed in this paper to identify the barriers to renewable energy penetration acid to suggest measures to overcome them. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  5. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  6. Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

  7. The role of confined collagen geometry in decreasing nucleation energy barriers to intrafibrillar mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doyoon; Lee, Byeongdu; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Jun, Young-Shin

    2018-03-06

    Mineralization of collagen is critical for the mechanical functions of bones and teeth. Calcium phosphate nucleation in collagenous structures follows distinctly different patterns in highly confined gap regions (nanoscale confinement) than in less confined extrafibrillar spaces (microscale confinement). Although the mechanism(s) driving these differences are still largely unknown, differences in the free energy for nucleation may explain these two mineralization behaviors. Here, we report on experimentally obtained nucleation energy barriers to intra- and extrafibrillar mineralization, using in situ X-ray scattering observations and classical nucleation theory. Polyaspartic acid, an extrafibrillar nucleation inhibitor, increases interfacial energies between nuclei and mineralization fluids. In contrast, the confined gap spaces inside collagen fibrils lower the energy barrier by reducing the reactive surface area of nuclei, decreasing the surface energy penalty. The confined gap geometry, therefore, guides the two-dimensional morphology and structure of bioapatite and changes the nucleation pathway by reducing the total energy barrier.

  8. Migration energy barriers of symmetric tilt grain boundaries in body-centered cubic metal Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Minghui; Gu, Jianfeng; Jin, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DFT calculated migration energy barrier (left) for symmetric grain boundary in metals is an essential physical property to measure the trend of grain boundary migration, in particular, in terms of the classical homogeneous nucleation model of GB dislocation/disconnection loops (right). - Migration energy barriers of two symmetric tilt grain boundaries in body-centered cubic metal Fe are obtained via first-principles calculations in combination with the nudged elastic band methods. Although the two grain boundaries show similar grain boundary energies, the migration energy barriers are different. Based on a homogeneous nucleation theory of grain-boundary dislocation loops, the calculated energy barrier provides a measure of intrinsic grain-boundary mobility and helps to evaluate effects due to vacancy and interstitial atoms such as carbon

  9. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  10. Li breakup polarization potential at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubian, F. J.; Correa, T.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Paes, B; Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Fernandez, J. O.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez, D.; Heimann; Negri, A.; Pacheco, A. J.; Padron, I.

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic and one neutron transfer cross sections at energies around the Coulomb barrier were used to derive dynamic polarization potential (DPP) for the 7 Li + 27 Al system. The DPP due to breakup, obtained in a simple way, indicates that its real part is repulsive at nearbarrier energies. (Author)

  11. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  12. Renewable energy resources barriers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umoh, U.T.; Ekpoh, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's hydroelectric power plants are not able to perform at greater than 30 per cent of their installed capacity, despite the fact that Africa has abundant hydroelectric resources. Droughts and floods attributed to climate change are presenting challenges to the effective management and distribution of hydroelectric power supplies. This paper identified climate change-related barriers against hydroelectric power development in Africa. Case studies of 3 hydroelectric power projects in Nigeria were considered. Rainfall intensity data for a 25-year period were analyzed. The study showed that while the hydroelectric power plants are capable of supplying more power, most dams in Africa are prone to erosion and flash flooding. The sedimentation of reservoirs and natural lakes are also posing significant water management problems. Redesigns are needed in order to reduce risk. The new hydroelectric projects should be designed to ensure that environmental impacts are minimized. A river basin management approach was recommended in order to improve industrial water supplies, power generation, and recreational aspects of waterways. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Andersen, Anne Holst

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier......, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more...

  14. Efficient free energy calculations for compounds with multiple stable conformations separated by high energy barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hritz, J.; Oostenbrink, C.

    2009-01-01

    Compounds with high intramolecular energy barriers represent challenging targets for free energy calculations because of the difficulty to obtain sufficient conformational sampling. Existing approaches are therefore computationally very demanding, thus preventing practical applications for such

  15. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  16. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German energy service companies sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewener, D.; Schleich, J.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research conducted in the German energy service sector to assess to what extent energy service companies (ESCOs) can help overcome the barriers to energy in the higher education, brewing and mechanical engineering sectors. This report complements the sector for Germany within the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000; Schleich/Boede 2000a; Schleich/Boede 2000b; Schleich et al., 2000). The report characterises the German energy service sector, contains a description and analysis of four case studies in the energy service sector, identifies the main barriers and chances for ESCOs in the higher education, brewery and mechanical engineering sectors, and concludes with brief recommendations on how these barriers may be overcome. The results of the study are summarised here under the following headings: Characterising the energy service sector in Germany; - Case studies of energy service companies in Germany; - The role of ESCOs in the case-study sectors; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  17. Energy Barriers and Hysteresis in Martensitic Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH) and 10-15% perchloric acid (HCLO4) by volume, the cathode was stainless steel , the anode was stainless steel or Ti, the...Submitted to Acta Materialia Energy barriers and hysteresis in martensitic phase transformations Zhiyong Zhang, Richard D. James and Stefan Müller...hysteresis based on the growth from a small scale of fully developed austenite martensite needles. In this theory the energy of the transition layer plays a

  18. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  19. Energy barrier distributions of maghemite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanus, E; Koettig, T; Gloeckl, G; Prass, S; Schmidl, F; Heinrich, J; Gopinadhan, M; Berkov, D V; Helm, C A; Weitschies, W; Weber, P; Seidel, P

    2007-01-01

    A recently introduced method for the characterization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based on the analysis of the temperature-dependent Neel relaxation signal (TMRX) has been applied to characterize maghemite particles with different particle size distributions. The samples were made using an improved magnetic fractionation method for a ferrofluid with a broad particle size distribution. The temperature range of the measurement set-up has been extended from 315 K down to 4 K to detect even the smallest particles in the fractions. A mean magnetically relevant particle size has been derived from TMRX and low temperature coercivity measurements and has been compared to the physical size determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations

  20. Dealing with barriers to energy efficiency and SMEs: Some empirical evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Cagno, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an identification and an analysis of the most relevant barriers to energy efficiency that limit a widespread implementation of the Best Available Technologies and Practices (BAT/Ps) through the investigation of 128 non-energy intensive manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The study, starting from the existing literature, performs an investigation of the operational difficulties occurring when it has been decided to undertake the process of investing resources in energy efficiency interventions. The most perceived barriers have been analyzed with respect to several important characteristics (among others, sector and firm’s size). This examination shows also that very much attention should be paid to avoid bundling together SMEs of different sizes and sectors, since different behaviors with respect to the perception of the barriers can be observed. The analysis of the sample presents some interesting trends considering the perception of the barriers with respect to previous experience of the enterprises on energy efficiency. The paper also explores, through a preliminary analysis, the correlations among questions in order to understand the dynamics and the possible effects of a given barrier with respect to others. Several suggestions for future research in this important area have been provided. -- Highlights: ► Evidences of different behaviors with respect to energy efficiency among sectors and firm’s size (within SMEs). ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary investigation of relationships between barriers in order to understand the dynamics.

  1. A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, R.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.; Scholz, W.; Forster, H.; Fidler, J.

    2002-01-01

    Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media

  2. Investment barriers under a renewable-electricity support scheme: Differences across investor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnerud, Kristin; Holden, Erling

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Norway and Sweden implemented a common market for tradable green certificates to achieve each country's renewable-energy target. This is the first example of a cooperation mechanism that the EU has suggested to improve the cost efficiency of its renewable-energy policies. We asked investors in 446 planned hydropower projects in Norway what type of barriers may prevent their project from being realized under this scheme, and how likely it is that their project will be realized. Based on a regression analysis we find that the responses to these questions vary systematically with investor, project and process characteristics. We find that investors are concerned with capacity barriers imposed on the market because of the short duration and abrupt termination of the subsidy scheme at the end of 2020. Consequently, the cost efficiency of this and similar schemes can be improved by choosing a better design. Moreover, experienced investors and local landowners without previous experience in the energy sector responded differently to these questions. Local landowners were more optimistic, less concerned with capacity barriers and more concerned with economic barriers than experienced investors were. These observations are interesting given the recent emergence of new investors in the renewable energy sector. - Highlights: • Norway and Sweden have implemented a common market for tradable green certificates. • We asked questions on barriers and potential to investors in 446 hydropower projects. • Capacity barriers imposed on the market by the support scheme design are important. • Local landowners are more optimistic than experienced investors are, all else equal. • They focus relatively more on economic barriers and risk and less on capacity barriers

  3. The congruence energy: a contribution to nuclear masses, deformation energies and fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The difference between measured binding energies and those calculated using a shell- and pairing-corrected Thomas-Fermi model can be described approximately by C(I)=-10 exp(-4.2 vertical stroke I vertical stroke) MeV, where I=(N-Z)/A. Our interpretation of this extra binding is in terms of the granularity of quantal nucleonic density distributions, which leads to a stronger interaction for a neutron and proton with congruent nodal structures of their wave functions. The predicted doubling of this congruence energy in fission is supported by an analysis of measured fission barriers and by a study of wave functions in a dividing Hill-Wheeler box potential. A semi-empirical formula for the shape-dependent congruence energy is described. (orig.)

  4. Sustainability and energy self-sufficiency; overcoming the barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Abdel Galil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engendering more positive attitudes to renewable energy is by no means a simple feat. Renewable energy technologies are viewed as radical innovations which necessitate substantial changes in production and consumption patterns, hence often met with resistance from both institutions and individuals. Yet action is needed; global energy consumption is expected to rise by 41% and global carbon dioxide emissions by 29%, with most of the demand and rise coming from emerging economies (BP energy outlook 2035. Further, countries need to meet objectives of reduction of GHG under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Renewable energy share in the global energy mix needs to significantly increase in order to reach supply sufficiency, energy security, energy equity and environmental sustainability.Meeting demands of energy is critical for the economic and social development of any country; energy must be secure, accessible and affordable at all levels of society, and any negative impact of energy production and energy use on the environment must be minimized. Middle East energy consumption is expected to grow by 69% whilst production to grow by 32%, with 97% of demand still met by fossil fuels by the end of the 2035. Energy investment of $316 billion will be required in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA between 2015 and 2019 to meet its growing demand for power (Apicorp, 2014. Diversifying energy sources is indeed of interest in the MENA region, spurred by growing demand for power and desalinated water, fluctuating fuel price, GHG emission reduction targets, depleting fossil fuel reserves and advances in renewable energy technology. However, there are many barriers that hinder the adoption of renewable energy technologies worldwide, but more so in the MENA region. These barriers are political, economic, social and technological. With a focus on Europe and MENA, it can be said that these barriers have much in common albeit framing

  5. Innovation barriers originating from the differing logics of network actors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena; Alaranta, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The recent IMP and innovation network research has highlighted that diverse aspects of actors' heterogeneity such as differing goals, knowledge bases, capabilities and competences, perceptions, power, position, and culture play a role in the development of collaborative innovation....../organization, inter-organizational and ecosystem levels. Our results advance knowledge on the diversity of barriers in collaborative innovation and commercializing science and how they relate to the different actors: a body of knowledge that is increasingly discussed among IMP stream....

  6. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Salvatore; Varho, Vilja; Rikkonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors. - Highlights: • We examine the possibilities and challenges of the transition to DE in Finland. • Technological niches are emerging both in the heat and electricity sector. • Business model innovation is evident only in the electricity sector. • Removing barriers and developing new business models will accelerate the transition.

  7. Safety barriers and safety functions a comparison of different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms-Ringdahl, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study is being made with the focus on different theories and applications concerning 'safety barriers' and 'safety functions'. One aim is to compare the characteristics of different kinds of safely functions, which can be purpose, efficiency, reliability, weak points etc. A further aim is to summarize how the combination of different barriers are described and evaluated. Of special interest are applications from nuclear and chemical process safety. The study is based on a literature review, interviews and discussions. Some preliminary conclusions are made. For example, it appears to exist a need for better tools to support the design and evaluation of procedures. There are a great number of theoretical models describing safety functions. However, it still appears to be an interest in further development of models, which might give the basis for improved practical tools. (author)

  8. Barriers to the use of renewable energy in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, F.; Stocker, L.; Walker, I.; Stirling, M.

    1991-08-01

    Public attitudes towards renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy is examined through a survey of water heating in the metropolitan area, energy supply and use on pastoral leases in Western Australia. The private costs of water heating systems was assessed in a way which may give guidance to manufacturers on improving the economics of solar water heating systems, and to policy makers for facilitating the use of solar water heating systems. The policies currently in place in Western Australia which act as barriers to the greater use of renewable energy were also outlined. The cost data, together with the attitudes of consumers as revealed in the surveys, indicate that manufacturers and suppliers of renewable energy equipment need to reduce costs and improve the actual and perceived capability, performance and reliability of their equipment. 96 refs., 30 tabs., 38 figs

  9. Magnetization reversal processes of single nanomagnets and their energy barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krone, P.; Makarov, D.; Albrecht, M.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micromagnetic simulations were performed to investigate the influence of geometry and magnetic anisotropy constant on energy barrier and magnetization reversal mechanism of individual bits important for the bit patterned media concept in magnetic data storage. It is shown that dependency of the energy barrier on magnetic and geometric properties of bits can be described by an analytical approach in the case of quasi-coherent magnetization rotation process. However, when the bit size exceeds a critical size, for which an incoherent magnetization reversal is preferred, the analytical approach becomes invalid and no self-consistent theory is available. By systematically investigating the influence of bit size on the magnetization reversal mode, it was found that the transition from quasi-coherent to incoherent magnetization reversal mode can still be described analytically if an activation volume is considered instead of the bit volume. In this case, the nucleation volume is an important parameter determining thermal stability of the bit. If the volume of the bit is larger than twice the activation volume, the energy barrier stays nearly constant; with further increase in bit size, no gain in thermal stability can be achieved.

  10. Heavy ion collisions at energies near the Coulomb barrier 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    During recent years, detailed experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out on heavy ion collisions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. These studies have provided direct evidence of strong couplings between the various reaction channels available at energies near the top of the Coulomb barrier. This field of research has remained the focus of interest and with improved experimental techniques, new detailed high resolution data have been obtained. The workshop on ''Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Close to the Coulomb Barrier'' was organized with the aim of reviewing the current understanding of the collision dynamics and to discuss future directions in this area of research. The topics discussed at the workshop were broadly classified under the titles: quasielastic reactions; fusion of heavy ions; and shape and spin dependence in heavy ion collisions. The last of these topics was included to review new data obtained with polarized heavy ions and their theoretical interpretations. This volume contains the invited and contributed talks as well as a few short presentations during panel discussions. (author)

  11. Best Practices and Barriers to Obesity Prevention in Head Start: Differences Between Director and Teacher Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Dooley, Erin E; Sharma, Shreela V; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Butte, Nancy; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2017-12-21

    Practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity at Head Start centers may influence children's energy balance behaviors. We examined differences between directors' and teachers' perspectives on best practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in Head Start centers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of directors (n = 23) and teachers (n = 113) at 23 Head Start centers participating in the baseline assessment of the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study. Participants completed surveys about practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity. Multilevel regression models examined differences between director and teacher responses. More than half of directors and teachers reported meeting most best practices related to nutrition and physical activity; few directors or teachers (foods (especially sweets, salty snacks, and sugary drinks) in front of children" and "Teachers talk to children about trying/enjoying new foods" (P food service staff support, limited time, and insufficient funds (P < .05). More barriers to healthy eating were reported than were barriers to physical activity indicating that more support may be needed for healthy eating. Differences between responses of directors and teachers may have implications for future assessments of implementation of best practices and barriers to implementation related to nutrition and physical activity in early care and education centers.

  12. Pair transfer processes probed at deep sub barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradi, L.; Mason, P.; Fioretto, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Stefanini, A.M.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Szinler, S.; Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Soic, N.; Pollarolo, G.; Farnea, E.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C.A.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Marginean, N.

    2011-01-01

    Multinucleon transfer cross sections in the system 40 Ca+ 96 Zr have been measured at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to ∼ 25% below. Target-like (lighter) recoils in inverse kinematics have been completely identified in A,Z and Q-value with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental slopes of the neutron transfer probabilities at large internuclear separation are consistent with the values derived from the binding energies. A phenomenological interpretation of the transfer probabilities indicates the presence of enhanced values for the even number of neutron transfers. (authors)

  13. Deformation energy of a toroidal nucleus and plane fragmentation barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchard, C.; Royer, G.

    1996-01-01

    The path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes is investigated using a one-parameter shape sequence. The deformation energy is determined within the analytical expressions obtained for the various shape-dependent functions and the generalized rotating liquid drop model taking into account the proximity energy and the temperature. With increasing mass and angular momentum, a potential well appears in the toroidal shape path. For the heaviest systems, the pocket is large and locally favourable with respect to the plane fragmentation barriers which might allow the formation of evanescent toroidal systems which would rapidly decay in several fragments to minimize the surface tension. (orig.)

  14. Energy Transition and Barriers on the Path to its Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Tkalec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy transition is a concept originating from the necessity of solving environmental problems and conflicts in the energy sector. It originates from environmental tradition and advocates transition from environmentally and socially controversial sources of energy to renewables. That also means a shift from large centralized production units (mainly based on fossil and nuclear energy to smaller, dispersed ones. This decentralization process inherently leads to a democratization of the electricity sector, as large energy companies are losing their power and position in the energy policy arena, as more and more smaller actors emerge. However, when trying to change the electricity system, many obstacles arise – from the economics, old energy paradigm, path dependence, inertia of electricity system, power relations between actors, institutional lock-in, to perceptions and values of the dominant players. All barriers are reflected in the energy policy arena, dominated mainly by large energy companies, reluctant to accept changes. Demands for a change come from non-dominant actors, mainly from civil society actors and others, who are pushed to the margins of the political arena. Therefore, decision-makers should recognize their role, change institutional structure of the energy policy arena, and open it to various actors that can add new qualities to decision-making processes and outputs.

  15. Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises—A Case Study of a Local Energy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Backman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro- and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro- and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded rationality (lack of time and/or other priorities, split incentives (having other priorities for capital investments, and imperfect information (slim organization and lack of technical skill. This study also found that information in the form of a report was the main thing that companies gained from working on the project “Energy-Driven Business”. Notably, the study involved companies that had participated in a local energy program and, still, companies face major barriers inhibiting implementation, indicating a need to further study other alternative policy models and how knowledge transfer can be improved.

  16. Low energy pion detection by a silicon surface barrier telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealock, R.M.; Caplan, H.S.; Leung, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Four telescopes of three (2-ΔE, 1-E) silicon surface barrier detectors each, mounted in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer, have been used to detect positive pions in the energy range from 4.7-17.9 MeV and negative pions from 14.1-17.9 MeV. Positive pions from 4.7-12.7 MeV were stopped in the third detector while positive and negative pions from 14.1-17.9 MeV were detected in transmission. For energies greater than 7.4 MeV aluminum moderators were placed in front of the first detector to degrade the pion energy. Energy spectra show well resolved pion peaks with extremely low background. Double differential cross sections for the 12 C(e,π + ) 12 B,e' reaction have been measured. (Auth.)

  17. Barriers and possibilities for low-carbon-energy consuming technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on low-carbon-technologies, there are many issues that set a barrier for its adequate development and still many actors in these sectors are sceptical about the possibilities. Illumination is a very interesting sector...... to target, since it uses 19% of the total electricity produced in the world. Consequently, this paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main barriers and possibilities for the energy saving illumination technologies to efficiently reduce...... their ecological footprint. The discussion is supported by using relevant elements of the cradle-to-grave, eco-design and environmental-innovation theories. It is based on active participation in interdisciplinary projects and face-to-face in-depth interviews with relevant actors along the entire Danish...

  18. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2011-05-19

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  1. What are the barriers and incentives for community-owned means of energy production and use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    This paper on community-owned means of renewable energy production and use, reviews experience to date in the UK and the incentives for and barriers limiting current and future growth. A broad view is taken of what the meaning of 'community-owned production and use' might constitute, as there are different models of community ownership, different notions of community and different degrees of connection or disconnection between production and use

  2. 8B + 208Pb Elastic Scattering at Coulomb Barrier Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Commara, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Manea, C.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Di Meo, P.; Grebosz, J.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Iwasa, N.; Jeong, S. C.; Jia, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Kubono, S.; Lin, C. J.; Miyatake, H.; Mukai, M.; Nakao, T.; Nicoletto, M.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Soramel, F.; Teranishi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The scattering process of weakly-bound nuclei at Coulomb barrier energies provides deep insights on the reaction dynamics induced by exotic nuclei. Within this framework, we measured for the first time the scattering process of the short-lived Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) 8B (Sp = 0.1375 MeV) from a 208Pb target at 50 MeV beam energy. The 8B RIB was produced by means of the in-flight facility CRIB (RIKEN, Japan) with an average intensity on target of 10 kHz and a purity about 25%. Elastically scattering ions were detected in the angular range θc.m. = 10°-160° by means of the detector array EXPADES. A preliminary optical model analysis indicates a total reaction cross section of about 1 b, a value, once reduced, 2-3 times larger than those obtained for the reactions induced by the stable weakly-bound projectiles 6,7Li on a 208Pb target in the energy range around the Coulomb barrier.

  3. Barriers to clean development mechanism renewable energy projects in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is not reaching its full potential to capture benefits from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects because of its limited market for independent power producers (IPPs) and the barriers imposed on these entities by the state-run electric utility that controls most of the country's generation and transmission. This state-run entity has pursued CDM revenues only in isolated cases where international financial assistance was given because it is bound by law to pursue the least-cost generation option for its customers. Recent changes in Mexican legislation that provide incentives for renewable energy development could open the marketplace for these types of projects. (author)

  4. Disentangling complete and incomplete fusion for 9Be+187Re system at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Rajiv Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The breakup of projectile before fusion leads to some unusual fusion mechanisms like incomplete fusion (ICF) and sequential complete fusion (SCF). Experimentally, it is not possible to separate SCF events from direct complete fusion (DCF). However, the complete fusion and incomplete fusion can be measured separately. Theoretically it is very difficult to calculate the complete and incomplete fusion cross section separately using different models. Very recently A. Diaz-Torres has developed a computer code platypus based on classical dynamical model wherein the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections are calculated separately. But this model is found to work very well at energies above the barrier energy. Here we have attempted to extrapolate the results of the code platypus by using simple Wong's formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in the below barrier energy region

  5. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  6. Properties of dielectric barrier discharges in different arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) occur in arrangements where at least one dielectric is positioned in a gas space in between conducting electrodes. When breakdown field strength is reached in such a device, charge carriers are created in the gas region, accelerated, multiplied and finally collected on the surface(s) of the dielectric(s). The charge accumulation on the dielectric creates a counter field to that resulting from the power supply and as all of these processes are rather fast, the discharge quenches rapidly. The dielectric has two tasks, it limits the transferred charge and by this the energy conversion and distributes the discharge over the electrode area. That is why DBDs are non-thermal discharges which exist even at atmospheric pressure

  7. Barriers to renewable energy development: A case study of large-scale wind energy in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Garrett; Noble, Bram; Belcher, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is receiving increased attention as a viable alternative to non-renewable electrical generation, however, meeting global energy demands will require a more ambitious renewable energy program than is currently the case. There have been several reviews of potential technological, economic, social, or public barriers and solutions to renewable energy investment. Although important, there is also need for multi-dimensional analyses of these barriers and identification of the most significant underlying barriers if viable solutions are to be developed. In this paper we apply a theoretical framework to examine stakeholder's perceptions and understanding of the barriers to wind energy development in Saskatchewan, Canada. We identify and examine the most significant underlying barriers to investment in renewable energy and the interactions between those barriers. Results show a number of perceived barriers to wind energy investment, however, these barriers can be explained in large part by knowledge barriers, if not disagreement over whether the current level of investment in wind energy is sufficient. We show that barriers to renewable energy cannot be explained solely by technological, social, political, or economic factors in isolation, and that a multi-dimensional approach, identifying and explaining the underlying sources of these barriers, is necessary to develop viable solutions. - Highlights: ► Meeting future wind energy objectives requires an ambitious investment program. ► A framework is applied to identify and explain perceived barriers to wind energy. ► Stakeholders perceived technological and political barriers as the most significant. ► These could be explained by knowledge barriers and complacency with the status quo. ► Even with additional investment these underlying barriers will constrain progress.

  8. Socio-cultural barriers to the development of a sustainable energy system - the case of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Holst Andersen, A.

    2009-02-15

    Any transition to a more sustainable energy system, radically reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is bound to run in to a host of different barriers - technological and economic, but also socio-cultural. This will also be the case for any large-scale application of hydrogen as energy carrier, especially if the system is going to be based on renewable energy sources. The aim of these research notes is to review and discuss major socio-cultural barriers to new forms of energy supply in general and to hydrogen specifically. Reaching sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may require more than large-scale dissemination of renewable energy sources. Also reductions or moderations in energy demand may be necessary. Hence, a central point in the research note is to consider not only socio-cultural obstacles for changing technologies in energy production, distribution and consumption but also obstacles for changing the scale of energy consumption, i.e. moderating the growth in how much energy is consumed or even reducing consumption volumes. (au)

  9. The Schottky energy barrier dependence of charge injection in organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Davids, P.S.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas75083 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We present device model calculations of the current{endash}voltage (I{endash}V) characteristics of organic diodes and compare them with measurements of structures fabricated using MEH-PPV. The structures are designed so that all of the current is injected from one contact. The I{endash}V characteristics are considered as a function of the Schottky energy barrier to charge injection from the contact. Experimentally, the Schottky barrier is varied from essentially zero to more than 1 eV by using different metal contacts. A consistent description of the device I{endash}V characteristics is obtained as the Schottky barrier is varied from small values, less than about 0.4 eV, where the current flow is space-charge limited to larger values where it is contact limited. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. The Schottky energy barrier dependence of charge injection in organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Davids, P. S.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1998-04-01

    We present device model calculations of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diodes and compare them with measurements of structures fabricated using MEH-PPV. The structures are designed so that all of the current is injected from one contact. The I-V characteristics are considered as a function of the Schottky energy barrier to charge injection from the contact. Experimentally, the Schottky barrier is varied from essentially zero to more than 1 eV by using different metal contacts. A consistent description of the device I-V characteristics is obtained as the Schottky barrier is varied from small values, less than about 0.4 eV, where the current flow is space-charge limited to larger values where it is contact limited.

  11. Barriers to energy efficiency in small industry clusters: Multi-criteria-based prioritization using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagesha, N.; Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The small scale industry (SSI) is an important component of Indian economy and a majority of SSI units tend to exist in geographical clusters. Energy efficiency is crucial for the survival and growth of energy intensive SSI clusters, not only to improve their competitiveness through cost reduction but also to minimize adverse environmental impacts. However, this is easier said than done due to the presence of a variety of barriers. The identification of relevant barriers and their appropriate prioritization in such clusters is a prerequisite to effectively tackle them. This paper identifies relevant barriers to energy efficiency and their dimensions in SSI clusters. Further, the barriers are prioritized based on the perceptions and experiences of entrepreneurs, the main stakeholders of SSIs, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The field data from two energy intensive clusters of foundry and brick and tile in Karnataka (a state in India) reveal that the prioritization remained the same despite differences in the relative weights of barrier groups. The financial and economic barrier (FEB) and behavioural and personal barrier (BPB) have emerged as the top two impediments to energy efficiency improvements

  12. Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of Wireless Ultrasonic Vibration Energy Transmission Channels through Planar and Curved Metal Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DingXin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ultrasonic vibration energy transmission systems through metal barriers based on piezoelectric transducers have drawn a lot of focus due to the advantage of nonpenetration of the barriers, thus maintaining the integrity of sealed structures. It is meaningful to investigate appropriate modeling methods and to characterize such wireless ultrasonic energy transmission channels with different geometric shapes. In this paper, equivalent circuit modeling and finite element modeling methods are applied to the planar metal barrier channel, and a 3-dimensional finite element modeling method is applied to the cylindrical metallic barrier channel. Meanwhile, the experimental setup is established and measurements are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the corresponding modeling methods. The results show that Leach’s equivalent circuit modeling method and finite element modeling method are nearly similarly effective in characterizing the planar metal barrier channel. But for a cylindrical metal barrier, only the three-dimensional finite element modeling method is effective. Furthermore, we found that, for the planar barrier, the effect of standing waves on the efficiency of wireless energy transmission is dominated. But for the curved barrier, only the resonant phenomenon of the piezoelectric transducer exists.

  13. Understanding energy efficiency barriers in Ukraine: Insights from a survey of commercial and industrial firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Hochman, Gal; Fedets, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency is an important element of energy policy for a sustainable supply of energy in Ukraine. However, the country is facing several challenges to the large-scale deployment of energy efficient technologies. We conducted a two-stage quota sample survey of 509 commercial and industrial firms of all regions of Ukraine to understand the barriers to energy efficiency improvements. Our study finds that more than two-thirds of the commercial and industrial firms in the country view improvement of energy efficiency very important to their business. However, due to several barriers they are unable to realize the improvements of energy efficiency. Among the 19 potential barriers investigated in the study, the survey results show that high upfront investment requirement, lack of government policies to support energy efficiency improvements, higher cost of capital, and lack of information and awareness are the most critical barriers to the improvement of energy efficiency in the industrial and commercial sectors in Ukraine. - Highlights: • Despite attractiveness, large scale deployment of energy efficiency is lacking. • Several barriers are responsible for slow implementation of energy efficiency. • Understanding the barriers from the field is crucial to design effective policies. • A survey of commercial and industrial firms reveals the key barriers. • Financial barriers are the main hurdles to adopt energy efficient technologies.

  14. Partitioning of methyl internal rotational barrier energy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of methyl internal rotational barrier in thioacetaldehyde has been investigated by relaxation effect, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and Pauling exchange interactions. The true experimental barrier can be obtained by considering fully relaxed rotation. Nuclear-electron attraction term is a barrier forming term in ...

  15. Energy Choices. Efficient Energy Use - possibilities and barriers; Vaegval Energi. Energieffektivisering - moejligheter och hinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagemar, Lennart (CIT Energy Management AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Pettersson, Bertil (Chalmers EnergiCentrum, CEC, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    Sweden's total energy supply in 2006 amounted to a total of 624 TWh and was dominated by crude oil, nuclear fuels, biofuels and hydropower. Different types of losses in the system accounts for one third of the energy. The final energy consumption, i.e. delivery minus losses, was divided in the following way: industry 157 TWh, the habitat of 145 TWh (of which 19 TWh relates to Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and other service and secondary homes) and transport of 101 TWh. For the transport sector, studies show that combinations of various efficiency measures ideally can achieve an reduction in energy use by between 60 and 75 percent. The Governmental Energy Efficiency Inquiry (EnEff - 2008) estimated that the domestic transport techno-economic efficiency potential up to 2016 is 13 TWh (mainly fuel) of the total delivered energy is 87 TWh under EnEff. The potential about 5 TWh is expected to be completed by current instruments. The study assesses that despite the increased need for transport in 2016 the sector's energy use can remain at the same level or even be reduced. Buildings have a large technical and economic energy efficiency potential. According to EnEff's assessment, the streamlining potential is 33 TWh of which 8 TWh can implemented in 2016 with today's instruments. This compares with the total delivered energy is 151 TWh under EnEff. The total energy efficiency potential for buildings by 2020 is considered to be substantially higher, about 41 TWh, and affect the use of district heating, fuel and electricity. New powerful tools must be implemented for the building sector in order to realize the potential energy efficiency measures. Industry's total energy potential is assessed to be around 13 TWh by 2016. Industry's total energy use is 155 TWh according to EnEff. Only 2 TWh can realistically be saved up to 2016 taking into account a reasonable acceptance factor. The beneficiaries of the carbon emissions trade account for about

  16. Energy barriers for diffusion on heterogeneous stepped metal surfaces: Ag/Cu(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbiaai, K.; Boughaleb, Y.; Mazroui, M.; Hajjaji, A.; Kara, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the diffusion of Ag adatom by computing the energy barriers for many elementary diffusive processes which are likely to happen near to the step edge on Cu (110). The barriers are calculated by means of molecular dynamics simulation by using embedded atom potentials. The proximity to steps alters these barriers considerably, and very different results may be expected. In fact, our numerical calculations show that the diffusion via jump process along step edge is predominant for Ag/Cu(110) and the diffusion over the step occurs sometimes, but only via exchange mechanisms. The adatom diffusion across channels is difficult due to the high value of activation energy required (around 1 eV). Furthermore, we found the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier for diffusion around 120 meV in order to descend via exchange process and of the order of 170 meV via hopping mode. This aspect may have a strong influence on the growth character. In general our results suggest that, for our metal system, diffusion mechanism may be important for mass transport across the steps. Implications of these findings are discussed. - Highlights: • Study of adatom diffusion near the step edge • The diffusion along channel is enhanced through jump process. • Arrhenius law is satisfied for a wide range of temperature (310–600 K)

  17. Finite-difference analysis of shells impacting rigid barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotin, S.D.; Witmer, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must be protected from the adverse effects of missile impacts. A significant category of missile impact involves deformable structures (pressure vessel components, whipping pipes) striking relatively rigid targets (concrete walls, bumpers) which act as protective devices. The response and interaction of these structures is needed to assess the adequacy of these barriers for protecting vital safety related equipment. The present investigation represents an initial attempt to develop an efficient numerical procedure for predicting the deformations and impact force time-histories of shells which impact upon a rigid target. The general large-deflection equations of motion of the shell are expressed in finite-difference form in space and integrated in time through application of the central-difference temporal operator. The effect of material nonlinearities is treated by a mechanical sublayer material model which handles the strain-hardening, Bauschinger, and strain-rate effects. The general adequacy of this shell treatment has been validated by comparing predictions with the results of various experiments in which structures have been subjected to well-defined transient forcing functions (typically high-explosive impulse loading). The 'new' ingredient addressed in the present study involves an accounting for impact interaction and response of both the target structure and the attacking body. (Auth.)

  18. Study of Quasielastic scattering for 7Li+159Tb at around- barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasielastic scattering cross sections for the reaction 7Li+159Tb have been measured at large backangles, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The quasielastic barrier distribution has been extracted from the measured quasielastic scattering excitation function, including and excluding α particle contribution. The peak of the quasielastic barrier distribution including α particle contribution shows a shift towards higher energy compared to the peak of the distribution without α particles. The quasielastic barrier distribution when compared to the calculated fusion barrier distribution, appears to show reasonable agreement for the system.

  19. Manure and energy crops for biogas production. Status and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.; Nielsen, A.M.; Murto, M.; Christensson, K.; Rintala, J.; Svensson, M.; Seppaelae, M.; Paavola, T.; Angelidaki, I.; Kaparaju, P.L.

    2008-07-01

    This study has evaluated the development of biogas technology in three Nordic countries and analysed the effects of using nine model energy crops as supplement to manure feedstocks in biogas plants. The study compares the global warming impacts and the energy balance for the nine crops used for heat and power production. The energy balances and impacts on greenhouse gases of the studied crops differ between the countries. In Sweden and Denmark, the same crops turned out to be the most promising in terms of energy yield and impact on greenhouse gases. In general, the same crops that score high in terms of energy yield also score high in reducing the amount of greenhouse gases. Based on the examined parameters, it can be concluded that the most promising crops are Jerusalem artichoke, beets, maize, and, in Finland, reed canary grass as well. (au)

  20. Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions spanning the fusion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Wang, Ning; Li Zhuxia; Wu Xizhen; Zhao Enguang

    2006-01-01

    The Skyrme energy density functional has been applied to the study of heavy-ion fusion reactions. The barriers for fusion reactions are calculated by the Skyrme energy density functional with proton and neutron density distributions determined by using restricted density variational (RDV) method within the same energy density functional together with semi-classical approach known as the extended semi-classical Thomas-Fermi method. Based on the fusion barrier obtained, we propose a parametrization of the empirical barrier distribution to take into account the multi-dimensional character of real barrier and then apply it to calculate the fusion excitation functions in terms of barrier penetration concept. A large number of measured fusion excitation functions spanning the fusion barriers can be reproduced well. The competition between suppression and enhancement effects on sub-barrier fusion caused by neutron-shell-closure and excess neutron effects is studied

  1. Comparison of different Skyrme forces: Fusion barriers and fusion cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion barriers and fusion cross sections are calculated using the Skyrme energy-density formalism. To study the role of different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction, we use two typical forces, i.e., the original Skyrme force S and the widely used Skyrme force SIII. Our calculations show that, in the reactions considered here, the Skyrme force S gives higher fusion cross sections compared to that of the Skyrme force SIII. The main part of this difference can be associated with the presence of the spin-density contribution in the Skyrme force SIII

  2. Deep inelastic collisions at near-barrier energies and search for cold donor-fragment production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Deep inelastic collisions in the near barrier energies of the mass asymmetric systems are of importance since controversial results on energy partition are being reported. Energy dissipation and the partition of dissipated energy among the reaction partners are of interest. Search for cold donor-fragment production at near barrier energies were carried out on a mass asymmetric system like Ni+Pb. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs

  3. Fusion of 6Li with 159Tb at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Roy, Subinit; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Sarkar, M. Saha; Palit, R.; Parkar, V. V.; Santra, S.; Ray, M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for 6 Li + 159 Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the γ-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by ∼34% compared to coupled-channel calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data for 11,10 B + 159 Tb and 7 Li + 159 Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the α separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction 6 Li + 159 Tb at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the d transfer to unbound states of 159 Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

  4. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  5. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  6. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  7. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J; Boede, U; Ostertag, K; Radgen, P

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  8. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  9. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  10. Sex Differences in Financial Barriers and the Relationship to Recovery After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Beckman, Adam L.; Bucholz, Emily M.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Xiao; Dreyer, Rachel P.; Strait, Kelly M.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Spatz, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial barriers to health care are associated with worse outcomes following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Yet, it is unknown whether the prevalence of financial barriers and their relationship with post?AMI outcomes vary by sex among young adults. Methods and Results We assessed sex differences in patient?reported financial barriers among adults aged

  11. Unsupervised Calculation of Free Energy Barriers in Large Crystalline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburne, Thomas D.; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin

    2018-03-01

    The calculation of free energy differences for thermally activated mechanisms in the solid state are routinely hindered by the inability to define a set of collective variable functions that accurately describe the mechanism under study. Even when possible, the requirement of descriptors for each mechanism under study prevents implementation of free energy calculations in the growing range of automated material simulation schemes. We provide a solution, deriving a path-based, exact expression for free energy differences in the solid state which does not require a converged reaction pathway, collective variable functions, Gram matrix evaluations, or probability flux-based estimators. The generality and efficiency of our method is demonstrated on a complex transformation of C 15 interstitial defects in iron and double kink nucleation on a screw dislocation in tungsten, the latter system consisting of more than 120 000 atoms. Both cases exhibit significant anharmonicity under experimentally relevant temperatures.

  12. Technical Barriers, Gaps,and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program.

  13. Financing energy SMEs in Ghana and Senegal: Outcomes, barriers and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2014-01-01

    enterprises (energy SMEs). These assumptions were (1) that the lack of affordable local financing presented the most significant barrier to setting up and expanding energy SMEs, and (2) that these barriers would be overcome by a ‘demonstration effect’ whereby successful businesses, supported by donor...

  14. A novel approach for barriers to industrial energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cagno, E.; Worrell, E.; Trianni, A.; Pugliese, G.

    2013-01-01

    A critical review of the literature highlighted the need for a new taxonomy encompassing the most relevant barriers stemmed from previous studies, and accounting for interactions and independences of the barriers to avoid overlaps and implicit interactions. Based on an extensive literature review

  15. Key Barriers to the Implementation of Solar Energy in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, D.; Suresh, S.; Renukappa, S.; Oloke, D.

    2017-08-01

    Nigeria, potentially, has abundant sunshine throughout the year, making it full thirst for solar energy generation. Even though, the country’s solar energy projects have not realised a fair result over the years, due to many barriers associated with initiatives implementation. Therefore, the entire power sector remains incapacitated to generate, transmit and distribute a clean, affordable and sustainable energy to assist economic growth. The research integrated five African counterpart’s solar energy initiatives, barriers, policies and strategies adopted as a lesson learned to Nigeria. Inadequate solar initiative’s research, lack of technological know-how, short-term policies, lack of awareness and political instability are the major barriers that made the implementation of solar initiatives almost impossible in Nigeria. The shock of the barriers therefore, constitutes a major negative contribution to the crippling of the power sector in the state. Future research will concentrate on initiatives for mitigating solar and other renewable energy barriers.

  16. Modeling barriers of solid waste to energy practices: An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bag, S.; Mondal, N.; Dubey, R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years managing solid wastes has been one of the burning problems in front of state and local municipal authorities. This is mainly due to scarcity of lands for landfill sites. In this context experts suggest that conversion of solid waste to energy and useful component is the best approach to reduce space and public health related problems. The entire process has to be managed by technologies that prevent pollution and protect the environment and at the same time minimize the cost through recovery of energy. Energy recovery in the form of electricity, heat and fuel from the waste using different technologies is possible through a variety of processes, including incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. These processes are often grouped under “Waste to Energy technologies”. The objective of the study is twofold. First authors assessed the current status of solid waste management practices in India. Secondly the leading barriers are identified and Interpretive structural modeling technique and MICMAC analysis is performed to identify the contextual interrelationships between leading barriers influencing the solid waste to energy programs in the country. Finally the conclusions are drawn which will assist policy makers in designing sustainable waste management programs.

  17. Energy barrier of bcc-fcc phase transition via the Bain path in Yukawa system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2018-05-01

    In the Yukawa system with the dimensionless screening parameter κ>1.5 , when bcc-fcc transition occurs via Bain path, we show that spontaneous transitions do not occur even if the system temperature reaches the transition point of bcc-fcc because it is necessary to increase once the free energy in the process of transition from bcc to fcc through Bain deformation. Here, we refer the temporary increment of the free energy during Bain deformation as Bain barrier. Since there are the Bain barriers at the transitions between bcc and fcc phases, these phases may coexist as metastable state in the wide region (not a coexistence line) of κ and the coupling constant Γ. We study the excess energy of the system and the free energy difference between bcc and fcc phases by the Monte Carlo method, where the simulation box is divided into a large number of elements with small volume and a particle in the box is restricted be placed in one of these elements. By this method, we can tabulate the values of the interparticle potential and can calculate the internal energy fast and precisely.

  18. Addressing Social and Institutional Barriers for Wind Energy Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, L; Gonzalez, R; Varela, M [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Ramirez, I; Vicente, F [Consejeria de Medio Ambiente, Agricultura y Agua. Comunidad Autonoma de Murcia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This project has been jointly financed by the European Commission and developed within the Programme Thermie-B. The main tasks to carried out are: Revision of institutional and legal framework. The revision of institutional and legal framework of different participating countries, i. e. their comparison with the rest of the countries with a relevant role in the field of wind energy. Opinion poll carried out on the wind energy. By means of this means, one wants to test public opinion with respect to wind energy. So for such purpose, there are interviews carried out in the municipalities with wind parks, as well as in those where these are in the process of being installed or the project is in its due course. Simulation of wind parks installation. The Wind Park Wandered software tool is a Design and Visualisation tool developed by CINAR, which allows the preview of potential wind parks, evaluating their visual and audio impact. Production and distribution of information on wind energy. For such purpose, we can include the present publication with which one could summarise the main aspects associated with wind energy from its origin, the study of energy source (wind), and the machines that make use of it or the most relevant social and environmental contexts. Organizing informative seminars on the design possibilities of wind parks. At these seminar, one could assess the present wind energy situation in the European context and in each one of the participating countries. And possibilities of presenting WPW software as a design tool for wind parks. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Addressing Social and Institutional Barriers for Wind Energy Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, L.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M.; Saez, R.; Ramirez, I.; Vicente, F.

    2000-01-01

    This project has been jointly financed by the European Commission and developed within the Programme Thermie- B. The main tasks to carried out are: Revision of institutional and legal framework. The revision of institutional and legal framework of different participating countries, i.e. their comparison with the rest of the countries with a relevant role in the field of wind energy. Opinion poli carried out on the wind energy. By means of this means, one wants to test public opinion with respect to wind energy. So for such purpose, there are interviews carried out in the municipalities with wind parks, as well as in those where these are in the process of being installed or the project is in its due course. Simulation of wind parks installation. The Wind Park Wandered software tool is a Design and Visualisation tool developed by CINAR, which allows the preview of potential wind parks, evaluating their visual and audio impact. Production and distribution of information on wind energy. For such purpose, we can include the present publication with which one could summarise the main aspects associated with wind energy from its origin, the study of energy source (wind), and the machines that make use of it or the most relevant social and environmental contexts. Organising informative seminars on the design possibilities of wind parks. At these seminars, one could assess the present wind energy situation in the European context and in each one of the participating countries. And possibilities of presenting WPW software as a design tool for wind parks. (Author) 12 refs

  20. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  1. Differences in perceived communication barriers among nurses and elderly patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Lambert, Vickie A

    2008-06-01

    In China, limited information exists about nurses' and elderly patients' perceptions of barriers to the communication process. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the major communication barriers (nurse-related, patient-related, and environment-related) perceived both by nurses and elderly patients and to determine the perceived differences in the level of importance of the communication barriers between nurses and elderly patients. The sample consisted of 84 nurses and 75 elderly patients who completed a demographic questionnaire and a communication barriers questionnaire. The findings suggested that the nurses and elderly patients often selected similar barriers related to the communication process. The nurses tended to assign higher values to the communication barriers that were found to be significantly different from those of the elderly patients. The study findings provide information about which type of barriers nurses need to address so as to facilitate effective communication with elderly patients.

  2. Barriers to the sustainable development of electrical energy in the industrialized nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.; Leonardi, J.

    2003-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market in the industrialized nations may considered as an opportunity to bring about a diversification of the energy sector which could help overcome the economic barriers to a more sustainable development By allowing new companies to boost their market share, in many countries increases have been obtained in the supply of electricity based on renewable energy or energy services offering greater efficiency. It is now possible to reduce the cost of the measures which encourage the sustainable development of the sector, taking account of those barriers which prevent the expansion of ENR, hold back further gains in energy efficiency and block a reduction in demand An active energy policy will make it possible to overcome the difficulties encountered in various countries. This study highlights the main barriers to the sustainable development of electrical energy and outlines which solutions may be envisaged to overcome these barriers. (authors)

  3. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to energy saving in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Wang Yunxia; Zhao Tao

    2008-01-01

    Since China became the second largest energy consumer and carbon dioxide emitter, the problem of energy consumption and environmental pollution has drawn the world's attention. Meanwhile, Chinese government has put high emphasis on the problem. One project of energy saving initiated by Chinese government has been put into practice. However, many difficulties need to be dealt with to meet the expected aim of social development. The objective of this article is to investigate the interactions among the major barriers which prevent the practice of energy saving in China. Obviously, a clear definition of relationships among the barriers to energy saving helps top leaders make relevant decisions to solve the problem of economic sustainability, energy security and environment pollution in the future. To date, studies specifying energy-saving barriers have often focused on analyzing these barriers separately. As a result, a holistic view in understanding the barriers to energy-saving project is lacking. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is utilized to summarize the critical barriers hindering the project of energy saving in China and to explain the interrelationships among them. Suggestions for energy-saving practice and future research are provided

  4. Energy efficiency barriers in commercial and industrial firms in Ukraine: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochman, Gal; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in energy efficiency is one of the main options to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. However, large-scale deployment of energy-efficient technologies is constrained by several factors. Employing a survey of 509 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine and a generalized ordered logit model, we quantified the economic, behavioral, and institutional barriers that may impede the deployment of energy-efficient technologies. Our analysis shows that behavioral barriers resulted from lack of information, knowledge, and awareness are major impediments to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies in Ukraine, and that financial barriers may further impede investments in these technologies especially for small firms. This suggests that carefully targeted information provisions and energy audits will enhance Ukrainian firms' investments in energy-efficient technologies to save energy consumption, improve productivity, and reduce carbon emissions from the productive sectors. - Highlights: • Employing a survey of 509 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine • A generalized ordered logit model is used in the analysis. • The paper quantifies the economic, behavioral, and institutional barriers to energy-efficient technologies. • Behavioral barriers are major impediments to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. • Financial barriers may further impede investments in these technologies especially for small firms.

  5. Heavy-ion reactions at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The title covers a very broad area of both experimental and theoretical studies. The common characteristic of heavy-ion collisions at these energies, compared to what is usually seen at higher energies, is the important interplay between different reaction channels or internal degrees of freedom. The couplings between the various channels can result in important multistep contributions to a given channel. These often have to be treated explicitly, for example by solving the appropriate set of coupled equations. In contrast, at higher energies the effects of these couplings frequently can be represented in a simple, average way, as is done when one introduces an imaginary part to the optical potential for elastic scattering. At first, it might be thought that the possible importance of multistep transitions would be a strong disadvantage of working at these energies. However, although the analysis of the data becomes more complicate, the study of these terms and their interferences can be a rich source of information. In particular, it can tell us, indirectly, something about transitions between two excited states. Overviews of some of these phenomena have been presented elsewhere; here I have selected two topics as representative. Even then I cannot go into much detail, so perhaps this paper is best regarded as providing some references as the stating point for a literature search exclamation point

  6. Barriers to energy efficiency in shipping: A triangulated approach to investigate the principal agent problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmatulla, Nishatabbas; Smith, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key policy strategy to meet some of the challenges being faced today and to plan for a sustainable future. Numerous empirical studies in various sectors suggest that there are cost-effective measures that are available but not always implemented due to existence of barriers to energy efficiency. Several cost-effective energy efficient options (technologies for new and existing ships and operations) have also been identified for improving energy efficiency of ships. This paper is one of the first to empirically investigate barriers to energy efficiency in the shipping industry using a novel framework and multidisciplinary methods to gauge implementation of cost-effective measures, perception on barriers and observations of barriers. It draws on findings of a survey conducted of shipping companies, content analysis of shipping contracts and analysis of energy efficiency data. Initial results from these methods suggest the existence of the principal agent problem and other market failures and barriers that have also been suggested in other sectors and industries. Given this finding, policies to improve implementation of energy efficiency in shipping need to be carefully considered to improve their efficacy and avoid unintended consequences. -- Highlights: •We provide the first analysis of the principal agent problem in shipping. •We develop a framework that incorporates methodological triangulation. •Our results show the extent to which this barrier is observed and perceived. •The presence of the barrier has implications on the policy most suited to shipping

  7. Barriers and opportunities for labels for highly energy-efficient houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlecnik, Erwin; Visscher, Henk; Van Hal, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Promoting energy efficiency in the building sector is essential if the agreements of the Kyoto Protocol are to be honoured. Different initiatives for energy labelling of highly energy-efficient residential buildings have emerged throughout Europe as an essential method to stimulate market demand, to control grants or to ensure the quality of demonstration projects with excellent energy performance. The paper identifies the barriers and opportunities for the further diffusion of labels for highly energy-efficient houses. A model based on the theory of the diffusion of innovation is developed to analyse perceived attributes of existing European labels. The paper investigates the innovation characteristics of existing labels in Europe, with a focus on advanced countries. The question of compatibility with the development of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is examined in detail. We found that the diffusion of emerging and already existing voluntary European labels for highly energy-efficient houses is needed. Their complexity can be lowered and relative advantage, trialability, observability, and compatibility can be increased. EPBD calculation procedures should be able to receive highly energy-efficient houses. In the framework of the recast of the EPBD, official recognition of existing voluntary labels is recommended. (author)

  8. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  9. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  10. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  11. Symmetric fusion of heavy ions around the Coulomb barrier energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Remaud, B.

    1983-01-01

    Using the liquid drop model, we have performed a systematic study of the symmetric fusion with a neck degree of freedom and tunnelling effects, the nuclear potential being calculated with the proximity approach. Barrier heights and positions are in very good agreement with experimental data when they are known (light-medium systems); the recent experimental data of the reactions 58 Ni + 58 Ni and 64 Ni + 64 Ni are particularly investigated. For heavier systems double-humped fusion barriers and isomeric states are predicted which strongly limit the complete fusion probability

  12. Identifying and prioritizing barriers to implementation of smart energy city projects in Europe: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosannenzadeh, Farnaz; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Vettorato, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Successful implementation of smart energy city projects in Europe is crucial for a sustainable transition of urban energy systems and the improvement of quality of life for citizens. We aim to develop a systematic classification and analysis of the barriers hindering successful implementation of smart energy city projects. Through an empirical approach, we investigated 43 communities implementing smart and sustainable energy city projects under the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes of the European Union. Validated through literature review, we identified 35 barriers categorized in policy, administrative, legal, financial, market, environmental, technical, social, and information-and-awareness dimensions. We prioritized these barriers, using a novel multi-dimensional methodology that simultaneously analyses barriers based on frequency, level of impact, causal relationship among barriers, origin, and scale. The results indicate that the key barriers are lacking or fragmented political support on the long term at the policy level, and lack of good cooperation and acceptance among project partners, insufficient external financial support, lack of skilled and trained personnel, and fragmented ownership at the project level. The outcome of the research should aid policy-makers to better understand and prioritize implementation barriers to develop effective action and policy interventions towards more successful implementation of smart energy city projects. - Highlights: • A solid empirical study on the implementation of European smart energy city projects. • We found 35 barriers in nine dimensions; e.g. policy, legal, financial, and social. • We suggested a new multi-dimensional methodology to prioritize barriers. • Lacking or fragmented political support on the long term is a key barrier. • We provided insights for action for project coordinators and policy makers.

  13. Barriers to Energy Efficiency and the Uptake of Green Revolving Funds in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, John; Savan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency projects in Canadian universities, including access to capital, bounded rationality, hidden costs, imperfect information, risk and split incentives. Methods to address these barriers are investigated, including evaluating the efficacy of…

  14. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions of industrial process technologies. Saving potentials, barriers and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Schlomann, Barbara; Eichhammer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Which contribution can the increase of energy efficiency achieve in the industry energy for the energy transition in Germany? To answer this question a model-based analysis of existing energy efficiency potentials of the energy-intensive industries is performed, which account for about 70% of the total energy demand of the industry. Based on this industry for each sector are instruments proposed for the implementation of the calculated potential and to overcome the existing barriers. [de

  15. Language Differences as a Barrier to Quality and Safety in Health Care: The Joint Commission Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schyve, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Effective communication with patients is critical to the safety and quality of care. Barriers to this communication include differences in language, cultural differences, and low health literacy. Evidence-based practices that reduce these barriers must be integrated into, rather than just added to, health care work processes.

  16. Determination of shell energies. Nuclear deformations and fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Takahiro; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami.

    1996-01-01

    We have been studying a method of determining nuclear shell energies and incorporating them into a mass formula. The main feature of this method lies in estimating shell energies of deformed nuclei from spherical shell energies. We adopt three assumptions, from which the shell energy of a deformed nucleus is deduced to be a weighted sum of spherical shell energies of its neighboring nuclei. This shell energy should be called intrinsic shell energy since the average deformation energy also acts as an effective shell energy. The ground-state shell energy of a deformed nucleus and its equilibrium shape can be obtained by minimizing the sum of these two energies with respect to variation of deformation parameters. In addition, we investigate the existence of fission isomers for heavy nuclei with use of the obtained shell energies. (author)

  17. Barriers and opportunities: A review of selected successful energy-efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements

  18. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ≈ 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ℓ–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – γ – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ≈ 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states

  19. Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required. PMID:20382906

  20. Examining barrier distributions and, in extension, energy derivative of probabilities for surrogate experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, P.; Duarte, H.; Morillon, B.

    2012-01-01

    The energy derivatives of probabilities are functions suited to a best understanding of certain mechanisms. Applied to compound nuclear reactions, they can bring information on fusion barrier distributions as originally introduced, and also, as presented here, on fission barrier distributions and heights. Extendedly, they permit to access the compound nucleus spin-parity states preferentially populated according to an entrance channel, at a given energy. (authors)

  1. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  2. Should we quit our jobs? Challenges, barriers and recommendations for interdisciplinary energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Sintov, Nicole D.

    2017-01-01

    Many plea for a better integration of social sciences in energy research, which would imply more comprehensive interdisciplinary energy research. We argue that in order to achieve this, institutional barriers and research challenges need to be recognised and addressed. We identify six challenges and barriers, and provide recommendations for working towards solutions. We conclude that to engage in interdisciplinary research implies extra costs and fewer rewards for all researchers, particularly early and mid-career academics. We propose a new conceptualisation of practices and incentive structures among academic institutions, funding agencies, and publication outlets, and urge all energy researchers to join this debate. - Highlights: • Interdisciplinary energy research currently does not reach its full potential. • Social sciences are underutilised in energy research. • Barriers and challenges need to be addressed to stimulate interdisciplinary energy research. • High costs and small rewards for interdisciplinary (early and mid-career) researchers.

  3. Prediction of point-defect migration energy barriers in alloys using artificial intelligence for atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castin, N. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Studiecentrum voor Kerneenergie Centre d' etude de l' energie nucleaire (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Physique des Solides Irradies et Nanostructures (PSIN), CP234 Boulevard du triomphe, Brussels (Belgium); Malerba, L. [Structural Materials Group, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Studiecentrum voor Kerneenergie Centre d' etude de l' energie nucleaire (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: lmalerba@sckcen.be

    2009-09-15

    We significantly improved a previously proposed method to take into account chemical and also relaxation effects on point-defect migration energy barriers, as predicted by an interatomic potential, in a rigid lattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. Examples of energy barriers are rigorously calculated, including chemical and relaxation effects, as functions of the local atomic configuration, using a nudged elastic bands technique. These examples are then used to train an artificial neural network that provides the barriers on-demand during the simulation for each configuration encountered by the migrating defect. Thanks to a newly developed training method, the configuration can include a large number of neighbour shells, thereby properly including also strain effects. Satisfactory results have been obtained when the configuration includes different chemical species only. The problems encountered in the extension of the method to configurations including any number of point-defects are stated and solutions to tackle them are sketched.

  4. Vortical null orbits, repulsive barriers, energy confinement in Kerr metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F

    1978-10-01

    The complete analytical description of the null trajectories in the field of a Kerr naked singularity is given. Two peculiar phenomena are described: the existence of repulsive barriers in the r < O world and the existence of null circular bound orbits which surround the singularity in 'shells'. They distribute around the surface at r = m, which is the position of the horizon in the extreme black-hole case; this suggests that a naked singularity 'remembers' the position of the last horizon.

  5. BARRIERS TO ENERGY ACCESS IN THE URBAN POOR AREAS OF DHAKA, BANGLADESH: ANALYSIS OF PRESENT SITUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Shahadat Hossain Lipu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a crucial input to promote socioeconomic development. In Bangladesh, about 96 million people (59% do not have access to electricity and 143 million people (88% still depend on biomass for cooking. The urban poor living in slum areas with lack of access to clean and modern sources of energy have not been addressed comprehensively. The main objective of this study is to identify the barriers faced by the urban poor in the slum areas of Dhaka in accessing different fuels and provide specific recommendations to overcome the barriers to enable energy access. The study is mainly based on field survey covering 185 households of the four major slum areas of Dhaka, literature review, and stakeholder interviews. Many barriers have been identified through this research where urban poor face problems in accessing legal energy services due to illegal settlement, lack of explicit policy on energy and housing, lack of dedicated institution, the pervasive role of Mastaans, poor infrastructure and lack of monitoring and evaluating system. Barriers specific recommendations are also suggested based on the experiences from the field visit and the best practices outside Bangladesh are also identified.

  6. Building energy efficiency for public hospitals and healthcare facilities in China: Barriers and drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Xiaodong; Liao, Pin-Chao; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing energy efficiency within HHFs (hospitals and healthcare facilities) is a major challenge in the field of energy conservation. This paper studies the key barriers to the implementation of energy-efficient technologies in China's public HHFs. For this purpose, a preliminary survey was conducted at the Beijing Municipal Health Bureau in order to assess the energy conservation efforts being made at 20 public HHFs. In the survey, a list of specific barriers to energy efficiency was created and HHF staffs were asked to rank these barriers in the order of importance. The results show that the economic incentives, appropriate technology, as well as enforceable laws and regulations are insufficiently supported by the government, have become the most significant obstacles to the improvement of energy efficiency. To remedy this, policymakers should take a multipronged approach which addresses the hospitals, projects, and technical and operating procedures in order to encourage the full participation and support of all stakeholders involved. Specifically, the government should offer multilevel economic incentives and reward policies; establish practical mandatory targets for building energy efficiency; provide demonstrable best practices in terms of the project, techniques, and operating procedures; and promote awareness of the importance of property risk management. - Highlights: • We developed a checklist of building energy efficiency barriers of HHFs in China. • We took a survey to prioritize the barriers by the staff from 20 public HHFs. • Policy makers should provide multiple-level solutions to all the stakeholders. • Economic incentives, mandatory target, technique supports are critical drivers.

  7. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  8. Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J L

    2016-06-28

    Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicity, controlling for socio-economic position, age and gender. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Awareness of cancer symptoms was lower in minority ethnic groups than White participants, with the lowest awareness observed among Bangladeshis and Black Africans. Ethnic minorities were more likely than White British to report barriers to help-seeking. South Asians reported the highest emotional barriers, such as lack of confidence to talk to the doctor, and practical barriers, such as worry about many other things. The Irish were more likely than the White British to report practical barriers, such as being too busy to visit a doctor. White British participants were more likely than any other ethnic group to report that they would feel worried about wasting the doctor's time. Overall, Black Africans had the lowest barriers. All differences were statistically significant (Pcancer symptoms among ethnic minorities. Campaigns should tackle the specific barriers prevalent in each ethnic group.

  9. Barriers to ambulatory EHR: who are 'imminent adopters' and how do they differ from other physicians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Menachemi

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion Policy and decision makers interested in promoting the adoption of EHR among physicians should focus on the needs and barriers of those most likely to adopt EHR. Given that imminent adopters differ considerably from their peers, current EHR incentive programmes that focus on financial barriers only might prove sub-optimal in achieving immediate widespread EHR adoption.

  10. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides compelling evidence that large-scale market failures and barriers prevent consumers in the United States from obtaining energy services at least cost. Assessments of numerous energy policies and programs suggest that public interventions can overcome many of these market obstacles. By articulating these barriers and reviewing the literature on ways of addressing them, this paper provides a strong justification for the policy portfolios that define the ''Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future'', a study conducted by five National Laboratories. These scenarios are described in other papers published in this special issue of Energy Policy. (author)

  11. Dynamics of dielectric barrier discharges in different arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, Valentin I; Pietsch, Gerhard J

    2012-01-01

    Based on experimental results, numerical investigations of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have been performed in three basic configurations: in the volume, coplanar and surface discharge arrangements. It is shown that the DBD dynamics is the same in all arrangements and it is determined by the development of a few principal constituents, i.e. cathode- and anode-directed streamers, discharge channel, cathode layer and surface charges. It is found that the anode- and cathode-directed streamers appear with a highly conductive channel in between. The interaction of the streamers with conductive and dielectric surfaces determines the filamentary or homogeneous appearance of the discharge and its properties. The cathode-directed streamer is a self-sustaining phenomenon, which moves in a gas gap or along an electrode driven by a positive loop-back between photoemission and electron multiplication. The anode-directed streamer plays a subsidiary role. Depending on the kind of gas (electronegative or electropositive) and/or the degree of development of the cathode-directed streamer, the field strength in the conductive channels changes significantly. When the cathode-directed streamer touches the electrode surface, a cathode layer appears with parameters close to those of normal glow discharges. In volume discharge arrangements the movement of the streamers results in the appearance of Lichtenberg figures on dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  12. A novel method for calculating the energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchitchekova, Deyana S.; Morthomas, Julien; Ribeiro, Fabienne; Ducher, Roland; Perez, Michel

    2014-07-01

    A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ˜3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress.

  13. A novel method for calculating the energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchitchekova, Deyana S.; Morthomas, Julien; Perez, Michel; Ribeiro, Fabienne; Ducher, Roland

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ∼3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress

  14. A novel method for calculating the energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchitchekova, Deyana S. [IRSN, PSN, SEMIA, LPTM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Univ. Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, Villeurbanne (France); Morthomas, Julien; Perez, Michel [Univ. Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, Villeurbanne (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [IRSN, PSN, SEMIA, LPTM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ducher, Roland [IRSN, PSN, SAG, LETR, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-21

    A novel method for accurate and efficient evaluation of the change in energy barriers for carbon diffusion in ferrite under heterogeneous stress is introduced. This method, called Linear Combination of Stress States, is based on the knowledge of the effects of simple stresses (uniaxial or shear) on these diffusion barriers. Then, it is assumed that the change in energy barriers under a complex stress can be expressed as a linear combination of these already known simple stress effects. The modifications of energy barriers by either uniaxial traction/compression and shear stress are determined by means of atomistic simulations with the Climbing Image-Nudge Elastic Band method and are stored as a set of functions. The results of this method are compared to the predictions of anisotropic elasticity theory. It is shown that, linear anisotropic elasticity fails to predict the correct energy barrier variation with stress (especially with shear stress) whereas the proposed method provides correct energy barrier variation for stresses up to ∼3 GPa. This study provides a basis for the development of multiscale models of diffusion under non-uniform stress.

  15. Diffusion of renewable energy technologies - barriers and stakeholders' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, S.; Painuly, Jyoti P.

    2004-01-01

    State, India, as a case study, the paper develops a systematic classification of barriers to the adoption of RETs (economic, technological, market and institutional) and ranking them based on the perceptions of various stakeholders. The results provide evidence of how the consumers receive RET...... information and make decisions using their limited analytical capabilities. The analysis is used to enhance the knowledge by introducing ideas based on behavioural theory. Not only do these ideas help understanding the consumer perspective, they also help develop policy interventions. The aim is to define...

  16. The role of cooperatives in overcoming the barriers to adoption of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viardot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Recently, cooperatives have been created to promote the use of renewable energy (RE) most notably in Canada, the US, UK, Denmark or Germany. In order to develop the adoption of RE, the cooperatives have to seek to influence the behaviour of their members so that they switch from the use of traditional fossil energy to RE. This paper examines the various barriers to adoption of RE and the way cooperatives are circumventing those obstacles in order to develop the use of RE. This study surveyed a sample of 9 cooperatives from countries where governments are subsidizing the use of RE. The paper identifies a set of specific barriers to the adoption of RE by consumers. It also reveals that cooperatives effectively contribute to the uptake of RE with community-based social marketing initiatives that are lowering those barriers successfully. Those initiatives are related to educational communication, low prices, local offers with complementary services, and cooperative distribution. The paper put forwards a framework for the assessment of how each of those initiatives contributes to the diminishing of each of the barriers to adoption of RE. - Highlights: • We examine the barriers to adoption of renewable energy by RE cooperatives. • We have identified the main significant barriers to adoption of RE by consumers. • Cooperatives apply community-based marketing initiatives to ease the uptake of RE. • We evaluate how each marketing initiatives diminish the barriers to adoption of RE

  17. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  18. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I; Atakora, S B; Atta-Konadu, R; Brew-Hammond, A [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to resource

  19. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovdal, Nicolai, E-mail: nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.n [Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Neumann, Frank, E-mail: frank@wave-energy-centre.or [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel Maia, 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: {yields} Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. {yields} International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. {yields} Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. {yields} Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. {yields} Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  20. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovdal, Nicolai; Neumann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: → Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. → International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. → Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. → Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. → Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  1. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  2. Barriers to energy efficiency: International case studies on successful barrier removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    Industry uses nearly 40 percent of worldwide energy to produce materials and products consumed by us all on a daily basis. In the process it contributes almost 37 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Globally, and in most countries, CO2 accounts for more than 90 percent of CO2-eq GHG

  3. Numerical evaluation of energy barriers and magnetic relaxation in interacting nanostructured magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana A.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a model to quantify long-time thermally induced magnetization reversal in magnetic systems with distributed properties. Two algorithms, based on kinetic and Metropolis Monte Carlo are introduced. While the former requires the constant recalculation of all energy barriers and is useful when the interactions are weak, the latter uses the Metropolis Monte Carlo to estimate the magnetization trajectory and, consequently, only the most probable transition rates are evaluated. The ridge optimization method is used to evaluate the energy barriers in a multidimensional energy landscape. The algorithms are applied to a granular system modeled by means of Voronoi polyhedra and having random in-plane anisotropy

  4. Barriers to the adoption of energy-conserving technologies in the textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Zussman, S.K.

    1979-09-01

    An overview of the textile industry and a discussion of energy-conserving technologies currently available at the pilot-demonstration stage are presented. Existing and potential barriers to the adoption of these technologies in the textile industry identified are: economic; technical acceptance; conflict between commitments of capital for compliance with environmental and health regulations and for investment in energy conservation measures; and a lack of information and technical expertise. Possible measures to eliminate barriers to the implementation of energy-conserving technologies are discussed. (MCW)

  5. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoenes, Christian; Pettersen, Folke Vogn Haug; Kristoffersen, Bjoerge Sandberg; Birkeland, Bjoern Mangor; Essen, Jan von; Haarberg; Karl Johan

    2012-01-15

    On behalf of Enova SF, Prognosesenteret AS and Entelligens AS carried out a potential and barrier study of energy efficiency of the Norwegian housing stock. The study made use of newer and known studies of the Norwegian housing stock, known and documented barriers to energy efficiency, and new and extensive studies of several topics which have only been partially or never explored before. Through unique analysis and a case-based approach, it revealed a real energy efficiency potential in Norwegian homes with known technology and revealed representativeness, relevance, strength and extent of the barriers that prevent that one can realize most of the technical energy efficiency potential in the Norwegian housing stock. (eb)

  6. Factors Affecting Energy Barriers for Pyramidal Inversion in Amines and Phosphines: A Computational Chemistry Lab Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate exercise in computational chemistry that investigates the energy barrier for pyramidal inversion of amines and phosphines is presented. Semiempirical calculations (PM3) of the ground-state and transition-state energies for NR[superscript 1]R[superscript 2]R[superscript 3] and PR[superscript 1]R[superscript 2]R[superscript 3] allow…

  7. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency of Norwegian homes; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering av norske boliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Enova has identified potentials and barriers for energy efficiency in Norwegian buildings. This report summarizes the results of this work. Efficient energy in buildings is important to ensure that future economic activity and growth can occur in a way that reduces the possibilities for an environmentally and economically sound development. (eb)

  8. The diffusion of solar energy use in HK: What are the barriers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoling; Shen Liyin; Chan, Sum Yee

    2012-01-01

    The world is facing the severe challenges of energy depletion and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and solar energy is considered to be a promising source of renewable energy and effective solution. However, the application of solar energy is limited in practice due to various barriers. Based on data collected from a survey of practice, this paper identifies the key barriers to the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems in Hong Kong. These include “high initial and repair cost”, “long payback period”, “inadequate installation space and service infrastructure”, “lack of participation of stakeholders/community in energy policy” and “lack of incentives by legislation and regulation”. Recommendations for addressing these barriers are proposed. For example, the high cost of solar PV energy systems can be reduced by the development and mass production of low-cost fabrication technologies and high performance PV technologies. Solar thermal applications should be encouraged as they are much more economical than solar PVs. It is also recommended that the Hong Kong Government adopt strategies to encourage a greater use of solar energy systems. The results from this study not only provide useful information for the Government, the private sector and consumers in Hong Kong but are also likely to apply equally to other similar regions around the world. - Highlights: ► The Hong Kong Government needs to adopt various strategies to encourage the solar energy system application. ► This paper identifies the key barriers to the diffusion of solar energy systems from a questionnaire survey and case study in Hong Kong. ► The barriers highlighted from the questionnaire survey include “high initial and repair cost”, “long payback period”, “inadequate installation space and service infrastructure”, “lack of stakeholder/community participation in energy choices” and “legal and regulation constraints”.

  9. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  10. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives to encourage further

  11. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  12. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.

  13. Barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the building sector: A survey study of Jing-jin-tang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Zheng, Li-Qun; Xie, Bai-Chen; Mahalingam, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    The building sector of China currently consumes 20% of the total energy consumption. Studies on barriers to the adoption of building energy-saving technologies are of great significance on implementing policies related to achieving energy-saving goals. This paper studied 15 barriers with the aid of information collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The respondents were 135 employees working in the Jing-jin-tang area. Based on the results of the factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into five groups: attitudes of stakeholders, policies and regulations, auxiliary resources, profitability, and adaptability of the technologies. Analysis of the entire sample showed that the stakeholders’ reluctance to use was the largest barrier, followed by high initial investment and low profitability. Further analysis showed that the occupation and designation of the respondents and the size of the enterprises that they served influenced their perspectives on the barriers. It was found that architects attributed more importance to the adoption of energy-saving technologies than contractors; barriers confronted by employees of large enterprises and small enterprises were different; managers perceived weaker barriers than frontline employees and were more optimistic about the prospect of building energy-saving technologies. Finally, policy recommendations were proposed based on these in-depth and targeted analyses. - Highlights: • Fifteen barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies are discussed. • Surveys are conducted in one of China's most technologically developed area. • The barriers are divided into 5 groups according to the results of factor analysis. • Barriers related to profitability greatly hamper the adoption of the technologies. • Comparative analyses show the background of respondents influence their viewpoints

  14. Role of codeposited impurities during growth. II. Dependence of morphology on binding and barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh; Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Pimpinelli, A.; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    In an accompanying article we showed that surface morphologies obtained through codeposition of a small quantity (2%) of impurities with Cu during growth (step-flow mode, θ = 40 ML) significantly depends on the lateral nearest-neighbor binding energy (ENN) to Cu adatom and the diffusion barrier (Ed) of the impurity atom on Cu(0 0 1). Based on these two energy parameters, ENN and Ed, we classify impurity atoms into four sets. We study island nucleation and growth in the presence of codeposited impurities from different sets in the submonolayer (θ⩽ 0.7 ML) regime. Similar to growth in the step-flow mode, we find different nucleation and growth behavior for impurities from different sets. We characterize these differences through variations of the number of islands (Ni) and the average island size with coverage (θ). Further, we compute the critical nucleus size (i) for all of these cases from the distribution of capture-zone areas using the generalized Wigner distribution.

  15. Energy Saving by Firms. Decision-Making, Barriers and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-04-01

    Promoting investments in energy saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence on success conditions of policies is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors. 15 refs.

  16. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors.

  17. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors

  18. Review of Renewable Energy Technologies in Zambian Households: Capacities and Barriers Affecting Successful Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Kachapulula-Mudenda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern renewable energy has been hailed as one of the prerequisites for fostering green growth and the achievement of sustainable development. Despite efforts to promote the use of renewable energy in households, its adoption has remained fairly low, hence the need for an inquiry into household capabilities needed for the acquisition and adoption of renewable energy technologies. This paper reviews the requisite capacities of households for the adoption of renewable energy services and expounds on some of the barriers hampering renewable energy among households. It takes a desk research approach to analyse the capacities which should be possessed by Zambian households and possible barriers constraining the widespread deployment of renewable energy technologies. The findings reveal that there is a need for a broader, multidimensional understanding of access to renewable energy in order for deployment to be effective. Barriers to the successful adoption of clean energy technologies include underserved populations, policy inadequacies; an underexploited renewable energy sector and heavy reliance on a service-challenged hydro-power utility. Since most of the aforementioned challenges are institutional in nature, the paper concludes with a recommendation of a baseline assessment to understand knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and drivers for renewable energy technology adoption among households.

  19. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  20. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency in Norwegian vocational buildings; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering i norske yrkesbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehn, Trond Ivar; Palm, Linn Therese; Bakken, Line; Nossum, Aase; Jordell, Hanne

    2012-07-01

    On behalf of Enova SF, Multiconsult AS and Analyse og Strategi AS conducted an analysis to identify potential and barriers related to commercial buildings energy performance. The aim of this study was to determine what is the potential for energy efficiency for Norwegian vocational buildings that distinguishes between theoretical, technical, financial and real potential. Technical potential is the percentage of the theoretical potential that is technically feasible. Economic potential is the proportion of technical potential that is economically profitable to implement. Economic potential varies with the energy price. Build a small part of the total potential in 2020. In the calculation of the real potential is taken into account induced potential in terms of that, each year, a percentage actually implementing energy conservation measures (energy efficiency ratio 2%), a percentage rehabilitating / upgrading existing buildings (rehab rate 1.5%), and that a proportion of new buildings built better than regulatory requirements (rate 10%). In real potential for energy efficiency is the proportion of the economic potential that is not natural triggered but which is limited by various barriers. In real potential also varies with energy price. Respondents in our study is particularly concerned with the economic barriers, and least concerned the technical barriers. Attitudes and knowledge barriers are also very important. Lack of knowledge the effects and benefits of energy efficiency means that negative attitudes persist and that myths about the lack of profitability continues to exist. Many believe this is due to lack the knowledge and can be the cause of other types of barriers such as economic barriers. It has been analyzed which part of the real potential bounded by the barriers, and which type of institutions in society that can reduce these barriers with various categories of instrument. Main barriers for existing buildings practical barriers, economic barriers and

  1. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  2. Energy saving by firms: decision making, barriers and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the

  3. Socio-technical barriers to the use of energy-efficient timber drying technology in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Martha; Carrington, Gerry; Lawson, Rob; Stephenson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study of industrial energy behaviours identifies barriers to the use of energy-efficient drying technology in the New Zealand timber industry, and explores these barriers through the “energy cultures” lens. Vented kiln dryers were preferred by larger firms and heat pump kiln dryers were used by smaller firms. Although few firms could specify all their costs, we found no significant differences in the average operating costs, drying costs or commercial success of the larger and smaller firms. We found that socio-technical barriers create “energy cultures” at the level of both the firm and the sector, supporting the dominance of vented kiln dryers. The prevailing technologies, practices and norms at the sector level strongly support vented kilns, the status quo being embedded in the socio-technical context, hindering technological learning, improved energy efficiency and innovation. Influential stakeholders in the industry were thus part of, and locked into, the industry-wide energy culture, and were not in a position to effect change. We conclude that actors external to the prevailing industry energy culture need to leverage change in the industry norms, practices and/or technologies in order to reap the advantages of energy-efficient drying technology, assist its continued evolution and avoid the risks of path-dependency. - Highlights: • Firms processing timber in New Zealand use two main drying technologies. • Relatively inefficient vented dryers dominate over energy-efficient heat pumps. • Operating costs are similar but the socio-technical regime supports vented dryers. • Stasis is created by fixed energy cultures both within firms and across the sector. • Stasis hampers technical development in heat pump drying and business innovation

  4. Interdependence of different symmetry energy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.

    2017-08-01

    Relations between the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient and its density derivatives are derived. The relations hold for a class of interactions with quadratic momentum dependence and a power-law density dependence. The structural connection between the different symmetry energy elements as obtained seems to be followed by almost all reasonable nuclear energy density functionals, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, suggesting a universality in the correlation structure. This, coupled with known values of some well-accepted constants related to nuclear matter, helps in constraining values of different density derivatives of the nuclear symmetry energy, shedding light on the isovector part of the nuclear interaction.

  5. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Frank G.

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  6. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the

  7. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  8. Removing barriers to women entrepreneurs’ engagement in decentralized sustainable energy solutions for the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Glemarec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Rapidly falling renewable technology costs and new business models mean that decentralized energy solutions hold great promise to accelerate universal sustainable energy access. Across developing countries, women are typically the primary household energy managers. Close to their customers, women entrepreneurs have the potential to lower customer acquisition and servicing costs and drive these new decentralized solutions. However, they remain under-represented in the industry. This paper attempts to understand the root causes of this gender gap. It formulates the research hypothesis that market transformation policies intended to reduce investment risks to accelerate energy access may not benefit men and women entrepreneurs equally because of the existing structural barriers that women face. To test this hypothesis, the paper conducts a gender sensitive investment barrier and risk analysis, overlaid onto an existing gender neutral taxonomy of investment barriers and risks for decentralized sustainable energy solutions. A key finding is that for women entrepreneurs, existing structural impediments to gender equality translate into additional investment barriers as well as increased likelihood of occurrence and severity of the financial impact of generic investment risks. The paper offers an illustrative theory of change to facilitate a dialogue on the specific interventions needed to address these gender differentiated risks locally. It concludes that market transformation efforts for universal sustainable energy access must include targeted policy measures to ensure equal benefits to men and women entrepreneurs, and optimize the use of public resources to catalyze private investment and reduce poverty.

  9. Consistent energy barrier distributions in magnetic particle chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, O.; Ruta, S.; Chantrell, R.W.; Barker, J.; Friedman, G.; Hovorka, O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate long-time thermal activation behaviour in magnetic particle chains of variable length. Chains are modelled as Stoner–Wohlfarth particles coupled by dipolar interactions. Thermal activation is described as a hopping process over a multidimensional energy landscape using the discrete orientation model limit of the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert dynamics. The underlying master equation is solved by diagonalising the associated transition matrix, which allows the evaluation of distributions of time scales of intrinsic thermal activation modes and their energy representation. It is shown that as a result of the interaction dependence of these distributions, increasing the particle chain length can lead to acceleration or deceleration of the overall relaxation process depending on the initialisation procedure.

  10. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Mathiesen, Brian vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    the supply and demand side for heat, electricity and transport. Implementing such Smart Energy Systems requires integrated strategic energy planning on the national and local level. With the fundamental changes in the energy supply technologies expected during the coming years, it is important to synchronize...... investments in energy conservation measures with investments in the supply side, in order to avoid overinvestment in supply systems and thus to minimize the total costs of the transformation to Smart Energy Systems. This paper highlights some of the most important barriers for renovation of existing buildings...

  12. Comparison of Langevin dynamics and direct energy barrier computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Rok; Schrefl, Thomas; Thiaville, Andre; Miltat, Jacques; Tsiantos, Vassilios; Fidler, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Two complementary methods to study thermal effects in micromagnetics are compared. On short time scales Langevin dynamics gives insight in the thermally activated dynamics. For longer time scales the 'nudged elastic band' method is applied. The method calculates a highly probable thermal switching path between two local energy minima of a micromagnetic system. Comparing the predicted thermal transition rates between ground states in small softmagnetic elements up to a size of 90x90x4.5 nm 3 gives good agreement of the methods

  13. Analyzing Barriers to Energy Conservation in Residences and Offices: The Rewire Program at the University of Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Mildenberger, Matto; Savan, Beth; Kolenda, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Conducting a barriers analysis is an important first step when designing proenvironmental behavior change interventions. Yet, detailed information on common barriers to energy conservation campaigns remains unavailable. Using a pair of original surveys, we leverage the theory of planned behavior to report on the most important barriers for…

  14. Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  15. Barriers to oral health care amongst different social classes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcha, V; Shetiya, S H; Kakodkar, P

    2010-09-01

    To investigate and compare the influence of social and cultural factors as access barriers to oral health care amongst people from various social classes. A cross sectional survey in Pimpri, was conducted using a pilot tested 15 item-structured, close-ended and self-administered questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty people aged 35-45 years (50 participants each in five social classes as per British Registrar's General classification of occupation) were selected. The chi-square test was applied to check statistical differences between social classes at 5% level of significance. Overall, it was observed that irrespective of the social class difference 88% participants wished to seek only expert/professional advice for the dental treatment. Unavailability of services on Sunday (63%), going to dentist only when in pain (57%), trying self care or home remedy (54%), inadequate government policies (50%), budgetary constraints (40%) were among the major access barriers. Statistically significant difference in the access barriers among the social classes were found related to: Inadequate government policies, budgetary constraints, appointment schedules, far-off located clinics, myths and fear about dental treatment. Social and cultural factors act as access barriers to oral health care and social class differences have a significant influence on the access barriers.

  16. Fusion cross sections for 6,7Li + 24Mg reactions at energies below and above the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Pradhan, M. K.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, M. Saha; Dasmahapatra, B.; Palit, R.; Majumdar, I.; Joshi, P. K.; Jain, H. C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of fusion cross sections for the 6,7 Li + 24 Mg reactions by the characteristic γ-ray method has been done at energies from below to well above the respective Coulomb barriers. The fusion cross sections obtained from these γ-ray cross sections for the two systems are found to agree well with the total reaction cross sections at low energies. The relatively large difference between total cross sections and measured fusion cross sections at higher energies is consistent with the fact that other channels, in particular breakup, open up with an increase of bombarding energy. The breakup channel, however, appears not to have any influence on fusion cross sections. The critical angular momenta (l cr ) deduced from the fusion cross sections are found to have an energy dependence similar to other Li-induced reactions

  17. Financing Solar Energy Systems with Energy Savings Performance Contracts in the Federal Sector: Results of a Survey on Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R. C.; LaPorta, C.

    1999-08-17

    This report summarizes the findings of an investigation into financing solar energy systems for the Federal sector. The objectives of the investigation were (1) to identify the barriers that impede companies from using Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) to develop solar energy projects for Federal facilities, and (2) to clarify the impacts of Federal contracting requirements on energy service companies' use of ESPCs. Twenty-four representatives of energy service companies agreed to be interviewed. Their responses indicate that these are the primary barriers to greater use of ESPCs: the relatively long payback periods for investments in solar technologies; the length of the ESPC process; the cost of certain contractual requirements regarding wages and financing; and a lack of knowledge about the actual cost and reliability of solar systems. The report proposes a number of actions the government could take to remove these barriers, including (1) streamlining and shortening the ESPC process and (2) doing more to inform both government agencies and energy service companies about the costs and benefits of solar systems.

  18. 11Li Breakup on 208 at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, J P; Cubero, M; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M; Acosta, L; Alcorta, M; Alvarez, M A G; Borge, M J G; Buchmann, L; Diget, C A; Falou, H A; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Gómez-Camacho, J; Kanungo, R; Lay, J A; Madurga, M; Martel, I; Moro, A M; Mukha, I; Nilsson, T; Sánchez-Benítez, A M; Shotter, A; Tengblad, O; Walden, P

    2013-04-05

    The inclusive breakup for the (11)Li + (208)Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of (9)Li following the (11)Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbation theory of Coulomb excitation it is shown that the breakup probability data measured at small angles can be used to extract effective breakup energy as well as the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations, including both nuclear and Coulomb couplings between the target and projectile to all orders, reproduce the measured inclusive breakup cross sections and support the presence of a dipole resonance in the (11)Li continuum at low excitation energy.

  19. 11Li Breakup on 208Pb at Energies Around the Coulomb Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-García, J.P.; Cubero, M.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusive breakup for the 11Li+208Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of 9Li following the 11Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbation...... theory of Coulomb excitation it is shown that the breakup probability data measured at small angles can be used to extract effective breakup energy as well as the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations, including both nuclear...... and Coulomb couplings between the target and projectile to all orders, reproduce the measured inclusive breakup cross sections and support the presence of a dipole resonance in the 11Li continuum at low excitation energy....

  20. Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap: A study linking demographics with barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelenur, Marcos J.; Cruickshank, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study which linked demographic variables with barriers affecting the adoption of domestic energy efficiency measures in large UK cities. The aim was to better understand the ‘Energy Efficiency Gap’ and improve the effectiveness of future energy efficiency initiatives. The data for this study was collected from 198 general population interviews (1.5–10 min) carried out across multiple locations in Manchester and Cardiff. The demographic variables were statistically linked to the identified barriers using a modified chi-square test of association (first order Rao–Scott corrected to compensate for multiple response data), and the effect size was estimated with an odds-ratio test. The results revealed that strong associations exist between demographics and barriers, specifically for the following variables: sex; marital status; education level; type of dwelling; number of occupants in household; residence (rent/own); and location (Manchester/Cardiff). The results and recommendations were aimed at city policy makers, local councils, and members of the construction/retrofit industry who are all working to improve the energy efficiency of the domestic built environment. -- Highlights: ► 7 demographic variables linked to 8 barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures. ► A modified chi-square test for association was used (first order Rao–Scott corrected). ► Results revealed strong associations between most of the demographics and barriers. ► Data was collected from 198 interviews in the UK cities of Manchester and Cardiff. ► Specific recommendations are presented for regional policy makers and industry.

  1. Alpha-production channels in 6Li+159Tb at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, M.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Roy, S.; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Kshetri, R.; Roy Chowdhury, R.; Ray, M.; Santra, S.; Kailas, S.; Parkar, V.V.; Palit, R.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate what are the dominant processes that might contribute to the inclusive α-particle channels, very recently measurements have been performed by the characteristic γ-ray method for the system 6 Li+ 159 Tb at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier (V B = 26.9 MeV)

  2. Response of wave-dominated and mixed-energy barriers to storms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, G.; Heteren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Wave-dominated and mixed-energy barriers are extremely dynamic landforms, responding to processes operating over a spectrum of time scales, ranging from daily-to-monthly fluctuations related to storm and post-storm conditions, to century-to-millennium-scale evolution driven by relative sea-level

  3. Barriers to installing innovative energy systems in existing housing stock identified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Several barriers to upgrading existing social housing with innovative energy systems (IES) have been identified by a study of eight large-scale renovation projects in the Netherlands. These include a lack of trust between stakeholders, opposition from tenants on grounds of increased costs or delays,

  4. Energy consumption for different greenhouse constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djevic, M.; Dimitrijevic, A. [Department for Agricultural Engineering, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade (RS)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper the influence of greenhouse construction on energy efficiency in winter lettuce production was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in Serbia region. Plastic coverings were introduced in this region as a mean of making the plant production more energy efficient. Additionally, as a means of lowering energy consumption, tunnel structures were proposed. In order to see whether the greenhouse structure influences energy consumption, four different double plastic covered greenhouses. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58 m and 8 x 25 m, one gutter-connected structure and multi-span plastic covered greenhouse. The gutter-connected structure was 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long while the multi-span structure was 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. On the basis of lettuce production output and the energy input, specific energy input, energy output-input ratio and energy productivity were estimated. Results show that the lowest energy consumption was obtained for multi-span greenhouse, 9.76 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel, 9 x 58 m, 13.93 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest value for output-input ratio was calculated for multi-span greenhouse (0.29), followed by gutter-connected greenhouse (0.21), tunnel 9 x 58 m (0.17) and tunnel, 8 x 25 m (0.15). Results also show that energy productivity can be higher if multi-span greenhouse structures are used. (author)

  5. Measurements of angular and energy distributions of gamma-rays resulting from neutron interactions in shielding barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarious, A.S.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Megahid, R.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of both angular and energy distributions of secondary gamma resulting from interactions of neutrons emerging from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor beam holes, in barriers from iron, lead and water are reported. The measurements were carried out, both with a bare neutron beam and with the beam being transmitted through a B4C. Filter, using a stilbene crystal gamma spectrometer. The spectrometer applies discrimination between neutrons and gammas according to the difference in decay times of the scintillations produced by them in stilbene. The described angular distributions resulted from measurements made at different angles of neutron incidence and with three different thicknesses of each sample

  6. New light on an old problem: Reflections on barriers and enablers of distributed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szatow, Anthony; Quezada, George; Lilley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint article, New light on an Old Problem, aims to stimulate thought and discussion on pathways to rapid emission reduction trajectories. It considers briefly the history of the Australian energy system and recent attempts to support emerging, distributed energy supply systems, before exploring the importance of new energy supply models and how they may emerge organically, ahead of further policy and regulatory shifts in Australia. The article is shaped by extensive primary research, literature review and engagement with policy makers, industry and community organisations, energy market institutions, colleagues and others over a period of four years. It outlines how new business models may reduce emissions ahead of policy and regulation, and the importance of keeping an open mind when considering ‘barriers’ to distributed energy. We hope this article will spark interest and dialogue with colleagues who may be experiencing and grappling with similar challenges. - Research highlights: ► We discuss documented barriers to distributed energy. ► We draw on socio-technical system literature and our research experience to outline a possible solution to distributed energy barriers. ► We describe a hypothetical energy service business model, led by the property sector, as a catalyst for energy market change. ► We outline reasons for our confidence in this property sector led energy services model.

  7. Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, Antonio Vanderley Herrero; Augusto de Paula, Xavier Antonio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors (OHF) and the level of energy losses in organizations. The purpose is to subsidize the formularization of institutional policies in organizations to improve the energy efficiency in the productive sector. The research was carried out in ten industries of the following sectors: pulp and paper; food; wood and chemical products. The losses of electric energy were determined in motor systems with the aid of a mathematical model and the evaluation of 27 OHF identified in the literature review was made with the supervisors in the industries by means of a structurized questionnaire. Seven OHF had presented significant correlation with energy losses and six of them are inversely proportional to the losses, in accordance with linear regression analysis. The inversely proportional factors to the losses also with significant correlation are considered determinative OHF and constitute barriers for energy efficiency in organizations. These barriers are linked with the following organizational areas: management system; education of employees; strategical vision. The study recommends the implementation of the determinative OHF in organizations as a way to transpose the human barriers for energy efficiency

  8. Thermoluminescence study of the trapped charge at an alumina surface electrode in different dielectric barrier discharge regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrico, P F; Ambrico, M; Dilecce, G; De Benedictis, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi UOS Bari-c/o Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Colaianni, A [Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Schiavulli, L, E-mail: paolofrancesco.ambrico@cnr.i [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2010-08-18

    In this study, the charge trapping effect in alumina dielectric surfaces has been deeply investigated by means of a dedicated dielectric barrier discharge apparatus in different discharge regimes and gas mixtures. This work further validates our previous findings in the case of air discharges in a filamentary regime. Long lasting charge trapping has been evidenced by ex situ thermoluminescence characterizations of alumina dielectric barrier plates exposed to a plasma. The density of trapped surface charges was found to be higher in the glow discharge with respect to pseudo-glow and filamentary regimes, and for all regimes the minimum trap activation temperature was 390 K and the trap energy was less than or around 1 eV. This implies that in the case of glow discharges a higher reservoir of electrons is present. Also, the effect was found to persist for several days after running the discharge.

  9. Thermoluminescence study of the trapped charge at an alumina surface electrode in different dielectric barrier discharge regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrico, P F; Ambrico, M; Dilecce, G; De Benedictis, S; Colaianni, A; Schiavulli, L

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the charge trapping effect in alumina dielectric surfaces has been deeply investigated by means of a dedicated dielectric barrier discharge apparatus in different discharge regimes and gas mixtures. This work further validates our previous findings in the case of air discharges in a filamentary regime. Long lasting charge trapping has been evidenced by ex situ thermoluminescence characterizations of alumina dielectric barrier plates exposed to a plasma. The density of trapped surface charges was found to be higher in the glow discharge with respect to pseudo-glow and filamentary regimes, and for all regimes the minimum trap activation temperature was 390 K and the trap energy was less than or around 1 eV. This implies that in the case of glow discharges a higher reservoir of electrons is present. Also, the effect was found to persist for several days after running the discharge.

  10. Exploration of the Barriers to Implementing Different Types of Sustainability Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Raphaëlle Marie Marianne; Bey, Niki; Boks, Casper

    2016-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into business is gaining increased attention. Yet, implementing long-lasting sustainability approaches remains a complex task. Many empirical studies have identified the barriers to such implementation but the variation in challenges faced by companies, depending...... on the focus of the approach being implemented, is not addressed. The aim of this paper is i) to explore the barriers related to implementing different types of sustainability approaches and ii) to look for indications of similarities and differences across types of approaches. The research builds on data...... about the barriers, collected from a sample of twenty-two empirical studies in academic research and additional reports. The findings show that performance measurement systems and access to industry-specific information, benchmark or reference cases are common areas of difficulty across all types...

  11. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  12. Overcoming financial barriers to wider use of renewable energy technology in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.R.; Turkson, J.

    2001-01-01

    Future energy demand in Africa will rise dramatically due to development desires and increased industrial needs. Coping with this demand will pose a serious challenge because of the economic and environmental constraints of the continent. Exploiting its vast renewable energy sources for this purpose will assist greatly, but financial and other barriers to the rapid growth of associated technologies are significant. This paper explores measures that can be implemented to reduce these financial barriers. The analyses, which are based on lessons from experiences in and out of the region, show that replicating and enhancing current initiatives along with the implementation of suggested policy options could substantially increase the use of renewable energy technologies in Africa. (author)

  13. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-28

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  14. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  15. Organizational, interface, and financial barriers to the commercial development of community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schladale, R.; Ritschard, R.

    1979-12-01

    The scope of this analysis was limited to systems producing electricity - the output of a community energy system typically falling in the range 10 kW to 150 MW. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that groups and individuals will face when attempting to commercialize community energy systems. Three particular classes of barriers were investigated: those within the organization attempting the commercialization, those that arise from attempts to link the community system with an electric utility, and those that impede the flow of investment capital into community energy systems. In summary, three general observations regarding community energy systems may be distilled from this study. First, although many barriers exist to the commercialization of the systems, few if any appear unresolvable. Perhaps most challenginng will be the problem of expanding the use of cogeneration and municipal sold waste while at the same time maintaining or improving ambient air quality. Second, the financial subsidies required to make community systems competitive are not extraordinary. Indeed, with the exception of photovoltaics they should not amount to more than about 10% of capital cost of the new systems, and mass production may eliminate the need for subsidies altogether at some point in the future. Third, the administrative and regulatory procedures required to make community energy systems viable appear to be taking shape in a positive and timely fashion.

  16. How to perform Energy Trace & BarrierAnalysis (ETBA in industries? Acase study in Isomax Unit of Tehran refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Adl

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: People, equipments and properties are continuously exposed tonumerous hazards while technology develops. The global increasing rate of accidents and workrelatedinjuries, especially in Iran, is an evidence for these hazards. There are numerous methodsfor hazard analysis such as the Energy Trace & Barrier Analysis (ETBA, which is a process ofanalysis based on system safety for detecting and definition of hazards and also risks that maycause system damage.Method: This is a case study in the Isomax unit of Tehran refinery and allied section. Datecollection and completion of the ETBAsheets were conducted through observation and interviewmethod with experts, walking - talking through method, investigation of technical and operativedocuments.Results: Twelve different kinds of energy and 28 subgroups were investigated. The types ofenergies, existence barriers, vulnerable targets, risk assessment code, and adequacy of barriers aswell as recommendations for decreasing risk level through tolerable risk were identified.Conclusion: The results of this study show potential application of ETBA in different industries,especially chemical industry, which is a method for identification hazards and prevention ofwork-related injuries.

  17. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J T; Rungger, I; Sanvito, S; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-05-21

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.

  18. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J. T.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00534A

  20. NOVEL TSUNAMI BARRIERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS FOR HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE, FISH FARMING, AND FOR LAND RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Scheel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami hazard can be mitigated if the destructive waves generated from earthquakes and landslides can be reflected by a stable submerged vertical barrier before striking coastal communities or important structures. Building such deep walls by conventional submarine technology is difficult. The present study describes the principle and the erection of such submarine defensive walls by a relatively simple efficient and economic technology. This technology is based on lowering high- strength steel fences with horizontal anchors, or two parallel steel fences with distance holders, into the sea and fixing them with rocks deposited from top. Dredged material like gravel or sand can be used for additional filling. This Tsunami-Flooding Barrier (TFB extends a few meters above sea level and carries on top a concrete supply and service road protected on both sides against storm waves by concrete walls. Replaceable surge stoppers (parapets, wave return walls prevent overtopping and erosion of the seaward barrier face. The TFBs protect the coastline against tsunami and the highest storm waves from hurricanes, but also can provide protection from oil spills or other contaminations from the ocean and thus protect flora, fauna, coral reefs and beaches. Channels and gates allow navigation and can be closed quickly upon a tsunami or storm warning. The construction costs can be eventually compensated by using the reservoirs between coast and barriers for hydroelectric energy storage (using pump-turbines in the barriers or for fish-farming, or alternatively the reservoir can be filled with rocks, rubble, gravel, sand and covered with soil in order to reclaim new land. Tidal energy can be generated by installing turbines within these barriers. Also, this submarine architecture may be applied to protect pillars of bridges and offshore platforms, and for erecting “roads” into the sea to connect near-shore platforms and wind-parks with the coast and

  1. Barriers for Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses and Suggested Solutions to Overcome These

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2011-01-01

    As much as 40% of the total energy consumption in Denmark is utilized by the building sector and most of this energy is used for heating. Political initiatives have been taken to reduce this amount considerably but for this to happen, the energy consumption of the existing residential housing stock...... must be reduced dramatically. The greatest saving potential is found among the approximately 440.000 standardised single-family houses which were constructed in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It is found that barriers preventing the implementation of this great potential are present in various forms among all...

  2. Analysis of Relationships among Organizational Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvement: A Case Study in Indonesia’s Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Soepardi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze and rank the managerial-organizational barriers to energy efficiency improvement from an industry perspective. To that end, this study utilizes the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM methodology to identify the contextual relationships among the barriers. In a focus group discussion forum, five practitioners from the steel industry were consulted to identify these mutual linkages. The results indicated that five of the eight barriers proposed are in the linkage category. These barriers include that the energy manager or people in charge of energy management lack influence, there are higher priorities to production activity, there is management resistance to change, there is inadequate management capacity, and there are conflicts of interest within the organization. The management should focus more attention on these barriers, because they have both high driving power and dependency. The findings are intended to help managers from manufacturing sectors identify key barriers and thus develop strategic plans to address these issues.

  3. A novel method of calculating the energy deposition curve of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Xinying; Lu, Jiayu; Cui, Quansheng; Pang, Lei; Di, Dongxu; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the energy deposition curve is very important in the fields to which nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges (NPDBDs) are applied. It helps the understanding of the discharge physics and fast gas heating. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model, composed of three capacitances, is introduced and a method of calculating the energy deposition curve is proposed for a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge (NPSDBD) plasma actuator. The capacitance C d and the energy deposition curve E R are determined by mathematically proving that the mapping from C d to E R is bijective and numerically searching one C d that satisfies the requirement for E R to be a monotonically non-decreasing function. It is found that the value of capacitance C d varies with the amplitude of applied pulse voltage due to the change of discharge area and is dependent on the polarity of applied voltage. The bijectiveness of the mapping from C d to E R in nanosecond pulse volumetric dielectric barrier discharge (NPVDBD) is demonstrated and the feasibility of the application of the new method to NPVDBD is validated. This preliminarily shows a high possibility of developing a unified approach to calculate the energy deposition curve in NPDBD. (paper)

  4. Assessment of non-cost barriers to renewable energy growth in EU Member States - AEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    The accelerated deployment of renewable energy technologies has become a major priority for public policy makers across the globe. In the last two decades, most of the debate concerning the promotion of renewables was focused on the financial support schemes and on improving grid access conditions for renewable electricity. Of course, these are crucial issues which will continue to deserve serious attention in the future. However, during the last few years, the importance of tackling non-financial and non-technical barriers to renewable electricity, heat and transport has gained the attention of many policy analysts. In June 2009, Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, entered into force. The articles 13, 14 and 16 of the Directive contain a number of requirements for Member States to address or remove non-cost barriers to the increased deployment of renewable energy sources. This study presents among others an overview of these barriers in all EU Member States; their history, their impact on renewable energy deployment and suggestions for policy solutions, where feasible. Separate studies were carried out for 27 EU-countries and made available in a zip-file.

  5. Critical energy barrier for capillary condensation in mesopores: Hysteresis and reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Tatsumasa; Tanaka, Hideki; Miyahara, Minoru T.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary condensation in the regime of developing hysteresis occurs at a vapor pressure, P cond , that is less than that of the vapor-like spinodal. This is because the energy barrier for the vapor-liquid transition from a metastable state at P cond becomes equal to the energy fluctuation of the system; however, a detailed mechanism of the spontaneous transition has not been acquired even through extensive experimental and simulation studies. We therefore construct accurate atomistic silica mesopore models for MCM-41 and perform molecular simulations (gauge cell Monte Carlo and grand canonical Monte Carlo) for argon adsorption on the models at subcritical temperatures. A careful comparison between the simulation and experiment reveals that the energy barrier for the capillary condensation has a critical dimensionless value, W c * = 0.175, which corresponds to the thermal fluctuation of the system and depends neither on the mesopore size nor on the temperature. We show that the critical energy barrier W c * controls the capillary condensation pressure P cond and also determines a boundary between the reversible condensation/evaporation regime and the developing hysteresis regime.

  6. Critical energy barrier for capillary condensation in mesopores: Hysteresis and reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Tatsumasa; Tanaka, Hideki; Miyahara, Minoru T.

    2016-04-01

    Capillary condensation in the regime of developing hysteresis occurs at a vapor pressure, Pcond, that is less than that of the vapor-like spinodal. This is because the energy barrier for the vapor-liquid transition from a metastable state at Pcond becomes equal to the energy fluctuation of the system; however, a detailed mechanism of the spontaneous transition has not been acquired even through extensive experimental and simulation studies. We therefore construct accurate atomistic silica mesopore models for MCM-41 and perform molecular simulations (gauge cell Monte Carlo and grand canonical Monte Carlo) for argon adsorption on the models at subcritical temperatures. A careful comparison between the simulation and experiment reveals that the energy barrier for the capillary condensation has a critical dimensionless value, Wc* = 0.175, which corresponds to the thermal fluctuation of the system and depends neither on the mesopore size nor on the temperature. We show that the critical energy barrier Wc* controls the capillary condensation pressure Pcond and also determines a boundary between the reversible condensation/evaporation regime and the developing hysteresis regime.

  7. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2{prime}-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM{close_quote}s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM{close_quote}s on the Ag surface potential. {ital Ab} {ital initio} Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L.; Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM close-quote s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM close-quote s on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T. A.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM's on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices.

  10. Barriers to and drivers of the adpotion of energy crops by Swedish farmers: An empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Anna C.; Ostwald, Madelene; Asplund, Therese; Wibeck, Victoria (Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden). The Tema Inst., Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research)

    2011-06-15

    Since the Swedish government and the EU intend to encourage farmers to expand energy crop production, knowledge of the factors motivating adoption decisions is vital to policy success. Earlier studies have demonstrated that important barriers to farmer adoption of energy crops include converting from annual to perennial crops and from traditional crops or production systems to new ones. Economic motivations for changing production systems are strong, but factors such as values (e.g., aesthetics), knowledge (e.g., habits and knowledge of production methods), and legal conditions (e.g., cultivation licenses) are crucial for the change to energy crops. This paper helps fill gaps in the literature regarding why farmers decide to keep or change a production system. Based on a series of focus group interviews with Swedish farmers, the paper explores how farmers frame crop change decisions and what factors they consider most important. The main drivers of and barriers to growing energy crops, according to interviewees, are grouped and discussed in relation to four broad groups of motivational factors identified in the literature, i.e., values, legal conditions, knowledge, and economic factors. The paper ends by discussing whether some barriers could be overcome by policy changes at the national and European levels

  11. Nucleus-size pinning for determination of nucleation free-energy barriers and nucleus geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek K.; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2018-05-01

    Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has recently been used in conjunction with a seeding approach to simulate nucleation phenomena at small-to-moderate supersaturation conditions when large free-energy barriers ensue. In this study, the conventional seeding approach [J. R. Espinosa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 034501 (2016)] is improved by a novel, more robust method to estimate nucleation barriers. Inspired by the interfacial pinning approach [U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] used before to determine conditions where two phases coexist, the seed of the incipient phase is pinned to a preselected size to iteratively drive the system toward the conditions where the seed becomes a critical nucleus. The proposed technique is first validated by estimating the critical nucleation conditions for the disorder-to-order transition in hard spheres and then applied to simulate and characterize the highly non-trivial (prolate) morphology of the critical crystal nucleus in hard gyrobifastigia. A generalization of CNT is used to account for nucleus asphericity and predict nucleation free-energy barriers for gyrobifastigia. These predictions of nuclei shape and barriers are validated by independent umbrella sampling calculations.

  12. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  13. Energy efficiency and barriers towards meeting energy demand in industries in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unachukwu, Godwin O.; Zarma, I.H.; Sambo, A.S.

    2010-09-15

    Energy is an important production factor and therefore should be managed in parallel with land, labor and capital. Energy efficient production should be seen as a quick and cheaper source of new energy supply as the cost of providing energy can be several times the cost of saving it. Increasingly energy efficiency is deemed to include not only the physical efficiency of the technical equipment and facilities but also the overall economic efficiency of the energy system.

  14. Energy efficiency in social housing: Opportunities and barriers from a case study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodach, Susanne; Hamhaber, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy efficiency in a segment of the building sector in emerging countries by analyzing and evaluating the energy efficiency of a social housing project in Brazil. Energy efficiency measures and bioclimatic design strategies are developed in order to improve thermal comfort in this social housing project and to reduce the energy consumption and expenses of their residents. The institutional barriers and constraints toward higher efficiency are described. The results of this study show that there is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in emerging countries like Brazil. The implementation and consideration of the energy efficiency measures and policy recommendations would contribute substantially to the goal to dampen the fast growth of energy demand in these countries. Moreover the improvement of energy efficiency in the social housing sector could be a driver for market transformation towards more sustainability in the whole building sector. - Research highlights: →There is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in Brazil. →Energy-efficient social housing would contribute substantially to dampen the fast growth of energy consumption in emerging countries like Brazil. →Implementation of energy efficiency would improve the income situation of the poorest strata of the population.

  15. Coulomb energy differences in mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Silvia M

    2006-01-01

    By comparing the excitation energies of analogue states in mirror nuclei, several nuclear structure properties can be studied as a function of the angular momentum up to high spin states. They can be described in the shell model framework by including electromagnetic and nuclear isospin-non-conserving interactions. Calculations for the mirror energy differences in nuclei of the f 7/2 shell are described and compared with recent experimental data. These studies are extended to mirror nuclei in the upper sd and fp shells

  16. Observation of the one- to six-neutron transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.L.; Rehm, K.E.; Gehring, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    It was suggested many years ago that when two heavy nuclei are in contact during a grazing collision, the transfer of several correlated neutron-pairs could occur. Despite considerable experimental effort, however, so far only cross sections for up to four-neutron transfers have been uniquely identified. The main difficulties in the study of multi-neutron transfer reactions are the small cross sections encountered at incident energies close to the barrier, and various experimental uncertainties which can complicate the analysis of these reactions. We have for the first time found evidence for multi-neutron transfer reactions covering the full sequence from one- to six-neutron transfer reactions at sub-barrier energies in the system {sup 58}Ni + {sup 100}Mo.

  17. Structural-morphological variations in pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide under irradiation with high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, M.A.; Belov, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    Comparative study of structural-morphological variations under electron beam effect in pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide, obtained in seven different solutions and proton or X-rays pre-irradiated to determine structure peculiarities of anode aluminium oxides, is presented. Such study is a matter of interest from the solid-phase transformation theory point of view and for anode aluminium films application under radiation. Stability increase of pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide to the effect of UEhMV-100 K microscope electron beam at standard modes of operation (75 kV) due to proton or X-rays irradiation is found. Difference in structural-monorphological variations obtained in different solutions of anode aluminium films under high-energy particles irradiation is determined. Strucural-phase microinhomogeneity of amorphous pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide and its influence on solid-phase transformations character under electron bean of maximal intensity are detected

  18. Fusion of light ion systems at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Howard, W.M.; Cusson, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental fusion cross sections for light ion systems at energies below the Coulomb barrier become available in greater and greater number, and provide a stringent test of the macroscopic and microscopic physics involved in models of heavy-ion reactions. Measurements and predictions of the fusion cross sections for 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 16 O and 16 O + 16 O are also of major importance in astrophysics. (orig.) [de

  19. Simulations of Skin Barrier Function: Free Energies of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Transmembrane Pores in Ceramide Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W. J.; Noro, Massimo G.; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel pha...

  20. Efficient Energy use in Different Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lars

    2007-05-15

    There is a steadily growing awareness for environmental issues caused by the increased energy use, mainly in the industrial world. The use of fossil fuels has reached the point where it can not be looked at as an endless source. The resources are decreasing at a pace where alternative energy sources will be a necessity for this and future generations. Global warming, due to increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has become one of the most important issues on the political agenda at all levels. A widespread opinion is that energy conservation technologies are needed and a shift towards renewable energy sources is required to attain a sustainable development of our society and a progress in the developing countries. This thesis is focusing on two different energy conservation technologies in different applications. The open absorption system, a modification of an absorption heat pump is a promising technique in moist air processes, recovering the latent heat in the air and decreasing the total heat demand. The technology has been tested in two full scale pilot plants at a sawmill operating four timber dryers and another unit installed at an indoor swimming pool. The technique has had positive outcomes in both operational and energy conservation respects. It has been shown that the energy demand was decreased considerably in both applications. The investment cost has proved to be relatively high, but optimization of operational parameters shows a potential to decrease the initial investment and make the technology more competitive. Pressurized entrained-flow high temperature black liquor gasification (PEHT-BLG), developed by Chemrec AB, is another novel technique presented in this thesis. Black liquor is an important by-product in the papermaking process. Chemicals and energy is recovered in the conventional recovery boiler where superheated steam is produced to generate electricity and process heat. The cooking chemicals are recovered from the

  1. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  2. Financing energy SMEs in Ghana and Senegal: Outcomes, barriers and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselip, James; Desgain, Denis; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the findings of primary research carried out in Ghana and Senegal, which revisited the main assumptions behind the African Rural Energy Enterprise Development (AREED) initiative (2002–2012), and other donor-backed programmes, designed to promote small and medium-sized energy enterprises (energy SMEs). These assumptions were (1) that the lack of affordable local financing presented the most significant barrier to setting up and expanding energy SMEs, and (2) that these barriers would be overcome by a ‘demonstration effect’ whereby successful businesses, supported by donor-backed programmes, could in turn influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. - Highlights: • Analysis of the AREED ‘demonstration effect’ in Senegal and Ghana. • Commercial financial backing for SMEs remains a serious challenge for entrepreneurs. • Structural issues that increase the financial risk of investing in energy SMEs. • High transaction costs of investing in SMEs. • Longer supply chains and slower pay-back periods for capital-intensive technologies

  3. Capabilities of silicon Shottki barriers and planar detectors in low-energy proton spectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Sakharov, V I; Serenkov, I T; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L

    1987-05-12

    Dependence of the resolution of surface barrier and planar diffusion silicon detectors on proton energy is investigated. The experiment was conducted at the device, representing the double mass spectrometer with the maximal energy of single-charged ions up to 200 keV. Two advantages of using planar diffusion detectors for light low-energy ion spectrometry is established: high energy resolution and independence of signal amplitude of bias voltage. Background noise represents the main factor dictaiting resolution, but fluctuations of losses in input window are sufficient as well. It was concluded that planar detector application for spectrometry of protons with energy of less than 200 keV would improve the resolution up to 2.2 keV without detector cooling.

  4. Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemi, Sn; Papadopoulos, Am; Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, S

    2010-11-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein.

  5. Simulations of skin barrier function: free energies of hydrophobic and hydrophilic transmembrane pores in ceramide bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Briels, W J; Noro, Massimo G; den Otter, Wouter K

    2008-11-15

    Transmembrane pore formation is central to many biological processes such as ion transport, cell fusion, and viral infection. Furthermore, pore formation in the ceramide bilayers of the stratum corneum may be an important mechanism by which penetration enhancers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) weaken the barrier function of the skin. We have used the potential of mean constraint force (PMCF) method to calculate the free energy of pore formation in ceramide bilayers in both the innate gel phase and in the DMSO-induced fluidized state. Our simulations show that the fluid phase bilayers form archetypal water-filled hydrophilic pores similar to those observed in phospholipid bilayers. In contrast, the rigid gel-phase bilayers develop hydrophobic pores. At the relatively small pore diameters studied here, the hydrophobic pores are empty rather than filled with bulk water, suggesting that they do not compromise the barrier function of ceramide membranes. A phenomenological analysis suggests that these vapor pores are stable, below a critical radius, because the penalty of creating water-vapor and tail-vapor interfaces is lower than that of directly exposing the strongly hydrophobic tails to water. The PMCF free energy profile of the vapor pore supports this analysis. The simulations indicate that high DMSO concentrations drastically impair the barrier function of the skin by strongly reducing the free energy required for pore opening.

  6. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels I. Meyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for a substantial part of the total energy consumption. In Denmark this number is about 40 % and this is approximately the same in most industrial countries. On this background there is an urgent need to develop strategies for reducing the energy demand in the building sector. Renovation of existing buildings must have high priority as houses often last for 50 to 100 years, while the time perspective for the desired transformation to low-energy houses is less than 30 years in order to mitigate global warming and avoid irreversible tipping-points. The only sustainable energy supply in the perspective of centuries is renewable energy provided by the sun and exploited in the form of solar heat, solar electricity (PVs, wind power, hydropower, wave power, and some types of biomass etc. A future dominating role of intermittent renewable sources requires new integrated systems thinking on both the supply and demand side for heat, electricity and transport. Implementing such Smart Energy Systems requires integrated strategic energy planning on the national and local level. With the fundamental changes in the energy supply technologies expected during the coming years, it is important to synchronize investments in energy conservation measures with investments in the supply side, in order to avoid overinvestment in supply systems and thus to minimize the total costs of the transformation to Smart Energy Systems. This paper highlights some of the most important barriers for renovation of existing buildings in Denmark and points to policies for overcoming these barriers. Some of the policies have been presented in the reports of a recent Danish research project (CEESA

  7. Tunneling of an energy eigenstate through a parabolic barrier viewed from Wigner phase space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heim, D.M.; Schleich, W.P.; Alsing, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the tunneling of a particle through a repulsive potential resulting from an inverted harmonic oscillator in the quantum mechanical phase space described by the Wigner function. In particular, we solve the partial differential equations in phase space determining the Wigner function...... of an energy eigenstate of the inverted oscillator. The reflection or transmission coefficients R or T are then given by the total weight of all classical phase-space trajectories corresponding to energies below, or above the top of the barrier given by the Wigner function....

  8. Liquid-drop model description of heavy ion fusion at sub-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, C E; Barbosa, V C; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R

    1987-10-05

    The enhancement of the heavy ion fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies is studied in the liquid-drop model approach. The shape of the system is described by two spheres smoothly connected by a neck, and the kinetic and potential energies are calculated within this parametrization. Underbarrier fusion cross sections for symmetric projectile-target combinations are calculated in the WKB approximation and a comparison with the available data is made. The agreement is quite satisfactory, except for those systems in which the reaction is strongly affected by the details of the nuclear structure of the collision partners.

  9. Complex energy eigenvalues of a linear potential with a parabolical barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The physical meaning and restrictions of complex energy eigenvalues are briefly discussed. It is indicated that a quasi-stationary phase describes an idealised disintegration system. Approximate resonance-eigenvalues of the one dimensional Schrodinger equation with a linear potential and parabolic barrier are calculated by means of Connor's semiclassical method. This method is based on the generalized WKB-method of Miller and Good. The results obtained confirm the correctness of a model representation which explains the unusual distribution of eigenvalues by certain other linear potentials in a complex energy level [af

  10. Polymer in a pore: Effect of confinement on the free energy barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the transfer of a polymer chain from cis- side to trans- side through two types of pores: cone-shaped channel and flat-channel. Using the exact enumeration technique, we obtain the free energy landscapes of a polymer chain for such systems. We have also calculated the free-energy barrier of a polymer chain attached to the edge of the pore. The model system allows us to calculate the force required to pull polymer from the pore and stall-force to confine polymer within the pore.

  11. Reduction of the energy of secondary beams down to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong Feng; Mittig, W.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Lewitowicz, M.; Sida, J.L.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A.; Volant, C.; Cabot, C.; Borcea, C.

    1993-01-01

    With the doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE at GANIL, the energy of a secondary 11 Be beam produced by the reaction of 63 MeV/nucleon 18 O with a 9 Be target has been reduced to Coulomb barrier energies using various thick targets and a thinner target plus a thick degrader. The experimental results were compared with calculations performed with the program INTENSITY and with simple analytical expressions. It was found that in the present device, the thick target method is more convenient and efficient than the achromatic degrader

  12. Micro-fabricated Liquid Encapsulated Energy Harvester with Polymer Barrier Layer as Liquid Electret Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, L; Xu, H Y; Xu, B J; Song, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the electret discharge issue for liquid based electret energy harvesters. An interface structure of PDMS/PTFE polymer barrier layer between liquid and electrets is introduced, achieving 75% charge retain rate over 100h, compared with 0% without the proposed layer over 100h. Further, the PDMS/PTFE layer is introduced into liquid encapsulated energy harvester (LEEH) and is compatible with micro-fabrication process. The retain rate of device voltage is about 47%∼65% over 100h. At 100h after corona charging, the device generates maximally 3.7V, 0.55μW @1Hz rotation

  13. Barriers to retail marketing of renewable energy products in an energy-rich province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haner, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Personal experiences in attempting to market photovoltaics and other renewable energy products in Alberta, a province rich in energy sources, are recounted as part of an exploration of ways to help industry to develop strategies that will advance the acceptance of renewable energy products, particularly in areas of the world that are not concerned about energy supply. Social acceptability, emphasis on a healthy and convenient lifestyle associated with renewable energy products, practical, user-friendly products, and competitive prices, are some of the key elements in successfully marketing renewable energy products

  14. Measurement of leakage and design for the protective barrier of the high energy radiation therapy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.S.; Park, C.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The logical development of an optimum structural shielding design and the computation of protective barriers for high energy radiation therapy room, Toshiba 13 MeV are presented. We obtained following results by comparison in between the precalculating values and actual survey after complete installation of radiogenerating units. 1) The calculating formula for the protective barrier written in NCRP report no. 34(1970) was the most ideal and economic calculating methods for the construction of barrier and to determine thickness for the meeting requirements of the number of patients of 80-100 in daily treatment. 2) The precalculating values of protective barrier are 5 times more protective than that of actual measurement. It is depending on radiation workload and utilization the data most securely. 3) The dose rate during exposure are 2-10 mR/hr at out of the door and the control room. 4) The foul smelling and ozone gas production from long exposure of cancer patients cannot be estimated when the room is ill ventilated. (author)

  15. Renewable energy in South Africa. Potentials, barriers and options for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegels, Anna [German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut fuer Entwicklungspolitik, Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous; even more so if a country is as fossil fuel based and emission intensive as South Africa. However, in an increasingly carbon constrained world and already now facing climate change impacts South Africa has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity soon and decidedly. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emissions problem. First steps have been taken by the South African government to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, however, they fail to show large-scale effects. This paper seeks to identify the relevant barriers to renewable energy investments and, based on experience from other countries, provide policy recommendations. The major barrier identified in the paper is based on the economics of renewable energy technologies, i.e. their cost and risk structures, two main factors in investment planning. As a solution, the South African government introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a feed-in tariff. The paper discusses the potential and possible shortcomings of this and other existing support schemes and identifies complementing measures on a national scale. (author)

  16. Renewable energy in South Africa: Potentials, barriers and options for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegels, Anna, E-mail: anna.pegels@die-gdi.d [German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut fuer Entwicklungspolitik, Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous; even more so if a country is as fossil fuel based and emission intensive as South Africa. However, in an increasingly carbon constrained world and already now facing climate change impacts South Africa has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity soon and decidedly. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emissions problem. First steps have been taken by the South African government to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, however, they fail to show large-scale effects. This paper seeks to identify the relevant barriers to renewable energy investments and, based on experience from other countries, provide policy recommendations. The major barrier identified in the paper is based on the economics of renewable energy technologies, i.e. their cost and risk structures, two main factors in investment planning. As a solution, the South African government introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a feed-in tariff. The paper discusses the potential and possible shortcomings of this and other existing support schemes and identifies complementing measures on a national scale.

  17. Renewable energy in South Africa: Potentials, barriers and options for support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegels, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous; even more so if a country is as fossil fuel based and emission intensive as South Africa. However, in an increasingly carbon constrained world and already now facing climate change impacts South Africa has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions intensity soon and decidedly. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emissions problem. First steps have been taken by the South African government to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, however, they fail to show large-scale effects. This paper seeks to identify the relevant barriers to renewable energy investments and, based on experience from other countries, provide policy recommendations. The major barrier identified in the paper is based on the economics of renewable energy technologies, i.e. their cost and risk structures, two main factors in investment planning. As a solution, the South African government introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a feed-in tariff. The paper discusses the potential and possible shortcomings of this and other existing support schemes and identifies complementing measures on a national scale.

  18. Unraveling the interplay between hydrogen bonding and rotational energy barrier to fine-tune the properties of triazine molecular glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laventure, Audrey; De Grandpré, Guillaume; Soldera, Armand; Lebel, Olivier; Pellerin, Christian

    2016-01-21

    Mexylaminotriazine derivatives form molecular glasses with outstanding glass-forming ability (GFA), high resistance to crystallization (glass kinetic stability, GS), and a glass transition temperature (Tg) above room temperature that can be conveniently modulated by selection of the headgroup and ancillary groups. A common feature of all these compounds is their secondary amino linkers, suggesting that they play a critical role in their GFA and GS for reasons that remain unclear because they can simultaneously form hydrogen (H) bonds and lead to a high interconversion energy barrier between different rotamers. To investigate independently and better control the influence of H bonding capability and rotational energy barrier on Tg, GFA and GS, a library of twelve analogous molecules was synthesized with different combinations of NH, NMe and O linkers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that these compounds form, with a single exception, kinetically stable glasses with Tg values spanning a very broad range from -25 to 94 °C. While variable temperature infrared spectroscopy combined to chemometrics reveals that, on average, around 60% of the NH groups are still H-bonded as high as 40 °C above Tg, critical cooling rates obtained by DSC clearly show that molecules without H-bond donating linkers also present an outstanding GFA, meaning that H bonding plays a dominant role in controlling Tg but is not required to prevent crystallization. It is a high interconversion energy barrier, provoking a distribution of rotamers, that most efficiently promotes both GFA and resistance to crystallization. These new insights pave the way to more efficient glass engineering by extending the possible range of accessible Tg, allowing in particular the preparation of homologous glass-formers with high GS at ambient temperature in either the viscous or vitreous state.

  19. Final report. Renewable energy and energy efficiency in Mexico: Barriers and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashford, Mike

    2000-09-28

    The report describes the prospects for energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions in Mexico, along with renewable energy potential. A methodology for developing emissions baselines is shown, in order to prepare project emissions reductions calculations. An application to the USIJI program was also prepared through this project, for a portfolio of energy efficiency projects.

  20. Oscillatory shear response of moisture barrier coatings containing clay of different shape factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugge, C; Vanderhoek, N; Bousfield, D W

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory shear rheology of barrier coatings based on dispersed styrene-butadiene latex and clay of various shape factors or aspect ratio has been explored. Barrier performance of these coatings when applied to paperboard has been assessed in terms of water vapour transmission rates and the results related to shape factor, dewatering and critical strain. It has been shown that a system based on clay with high shape factor gives a lower critical strain, dewatering and water vapour transmission rate compared with clays of lower shape factor. The dissipated energy, as calculated from an amplitude sweep, indicated no attractive interaction between clay and latex implying a critical strain that appears to be solely dependent on the shape factor at a constant volume fraction. Particle size distribution was shown to have no effect on the critical strain while coatings of high elasticity exhibited high yield strains as expected. The loss modulus demonstrated strain hardening before the elastic to viscous transition. The loss modulus peak was identified by a maximum strain which was significantly lower for a coating based on clay with a high shape factor. The characteristic elastic time was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.3s. The zero shear viscosity of barrier dispersion coatings were estimated from the characteristic elastic time and the characteristic modulus to be of the order of 25-100 Pa s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fusion hindrance at deep sub-barrier energies for the 11B+197Au system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Nanal, V.; Pandit, S. K.; Parkar, V. V.; Rout, P. C.; Dokania, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Kumar, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion cross sections for the 11B+197Au system have been measured at energies around and deep below the Coulomb barrier, to probe the occurrence of fusion hindrance in case of asymmetric systems. A deviation with respect to the standard coupled channels calculations has been observed at the lowest energy. The results have been compared with an adiabatic model calculation that considers a damping of the coupling strength for a gradual transition from sudden to adiabatic regime at very low energies. The data could be explained without inclusion of the damping factor. This implies that the influence of fusion hindrance is not significant within the measured energy range for this system. The present result is consistent with the observed trend between the degree of fusion hindrance and the charge product that reveals a weaker influence of hindrance on fusion involving lighter projectiles on heavy targets.

  2. Temporal symmetry of individual filaments in different spatial symmetry filaments pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.

  3. Low Li+ Insertion Barrier Carbon for High Energy Efficient Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Teck Leong; Xue, Jun Min

    2018-01-17

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is an attractive energy-storage device (ESD) that promises high energy density at moderate power density. However, the key challenge in its design is the low energy efficient negative electrode, which barred the realization of such research system in fulfilling the current ESD technological inadequacy due to its poor overall energy efficiency. Large voltage hysteresis is the main issue behind high energy density alloying/conversion-type materials, which reduces the electrode energy efficiency. Insertion-type material though averted in most research due to the low capacity remains to be highly favorable in commercial application due to its lower voltage hysteresis. To further reduce voltage hysteresis and increase capacity, amorphous carbon with wider interlayer spacing has been demonstrated in the simulation result to significantly reduce Li + insertion barrier. Hence, by employing such amorphous carbon, together with disordered carbon positive electrode, a high energy efficient LIC with round-trip energy efficiency of 84.3% with a maximum energy density of 133 Wh kg -1 at low power density of 210 W kg -1 can be achieved.

  4. Energy transfer of excitons between quantum wells separated by a wide barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy-transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch (Δ) at low temperatures (T). Several important intrinsic energy-transfer mechanisms have been examined, including dipolar coupling, real and virtual photon-exchange coupling, and over-barrier ionization of the excitons via exciton-exciton Auger processes. The transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For localized excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T dependence of the exciton localization radius. For Stokes energy transfer, the dominant energy transfer occurs through a photon-exchange interaction, which enables the excitons from the higher-energy wells to decay into free electrons and holes in the lower-energy wells. The rate has a slow dependence on d, yielding reasonable agreement with recent data from GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As quantum wells. The dipolar rate is about an order of magnitude smaller for large d (e.g., d=175Aa) with a stronger range dependence proportional to d -4 . However, the latter can be comparable to the radiative rate for small d (e.g., d≤80Aa). For anti-Stokes transfer through exchange-type (e.g., dipolar and photon-exchange) interactions, we show that thermal activation proportional to exp(-Δ/k B T) is essential for the transfer, contradicting a recent nonactivated result based on the Fo''rster-Dexter's spectral-overlap theory. Phonon-assisted transfer yields a negligibly small rate. On the other hand, energy transfer through over-barrier ionization of excitons via Auger processes yields a significantly larger nonactivated rate which is independent of d. The result is compared with recent data

  5. Energy barriers between metastable states in first-order quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Sascha; Timpanaro, André M.; Cormick, Cecilia; Landi, Gabriel T.

    2018-02-01

    A system of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice and dispersively coupled to the field of an optical cavity can realize a variation of the Bose-Hubbard model with infinite-range interactions. This model exhibits a first-order quantum phase transition between a Mott insulator and a charge density wave, with spontaneous symmetry breaking between even and odd sites, as was recently observed experimentally [Landig et al., Nature (London) 532, 476 (2016), 10.1038/nature17409]. In the present paper, we approach the analysis of this transition using a variational model which allows us to establish the notion of an energy barrier separating the two phases. Using a discrete WKB method, we then show that the local tunneling of atoms between adjacent sites lowers this energy barrier and hence facilitates the transition. Within our simplified description, we are thus able to augment the phase diagram of the model with information concerning the height of the barrier separating the metastable minima from the global minimum in each phase, which is an essential aspect for the understanding of the reconfiguration dynamics induced by a quench across a quantum critical point.

  6. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh-An innovation system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam Hossain Mondal, Md.; Kamp, Linda M.; Pachova, Nevelina I.

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh.

  7. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh. An innovation system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Hossain Mondal, Md. [Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Kamp, Linda M. [Delft University of Technology, TPM Faculty, Section Technology Dynamics and Sustainable Development, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands); Pachova, Nevelina I. [Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, UNU-EHS, Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh. (author)

  8. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh-An innovation system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Hossain Mondal, Md., E-mail: alam-hossain@uni-bonn.d [Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Kamp, Linda M. [Delft University of Technology, TPM Faculty, Section Technology Dynamics and Sustainable Development, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands); Pachova, Nevelina I. [Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, UNU-EHS, Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh.

  9. A study of the deep structure of the energy landscape of glassy polystyrene: the exponential distribution of the energy barriers revealed by high-field electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercu, V; Martinelli, M; Massa, C A; Pardi, L A; Leporini, D

    2004-01-01

    The reorientation of one small paramagnetic molecule (spin probe) in glassy polystyrene (PS) is studied by high-field electron spin resonance spectroscopy at two different Larmor frequencies (190 and 285 GHz). The exponential distribution of the energy barriers for the rotational motion of the spin probe is unambiguously evidenced at both 240 and 270 K. The same shape for the distribution of the energy barriers of PS was evidenced by the master curves provided by previous mechanical and light scattering studies. The breadth of the energy barrier distribution of the spin probe is in the range of the estimates of the breadth of the PS energy barrier distribution. The evidence that the deep structure of the energy landscape of PS exhibits the exponential shape of the energy barrier distribution agrees with the results from extreme-value statistics (Bouchaud and Mezard 1997 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30 7997) and the trap model by Bouchaud and co-workers (1996 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 29 3847, 2001 Phys. Rev. B 64 104417). (letter to the editor)

  10. Measurement of Fission Fragment Angular Distributions for 14 N+ 232 Th and 11 B+ 235 U at Near-Barrier Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, B.R.; Jena, S.; Satapathy, M.; Ison, V.V.; Kailas, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Satpathy, L.; Basu, P.; Roy, S.; Sharan, M.; Chatterjee, M.L; Datta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fission fragment angular distributions of heavy-ion induced fission in actinide nuclei at near-barrier energies show anomalous fragment anisotropies. At above barrier energies entrance channel dependence is a probable cause and explanation in terms of pre-equilibrium fission and the critical mass asymmetry parameter (Businaro-Gallone) has been tried. Target deformation and ground state spin also seem to influence the measured anisotropy. To understand the extent of importance of some or all of these features, we performed a set of experiments where (i) entrance channel dependence (ii) mass asymmetry on the two sides of Businaro-Gallone and (iii) different ground state spins are present. The channels chosen are 14 N+ 232 Th and 11 B+ 235 U. Experiments were done using the Pelletron accelerators at NSC, New Delhi and BARC-TIFR, Bombay. Compound nucleus populated in both cases is 246 Bk. 232 Th has ground state spin zero and 235 U has spin 7/2. Fragment anisotropies have been measured from 10-15 % above barrier to 10 % below barrier at similar excitation energy (around 40 MeV to 58 MeV). The mean square angular momentum is matched at least at one energy. Results indicate that when both excitation energy and angular momentum are matched, there are differences in the measured values of fission anisotropies. This implies entrance channel dependence consistent with the expectation of pre-equilibrium fission model. (authors)

  11. Reaction channels of 6,7Li+28Si at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A; Rusek, K; Nicolis, N G; Alamanos, N; Doukelis, G; Gillibert, A; Kalyva, G; Kokkoris, M; Lagoyannis, A; Musumarra, A; Papachristodoulou, C; Perdikakis, G; Pierroutsakou, D; Pollacco, E C; Spyrou, A; Zarkadas, Ch

    2005-01-01

    The production of α-particles in the reactions 6,7 Li+ 28 Si was studied as a means to disentangle the various reaction channels at near-barrier energies. The competition between compound and direct reactions was determined by using the shape of angular distributions and statistical model calculations. DWBA calculations were also performed to probe the various direct channels. It was found that, approaching barrier, transfer channels are the most dominant for both reactions. For 7 Li+ 28 Si d-transfer is one of the contributing channels without excluding t-transfer, while for 6 Li+ 28 Si, n-transfer and p-transfer have substantial contribution but without excluding d-transfer

  12. 9Be+120Sn scattering at near-barrier energies within a four-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, A.; Casal, J.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Arias, J. M.; Lichtenthäler Filho, R.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; de Barbará, E.; Fernández Niello, J.; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Hojman, D.; Martí, G. V.; Martínez Heimman, D.; Pacheco, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of the weakly bound 9Be nucleus on a 120Sn target have been measured at seven bombarding energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. The elastic angular distributions are analyzed with a four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculation, which considers 9Be as a three-body projectile (α +α +n ). An optical model analysis using the São Paulo potential is also shown for comparison. The CDCC analysis shows that the coupling to the continuum part of the spectrum is important for the agreement with experimental data even at energies around the Coulomb barrier, suggesting that breakup is an important process at low energies. At the highest incident energies, two inelastic peaks are observed at 1.19(5) and 2.41(5) MeV. Coupled-channels (CC) calculations using a rotational model confirm that the first inelastic peak corresponds to the excitation of the 21+ state in 120Sn, while the second one likely corresponds to the excitation of the 31- state.

  13. Future energy efficiency improvements within the US department of defense: Incentives and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstattd, Ryan J.

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the military impact of improved efficiency and then highlights existing technological, political, and financial barriers for improving overall energy efficiency. As the largest user of energy within the US government, the Department of Defense (DOD) is rightly concerned that any disruption to the nation's energy supply may have an extremely adverse impact on its military capabilities. The total solution to providing energy security will be multi-faceted with progress required on many fronts. Increasing the use of renewable energy sources and improving energy storage capabilities are gradually creating a positive impact, but investing in improving the overall efficiency of the military effort provides both immediate and long-lasting payback. One might suppose that a decrease in the energy used by the DOD should lead to a decrease in military capability, but historical data proves otherwise. It is shown that the military has additional impetus, compared to civilian consumers, to pursue energy-efficiency improvements. Many tools are available to help the DOD along this path, yet there remain obstacles which must first be identified and analyzed as discussed herein.

  14. Improved fueling and transport barrier formation with pellet injection from different locations on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Gohil, P.

    2001-01-01

    Pellet injection has been employed on DIII-D from different injection locations to optimize the mass deposition for density profile control and internal transport barrier formation. Transport barriers have been formed deep in the plasma core with central mass deposition from high field side (HFS) injected pellets and in the edge with pellets that trigger L-mode to H-mode transitions. Pellets injected from all locations can trigger the H-mode transition, which depends on the edge density gradient created and not on the radial extent of the pellet deposition. Pellets injected from inside the magnetic axis from the inner wall or vertical port lead to stronger central mass deposition than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) and thus yield deeper more efficient fueling. (author)

  15. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technolo...

  16. Potential and barrier study. Passive house and near-zero energy buildings; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Passivhus og naer nullenergibygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The main conclusion from the analysis is that the barriers to realize both passive and near zero-energy buildings are significant. In addition to being a mere economic assessment indicates that 30-70% of the technical potential is not profitable depending on energy price levels, the barriers is reducing the economic potential with approximately another half as a realistic market potential.(eb)

  17. Silicon surface barrier detector and study of energy spectrum of alpha particles from radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, S.D.; Sinha, Vijaya

    1986-01-01

    The principles of working of three commonly used radiation detectors, namely ionization chambers, scintillation counters with photomultiplier tube (PMT) systems and semiconductor detectors are briefly discussed. Out of the semiconductor detectors, the silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector has distinct advantages for detection of radiations, alpha particles in particular. The experimental setup to obtain the energy spectrum of alpha particles from 241 Am source using SSB fabricated in the Physics Department of Gujarat University, Ahmedabad is described. Its performance is compared with scintillation counter using PMT. SSB detector shows a sharp peak of #approx # 3 per cent energy resolution. The factors affecting the peak, namely, electronic noise, source dependent factors and detector-dependent factors are discussed. A method of calibrating SSB detectors based on energy loss mechanism of alpha particles in thin absorbers is described. Applications of such detectors are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  18. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students’ postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than 7,000 rural youth in 73 high schools across 34 states. Results indicated that some individual (e.g., African American race/ethnicity) and contextual (e.g., parent education) difference factors were predictive while others were not. Extensions to, similarities, and variations with previous research are discussed. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:24474843

  19. Biological and Sociocultural Differences in Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among 5th–7th Grade Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber L.; Ling, Jiying; Voskuil, Vicki R.; Bakhoya, Marion; Wesolek, Stacey M.; Bourne, Kelly A.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Robbins, Lorraine B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inadequate physical activity (PA) contributes to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescent girls. Barriers preventing adolescent girls from meeting PA guidelines have not been thoroughly examined. Objectives The threefold purpose of this study was to: (a) determine pubertal stage, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in ratings of interference of barriers to PA; (b) examine relationships between perceived barriers and age, body mass index (BMI), recreational screen time, sedentary activity, and PA; and (c) identify girls’ top-rated perceived barriers to PA. Methods Girls (N = 509) from eight Midwestern U.S. schools participated. Demographic, pubertal stage, perceived barriers, and recreational screen time data were collected via surveys. Height and weight were measured. Accelerometers measured sedentary activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and light plus MVPA. Results Girls of low SES reported greater interference of perceived barriers to PA than those who were not of low SES (1.16 vs. 0.97, p = .01). Girls in early/middle puberty had lower perceived barriers than those in late puberty (1.03 vs. 1.24, p barriers were negatively related to MVPA (r = −.10, p = .03) and light plus MVPA (r = −.11, p = .02). Girls’ top five perceived barriers included lack of skills, hating to sweat, difficulty finding programs, being tired, and having pain. Discussion Innovative interventions, particularly focusing on skill development, are needed to assist girls in overcoming their perceived barriers to PA. PMID:26325276

  20. Biological and Sociocultural Differences in Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Fifth- to Seventh-Grade Urban Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Amber L; Ling, Jiying; Voskuil, Vicki R; Bakhoya, Marion; Wesolek, Stacey M; Bourne, Kelly A; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Robbins, Lorraine B

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity (PA) contributes to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescent girls. Barriers preventing adolescent girls from meeting PA guidelines have not been thoroughly examined. The threefold purpose of this study was to (a) determine pubertal stage, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in ratings of interference of barriers to PA; (b) examine relationships between perceived barriers and age, body mass index, recreational screen time, sedentary activity, and PA; and (c) identify girls' top-rated perceived barriers to PA. Girls (N = 509) from eight Midwestern U.S. schools participated. Demographic, pubertal stage, perceived barriers, and recreational screen time data were collected via surveys. Height and weight were measured. Accelerometers measured sedentary activity, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and light plus MVPA. Girls of low SES reported greater interference of perceived barriers to PA than those who were not of low SES (1.16 vs. 0.97, p = .01). Girls in early/middle puberty had lower perceived barriers than those in late puberty (1.03 vs. 1.24, p barriers were negatively related to MVPA (r = -.10, p = .03) and light plus MVPA (r = -.11, p = .02). Girls' top five perceived barriers included lack of skills, hating to sweat, difficulty finding programs, being tired, and having pain. Innovative interventions, particularly focusing on skill development, are needed to assist girls in overcoming their perceived barriers to PA.

  1. Identifying Barriers and Pathways to Success for Renewable Energy Development on American Indian Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necefer, Len Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Jones, Thomas Elisha [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    American Indian tribes possess lands rich with renewable energy (RE) resources. Tribes have great potential and need to develop these resources, yet face a host of barriers that continue to impede development. Understanding these challenges as well as the pathways that can be taken to overcome them may facilitate more economic development to meet community needs and better position tribes to play a role in securing a low-carbon energy future for the United States. This paper presents the results of an expert elicitation of 24 tribal energy experts from federal, tribal, academic, and private industry backgrounds to identify barriers and opportunities for federally recognized tribes in the lower 48 states. Experts identified a number of unique challenges facing tribes including financing and funding, infrastructure, tribal leadership and staff, state-level influence, and partnerships. Cultural factors were seen only to be of concern with large-scale development. Tribal sovereignty is a significant motivation for RE development and has yet to be fully realized. Cultural considerations are critical to the success of future projects; smaller residential and community-scale projects may be a better fit. Improving partnerships between tribes and the private sector can increase RE deployment and overcome historical distrust. States can have a double-ended influence on projects within tribal lands through taxation.

  2. Coronal microleakage of three different dental biomaterials as intra-orifice barrier during nonvital bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Zarenejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to assess the microleakage of glass-ionomer (GI, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement as coronal orifice barrier during walking bleaching. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, endodontic treatment was done for 70 extracted human incisors without canal calcification, caries, restoration, resorption, or cracks. The teeth were then divided into three experimental using "Simple randomization allocation" (n = 20 and two control groups (n = 5. The three cements were applied as 3-mm intra-orifice barrier in test groups, and bleaching process was then conducted using a mixture of sodium perborate powder and distilled water, for 9 days. For leakage evaluation, bovine serum albumin marker was traced in a dual-chamber technique with Bradford indicator. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ± standard deviation leakage of samples from negative control, positive control, GI, MTA, and CEM cement groups were 0.0, 8.9 ± 0.03, 0.47 ± 0.02, 0.48 ± 0.02, and 0.49 ± 0.02 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between three experimental groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that GI, MTA, and CEM cements are considered as suitable intra-orifice barrier to provide coronal seal during walking bleaching.

  3. Elastic Scattering Of 6,7Li+80Se At Near And Above Barrier Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Barbara, E. de; Testoni, J. E.; Zalazar, L.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose to study the elastic scattering of the weakly bound projectiles 6,7 Li on an intermediate mass target 80 Se. From the experimental results presented here, precise angular distributions at energies below, around and above the nominal Coulomb barriers of the systems were obtained. The final goal of our work is to determine the characteristic parameters of the optical potential and use them to address the question of whether the usual threshold anomaly or the breakup threshold anomaly are present or not in these systems.

  4. Renewable energy clusters recurring barriers to cluster development in eleven countries

    CERN Document Server

    Jaegersberg, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Taking eleven countries in Europe, Canada, South Africa, America, Latin America and Australia, this book discusses recurring barriers to cluster development in the renewable energy sector. The authors look at the real-world dynamics and tensions between stakeholders on the ground, with a particular focus on the relationships between SMEs and other actors. This trans-regional study is unique in its scale and scope, drawing on a decade of field research to show how by learning from the successes and failures of other clusters, costs and risk can be reduced. The book fills a significant gap in the literature for policymakers, managers and economic developers in a key market.

  5. Probing the energy barriers and magnetization reversal processes of nanoperforated membrane based percolated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, V; Schultz, L; Schulze, C; Makarov, D; Albrecht, M; Faustini, M; Grosso, D; Lee, J; Kim, S-K; Suess, D

    2013-01-01

    Magnetization reversal processes in Co/Pt multilayers prepared on nanoperforated templates are probed by magnetization relaxation measurements. The signature of pinning controlled domain wall movement as expected for percolated media is identified. This contrasts with the nucleation-type reversal mechanism of a Co/Pt reference film prepared on a smooth substrate. A zero field energy barrier of 93k B T is determined by fluctuation field measurements and is elucidated by micromagnetic calculations using the nudged elastic band method. This value is sufficiently large to qualify the material as a promising percolated medium. (paper)

  6. Driven diffusion against electrostatic or effective energy barrier across α-hemolysin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansalone, Patrizio [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, Torino, IT-10135 (Italy); Chinappi, Mauro [Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Regina Elena 291, 00161 Roma (Italy); Rondoni, Lamberto [Scienze Matematiche, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino, IT-10129, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino IT-10125 (Italy); Cecconi, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.cecconi@roma1.infn.it [CNR-Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi UoS “Sapienza,” Via dei Taurini 19, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-21

    We analyze the translocation of a charged particle across an α-Hemolysin (αHL) pore in the framework of a driven diffusion over an extended energy barrier generated by the electrical charges of the αHL. A one-dimensional electrostatic potential is extracted from the full 3D solution of the Poisson’s equation. We characterize the particle transport under the action of a constant forcing by studying the statistics of the translocation time. We derive an analytical expression of translocation time average that compares well with the results from Brownian dynamic simulations of driven particles over the electrostatic potential. Moreover, we show that the translocation time distributions can be perfectly described by a simple theory which replaces the true barrier by an equivalent structureless square barrier. Remarkably, our approach maintains its accuracy also for low-applied voltage regimes where the usual inverse-Gaussian approximation fails. Finally, we discuss how the comparison between the simulated time distributions and their theoretical prediction results to be greatly simplified when using the notion of the empirical Laplace transform technique.

  7. Is atomic energy different from a nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young

    1995-07-01

    This book describes of two faces of nuclear energy : the secret of a nuclear, the history of nuclear energy : the scientists with a nuclear, the nuclear energy generation : the third disapprobation, a nuclear weapon : Choice of fear, the Korean peninsula and a nuclear and nuclear energy and utilization in peace. It consists of 31 questions and the answers of the questions about nuclear energy and nucleus.

  8. Overview Of The U.S. Department Of Energy And Nuclear Regulatory Commission Performance Assessment Approaches: Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered barriers including cementitious barriers are used at sites disposing or contaminated with low-level radioactive waste to enhance performance of the natural environment with respect to controlling the potential spread of contaminants. Drivers for using cementitious barriers include: high radionuclide inventory, radionuclide characteristics (e.g., long half-live, high mobility due to chemical form/speciation, waste matrix properties, shallow water table, and humid climate that provides water for leaching the waste). This document comprises the first in a series of reports being prepared for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The document is divided into two parts which provide a summary of: (1) existing experience in the assessment of performance of cementitious materials used for radioactive waste management and disposal and (2) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approaches that have been applied for assessments. Each chapter is organized into five parts: Introduction, Regulatory Considerations, Specific Examples, Summary of Modeling Approaches and Conclusions and Needs. The objective of the report is to provide perspective on the state of the practice for conducting assessments for facilities involving cementitious barriers and to identify opportunities for improvements to the existing approaches. Examples are provided in two contexts: (1) performance assessments conducted for waste disposal facilities and (2) performance assessment-like analyses (e.g., risk assessments) conducted under other regulatory regimes. The introductory sections of each section provide a perspective on the purpose of performance assessments and different roles of cementitious materials for radioactive waste management. Significant experience with assessments of cementitious materials associated with radioactive waste disposal concepts exists in the US Department of Energy Complex and the commercial nuclear sector. Recently, the desire to close legacy facilities has created

  9. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT APPROACHES: CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-05-29

    Engineered barriers including cementitious barriers are used at sites disposing or contaminated with low-level radioactive waste to enhance performance of the natural environment with respect to controlling the potential spread of contaminants. Drivers for using cementitious barriers include: high radionuclide inventory, radionuclide characteristics (e.g., long half-live, high mobility due to chemical form/speciation, waste matrix properties, shallow water table, and humid climate that provides water for leaching the waste). This document comprises the first in a series of reports being prepared for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The document is divided into two parts which provide a summary of: (1) existing experience in the assessment of performance of cementitious materials used for radioactive waste management and disposal and (2) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approaches that have been applied for assessments. Each chapter is organized into five parts: Introduction, Regulatory Considerations, Specific Examples, Summary of Modeling Approaches and Conclusions and Needs. The objective of the report is to provide perspective on the state of the practice for conducting assessments for facilities involving cementitious barriers and to identify opportunities for improvements to the existing approaches. Examples are provided in two contexts: (1) performance assessments conducted for waste disposal facilities and (2) performance assessment-like analyses (e.g., risk assessments) conducted under other regulatory regimes. The introductory sections of each section provide a perspective on the purpose of performance assessments and different roles of cementitious materials for radioactive waste management. Significant experience with assessments of cementitious materials associated with radioactive waste disposal concepts exists in the US Department of Energy Complex and the commercial nuclear sector. Recently, the desire to close legacy facilities has created

  10. The calculated genetic barrier for antiretroviral drug resistance substitutions is largely similar for different HIV-1 subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, D.A. van de; Wensing, A.M.J.; Angarano, G.; Asjo, B.; Balotta, C.; Camacho, R.; Chaix, M.; Costagliola, D.; De Luca, A.; Derdelinckx, I.; Grossman, Z.; Hamouda, O.; Hatzakis, A.; Hemmer, R.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Horban, A.; Korn, K.; Kücherer, C.; Leitner, T.; Loveday, C.; MacRae, E.; Maljkovic, I.; Mendoza, C. de; Meyer, L.; Nielsen, C.; Op de Coul, E.L.M.; Omaasen, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Perrin, L.; Puchhammer-Stöckl, E.; Salminen, M.; Schmit, J.; Scheider, F.; Schuurman, R.; Soriano, V.; Stanczak, G.; Stanojevic, M.; Vandamme, A.; Laethem, K. van; Violin, M.; Wilde, K.; Yerly, S.; Zazzi, M.; Boucher, C.A.B.

    The genetic barrier, defined as the number of mutations required to overcome drug-selective pressure, is an important factor for the development of HIV drug resistance. Because of high variability between subtypes, particular HIV-1 subtypes could have different genetic barriers for drug

  11. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  12. Physical activity in patients with heart failure: barriers and motivations with special focus on sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klompstra L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leonie Klompstra,1 Tiny Jaarsma,1 Anna Strömberg2,31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Cardiology, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenBackground: Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in both male and female patients with heart failure (HF. Men are more physically active than women. In order to successfully promote physical activity, it is therefore essential to explore how much and why HF patients are physically active and if this is related to sex. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate physical activity in HF patients, to describe the factors related to physical activity, and to examine potential barriers and motivations to physical activity with special focus on sex differences.Methods: The study had a cross-sectional survey design. HF patients living at home received a questionnaire during May–July 2014, with questions on physical activity (from the Short Form-International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and potential barriers and motivations to physical activity.Results: A total of 154 HF patients, 27% women, with a mean age of 70±10 were included. In total, 23% of the patients reported a high level of physical activity, 46% a moderate level, and 34% a low level. Higher education, self-efficacy, and motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Symptoms or severity of the disease were not related to physical activity. All the potential barriers to exercise were reported to be of importance. Psychological motivations were most frequently rated as being the most important motivation (41% to be physically active. Physical motivations (33% and social motivations were rated as the least important ones (22%. Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. These differences were found in social, physical, and psychological

  13. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Morcelle, V.

    2010-06-01

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range 6 Li- 238 U, and 158 projectile nuclei from 2 H up to 84 Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  14. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  15. Gaps, barriers and conceptual chasms: theories of technology transfer and energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [University of Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-12-01

    Having shown how much energy might be saved through the use of economically worthwhile measures and technologies, researchers and policy makers then find themselves trying to close the gap between current practice and recognised technical potential. The ensuing process of technology transfer is often seen as a process of overcoming 'non technical barriers' which inhibit the realisation of proven technical potential. This familiar approach depends upon a strong conceptual distinction between the social, on the one hand, and the technical, on the other. But does it make sense to talk of technical potential in the abstract? Do people really have technologies 'transferred' upon them? Drawing upon ideas from the sociology of science and technology and on recent research funded by Britain's Economic and Social Research Council, this paper unpacks conventional beliefs about the diffusion of energy efficient technologies and suggests an alternative approach which acknowledges the social structuring of technical innovation. (author)

  16. Some peculiarities of interactions of weakly bound lithium nuclei at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabyshev, A. M.; Kuterbekov, K. A.; Sobolev, Yu G.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Kubenova, M. M.; Azhibekov, A. K.; Mukhambetzhan, A. M.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Maslov, V. A.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents new experimental data on the total cross sections of 9Li + 28Si reactions at low energies as well as the analysis of previously obtained data for 6,7Li. Based on a large collection of data (authors’ and literature data) we carried out a comparative analysis of the two main experimental interaction cross sections (angular distributions of the differential cross sections and total reaction cross sections) for weakly bound lithium (6-9Li, 11Li) nuclei in the framework of Kox parameterization and the macroscopic optical model. We identified specific features of these interactions and predicted the experimental trend in the total reaction cross sections for Li isotopes at energies close to the Coulomb barrier.

  17. Deuteron interaction with 124Sn nuclei at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Pavlenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of cross sections for deuteron elastic scattering and (d,p reaction on 124Sn nuclei have been performed with aim to study the features of sub-barrier deuteron interaction with heavy nuclei. Experimental data were obtained on the electrostatic Tandem accelerator EGP-10K of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Kyiv at the deuteron beam energies Ed = 4.0; 5.0 and 5.5 MeV. Cross sections of deuteron elastic scattering were calculated in approach where the deuteron interaction potential with heavy nuclei at sub-barrier energies has been constructed in the framework of single folding model using the complex dynamic polarization potential. It is shown that the account of finite deuteron size leads to the increasing the nuclear potential in outer region of interaction and significantly improves the description of the experimental data. The calculations of elastic scattering cross sections were performed without any variations of the nuclear potential parameters. The analysis of measured integral cross sections of the 124Sn(d,p reaction and calculated cross sections of deuteron breakup reaction 124Sn(d,pn124Sn shows the dominant contribution of the neutron transfer reaction in the processes of the formation of protons and elastic scattering cross sections.

  18. Hindrance of O16+Pb208 fusion at extreme sub-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Henning; Mişicu, Şerban

    2007-11-01

    We analyze the fusion data for O16+Pb208 using coupled-channels calculations. We include couplings to the low-lying surface excitations of the projectile and target and study the effect of the (O16,O17) one-neutron pickup. The hindrance of the fusion data that is observed at energies far below the Coulomb barrier cannot be explained by a conventional ion-ion potential and defining the fusion in terms of ingoing-wave boundary conditions (IWBC). We show that the hindrance can be explained fairly well by applying the M3Y double-folding potential which has been corrected with a calibrated, repulsive term that simulates the effect of nuclear incompressibility. We show that the coupling to one-neutron transfer channels plays a crucial role in improving the fit to the data. The best fit is achieved by increasing the transfer strength by 25% relative to the strength that is required to reproduce the one-neutron transfer data. The larger strength is not unrealistic because the calculated inelastic plus transfer cross section is in good agreement with the measured quasielastic cross section. We finally discuss the problem of reproducing the fusion data at energies far above the Coulomb barrier. Here we do not account for the data when we apply the IWBC but the discrepancy is essentially eliminated by applying the M3Y+repulsion potential and a weak, short-ranged imaginary potential.

  19. Condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: the role of local energy barriers and structure length scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Thompson, Carl V; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-10-09

    Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. Nanotechnology has created opportunities to manipulate this process through the precise control of surface structure and chemistry, thus enabling the biomimicry of natural surfaces, such as the leaves of certain plant species, to realize superhydrophobic condensation. However, this "bottom-up" wetting process is inadequately described using typical global thermodynamic analyses and remains poorly understood. In this work, we elucidate, through imaging experiments on surfaces with structure length scales ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm and wetting physics, how local energy barriers are essential to understand non-equilibrium condensed droplet morphologies and demonstrate that overcoming these barriers via nucleation-mediated droplet-droplet interactions leads to the emergence of wetting states not predicted by scale-invariant global thermodynamic analysis. This mechanistic understanding offers insight into the role of surface-structure length scale, provides a quantitative basis for designing surfaces optimized for condensation in engineered systems, and promises insight into ice formation on surfaces that initiates with the condensation of subcooled water.

  20. Phytoremediation of differents wastewaters using energy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Leigue Fernandez, Maria Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The sources of renewable energy acquire considerable interest, if accompanied by a more rational use of energy, to facilitate the transaction by a high use of fossil fuels to a sustainable use of renewable energy. There are many alternative energy source such as wind, solar, geothermal and biomass that fulfil the criteria of sustainability and economic feasibility. Biomass refers to all the vegetable matter that can be obtained from photosynthesis. Biodiesel can be produced from a variety of ...

  1. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences in Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Online Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesova, Larisa; Yang, Dazhi; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to learn about students' perceived barriers and the impact of those barriers on the quality of online discussions between two distinct cultural groups in Eastern and Northern Siberia (Russia). A mixed-methods approach utilizing surveys and interviews was used to investigate (1) the types of barriers the students…

  3. Passive House and Low Energy Buildings: Barriers and Opportunities for Future Development within UK Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pitts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes research carried out to understand better the current and future emphases emerging from practice for the design and development of “Passive House” and low energy buildings. The paper initially discusses the extant position, particularly with regards to the UK and considers how regulation and assessment systems have changed in recent years, as well as projecting ideas forward taking account of contemporary political situations. Relevant previous research into Passive House and low energy design and construction is then reviewed. The need for greater understanding of professionals and their communication/collaboration with clients were identified as important factors impacting development. Those involved in the design and construction practice therefore have key roles in the process of enhancing energy efficiency. Five industry/practice based professional organizations were interviewed in-depth to gain insights into their experience of current low energy design, and to extrapolate the outcomes to future scenarios. The method employed used a structured interview technique with key question areas to lead the discussion. The anonymized responses discussed are grouped around key themes. Evidence suggests there has been a move towards the adoption of voluntary high level standards because of potential limitations with mandatory regulations and because of perceived additional benefits of higher quality design. This change is now more than previously, being driven by informed clients, design professionals, and the industry, with regulation taking a secondary role. New opportunities and barriers are becoming evident and these require further consideration.

  4. Barriers, drivers and decision-making process for industrial energy efficiency: A broad study among manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Farné, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Barriers and drivers vary along the decision-making process of EEM adoption. • Economic barriers, awareness and behavioural are most critical. • Beside economic drivers, major relevance of regulatory and vocational training. • Importance of stakeholders providing technical support. • Barriers and drivers are different according to several firm characteristics. - Abstract: Energy efficiency has been recognized as a primary means to increase the competitiveness of the industrial sector, and in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), in which energy efficiency measures (EEMs) are scarcely implemented. For this reason, future policies should carefully address such issue. Hence, it is really crucial to have a precise and punctual knowledge of the barriers to be tackled in the decision-making process of adopting an EEM and the drivers to be promoted. This study discussed the findings from a broad investigation within 222 manufacturing SMEs located in a Northern Italy region. Beside economic issues particularly affecting SMEs, awareness and behavioural issues emerge as critical, affecting the very first steps of the decision-making process, related to the punctual identification and evaluation of plausible EEMs. The support from manufacturers, technology suppliers, installers and ESCOs supporting SMEs through vocational training drivers (e.g. technical support) is really important to tackle such issues. More generally, beside financial institutions, the supply chain of technologies is recognized as particularly useful for supporting enterprises in the adoption of EEMs. Additionally, having previously conducted energy audit and implemented EEMs are critical factors able to highlight non-economic barriers and drivers. Therefore, the promotion of EEMs will necessarily imply a further effort in pointing out the so-called non-energy benefits (NEBs) from the implementation of EEMs. Finally, our study reveals that smaller and non-energy

  5. Reaction dynamics studies for the system 7Be + 208Pb at Coulomb barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzocco M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering process of the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be from a 208Pb target was measured at three near-barrier energies. The quasi-elastic angular distributions were analyzed within the framework of the optical model to extract the reaction cross sections. The results are compared with those obtained for the reactions induced by the mirror projectile 7Li and by the lightest particle-stable lithium isotope 6Li on the same target. The angular distributions for the production of the two 7Be constituent clusters, namely 3He and 4He, were also measured. In agreement with what observed for the interaction of 7Be with lighter targets, the production of the heavier helium isotope resulted to be much more abundant than that of its lighter counterpart.

  6. Reaction dynamics studies for the system 7Be + 208Pb at Coulomb barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Di Meo, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Nicoletto, M.; Pakou, A.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sava, T.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stroe, L.

    2017-11-01

    The scattering process of the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be from a 208Pb target was measured at three near-barrier energies. The quasi-elastic angular distributions were analyzed within the framework of the optical model to extract the reaction cross sections. The results are compared with those obtained for the reactions induced by the mirror projectile 7Li and by the lightest particle-stable lithium isotope 6Li on the same target. The angular distributions for the production of the two 7Be constituent clusters, namely 3He and 4He, were also measured. In agreement with what observed for the interaction of 7Be with lighter targets, the production of the heavier helium isotope resulted to be much more abundant than that of its lighter counterpart.

  7. Building energy efficiency in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Tsang, C.L.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild, and hot summer and warm winter - in China using DOE-2.1E. The primary aim was to investigate the thermal and energy performance of office buildings with centralised heating, ventilation and air conditioning plants in the major climatic zones in China. The computed results were analysed in three aspects - heating load, cooling load and the corresponding building energy consumption. The building peak monthly heating load varied from 142 MW h (1033 MW h cooling) in Hong Kong to 447 MW h (832 MW h cooling) in Harbin. It was also found that passive solar designs could have large energy savings potential in the severe cold and cold climates. In Harbin, the window solar component helped lower the annual building heating load by 650 MW h. Internal loads (lighting and office equipment) and part load operations of fans and pumps also played a significant role in the overall building energy efficiency. This paper presents the work, its findings and energy efficiency implications

  8. Investment barriers and incentives for marine renewable energy in the UK: An analysis of investor preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leete, Simeon; Xu, Jingjing; Wheeler, David

    2013-01-01

    Deployment of marine renewable energy (MRE) in the UK is desirable in order to address climate change, meet mandatory EU renewable energy targets and provide significant economic development opportunities, including new export markets. Public funding constraints in the UK mean that substantial investment is required from the private sector to commercialize the industry. By focussing on investor attitudes and behaviours towards wave and tidal technologies, this paper reveals significant observations from the investment community with serious implications for the future of the MRE industry. Through a series of in-depth interviews with individuals from the investment community, device developers and industry support, the research seeks to identify common barriers and incentives to investment. The paper demonstrates that although investors' attitudes are generally aligned, they do appear to have changed over time. Of the participants that had previously invested in early stage MRE device development, none were likely to do so again. It is concluded that this is a function of investors' greater understanding of the scale, and unpredictability of the costs, and the length of time required to develop these technologies. This presents a significant policy challenge for all actors interested in the commercialization of wave and tidal technologies. - Highlights: • Performed a series of in-depth interviews with senior finance and industry actors. • Examined investor attitudes and policy preferences that may encourage investment. • VC investors are currently disinclined to invest in early stage device development. • Policy instability, level of capital and revenue support are key investment barriers. • Commercialization requires strategic government and industrial partner investment

  9. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  10. Investigation of {sup 17}F+p elastic scattering at near-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Azab Farid, M. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Assiut (Egypt); Ibraheem, Awad A. [Al-Azhar University, Physics Department, Assiut (Egypt); King Khalid University, Physics Department, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajjaji, Arwa S. [Taiz University, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen)

    2015-10-15

    The {sup 17}F +p elastic scattering at two near-barrier energies of 3.5 and 4.3 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed in the framework of the single folding approach. The folded potentials are constructed by folding the density-dependent (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction over the nuclear density of the one-proton halo nucleus {sup 17}F. Two versions of the density are considered. In addition, two versions of the one-nucleon knock-on exchange potentials are introduced to construct the real microscopic potentials. The derived potentials supplemented by phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary and spin-orbit potentials produced excellent description of the differential elastic scattering cross sections at the higher energy without need to introduce any renormalization. At the lower energy, however, in order to successfully reproduce the data, it is necessary to reduce the strength of the constructed real DDM3Y potential by about 25% of its original value. Furthermore, good agreement with data is obtained using the extracted microscopic DDM3Y potentials for both real and imaginary parts. Moreover, the interesting notch test is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering cross section to the radial distribution of the constructed microscopic potentials. The extracted reaction (absorption) cross sections are, also, investigated. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of 17F+p elastic scattering at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azab Farid, M.; Ibraheem, Awad A.; Al-Hajjaji, Arwa S.

    2015-01-01

    The 17 F +p elastic scattering at two near-barrier energies of 3.5 and 4.3 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed in the framework of the single folding approach. The folded potentials are constructed by folding the density-dependent (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction over the nuclear density of the one-proton halo nucleus 17 F. Two versions of the density are considered. In addition, two versions of the one-nucleon knock-on exchange potentials are introduced to construct the real microscopic potentials. The derived potentials supplemented by phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary and spin-orbit potentials produced excellent description of the differential elastic scattering cross sections at the higher energy without need to introduce any renormalization. At the lower energy, however, in order to successfully reproduce the data, it is necessary to reduce the strength of the constructed real DDM3Y potential by about 25% of its original value. Furthermore, good agreement with data is obtained using the extracted microscopic DDM3Y potentials for both real and imaginary parts. Moreover, the interesting notch test is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering cross section to the radial distribution of the constructed microscopic potentials. The extracted reaction (absorption) cross sections are, also, investigated. (orig.)

  12. Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - A case study of the state of Maharashtra, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2001-07-01

    India's expanding economy and the strong growth expected in the next few decades (at around 10% per annum), will require additional energy. The use of fossil fuels is likely to dominate the strategy for meeting these needs in the near and medium term. However, India's own reserves are finite and will only be available for a limited period and the use of fossil fuels is not sustainable and is directly linked to environmental problems, particularly CO{sub 2} emissions and climate change. The importance of the increasing use of renewable energy sources was recognized in India in the early 1970s. During the past quarter century, a significant effort has gone into the development, trial and induction of a variety of technologies for use in different sectors. Today, India has one of the world's largest programs for renewable energy. The activities cower all the major renewable energy sources, including biogas, biomass, solar, wind and small-hydro power and other emerging technologies. By the end of 20th century nearly three million family-sized biogas plants (second in number in the world and next only to China's) and 30 million improved wood stoves have been established. These technologies could save about 15 million tons of fuel wood every year. Several other renewable energy technologies and products are now commercially available, and are economically viable in comparison to fossil fuels for some applications. However, there are many barriers to achieve the full potential of the renewable energy technologies. In order to study the potential and evaluate different RETs, we carried out a study of barriers to RETs in the state of Maharashtra, which accounts for about 16% of the Gross Domestic Product and 17% of the electricity supply in India. The study has been carried out in two parts. In the first part analysis was done on two technologies, viz., solar and wind. For doing this, information was collected from various secondary sources such as

  13. Technological learning in offshore wind energy: Different roles of the government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, Thijs; Junginger, Martin; Smits, Ruud

    2007-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is a promising source of renewable electricity, even though its current costs prevent large-scale implementation. Technological learning has improved the technology and its economic performance already, and could result in significant further improvements. This study investigates how technological learning takes place in offshore wind energy and how technological learning is related to different policy regimes. Offshore wind energy developments in Denmark and the United Kingdom have been analysed with a technology-specific innovation systems approach. The results reveal that the dominant forms of learning are learning by doing and learning by using. At the same time, learning by interacting is crucial to achieve the necessary binding elements in the technology-specific innovation system. Generally, most learning processes were performed by self-organizing entities. However, sometimes cultural and technical barriers occurred, excluding component suppliers and knowledge institutes from the innovation system. Danish policies successfully anticipated these barriers and removed them; therefore, the Danish policies can be characterized as pro-active. British policies shaped stable conditions for learning only; therefore, they can be characterized as active. In the future, barriers could hinder learning by interacting between the oil and gas industry, the offshore wind industry and academia. Based on this study, we suggest national and international policy makers to design long-term policies to anticipate these barriers, in order to contribute to technological learning

  14. Assessing drivers and barriers of energy-saving measures in Oklahoma’s public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleberry, Becca; Gliedt, Travis; Greene, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Implementing energy conservation initiatives within public schools, including both behavioral changes as well as building retrofits, can generate cost saving and educational benefits. However, the level of energy efficiency improvements that can be achieved may depend on the socio-economic characteristics of the school or the underlying district. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that have a role in influencing the adoption of energy-saving practices and/or building retrofits within Oklahoma’s public schools. In order to investigate these factors, a survey was administered to public school administrators across the state. The results illustrate different factors that drive schools to make decisions associated with energy conservation and retrofitting efforts. A comparative analysis between different types of schools (e.g., rural vs. urban, low- vs. high-income) was also conducted to discover the combination of characteristics that are associated with energy-saving measures. The findings could help school administrators and teachers understand how they might adopt new behaviors or technologies. - Highlights: • Energy performance improvements depend on characteristics of a school district. • Districts with environmental science classes more likely to take energy measures. • Cost savings motivated energy measures in high-income/large-population districts. • A cluster analysis revealed geographic patterns of energy saving measures.

  15. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors......; lack of clearly defined markets; demand-side barriers to purchase relatively high capital-intense energy products. Where numerous energy SMEs are in operation and thus where a valid demonstration effect can be identified, there is a perceived paradox that serves to undermine commercial interest...... in investing in energy SMEs. The paradox is that the donor-supported businesses that were issued with concessional and/or flexible loans serve to demonstrate that these businesses depend upon such concessional terms, i.e., that they could not survive in ‘the real world’. While this assumption is widely...

  16. Different methods for waste to energy transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J. de

    1998-01-01

    In the past 25 years, many technological developments have taken place in the thermal treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Apart from the initials goal of the technology (i.e., volume reduction and inertisation), flue gas emissions, solid residues, energy efficiency and economics became

  17. Barriers associated with frequency of leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian adults of different income strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K S; Del Duca, G F; Garcia, L M T; da Silva, J A; Bertuol, C; de Oliveira, E S A; de Barros, M V G; Nahas, M V

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the main perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and their associations with the frequency of LTPA in a representative sample of industrial workers from Brazil (n = 47,477), according to their income strata (low income: ≤$US280, middle income: $US281-$US1400, and high income: ≥$US1401). Data were collected between 2006 and 2008 via questionnaires about the main perceived barrier to LTPA and the frequency of LTPA. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate differences among groups. There was a lower prevalence of regular practice of LTPA in the low- (15.8%) and middle-income strata (18.2%) than among the individuals of the high-income stratum (27.6%). A large proportion of workers who regularly participated in LTPA reported no barriers (low: 43.1%; middle: 46.8%; high: 51.6%). Additional obligations and fatigue were the two most common perceived barriers in all family income strata among participants who engaged in different frequencies of LTPA. The odds for all perceived barriers showed a positive trend related to frequency of LTPA (from regular to no LTPA), with higher values according to income. In summary, the ordering of the main perceived barriers to LTPA differed according to workers' income stratum and frequency of engaging in LTPA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A novel GaN HEMT with double recessed barrier layer for high efficiency-energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hujun; Luo, Yehui; Wu, Qiuyuan; Yang, Yintang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel GaN HEMT with high efficiency-energy characteristic is proposed. Different from the conventional structure, the proposed structure contains double recessed barriers layer (DRBL) beside the gate. The key idea in this work is to improve the microwave output characteristics. The simulated results show that the drain saturation current and peak transconductance of DRBL GaN HEMT is slightly decreased, the transconductance saturation flatness is increased by 0.5 V and the breakdown voltage is also enhanced too. Due to the both recessed barrier layer, the gate-drain/gate-source capacitance is decreased by 6.3% and 11.3%, respectively. The RF simulated results show that the maximum oscillation frequency for DRBL GaN HEMT is increased from 57 GHz to 64 GHz and the saturation power density is 8.7 W/mm at 600 MHz, 6.9 W/mm at 1200 MHz with the higher power added efficiency (PAE). Further investigation show that DRBL GaN HEMT can achieve to 6.4 W/mm and the maximum PAE 83.8% at 2400 MHz. Both are higher than the 5.0 W/mm and 80.3% for the conventional structure. When the operating frequency increases to X band, the DRBL GaN HEMT still exhibits the superior output performances. All the results show that the advantages and the potential capacities of DRBL GaN HEMT at high efficiency-energy are greater than the conventional GaN HEMT.

  19. Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

  20. Different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies up to intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallouet, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies to intermediate ones. For the low energies, the nuclear matter is essentially constituted from interacting nucleons. Part I is on the fusion-fission of super-heavy elements, while Part II is on the Skyrme interactions associated sum rules. In the case of the intermediate energies, where the nuclear matter is considered as being an hadronic phase mainly constituted from pions, Part III is focused on nuclear matter relativistic hydrodynamics with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In Part I, the formation and the deexcitation of super-heavy nuclei are being studied. The memory effect must be taken into consideration within the super-heavy nuclei formation dynamics. Therefore we analyzed the formation of compound nuclei including the memory effects. As for the intermediate memory effects some oscillations appear, which is very different from the Markovian dynamics. For super-heavy nuclei deexcitation, the existence of isomeric state within the potential barrier cannot explain the results of experiments performed at GANIL with the crystal blocking technique, and this despite of the fact that it modifies the deexcitation dynamics and increases the fission time. However, this latter study could be useful for the study of the actinides fission. In Part II, the phenomenological Skyrme effective interactions-associated M 1 and M 3 sum rules are being calculated based on their intrinsic definitions. We identify then M 1 up to the tensorial level and M 3 with central potential. In Part III, as for the hadronic matter hydrodynamics being applied to heavy ions collisions, and as a first approach only, we can neglect spontaneous chiral symmetry but certainly not the dissipative impact. (author)

  1. Risk assessment in a foundry unit by energy trace and barrier analysis method (ETBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ayati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsAs a Development of Industrial process, human, environment,equipment, material and validity of system has been exposed to hazardous conditions. Regards of32.3 percent of occupations in industries, this study focused on risk assessment of foundry unit byenergy trace and barrier analysis (ETBA method and presented approaches to control of accident.Methodsthe recent study is as a case study one to risk assessment in a foundry unit in Qazvinindustrial city in1387. In this study risks were founded by ETBA method and evaluated by MILSTD-882B. Data were collected by direct observations, interview with workers and supervisorand engineers, walking-talking through method, documents investigation of operationalprocessors, preventive maintenances, equipment technical properties, accidental and medicaldocuments. Finally ETBA worksheets completed.Findingstotally 154 risks has been found. 40 from total are been unacceptable risk, 68unfavorable and also 46 acceptable but with remediation action. Casting workshop had risks morethan other workshops (with 74 identified risks.Potential and heat energies were founded as mosthazardous energies, with respectively 51 and 38 risk cases.ConclusionThis study recommended to be done actions for identification and control risk,such as: safety training, occupation training, preventive maintenance, contract safety, safetycommunication and safety audit group.

  2. Dynamics of 28,30S i* compound nuclei formed at sub-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Bir Bikram; Kaur, Sarbjeet

    2018-05-01

    The decay of 28S i* and 30S i* compound nuclei (CN) formed at sub-barrier energies, in the reactions induced by stable projectile 16O and exotic projectile 18O, respectively, has been investigated within the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory based dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The collective potential energy surface shows that xα-type (x is an integer) clusters are minimized in the decay of 28S i* while in case of 30S i* in addition to xα-type clusters, np-xα (n, p are neutron and proton, respectively) type clusters are also minimized. These minimized fragments have more preformation probability P0, which is an important factor through which nuclear structure effects of decaying CN are probed, within DCM. The results show that light particles (LPs) are contributing mostly in the fusion cross-section, σfusion. In case of 30S i*, the contribution of 1n is highest and more compared to 4He in case of 28S i*, which seems to play an important role in fusion enhancement. The DCM calculated σfusion for both the CN formed with same Ec.m. = 7.0 MeV gives more value for σfusion of 30S i*, in agreement with the experimental data.

  3. The effect of different aluminum alloy surface compositions on barrier anodic film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have grown barrier anodic coatings on samples of aluminum alloy with different elemental surface compositions. In one series of experiments, they characterized the surface composition present on 6061 aluminum alloy samples after different chemical treatments including a detergent-water and methyl-ethyl ketone solvent clean, a 50% nitric acid-water etch, and a concentrated nitric acid-ammonium bifluoride etch. They anodized samples which were prepared similarly to those analyzed to evaluate the practical effects of the three different surface compositions. The anodization voltage rise time to 950V at constant current was used as a figure of merit. The solvent cleaned and the 50% nitric acid etched samples required, respectively, 113% and 41% more time to reach 950V than the concentrated nitric acidammonium bifloride etched samples. In a second series of experiments, they alternately anodized groups of either 6061 or 1100 (commercially pure) aluminum alloy, observed rise times to 950V, and measured chloride ion concentrations in the electrolyte. Longer rise times and higher chloride ion concentrations were observed for the 1100 samples. It was observed that the chloride ion concentration fell from initially high levels when 6061 samples were anodized. The results of both series of experiments augment the results of other investigators, who report that the surface species initially present on aluminum have a significant effect on anodic film formation

  4. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  5. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  6. submitter Scattering of halo nuclei on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier: The case of $^{11}$Be on $^{197}$Au

    CERN Document Server

    Pesudo, V; Moro, A M; Lay, J A; Nácher, E; Gómez-Camacho, J; Tengblad, O; Acosta, L; Alcorta, M; Alvarez, M A G; Andreoiu, C; Bender, P C; Braid, R; Cubero, M; Di Pietro, A; Fernández-García, J P; Figuera, P; Fisichella, M; Fulton, B R; Garnsworthy, A B; Hackman, G; Hager, U; Kirsebom, O S; Kuhn, K; Lattuada, M; Marquínez-Durán, G; Martel, I; Miller, D; Moukaddam, M; O'Malley, P D; Perea, A; Rajabali, M M; Sánchez-Benítez, A M; Sarazin, F; Scuderi, V; Svensson, C E; Unsworth, C; Wang, Z M

    2017-01-01

    This work reports on the scattering of $^{11}$Be on $^{197}$Au at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. By experimentally identifying the elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and breakup channels, and comparing them with different calculations, valuable information on the $^{11}$Be structure and its $B(E1$) distribution to the continuum are obtained. On top of that, a deeper understanding of the scattering process at low energies is achieved for reactions of this kind, making these studies extendable to other loosely-bound systems like $^{17,19}$C.

  7. Impact of compliance with different guidelines on physical activity during pregnancy and perceived barriers to leisure physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Lopes, Diana; Santos, Rute; Alves, Odete; Silva, Pedro; Montenegro, Nuno; Mota, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the this prospective study were to analyse physical activity (PA) engagement during the first and second trimesters, considering the different guidelines published on PA, to document the individual characteristics associated with the accomplishment of these guidelines and to examine pregnant women's perceived barriers to leisure PA, using a socioecological framework. A sample of 133 pregnant women in two stages--at 10-12 weeks' gestation (T1) and 20-22 weeks' gestation (T2)--were evaluated. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the T1 and T2 evaluation stages. Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and barriers to leisure PA were assessed via questionnaire. A large proportion of women (ranging from 32% to 96%) did not reach the levels of PA recommended by the guidelines. There were no significant differences between T1 and T2 with regard to compliance with PA recommendations. A decrease in PA levels from T1 to T2 was noted for all recommendations. No associations were found between participants' characteristics and adherence to the recommendations in T1 and T2. No significant differences were found in barriers to leisure PA between T1 and T2. The most commonly reported barriers to leisure PA were intrapersonal, not health related. Our results indicate that there were no differences between trimesters regarding compliance of PA recommendations, and perceived barriers were similar in both trimesters.

  8. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  9. Blood-brain barrier and cerebral blood flow: Age differences in hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya Oxana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal stroke is similar to the stroke that occurs in adults and produces a significant morbidity and long-term neurologic and cognitive deficits. There are important differences in the factors, clinical events and outcomes associated with the stroke in infants and adults. However, mechanisms underlying age differences in the stroke development remain largely unknown. Therefore, treatment guidelines for neonatal stroke must extrapolate from the adult data that is often not suitable for children. The new information about differences between neonatal and adult stroke is essential for identification of significant areas for future treatment and effective prevention of neonatal stroke. Here, we studied the development of stress-induced hemorrhagic stroke and possible mechanisms underlying these processes in newborn and adult rats. Using histological methods and magnetic resonance imaging, we found age differences in the type of intracranial hemorrhages. Newborn rats demonstrated small superficial bleedings in the cortex while adult rats had more severe deep bleedings in the cerebellum. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, we found higher stress-reactivity of the sagittal sinus to deleterious effects of stress in newborn vs. adult rats suggesting that the cerebral veins are more vulnerable to negative stress factors in neonatal vs. adult brain in rats. However, adult but not newborn rats demonstrated the stroke-induced breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. The one of possible mechanisms underlying the higher resistance to stress-related stroke injures of cerebral vessels in newborn rats compared with adult animals is the greater expression of two main tight junction proteins of BBB (occludin and claudin-5 in neonatal vs. mature brain in rats.

  10. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D.; Logan, Bruce E.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery

  11. Similarities and Differences in Barriers and Opportunities Affecting Climate Change Adaptation Action in Four North American Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Whitney R.; Kretser, Heidi E.; Chetkiewicz, Cheryl-Lesley B.; Cross, Molly S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change presents a complex set of challenges for natural resource managers across North America. Despite recognition that climate change poses serious threats to species, ecosystems, and human communities, implementation of adaptation measures is not yet happening on a broad scale. Among different regions, a range of climate change trajectories, varying political contexts, and diverse social and ecological systems generate a myriad of factors that can affect progress on climate change adaptation implementation. In order to understand the general versus site-specific nature of barriers and opportunities influencing implementation, we surveyed and interviewed practitioners, decision-makers, and scientists involved in natural resource management in four different North American regions, northern Ontario (Canada), the Adirondack State Park (US), Arctic Alaska (US), and the Transboundary Rocky Mountains (US and Canada). Common barriers among regions related to a lack of political support and financial resources, as well as challenges related to translating complex and interacting effects of climate change into management actions. Opportunities shared among regions related to collaboration, funding, and the presence of strong leadership. These commonalities indicate the importance of cross-site learning about ways to leverage opportunities and address adaptation barriers; however, regional variations also suggest that adaptation efforts will need to be tailored to fit specific ecological, political, social and economic contexts. Comparative findings on the similarities and differences in barriers and opportunities, as well as rankings of barriers and opportunities by region, offers important contextual insights into how to further refine efforts to advance adaptation actions in those regions.

  12. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  13. Increase the use of the stone dust bagged barrier enhancing its application for differing conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises the results of work on bagged stone dust barrier for stopping the flame propagation of a coal dust explosion in the 200m GP badenhorst test gallery at the kloppersbos research facility....

  14. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  15. Deformed special relativity with an energy barrier of a minimum speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This research aims to introduce a new principle of symmetry in the flat space-time by means of the elimination of the classical idea of rest, and by including a universal minimum limit of speed in the quantum world. Such a limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a preferred inertial reference frame associated with a universal background field that breaks Lorentz symmetry. So there emerges a new relativistic dynamics where a minimum speed forms an inferior energy barrier. One of the interesting implications of the existence of such a minimum speed is that it prevents the absolute zero temperature for an ultracold gas, according to the third law of thermodynamics. So we will be able to provide a fundamental dynamical explanation for the third law by means of a connection between such a phenomenological law and the new relativistic dynamics with a minimum speed. In other words we say that our relevant investigation is with respect to the problem of the absolute zero temperature in the thermodynamics of an ideal gas. We have made a connection between the 3 rd law of Thermodynamics and the new dynamics with a minimum speed by means of a relation between the absolute zero temperature (T = 0 deg K) and a minimum average speed (V) for a gas with N particles (molecules or atoms). Since T = 0 deg K is thermodynamically unattainable, we have shown this is due to the impossibility of reaching V from the new dynamics standpoint. (author)

  16. Enhancing the effective energy barrier of a Dy(III) SMM using a bridged diamagnetic Zn(II) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Apoorva; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Das, Chinmoy; Mondol, Ranajit; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Shanmugam, Maheswaran

    2014-08-18

    Field induced single-molecule-magnet behaviour is observed for both a heterodinuclear [ZnDy(L(-))2](3+) complex (1) and a mononuclear [Dy(HL)2](3+) complex (2), with effective energy barriers of 83 cm(-1) and 16 cm(-1), respectively. Insights into the relaxation mechanism(s) and barrier heights are provided via ab initio and DFT calculations. Our findings reveal an interesting observation that the U(eff) of SMMs can be enhanced by incorporating diamagnetic metal ions.

  17. Mind the gap! Barriers and implementation deficiencies of energy policies at the local scale in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Zuidema, Christian; Gugerell, Katharina; Roo, Gert de

    2017-01-01

    Environmental concerns and potential social-economic impacts associated with fossil fuels have turned cities into indispensable entities for supporting energy transitions in China. Pursuing a transition towards a sustainable energy system has become a major policy concern for the Chinese central government. In response, and on the basis of a top-down and conformance-oriented system of policy implementation and evaluation, the Chinese central government has launched various policies and targets on energy efficiency and production that lower levels of government have to follow. However, the translation of top-down targets and the measurement of conformance-based targets have both proved to be problematic. This paper investigates Chinese state policy on energy efficiency through four empirical case studies. It identifies how policy design of target setting and evaluation is both impacting and driving the implementation of energy efficiency at the local urban scale. We demonstrate how local authorities are faced with constraining barriers that can inhibit the implementation of centrally issued targets and policies. These barriers may even undermine local performance in the pursuit of ambitious energy efficiency goals, resulting in potentially harmful consequences. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency policies are ill-adapted to the diversity of local circumstances. • Predominant focus on conformance in energy policies overlooks local performance. • Pursuing ambitions runs the risk of being undermined by strict measuring systems. • Chinese energy transition needs more flexibility in target setting and evaluation.

  18. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  20. Fragmentation approach to the point-island model with hindered aggregation: Accessing the barrier energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of hindered aggregation on the island formation process in a one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) point-island model for epitaxial growth with arbitrary critical nucleus size i . In our model, the attachment of monomers to preexisting islands is hindered by an additional attachment barrier, characterized by length la. For la=0 the islands behave as perfect sinks while for la→∞ they behave as reflecting boundaries. For intermediate values of la, the system exhibits a crossover between two different kinds of processes, diffusion-limited aggregation and attachment-limited aggregation. We calculate the growth exponents of the density of islands and monomers for the low coverage and aggregation regimes. The capture-zone (CZ) distributions are also calculated for different values of i and la. In order to obtain a good spatial description of the nucleation process, we propose a fragmentation model, which is based on an approximate description of nucleation inside of the gaps for 1D and the CZs for 2D. In both cases, the nucleation is described by using two different physically rooted probabilities, which are related with the microscopic parameters of the model (i and la). We test our analytical model with extensive numerical simulations and previously established results. The proposed model describes excellently the statistical behavior of the system for arbitrary values of la and i =1 , 2, and 3.

  1. What we have learned so far on reactions and scattering with weakly bound nuclei at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Reactions involving weakly bound nuclei, especially halo nuclei, at near barrier energies, are an important subject not yet fully understood. Due to the low threshold energy for breakup, this process is particularly important and may affect significantly the fusion process and elastic scattering. In this talk I will show the systematic of results so far available in this field, concerning static and dynamical effects of halo and breakup on fusion and total reaction cross sections, the energy dependence of the optical potential on the elastic scattering and coupling effects on quasi-elastic scattering barrier distributions involving weakly bound nuclei, both stable and radioactive. The data to be discussed are new data from our group and from the literature, together with some older data. I will also present some experimental challenges for the development of this field. (author)

  2. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  3. Identifying barriers to remaining physically active after rehabilitation: differences in perception between physical therapists and older adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kathryn; Alt, Carlynn; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional study. To describe readiness for change and barriers to physical activity in older adults and to contrast perceptions of physical therapists and patients using the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Regular physical activity is vital to recovery after discharge from physical therapy. Physical therapists are positioned to support change in physical activity habits for those transitioning to home care. Understanding of readiness for change and barriers to physical activity could optimize recovery. Thirteen physical therapists enrolled in the study and invited patients who met the inclusion criteria to enroll (79 patients enrolled). The physical therapists provided the ICD-9 code, the physical therapist diagnosis, and completed the Barriers to Being Active Quiz as they perceived their patients would. The enrolled patients provided demographics and filled out the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the stages-of-change scale for physical activity, and the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Patients were predominantly in the early stages of readiness for change. Both patients and physical therapists identified lack of willpower as the primary barrier to physical activity. Patients identified lack of willpower and social influence as critical barriers more often than physical therapists, whereas physical therapists identified fear of injury and lack of time more often than their patients did. Differences between physical therapists and their patients were noted for fear of injury (z = 2.66, P = .008) and lack of time (z = 3.46, P = .001). The stage of change for physical activity impacted perception of social influence (χ2 = 9.64, Pbarriers to physical activity may allow physical therapists to better tailor intervention strategies to impact physical activity behavior change.

  4. Female and Male Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities: Differences in the Barriers to Their Transition to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…

  5. Evaluation of the barrier capability of Zr-Si films with different substrate temperature for Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Cao Fei; Ding Minghui; Shao Lei

    2009-01-01

    Barrier capability of Zr-Si diffusion barriers in Cu metallization has been investigated. Amorphous Zr-Si diffusion barriers were deposited on the Si substrates by RF reactive magnetron sputtering under various substrate temperatures. An increase in substrate temperature results in a slightly decreased deposition rate together with an increase in mass density. An increase in substrate temperature also results in grain growth as deduced from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) micrographs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiles for Cu/Zr-Si(RT)/Si and Cu/Zr-Si(300 deg. C)/Si samples subjected to anneal at various temperatures show that the thermal stability was strongly correlated with the deposition temperature (consequently different density and chemical composition etc.) of the Zr-Si barrier layers. ZrSi(300 deg. C) with higher mass density make the Cu/Zr-Si(300 deg. C)/Si sample more stable. The appearance of Cu 3 Si in the Cu/Zr-Si/Si sample is attributed to the failure mechanism which may be associated with the diffusion of Cu and Si via the grain boundaries of the Zr-Si barriers.

  6. Breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation among women from different ethnic groups in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L J L; Atkins, L; Thurnham, A; Layburn, J; Haste, F; Ramirez, A J

    2011-01-01

    Background: During 2001 to 2005, 1-year breast cancer survival was low in ethnically diverse East London. We hypothesised that this was due to low breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation, leading to late stage at diagnosis in women from ethnic minorities. We examined ethnic differences in breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation in East London. Methods: We carried out a population-based survey of 1515 women aged 30+ using the Cancer Research UK Breast Cancer Awareness Measure. We analysed the data using logistic regression adjusting for age group and level of deprivation. Results: South Asian and black women had lower breast cancer awareness than white women. South Asian women, but not black women, reported more emotional barriers to seeking medical help than white women. White women were more likely than non-white women to report worry about wasting the doctor's time as a barrier to symptomatic presentation. Conclusion: Interventions to promote early presentation of breast cancer for South Asian and black women should promote knowledge of symptoms and skills to detect changes, and tackle emotional barriers to symptomatic presentation and for white women tackle the idea that going to the doctor to discuss a breast symptom will waste the doctor's time. PMID:21989188

  7. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J. A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G. A.

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Barriers and opportunities in realising sustainable energy concepts--an analysis of two Swiss case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christian; Gisler, Priska

    2003-01-01

    What assists and what hinders sustainable energy use in being put into effect? Two case studies of sustainable energy concepts--the Zurich Solarstromboerse, where electricity can be purchased that is produced by solar panels, and the Swiss CO 2 -law, a consensus oriented implementation of the Kyoto-protocol--were analysed in order to investigate this question. In both case studies the unfolding of the sustainable energy concepts is reconstructed as a process starting with an abstract idea moving to a concrete realisation. This process passes through a series of different social worlds and is, in turn, affected by them. These social worlds are e.g. those of the concerned scientists, the professional investors, energy suppliers or governmental agencies. The case studies reveal three neuralgic challenges that have to be met when a concept advances from idea to realisation through the social worlds: Firstly, the translation between social worlds changes the content of the idea. Secondly, the way each social world looks at things (socially) constructs best solutions to problems and hides others. Thirdly, the actual dynamics of the social world within which it is finally implemented must be adopted by the idea. In order to integrate these neuralgic points, scientists as well as other inventors have to retain responsibility for their sustainable energy ideas and are requested to follow them through the social worlds in order to critically survey and eventually influence their 'content in flux'

  10. Perception of the energy question in different regions of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouque, B.; Villaret, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors first outline the main variables which account for regional differences in the perception of the energy question, and go on to discuss these differences and the factors underlying them [fr

  11. Fusion enhancement at near and sub-barrier energies in {sup 19}O + {sup 12}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Varinderjit; Vadas, J.; Steinbach, T.K.; Wiggins, B.B.; Hudan, S. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Souza, R.T. de, E-mail: deSouza@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Lin, Zidu; Horowitz, C.J. [Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Baby, L.T.; Kuvin, S.A.; Tripathi, Vandana; Wiedenhöver, I. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Umar, A.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Measuring the fusion excitation function for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei provides a stringent test of a microscopic description of fusion. We report the first measurement of the fusion excitation function at near-barrier energies for the {sup 19}O + {sup 12}C system. The measured excitation function is compared with the fusion excitation function of {sup 18}O + {sup 12}C. A significant enhancement in the fusion probability of {sup 19}O ions with a {sup 12}C target as compared to {sup 18}O ions is observed. The experimental cross-sections observed at near-barrier energies are compared with a state-of-the-art microscopic model.

  12. Energy barriers for interlayer diffusion in Pt/Pt(111) and Rh/Rh(111) homoepitaxy: small islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máca, František; Kotrla, Miroslav; Trushin, O. S.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (1999), s. 1591-1596 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Surface Physics /8./. Třešť, 28.06.1999-02.07.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P3.80 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : molecular statics * energy barriers * Pt and Rh Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.328, year: 1999

  13. Deep-inelastic scattering in 124,136Xe+58,64Ni at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.B.; Chan, K.C.; Freer, M.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C.L.; Rehm, K.E.; Schiffer, J.P.; Wolanski, M.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Gehring, J.; Wolanski, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross sections, angular distributions, and mass distributions have been measured for deep-inelastic scattering in 124 Xe+ 58 Ni and 136 Xe+ 64 Ni at laboratory energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. The mass distributions show distinct components due to deep-inelastic and fissionlike processes. The strength of deep-inelastic scattering is similar in the two systems measured and comparable to previous measurements in 58 Ni+ 112,124 Sn. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Simulations about self-absorption of tritium in titanium tritide and the energy deposition in a silicon Schottky barrier diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Yebing; Hu, Rui; Yang, Yuqing; Wang, Guanquan; Zhong, Zhengkun; Luo, Shunzhong

    2012-01-01

    Simulations on the self-absorption of tritium electrons in titanium tritide films and the energy deposition in a silicon Schottky barrier diode are carried out using the Geant4 radiation transport toolkit. Energy consumed in each part of the Schottky radiovoltaic battery is simulated to give a clue about how to make the battery work better. The power and energy-conversion efficiency of the tritium silicon Schottky radiovoltaic battery in an optimized design are simulated. Good consistency with experiments is obtained. - Highlights: ► Simulation of the energy conversion inside the radiovoltaic battery is carried out. ► Energy-conversion efficiency in the simulation shows good consistency with experimental result. ► Inadequacy of the present configuration is studied in this work and improvements are proposed.

  15. Diabat Interpolation for Polymorph Free-Energy Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Kartik; Peters, Baron

    2017-02-02

    Existing methods to compute free-energy differences between polymorphs use harmonic approximations, advanced non-Boltzmann bias sampling techniques, and/or multistage free-energy perturbations. This work demonstrates how Bennett's diabat interpolation method ( J. Comput. Phys. 1976, 22, 245 ) can be combined with energy gaps from lattice-switch Monte Carlo techniques ( Phys. Rev. E 2000, 61, 906 ) to swiftly estimate polymorph free-energy differences. The new method requires only two unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, one for each polymorph. To illustrate the new method, we compute the free-energy difference between face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic polymorphs for a Gaussian core solid. We discuss the justification for parabolic models of the free-energy diabats and similarities to methods that have been used in studies of electron transfer.

  16. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  17. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na2-xMn 5O10 nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Origins and implications of temperature-dependent activation energy barriers for dislocation nucleation in face-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.H.; Curtin, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The linking of atomistic simulations of stress-driven processes to experimentally observed mechanical behavior via the computation of activation energy barriers is a topic of intense current research. Using dislocation nucleation from a crack tip as the reaction process, long-time multiscale molecular dynamics simulations show that the activation barrier can exhibit significant temperature dependence. Using an analytic model for the nucleation process and computing the relevant material properties (elastic constants and stacking fault energies), the temperature dependence is shown to arise primarily from the temperature dependence of the material parameters for both Al and Ni. After thermally activated emission of the first partial dislocation, there is then a competition between two other thermally activated processes: twinning and full dislocation emission. Because the activation barriers depend on temperature, this transition is more complex than usually envisioned. Simulations in Al reveal that a transition from twinning to full dislocation emission back to twinning occurs with increasing temperature, which is counter to traditional metallurgical wisdom. Temperature-dependent activation energies are thus essential to accurate understanding and prediction of those phenomena that control fracture and deformation in metals at realistic loading rates.

  19. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular

  20. Hindered rotational energy barriers of BH4- tetrahedra in β-Mg(BH4)2 from quasielastic neutron scattering and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Riktor, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    , around the 2-fold (C2) and 3-fold (C3) axes were observed at temperatures from 120 to 440 K. The experimentally obtained activation energies (EaC2 = 39 and 76 meV and EaC3 = 214 meV) and mean residence times between reorientational jumps are comparable with the energy barriers obtained from DFT......In this work, hindered rotations of the BH4- tetrahedra in Mg(BH4)2 were studied by quasielastic neutron scattering, using two instruments with different energy resolution, in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two thermally activated reorientations of the BH4- units...... calculations. A linear dependency of the energy barriers for rotations around the C2 axis parallel to the Mg-Mg axis with the distance between these two axes was revealed by the DFT calculations. At the lowest temperature (120 K) only 15% of the BH4- units undergo rotational motion and from comparison with DFT...

  1. Transfection of rat brain endothelium in a primary culture model of the blood-brain barrier at different states of barrier maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Lichota, Jacek

    Central nervous system diseases are becoming more prevalent. Unfortunately, the treatment of CNS diseases is often rendered complicated by the inability of many drugs of therapeutic relevance to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In order to enhance drug delivery to the brain, different...... approaches have been developed. Gene therapy could be a promising and novel approach to overcome the restricting properties of the BBB to polypeptides and proteins. Gene therapy is based on the delivery of genetic material into brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), which, theoretically, will result...... in expression and secretion of the recombinant protein from the BCECs and into the brain, thus turning BCECs into small recombinant protein factories. In this study, the possibility of using BCECs as small factories for recombinant protein production was investigated. To mimic the in-vivo situation as closely...

  2. Methodological differences behind energy statistics for steel production – Implications when monitoring energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfeldt, Johannes; Silveira, Semida

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency indicators used for evaluating industrial activities at the national level are often based on statistics reported in international databases. In the case of the Swedish iron and steel sector, energy consumption statistics published by Odyssee, Eurostat, the IEA (International Energy Agency), and the United Nations differ, resulting in diverging energy efficiency indicators. For certain years, the specific energy consumption for steel is twice as high if based on Odyssee statistics instead of statistics from the IEA. The analysis revealed that the assumptions behind the allocation of coal and coke used in blast furnaces as energy consumption or energy transformation are the major cause for these differences. Furthermore, the differences are also related to errors in the statistical data resulting from two different surveys that support the data. The allocation of coal and coke has implications when promoting resource as well as energy efficiency at the systems level. Eurostat's definition of energy consumption is more robust compared to the definitions proposed by other organisations. Nevertheless, additional data and improved energy efficiency indicators are needed to fully monitor the iron and steel sector's energy system and promote improvements towards a greener economy at large. - Highlights: • Energy statistics for the iron and steel sector diverge in international databases. • Varying methods have implications when monitoring energy and resource efficiency. • Allocation of blast furnaces as transformation activities is behind the differences. • Different statistical surveys and human error also contribute to diverging results

  3. A barrier analysis for the development of distributed energy in China: A case study in Fujian province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Run; Sun, Yanwei; Lin, Yanjie; Xiao, Lishan

    2013-01-01

    Distributed energy (DE) is receiving lots of attention from the Chinese government. A number of DE projects have been constructed in China. However, there are still numerous problems with DE projects. What hinders the development of DE in China? The Huadian Jimei distributed energy project (HJDE) is a typical DE building project that was not completed successfully. This paper focuses on this DE project to explore the barriers to DE development. The research group conducted 13 semi-structured interviews with representatives of institutions and corporations involved in the HJDE project to collect information. Based on the information, three types of problems were determined, and the results indicate that these conflicts between the core stakeholders make DE projects unsuccessful. These problems result from institutional barriers to DE, rooting in the development policy and the current energy market. Moreover, several key stakeholders are not able to play an active role in the design or management of DE projects. The Chinese government will put a much greater effort into the development of future DE projects. Many national support policies and rules will be announced, which are easy to practical use. Under these conditions, 1000 DE projects will be successfully completed until 2015. - Highlights: • Using stakeholder analysis, this paper focuses on one typical building DE project. • Conflicts between core stakeholders make the DE project cannot be completed. • The barriers are related to the role of electricity consumers in DE projects. • The barriers are also related to current Chinese natural gas and LNG market. • Drivers such as regulation, incentives and so on should be built and modified

  4. Fulfillment of the long-term safety functions by the different barriers during the main time frames after repository closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Lalieux, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    In general terms the basis long-term safety functions of a disposal system (i.e. the engineered barrier system, including the waste forms and the host rock) are the functions that the system as a whole or its constituents must fulfill in order to assure an adequate level of long-term radiological safety. The long-term safety functions of a disposal system constitute a generic and methodological tool that can be used in a double sense. In the first place these functions provide an a priori instrument for designing the system: the implementer must ensure that these safety functions are fulfilled by a series of robust system barriers and components. These functions can also be used as an a posteriori means to describe and assess in general terms the functioning of the system. In this way they are an important qualitative element to help to support the safety case and to identify further R and D priorities. By providing a general description of system functioning they are also a communication tool to stakeholders who are less familiar with the details of a safety case. Instead of limiting the description to a multi-barrier system, the safety functions enable to better explain how the different barriers contribute to one or more safety functions and by which processes this is performed. By doing so the system description moves from multi-barrier to multi-function. The aim of this paper is to provide such a general description of the system functioning for the Belgian case of deep disposal of high-level waste (mainly spent fuel or vitrified waste from fuel reprocessing) in the Boom Clay, o poorly-indurated argillaceous formation. From the detailed safety and performance evaluations the main time frames after repository closure are identified. Each time frame relates to a period during which the successive safety functions play a key role. Also, in each time frame the radiological impact on the environment is distinctly different. (authors)

  5. Primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers respond differently to a hazardous and an innocuous protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, A D; Zimmermann, C; Delaney, B; Hurley, B P

    2017-08-01

    An experimental platform employing human derived intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line monolayers grown on permeable Transwell ® filters was previously investigated to differentiate between hazardous and innocuous proteins. This approach was effective at distinguishing these types of proteins and perturbation of monolayer integrity, particularly transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), was the most sensitive indicator. In the current report, in vitro indicators of monolayer integrity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation were evaluated using primary (non-transformed) human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers cultured on Transwell ® filters to compare effects of a hazardous protein (Clostridium difficile Toxin A [ToxA]) and an innocuous protein (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). ToxA exerted a reproducible decrease on barrier integrity at doses comparable to those producing effects observed from cell line-derived IEC monolayers, with TEER being the most sensitive indicator. In contrast, BSA, tested at concentrations substantially higher than ToxA, did not cause changes in any of the tested variables. These results demonstrate a similarity in response to certain proteins between cell line-derived polarized IEC models and a primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barrier model, thereby reinforcing the potential usefulness of cell line-derived polarized IECs as a valid experimental platform to differentiate between hazardous and non-hazardous proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional differences as barriers to body mass index screening described by Ohio school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M; Chaudry, Rosemary V; Polivka, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in suburban, rural, and urban public elementary schools. This descriptive study used focus groups with 25 school nurses in 3 geographic regions of Ohio. An adapted Healthy People 2010 model guided the development of semistructured focus group questions. Nine regional themes related to BMI screening emerged specific to suburban, rural, and/or urban school nurses' experiences with BMI screening practice, policy, school physical environment, school social environment, school risk/protection, and access to quality health care. Key facilitating factors to BMI screening varied by region. Key barriers to BMI screening were a lack of privacy, time, policy, and workload of school nurses. Regionally specific facilitating factors to BMI screening in schools provide opportunities for schools to accentuate the positive and to promote school health. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  7. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots embedded in energy fence barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Wei, Guodan

    2010-07-06

    A plurality of layers of a first semiconductor material and a plurality of dots-in-a-fence barriers disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode. Each dots-in-a-fence barrier consists essentially of a plurality of quantum dots of a second semiconductor material embedded between and in direct contact with two layers of a third semiconductor material. Wave functions of the quantum dots overlap as at least one intermediate band. The layers of the third semiconductor material are arranged as tunneling barriers to require a first electron and/or a first hole in a layer of the first material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the second material within a respective quantum dot, and to require a second electron and/or a second hole in a layer of the first semiconductor material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach another layer of the first semiconductor material.

  8. Regional energy consumption and income differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    income of households grouped in income deciles and by other characteristics. The impact of environmental taxes depends on income levels in rural areas compared to income in urban areas. In Denmark, the income difference is found to be quite small, but energy consumption and, therefore, also the burden......Internationally a debate on the distributional impact of energy taxation has focused on the tax burden relative to income. The general conclusion is that taxes are regressive, but at a varying degree for different countries. This study examines the relationship between location, income, heating...... technology characteristics and the energy tax that households pay. The article aims at identifying general implications of energy taxes with respect to different impacts on population groups depending on location and income. Tax payments associated with energy use are considered relative to total disposable...

  9. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  10. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  11. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  12. Regulating district heating in Romania: Legislative challenges and energy efficiency barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poputoaia, Diana; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many states in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE) possess extensive district heating (DH) networks that were constructed during the days of communist rule in order to provide a universally accessible energy service that supported Soviet development policies. But the post-communist transition was marked by the exacerbation of the sector's numerous technical, economic, regulatory and environmental problems, accompanied by its abandonment in favour of alternative methods of domestic heating. Recent efforts to increase the use of DH in ECE as a result of environmental and energy security concerns have taken place in an absence of critical, context-sensitive research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal aspects of post-communist DH reforms in Romania, with the aim of identifying some of the governance challenges faced by state authorities in managing the sector. In broader terms, we seek to explore the extent to which the Romanian legislative framework is in a position to promote energy efficiency in DH. This has been achieved via an analysis of formal policy documents, government decrees, strategic documents and laws pertaining to this sector, as published and subsequently amended in the Official Gazette. The conclusions of the paper identify the key regulatory issues in the sector-especially with respect to the tariff setting process and the division of competences among different organisations in it-while suggesting a set of policy steps and general restructuring approaches that could help overcome the current situation.

  13. Energy consumption in buildings for different sport activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrfors, M; Werner, G; Oertenstrand, G

    1978-01-01

    Some buildings for different kinds of sport activities have a great energy demand. The actions which could be taken in order to decrease the energy demand and at the same time decrease the operating costs for these buildings are summarized. References are given to literature of current interest in this field.

  14. Barrier heights, polarization switching, and electrical fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics with different electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Schafranek, Robert; Wachau, André; Zhukov, Sergey; Glaum, Julia; Granzow, Torsten; von Seggern, Heinz; Klein, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    The influence of Pt, tin-doped In2O3, and RuO2 electrodes on the electrical fatigue of bulk ceramic Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) has been studied. Schottky barrier heights at the ferroelectric/electrode interfaces vary by more than one electronvolt for different electrode materials and do not depend on crystallographic orientation of the interface. Despite different barrier heights, hysteresis loops of polarization, strain, permittivity, and piezoelectric constant and the switching kinetics are identical for all electrodes. A 20% reduction in polarization after 106 bipolar cycles is observed for all the samples. In contrast to PZT thin films, the loss of remanent polarization with bipolar switching cycles does not significantly depend on the electrode material.

  15. Effect of different glucose supply conditions on neuronal energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hongwen; Wang, Rubin; Qu, Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    The glucose-excited neurons in brain can sense blood glucose levels and reflect different firing states, which are mainly associated with regulation of blood glucose and energy demand in the brain. In this paper, a new model of glucose-excited neuron in hypothalamus is proposed. The firing properties and energy consumption of this type of neuron under conditions of different glucose levels are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the firing rate and firing duration of the neuron both...

  16. Ordering of Self-Diffusion Barrier Energies on Pt(110)-1x2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feibelman, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    Bond-counting arguments, supported by ab-initio calculations, predict a lower barrier for ''leapfrog'' diffusion of Pt addimers on Pt(llO)-lx2 than for adatom dif- fusion or addimer dissociation. This conflicts with experiment, possibly signaling contaminant influence

  17. Sustainability, Shale Gas, and Energy Transition in China: Assessing Barriers and Prioritizing Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    and prioritized the feasible strategic measures by employing the methods of fuzzy Analytic Network Process and Interpretative Structural Modeling. The aim is to help the stakeholders and administrators to better comprehend the relative importance of the barriers and adopt suitable measures. The results...

  18. Fission excitation function for 19F + 194,196,198Pt at near and above barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Varinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission excitation functions for 19F + 194,196,198Pt reactions populating 213,215,217Fr compound nuclei are reported. Out of these three compound nuclei, 213Fr is a shell closed (N=126 compound nucleus and the other two are away from the shell closure. From a comparison of the experimental fission cross-sections with the statistical model predictions, it is observed that the fission cross-sections are underestimated by the statistical model predictions using shell corrected finite range rotating liquid drop model (FRLDM fission barriers. Further the FRLDM fission barriers are reduced to fit the fission cross-sections over the entire measured energy range.

  19. Non-monotonic probability of thermal reversal in thin-film biaxial nanomagnets with small energy barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the short time-scale, thermally-induced probability of magnetization reversal for an biaxial nanomagnet that is characterized with a biaxial magnetic anisotropy. For the first time, we clearly show that for a given energy barrier of the nanomagnet, the magnetization reversal probability of an biaxial nanomagnet exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on its saturation magnetization. Specifically, there are two reasons for this non-monotonic behavior in rectangular thin-film nanomagnets that have a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. First, a large perpendicular anisotropy lowers the precessional period of the magnetization making it more likely to precess across the x^=0 plane if the magnetization energy exceeds the energy barrier. Second, the thermal-field torque at a particular energy increases as the magnitude of the perpendicular anisotropy increases during the magnetization precession. This non-monotonic behavior is most noticeable when analyzing the magnetization reversals on time-scales up to several tens of ns. In light of the several proposals of spintronic devices that require data retention on time-scales up to 10’s of ns, understanding the probability of magnetization reversal on the short time-scales is important. As such, the results presented in this paper will be helpful in quantifying the reliability and noise sensitivity of spintronic devices in which thermal noise is inevitably present.

  20. Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koknaroglu, Hayati

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) ( 50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

  1. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, G.K.; Crockford, R.M.; Achhorner, F.N.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques

  2. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  3. A network approach to overcoming barriers to market engagement for SMEs in energy efficiency initiatives such as the Green Deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Keeffe, Juliette M.; Gilmour, Daniel; Simpson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Green Deal (GD) was launched in 2013 by the UK Government as a market-led scheme to encourage uptake of energy efficiency measures in the UK and create green sector jobs. The scheme closed in July 2015 after 30 months due to government concerns over low uptake and industry standards but additional factors potentially contributed to its failure such as poor scheme design and lack of understanding of the customer and supply chain journey. We explore the role of key delivery agents of GD services, specifically SMEs, and we use the LoCal-Net project as a case study to examine the use of networks to identify and reduce barriers to SME market engagement. We find that SMEs experienced multiple barriers to interaction with the GD such as lack of access to information, training, and confusion over delivery of the scheme but benefited from interaction with the network to access information, improve understanding of the scheme, increasing networking opportunities and forming new business models and partnerships to reduce risk. The importance of SMEs as delivery agents and their role in the design of market-led schemes such as the GD are discussed with recommendations for improving SME engagement in green sector initiatives. - Highlights: • The role of delivery agents should be addressed in voluntary energy reduction schemes. • SMEs attempting to engage in the Green Deal market faced multiple barriers. • Networks can assist in overcoming SME barriers to entry into new green sector markets. • Access to information, contacts and experts are key benefits of business networks. • Policy driven market-led schemes must consider all actors to prevent early failures.

  4. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  5. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Survey of the Relationship Between Activity Energy Expenditure Metabolic Equivalents and Barrier Factors of Physical Activity in the Elderly in Kashan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Khalili, Zahra; Pour Nazari, Robab; Mohammadi, Majid; Ahmadi Khatir, Maryam; Mossadegh, Najima

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity in the elderly is influenced by aspects of aging that cause personal, mental, environmental, and social changes. Increases in factors that are barriers to activity cause physical energy expenditure to decrease. Objectives The aim of the present study was to survey the relationship between energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (MET) and factors that are barriers to physical activity in elderly people in Kashan, Iran Methods This is a descriptive analysis...

  7. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  8. Stakeholders identify similar barriers but different strategies to facilitate return-to-work: A vignette of a worker with an upper extremity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan E; Truong, Anthony P; Johnston, Venerina

    2018-01-01

    Stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process have different roles and qualificationsOBJECTIVE:To explore the perspectives of Australian stakeholders of the RTW barriers and strategies for a worker with an upper extremity condition and a complex workers' compensation case. Using a case vignette, stakeholders were asked to identify barriers and recommend strategies to facilitate RTW. Content analysis was performed on the open-ended responses. The responses were categorised into RTW barriers and strategies using the biopsychosocial model. Pearson's Chi Square and ANOVA were performed to establish group differences. 621 participants (488 healthcare providers (HCPs), 62 employers, 55 insurers and 16 lawyers) identified 36 barriers (31 modifiable): 4 demographic; 8 biological; 15 psychological and 9 social barriers. 484 participants reported 16 RTW strategies: 4 biological; 6 psychological and 6 social strategies. 'Work relationship stressors' (83.4%) and 'Personal relationship stressors' (64.7%) were the most frequently nominated barriers. HCPs most frequently nominated 'Pain management' (49.6%), while employers, insurers and lawyers nominated 'RTW planning/Suitable duties programs' (40.5%; 42.9%; 80%). Stakeholders perceived similar barriers for RTW but recommended different strategies. Stakeholders appeared to be more proficient in identifying barriers than recommending strategies. Future research should focus on tools to both identify RTW barriers and direct intervention.

  9. RENBAR: Overcoming Environmental, Administrative and Socio-economic Barriers to Renewable Energy Technology Deployment. A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    IEA-RETD prepared a guidebook for policy makers and project developers, illustrating how to deal with possible negative side effects or barriers for deployment of renewable technologies, like visual or noise impacts, or increased local transport for biomass. Many good practices demonstrate that renewables can be integrated in the 'backyards' of modern societies. Some examples: stakeholder involvement, participation and compensation; clear spatial planning; and trustworthy legal procedures. Four case studies are also included.

  10. Optimal selection among different domestic energy consumption patterns based on energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Wu, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In China market, people have many choices for air conditioning of their apartments, including heat-pump systems or gas-fired boilers for heating and air conditioners for cooling. Domestic hot water is usually provided by domestic water heaters making use of electricity or natural gas, which are known for their great energy costs. These systems consume much energy and increase the total cost of required domestic energy. A novel system combining heat pump with water heater is proposed in this paper, and it is named domestic energy system. The system can realize the provision of space heating, cooling and domestic hot water throughout a year. Based on different types of air conditioners, space heating equipments and water heaters, domestic energy consumption patterns are concluded to be eight categories. This study describes and compares the eight domestic energy consumption patterns by economic analysis and prime energy analysis method. Results show that the domestic energy system can provide good economy and save energy significantly. Furthermore, exergy analysis method is employed to compare the exergy efficiencies of different energy consumption systems. The results show that the domestic energy system has the highest energy conversion efficiency and can make remarkable contribution to social energy saving.

  11. Efficient sampling over rough energy landscapes with high barriers: A combination of metadynamics with integrated tempering sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. Isaac [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jun; Che, Xing; Yang, Lijiang; Gao, Yi Qin, E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In order to efficiently overcome high free energy barriers embedded in a complex energy landscape and calculate overall thermodynamics properties using molecular dynamics simulations, we developed and implemented a sampling strategy by combining the metadynamics with (selective) integrated tempering sampling (ITS/SITS) method. The dominant local minima on the potential energy surface (PES) are partially exalted by accumulating history-dependent potentials as in metadynamics, and the sampling over the entire PES is further enhanced by ITS/SITS. With this hybrid method, the simulated system can be rapidly driven across the dominant barrier along selected collective coordinates. Then, ITS/SITS ensures a fast convergence of the sampling over the entire PES and an efficient calculation of the overall thermodynamic properties of the simulation system. To test the accuracy and efficiency of this method, we first benchmarked this method in the calculation of ϕ − ψ distribution of alanine dipeptide in explicit solvent. We further applied it to examine the design of template molecules for aromatic meta-C—H activation in solutions and investigate solution conformations of the nonapeptide Bradykinin involving slow cis-trans isomerizations of three proline residues.

  12. Effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different growing periods on compensatory growth of Ross broilers. Four replicant pens were assigned per seven treatments. Chicks in each treatment received concentrated and diluted diets in different ...

  13. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  14. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiloroaya, Vahid; Samali, Bijan; Fakhar, Ahmad; Pishghadam, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  15. Autonomously folding protein fragments reveal differences in the energy landscapes of homologous RNases H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Rosen

    Full Text Available An important approach to understanding how a protein sequence encodes its energy landscape is to compare proteins with different sequences that fold to the same general native structure. In this work, we compare E. coli and T. thermophilus homologs of the protein RNase H. Using protein fragments, we create equilibrium mimics of two different potential partially-folded intermediates (I(core and I(core+1 hypothesized to be present on the energy landscapes of these two proteins. We observe that both T. thermophilus RNase H (ttRNH fragments are folded and have distinct stabilities, indicating that both regions are capable of autonomous folding and that both intermediates are present as local minima on the ttRNH energy landscape. In contrast, the two E. coli RNase H (ecRNH fragments have very similar stabilities, suggesting that the presence of additional residues in the I(core+1 fragment does not affect the folding or structure as compared to I(core. NMR experiments provide additional evidence that only the I(core intermediate is populated by ecRNH. This is one of the biggest differences that has been observed between the energy landscapes of these two proteins. Additionally, we used a FRET experiment in the background of full-length ttRNH to specifically monitor the formation of the I(core+1 intermediate. We determine that the ttRNH I(core+1 intermediate is likely the intermediate populated prior to the rate-limiting barrier to global folding, in contrast to E. coli RNase H for which I(core is the folding intermediate. This result provides new insight into the nature of the rate-limiting barrier for the folding of RNase H.

  16. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined

  17. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Engel

    Full Text Available Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems.In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers, patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors.In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is 'relationships' among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of 'infrastructure'. Challenges with both result in 'modified practices' often favouring empirical (symptomatic treatment over treatment guided by testing.Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined as such. Also, a test alone has only

  18. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. Once outlined the environmental impacts from each form of electric energy generation, they were correlated and compared considering the area of the power plant implantation, the generation capacity, the efficiency, the power and the cost per kW. There is no totally clean form of electric energy generation. There is, however, generation without emission of gases responsible for the green house effect. Therefore, all forms of energy generation are important for a country; in other words, the best situation is the diversity of the energy matrix. (author)

  19. Temperature dependence of the distribution of the thermally activated energy barriers in Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, C.; Lin, F.Y.; Ding, S.Y.; Li, Z.M.; Aruna, S.A.; Qiu, L.; Yao, X.X.; Yan, S.L.; Si, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of frequency and ac amplitude on ac susceptibility have been measured for a thin Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 film in the range 100 Hz-100 kHz in magnetic field 0.52 T. A phenomenological equation with an asymmetrical distribution of thermally activated energy barriers has been used to analyse these frequency and amplitude dependences of the ac susceptibility χ(ω,h ac ) in the vicinity of the peak temperature of χ''. We obtain the effective energy barrier U against amplitude h ac (current density j): U h ac -0.38 . This U(j) relationship shows that the flux lines are in the 3D collective creep regime. Therefore, we conclude that the effective energy barrier is in fact an average of the barrier's distribution, and the distribution function is a distinguished asymmetrical one in this 3D collective creep regime. (author)

  20. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Department of Economics and Business, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n., Toledo-45071 (Spain)]. E-mail: pablo.rio@uclm.es

    2006-11-15

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors.

  1. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Rio, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors

  2. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets in Europe is in progress. The expressed goal is to promote efficiency through commercial competition, with lower energy prices for consumers as a consequence. This priority raises some complex questions in relation to the desire of creating a sustainable energy...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  3. Extracting renewable energy from a salinity difference using a capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2009-07-31

    Completely renewable energy can be produced by using water solutions of different salinity, like river water and sea water. Many different methods are already known, but development is still at prototype stage. Here I report a novel method, based on electric double-layer capacitor technology. Two porous electrodes, immersed in the salt solution, constitute a capacitor. It is first charged, then the salt solution is brought into contact with fresh water. The electrostatic energy increases as the salt concentration of the solution is reduced due to diffusion. This device can be used to turn sources of salinity difference into completely renewable sources of energy. An experimental demonstration is given, and performances and possible improvements are discussed.

  4. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies.

  5. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies

  6. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  7. Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.

  8. New Bond Coat Materials for Thermal Barrier Coating Systems Processed Via Different Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, A.; Csaki, I.; Sohaciu, M.; Oprea, C.; Soare, S.; Costina, I.; Petrescu, M. I.

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims at describing the development of new Ru-based Bond Coats (BC) as part of Thermal Barrier Coatings. The challenge of this research was to obtain an adherent and uniform layer of alumina protective layer after high temperature exposure. We have prepared a RuAl 50/50 at% alloy in an induction furnace which was subsequently subjected to oxidation in an electric furnace, in air, at 1100C, for 10h and 100h. Mechanical alloying of Ru and Al powders was another processing route used in an attempt to obtain a stoichiometric RuAl. The alloy was sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and then oxidized at 1100C for 1 and10h. The alloys obtained as such were analysed before and after oxidation using advanced microscopy techniques (SEM and TEM). The encouraging results in case of RuAl alloys prepared by induction melting reveal that we obtained an adherent and uniform layer of alumina, free of delta-Ru. The results for the samples processed by powder metallurgy were positive but need to be further investigated. We should note here the novelty of this method for this particular type of application - as a BC part of a TBC system.

  9. Small suppression of the complete fusion of {sup 6}Li + {sup 28}Si reaction at near barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Mandira [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Lubian, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The incomplete fusion cross section of the {sup 6}Li + {sup 28}Si weakly bound system at above barrier energies was deduced from the measured γ-ray cross sections. The complete fusion cross section was estimated from the measured total fusion and incomplete fusion cross section and is found to be 85-100% of the total fusion cross section. The coupled channel calculation has been performed considering ground and first excited states of {sup 28}Si target. The fusion cross section estimated from coupled channel calculation shows good agreement with measured total fusion cross section at higher energies. The suppression of about 15% of the fusion cross section predicted by coupled channel calculation shows good agreement with the complete fusion cross section. The effect of the channel couplings on the elastic scattering angular distribution is also investigated. (orig.)

  10. Republic of Korea Reduction of Financing Barriers for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, D. L.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses the findings developed for strengthening the role of performance contracting in improving energy efficiency in the Republic of Korea. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored development of this paper by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), as a part of the Korean-U.S. Climate Technology Partnerships (CTP) program. The results and recommendations outlined in this paper together with other efforts are designed to assist other countries striving to improve their efficient use of energy.

  11. Computation of Hemagglutinin Free Energy Difference by the Confinement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates membrane fusion, a crucial step during influenza virus cell entry. How many HAs are needed for this process is still subject to debate. To aid in this discussion, the confinement free energy method was used to calculate the conformational free energy difference between the extended intermediate and postfusion state of HA. Special care was taken to comply with the general guidelines for free energy calculations, thereby obtaining convergence and demonstrating reliability of the results. The energy that one HA trimer contributes to fusion was found to be 34.2 ± 3.4kBT, similar to the known contributions from other fusion proteins. Although computationally expensive, the technique used is a promising tool for the further energetic characterization of fusion protein mechanisms. Knowledge of the energetic contributions per protein, and of conserved residues that are crucial for fusion, aids in the development of fusion inhibitors for antiviral drugs. PMID:29151344

  12. SOLPLAN Report: An Assessment of Barriers and Incentives to Conservation and Alternative-Energy Use in the Residential Sector in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulenwider, Claire K.; Weiss, Lonnie S.; Pfefferkorn, Carol; Wiener, Don E.; Feldman, Stephen L.

    1981-03-01

    The Alternative Energy Policy Project of the Wisconsin Center for Public Policy focused upon two principle objectives: (1) gathering and analyzing new and previously unavailable data on barriers and incentives to greater energy conservation and alternative energy commercialization in the state of Wisconsin; and (2) building consensus around alternative energy policy to develop guidelines for alternative energy policy for the state. Particular attention was paid to public involvement in the policy process and to assessing barriers and incentives from as many key sectors of the energy field as possible. Thus, data were gathered from the general public, alternative energy users, the heating industry generally, the alternative-energy industry specifically, and key decision makers. The report is divided into four principal sections. The first looks at findings and analyses dealing with barriers to greater conservation and alternative energy use. Incentives for accelerating the extent of residential conservation and alternative energy use are discussed in the second section. The decision-making process itself in energy policy has been little analyzed and seldom documented. The role of consensus-building in the alternative-energy field and analysis of the decision-making process are discussed in Section III. Appendices in Section IV provide survey instruments and descriptions, a compendium of energy-related legislation developed within the project, and various reports. The total report reflects the interactive decision-making model as it was applied in SOLPLAN. (MCW)

  13. Systematics of threshold incident energy for deep sub-barrier fusion hindrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Hagino, Kouichi; Iwamoto, Akira

    2007-01-01

    We systematically evaluate the potential energy at the touching configuration for heavy-ion reactions using various potential models. We point out that the energy at the touching point, especially that estimated with the Krappe-Nix-Sierk (KNS) potential, strongly correlates with the threshold incident energy for steep falloff of fusion cross sections observed recently for several systems at extremely low energies. This clearly indicates that the steep fall-off phenomenon can be attributed to the dynamics after the target and projectile touch with each other, e.g., the tunneling process and the nuclear saturation property in the overlap region

  14. Institutional dynamics and barriers in wind energy development. A case study of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesh, Anumakonda

    1999-09-01

    In India, there was a boom in 1995-96 when 282 MW windfarms were set up in Tamil Nadu and the capacity in Andhra Pradesh increased by 39 MW. Then there was a steady decline in the windfarm development in both states. The case study described in this report attempts to trace the reasons for the boom and the factors that have contributed to the slump in windfarm development in these two states. The role of institutions in determining the effectiveness of national and regional public sector initiatives to promote and disseminate wind energy in the two states is discussed. The study also examines the financial, technical, transaction and institutional barriers, which inhibit the diffusion of wind energy in the states. It is suggested that important measures must be taken if wind energy is to develop rapidly in the two states. The result of the case study may be used to improve public policy intervention in disseminating wind energy in India. It may also be relevant to multilateral and bilateral aid agencies in their projects and/or programmes to promote cost-effective wind energy technology dissemination in developing countries. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. European concerted action on offshore wind energy deployment: inventory and analysis of power transmission barriers in eight member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyte, Achim; Gardner, Paul; Snodin, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The European Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) was carried out by eight sea-bordering European Union member states, with the objective to remove not explicitly technical barriers to offshore wind energy. Within the COD, an inventory of relevant aspects affecting the grid integration of offshore wind energy on a large scale in the eight countries has been made. Collected data items for this inventory are national plans and prospects for offshore wind energy, information about the transmission system, possibilities for grid connection, aspects of the grid codes, balancing, connection and energy pricing. The comprehensive COD reports were published and presented in October 2005 during the Copenhagen Offshore wind conference. This paper provides a short description of the situation for each country. Thereafter, country-specific information is grouped based on geography and membership in a synchronous zone. Additionally, a view is developed on the desirable facilities for the trans-European exchange of power from large wind farms. Finally, we elaborate overall conclusions in order to arrive at generalized observations, recommendations for policy makers and issues that will emerge in the near future. As a general conclusion, many things need to be done on a technical level in order to integrate large amounts of offshore wind power into our power systems. However, none of these measures is technically unknown. Therefore, the feasibility of integrating large amounts of offshore wind power is mainly a question of finance and hence based on political decisions. (Author)

  16. Tunnel spin polarization versus energy for clean and doped Al2O3 barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the

  17. Tunnel Spin Polarization Versus Energy for Clean and Doped Al2O3 Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the

  18. Energy response of silicon surface barrier detector in view of charge collection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Inbe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Itsuro

    1994-01-01

    In this report, the recombination effect is estimated. We take the recombination effect as the combined effect of the timing response and the energy response. With the establishment of the estimation method of the recombination effect, the consistency between the energy measurements and timing measurements will be judged. (J.P.N.)

  19. System-level energy efficiency is the greatest barrier to development of the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Shannon; Krumdieck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Current energy research investment policy in New Zealand is based on assumed benefits of transitioning to hydrogen as a transport fuel and as storage for electricity from renewable resources. The hydrogen economy concept, as set out in recent commissioned research investment policy advice documents, includes a range of hydrogen energy supply and consumption chains for transport and residential energy services. The benefits of research and development investments in these advice documents were not fully analyzed by cost or improvements in energy efficiency or green house gas emissions reduction. This paper sets out a straightforward method to quantify the system-level efficiency of these energy chains. The method was applied to transportation and stationary heat and power, with hydrogen generated from wind energy, natural gas and coal. The system-level efficiencies for the hydrogen chains were compared to direct use of conventionally generated electricity, and with internal combustion engines operating on gas- or coal-derived fuel. The hydrogen energy chains were shown to provide little or no system-level efficiency improvement over conventional technology. The current research investment policy is aimed at enabling a hydrogen economy without considering the dramatic loss of efficiency that would result from using this energy carrier.

  20. Barriers to Zero Energy Construction (ZEC); technically possible; why not succeed yet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.; Maas, G.J.; Demers, C.M.H.; Potvin, A

    2009-01-01

    The construction activities have a significant impact on the environment in terms of energy consumption and use of raw materials. The construction industry has been challenged to meet the human needs in environmentally friendly ways. Environmentally friendly measures and proven renewable energy

  1. Identification of blood-brain barrier function following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats at different stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongyi Xie; Weiwei Shen; Ying Ma; Yuan Cheng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) significantly correlates with the development of brain injury and poor prognosis of patients subjected to SAH. OBJECTIVE: To investigate both functional and structural changes related to BBB in various phases after SAH in rats through quantitative and qualitative methods.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This experiment, a completely randomized design and controlled experiment, was performed at the Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from June 2006 to March 2007.MATERIALS: A total of 128 female, healthy, Sprague-Dawley rats were selected for this study. Main reagents and instruments: Evans Blue dye (Sigma Company, USA), fluorescence spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Company, Japan), and transmission electron microscope (Olympus Company, Japan). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain tissue water content was determined by the wet-dry method. BBB permeability in the cerebral cortex was determined by Evans Blue dye and fluorescent spectrophotometer. The ultrastructural changes in BBB were observed with transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operated group, SAH induced a significant increase in brain water content between 24 and 60 hours (F = 888.32, P 0.05). Electron microscopy demonstrated only a mild perivascular edema at 24 hours after SAH. By 36 hours, a notable perivascular edema was associated with a collapse of the capillary. Astrocytic endfeet surrounding the capillary were prominently swollen in the edematous areas. The above-mentioned abnormal ultrastructural changes in the BBB were reversed by 72 hours after SAH. No obvious morphological changes in the BBB were detected in the sham-operated rats.CONCLUSION: These results directly suggest that SAH could induce rapid changes in BBB function and structure during the acute phases of BBB breakdown. Moreover, these dynamic

  2. Differences in Energy Capacities between Tennis Players and Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Dario; Vučetić, Vlatko; Žugaj, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players’ HRmax (192.96±7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters spri...

  3. Energy and Environmental Performance of Bioethanol from Different Lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the wish to reduce the dependence on oil are the incentives for the development of alternative energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic biomass together with cellulosic processing technology provides opportunities to produce fuel ethanol with less competition with food and nature. Many studies on energy analysis and life cycle assessment of second-generation bioethanol have been conducted. However, due to the different methodology used and different system boundary definition, it is difficult to compare their results. To permit a direct comparison of fuel ethanol from different lignocelluloses in terms of energy use and environmental impact, seven studies conducted in our group were summarized in this paper, where the same technologies were used to convert biomass to ethanol, the same system boundaries were defined, and the same allocation procedures were followed. A complete set of environmental impacts ranging from global warming potential to toxicity aspects is used. The results provide an overview on the energy efficiency and environmental performance of using fuel ethanol derived from different feedstocks in comparison with gasoline.

  4. Different Reliability Assessment Approaches for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Reliability assessments are of importance for wave energy converters (WECs) due to the fact that accessibility might be limited in case of failure and maintenance. These failure rates can be adapted by reliability considerations. There are two different approaches to how reliability can...

  5. Renewable Energy in the Baltic States. Different Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    In many ways, the Baltic nations seem to be good students with ambitious objectives for applying European directives and the Kyoto Protocol. For example, in 2006, renewable energies already accounted for 9 % in Lithuania, 10 % in Estonia and 43 % in Latvia (5.2 % in the EU-15) of primary energy output. This should increase to 12 %, 15 % and 50 % in 2010 (12 % in the EU-15) respectively. While all are dependent on oil imports, their own resources vary: nuclear power in Lithuania (at least until 2009 when the last reactor of the Ignalina power station will close, with EU compensation), oil shale feeds Estonian power stations, wood in Latvia. The latter must import electricity while the two other countries produce double their domestic demand. All three are linked to the Russian power grid built up during the Soviet era rather than the European. Nevertheless, the share of renewable energy produced electricity is very small in these two producer countries, unlike Latvia which has hydraulic resources. The three countries have very different taxation on energy and electrical products, including renewable energy price support. All were granted transitional periods of differing lengths to apply European standard. The Baltic nations produce low greenhouse gas emissions and only Estonia has organized an emission rights trading market

  6. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of complete fusion excitation functions for 7Li+152Sm, 197Au and 209Bi reactions at around barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we have analyzed the fusion excitation function for CF process using the simple Wong’s formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in near barrier energy region for 7 Li+ 152 Sm, 197 Au and 209 Bi reactions

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Racey MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  10. Inter-arm blood pressure difference in type 2 diabetes: a barrier to effective management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher E; Greaves, Colin J; Evans, Philip H; Dickens, Andy; Campbell, John L

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have identified a substantial prevalence of a blood pressure difference between arms in various populations, but not patients with type 2 diabetes. Recognition of such a difference would be important as a potential cause of underestimation of blood pressure. To measure prevalence of an inter-arm blood pressure difference in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to estimate how frequently blood pressure measurements could be erroneously underestimated if an inter-arm difference is unrecognised. Cross-sectional study. Five surgeries covered by three general practices, Devon, England. Patients with type 2 diabetes underwent bilateral simultaneous blood pressure measurements using a validated protocol. Mean blood pressures were calculated for each arm to derive mean systolic and diastolic differences, and to estimate point prevalence of predefined magnitudes of difference. A total of 101 participants were recruited. Mean age was 66 years (standard deviation [SD] = 13.9 years); 59% were male, and mean blood pressure was 138/79 mmHg (SD = 15/10 mmHg). Ten participants (10%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4 to 16) had a systolic inter-arm difference > or =10 mmHg; 29 (29%; 95% CI = 20 to 38) had a diastolic difference >/=5 mmHg; and three (3%; 95% CI = 0 to 6) a diastolic difference > or =10 mmHg. No confounding variable was observed to account for the magnitude of an inter-arm difference. A systolic inter-arm difference > or =10 mmHg was observed in 10% of patients with diabetes. Failure to recognise this would misclassify half of these as normotensive rather than hypertensive using the lower-reading arm. New patients with type 2 diabetes should be screened for an inter-arm blood pressure difference.

  11. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  12. Applications of SOECs in different types of energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva; Hansen, Kenneth

    Different aspects of electrolyser integration in energy systems was investigated in order to determine the potential of using this technology in the future. The first analysis examined the influence of the use of co-electrolysis for the fuel production process in comparison with using steam....... The analysis shows that different system designs influence the feasible utilisation capacity of electrolysers differently and this is mainly connected with the system flexibility....... for using combined capacities of SOEC and SOFC was investigated as this can potentially improve the profitability of the investment, but also improve the stability of the energy system by offering grid-balancing capacity when intermittent resources cannot meet the demand for electricity. Finally, five...

  13. The free energy barrier for arginine gating charge translation is altered by mutations in the voltage sensor domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S Schwaiger

    Full Text Available The gating of voltage-gated ion channels is controlled by the arginine-rich S4 helix of the voltage-sensor domain moving in response to an external potential. Recent studies have suggested that S4 moves in three to four steps to open the conducting pore, thus visiting several intermediate conformations during gating. However, the exact conformational changes are not known in detail. For instance, it has been suggested that there is a local rotation in the helix corresponding to short segments of a 3(10-helix moving along S4 during opening and closing. Here, we have explored the energetics of the transition between the fully open state (based on the X-ray structure and the first intermediate state towards channel closing (C1, modeled from experimental constraints. We show that conformations within 3 Å of the X-ray structure are obtained in simulations starting from the C1 model, and directly observe the previously suggested sliding 3(10-helix region in S4. Through systematic free energy calculations, we show that the C1 state is a stable intermediate conformation and determine free energy profiles for moving between the states without constraints. Mutations indicate several residues in a narrow hydrophobic band in the voltage sensor contribute to the barrier between the open and C1 states, with F233 in the S2 helix having the largest influence. Substitution for smaller amino acids reduces the transition cost, while introduction of a larger ring increases it, largely confirming experimental activation shift results. There is a systematic correlation between the local aromatic ring rotation, the arginine barrier crossing, and the corresponding relative free energy. In particular, it appears to be more advantageous for the F233 side chain to rotate towards the extracellular side when arginines cross the hydrophobic region.

  14. Molecular biology of the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzic Zoran

    2011-01-01

    differences in their expression between the two barriers. Also, many blood-borne molecules and xenobiotics can diffuse into brain ISF and then into neuronal membranes due to their physicochemical properties. Entry of these compounds could be detrimental for neural transmission and signalling. Thus, BBB and BCSFB express transport proteins that actively restrict entry of lipophilic and amphipathic substances from blood and/or remove those molecules from the brain extracellular fluids. The third part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette (ABC-transporters and those SLC transporters that are involved in efflux transport of xenobiotics, their expression at the BBB and BCSFB and differences in expression in the two major blood-brain interfaces. In addition, transport and diffusion of ions by the BBB and CP epithelium are involved in the formation of fluid, the ISF and CSF, respectively, so the last part of this review discusses molecular biology of ion transporters/exchangers and ion channels in the brain endothelial and CP epithelial cells.

  15. Comment on ''Energy partition in near-barrier strongly damped collisions 58Ni+208Pb''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Breuer, H.; Planeta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Rev. C 44, R2249 (1991)] report that the sharing of dissipated energy in the 58 Ni + 208 Pb reaction at E/A=6.5 MeV is not influenced appreciably by the direction and magnitude of net charge (and mass) transfer. We point out that neither this conclusion nor one arguing for a correlation between mass flow and excitation energy division is supported by the data and analysis presented in their communication

  16. Helping people build a better world? Barriers to more environmentally friendly energy production in China: the case of Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-03-15

    China's rapid industrialization and economic expansion are causing massive environmental damage, with consequences beyond the country's borders, especially due to the use of fossil fuels' effect on climate change. Shell China can contribute to making energy production, if not clean and sustainable, then cleaner and more sustainable by making existing energy production more environmentally friendly; by diversifying and developing alternative energy sources; and by creating precedence influencing others to follow in its footsteps. The first goal of this report is to identify and analyze changes that have happened in the Shell Group since the 1990s when energy companies started their 'greening' processes. These changed happened due to stricter environmental legislation, increased civil society pressure and media scrutiny. Changes on the global and headquarters level in a company do not, however, necessitate similar developments in its national and local level operations. The second goal is thus to analyze to which degree the changes in the Shell Group have had relevance for Shell China and whether barriers in the Chinese context influence its prospects to operate in a more environmentally friendly way. (author). 64 refs

  17. Reaction cross sections and elastic scattering energy dependence around the Coulomb barrier for the {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, Viviane; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes Junior, D.R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Camargo, O.; Faria, P.N. de; Gasquez, L.; Morais, M.C.; Condori, R.P.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamora, J.C. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Aguilera, E.; Martinez-Quiroz, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Kolata, J.; Jiang, H. [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bechetti, F.D.; Lamm, L.O. [Michigan University, MI (United States); Lizcano, D. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Elastic scattering measurements were performed at energies around the Coulomb barrier at the Tandem Accelerators of the Sao Paulo (USP - Brazil ) and Notre Dame (UND - USA) Universities. The {sup 7}Be is a radioactive nucleus and has been produced by the reaction {sup 6}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 9}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au secondary targets using a double superconducting systems RIBRAS ( USP ) and Twinsol (UND). The elastic scattering angular distributions were analyzed through the optical model calculations, using the Woods- Saxon form factors [1] and the Sao Paulo potential [2] to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross sections were also derived and compared with others presented at the literature for other systems. In addition, a study of the nuclear potential energy dependence has been carried out in this work in the dispersion relation context. Due to the fact that {sup 7}Be has a small breakup threshold energy, the results can provide significant information of the influence of the breakup channel on the reactions involving this projectile. For this purpose, {chi}{sup 2}- data analysis with different kind of potentials were performed to identify the energy dependence of the real (V) and imaginary (W) parts of the potential. [1] L.C. Chamon et al., Phys. Rev. C 66, (2002) 014610. [2] R.D. Wood e D.S. Saxon, Phys. Rev. 95 ( 1954) 577. (author)

  18. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  19. Barriers to Investment in Energy-Saving Technologies in Small Firms: The Energy-Efficiency Paradox Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that energy-saving technologies are considered profitable using standard net-present-value calculations, their adoption rates have been low, particularly in small firms. This study reviews the theoretical and empirical literature that explains this phenomenon, generally known as the

  20. Opportunities and barriers to pumped-hydro energy storage in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen; Jackson, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    As concerns about global warming grow, societies are increasingly turning to the use of intermittent renewable energy resources, where energy storage becomes more and more important. Pumped-hydro energy storage (PHES) is the most established technology for utility-scale electricity storage. Although PHES has continued to be deployed globally, its development in the United States has largely been dormant since the 1990s. In recent years, however, there has been a revival of commercial interests in developing PHES facilities. In this paper we examine the historical development of PHES facilities in the United States, analyze case studies on the controversies of disputed projects, examine the challenges to and conflicting views of future development in the United States, and discuss new development activities and approaches. The main limiting factors for PHES appear to be environmental concerns and financial uncertainties rather than the availability of technically feasible sites. PHES developers are proposing innovative ways of addressing the environmental impacts, including the potential use of waste water in PHES applications. In some cases, a properly designed PHES system can even be used to improve water quality through aeration and other processes. Such new opportunities and the increasing need for greater energy storage may lead policymakers to reassess the potential of PHES in the United States, particularly for coupling with intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. (author)

  1. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)

  2. Spin-dependent dwell time through ferromagnetic graphene barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari, F.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the dwell time of electrons tunneling through a ferromagnetic (FM) graphene barrier. The results show that the spin polarization can be efficiently controlled by the barrier width, barrier height, and the incident electron energy. Furthermore, it is found that electrons with different spin orientations will spend different times through the barrier. The difference of the dwell time between spin-up and spin-down electrons arises from the exchange splitting, which is induced by the FM strip. Study results indicate that a ferromagnetic graphene barrier can cause a nature spin filter mechanism in the time domain

  3. Colloquium on the risks of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Four subjects, each taking up one session, were dealt with in this Colloquium. The first is the definition of the health risk concept which is only obvious on the surface. It was shown how within the medical world itself, apparently the most competent to discover and evaluate these risks, this definition is still approximate both in theory and in practice. The second theme dealt with concerns the way in which risks are viewed by the general public. By a psychological and sociological approach it is possible to form an idea of how differently opinion reacts to risks of similar gravity and probability. The apprehension of risks and the opposition to nuclear energy were analysed in detail in this session. The third subject, more analytical and probably one of the most topical is concerned with the inventory of risks due to each industrial energy sector. This session was in two parts, the first devoted to problems specific to each source of energy including nuclear, the second to common problems (pollution of air, fresh water and sea water, and long-term effects (nuclear wastes for example). The fourth and last session dealt with a fundamental problem, methods of studying these risks. The conclusions of different enquiries are always very similar: the energy source hierarchy, in order of diminishing risks, is as follows: coal, liquid hydrocarbons, nuclear and gaseous hydrocarbons [fr

  4. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  5. Quantum corrections to potential energy surfaces and their influence on barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.G.; Goeke, K.W.; Bonn Univ.

    1980-01-01

    A microscopic theory suitable for the description of fission processes and other large-amplitude collective phenomena is presented. The approach makes use of an optimal collective path, which is constructed by means of adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) techniques as to show maximal de-coupling of collective and non-collective degrees of freedom. Although this involves a classical concept, the theory fully incorporates quantum effects associated with extracting a collective Schroedinger equation from adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theories (ATDHF). The quantum corrections are discussed extensively, and calculations in the two-centre shell model show, e.g. that they reduce the second barrier by 2 MeV and the life-time by a factor of 10 -7 . The relationships of the presented quantized ATDHF approach to the random-phase approximation (RPA) and a generalized dynamic generator co-ordinate method are investigated. For the construction of the optimal fission path, simple step-by-step methods are suggested. (author)

  6. Reactions with Weakly Bound Nuclei, at near Barrier Energies, and the Breakup and Transfer Influences on the Fusion and Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes-Junior, D. R.; Faria, P. N. de; Linares, R.; Sigaud, L.; Rangel, J.; Ferreira, J. L.; Paes, B.; Cardozo, E. N.; Cortes, M. R.; Canto, L. F.; Ermamatov, M. J.; Otomar, D. R.; Ferioli, E.; Lotti, P.; Hussein, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief review of the reaction mechanisms involved in collisions of weakly bound projectiles with tightly bound targets, at near-barrier energies. We discuss systematic behaviors of the data, with emphasis in fusion, breakup, nucleon transfer and elastic scattering. The dependence of the breakup cross section on the charge and mass of the target is discussed, and the influence of the breakup channel on complete fusion is investigated. For this purpose, we compare reduced fusion cross sections with a benchmark universal curve. The behaviors observed in the comparisons are explained in terms of polarization potentials and of nucleon transfer followed by breakup. The influence of the breakup process on elastic scattering is also discussed. Some apparent contradictions between results of different authors are explained and some perspectives of the field are presented. (author)

  7. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (psprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  8. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  9. Surface absorption in the 32S+24Mg interactions at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J.C.; Sanchez, F.; Diaz, J.; Ferrero, J.L.; Bilwes, B.; Kadi-Hanifi, D.

    1995-01-01

    Elastic scattering 32 S on 24 Mg has been measured at 65.0, 75.0, 86.3, 95.0 and 110.0 MeV-lab energies, and the data were systematically analysed with semi-phenomenological potentials. Using microscopic potentials we found similar results at the lowest incident energies, for which we have compared both the microscopic and semi-phenomenological potentials. It appears that the absorption takes place in a narrow range at the nuclear surface and is mainly due to the low lying collective surface states. (author). 41 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  11. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Electric energy has an important function in the modem world; it is fundamental for progress and development. The electricity discovery allowed improvements in several areas: health, water and food supply, quality of life and sanitary conditions, and contributed also to the establishment of the capitalist and consumption society. The use of oil as an energy generation source was the impulse for the industrial revolution and machines, motors and generators were developed contributing to the progress This also brought the pollutant gases emission (CO 2 , CO, SO x and NO x ) and other substances that had contributed to the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and the acid rain, modifying the balance of the planet. The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. The discovery and the development of nuclear energy in Brazil and in the world as well as the functioning of a nuclear power plant, the impacts generated by its operation and decommissioning are presented. The history, functioning and development of hydroelectric energy generation in Brazil, characterized by the great plants, are related to environmental aspects The environmental

  12. Elastic scattering measurements of {sup 4},{sup 6}He+ {sup 58}Ni at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Faria, P.N.; Camargo, O.; Barioni, A.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Condori, R.P.; Zamora, J.C.; Morais, M.C.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V.; Leistenschneider, E.; Zagatto, V.A.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Elastic scattering angular distributions and total reaction cross sections of the neutron halo projectile nucleus {sup 6}He on a {sup 58}Ni target at energies around the Coulomb barrier are presented. The measurements were obtained at pelletron accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the {sup 6}He radioactive secondary beam has been produced in the RIBRAS system through the {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li, {sup 6}He){sup 10}B production reaction. The elastic scattering angular distributions obtained at E{sub Lab}= 12.5, 16.5 and 21.0 MeV, have been analysed by using optical model, using the Sao Paulo and Wood-Saxon potentials and the respective total reaction cross sections have been obtained. The total reaction cross sections have been reduced using the Wong formula and the UFF equation and are compared with other stable and unstable systems from the literature. (author)

  13. The unstudied barriers to widespread renewable energy deployment: Fossil fuel price responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Edward; Contestabile, Marcello; Blazquez, Jorge; Manzano, Baltasar; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy policy focuses on supporting the deployment of renewable power generators so as to reduce their costs through scale economies and technological learning. It is expected that, once cost parity with fossil fuel generation is achieved, a transition towards renewable power should continue without the need for further renewable energy subsidies. However, this reasoning implicitly assumes that the cost of fossil fuel power generation does not respond to the large scale penetration of renewable power. In this paper we build a standard economic framework to test the validity of this assumption, particularly in the case of coal and gas fired power generation. We find that it is likely that the cost of fossil fuel power generation will respond to the large scale penetration of renewables, thus making the renewable energy transition slower or more costly than anticipated. More analysis is needed in order to be able to quantify this effect, the occurrence of which should be considered in the renewable energy discourse. - Highlights: • Renewables are increasingly competing with fossil fuel power generation. • This may have various effects on the fossil fuel generation value chain. • One such possible effect is a response of fossil fuel prices to renewables deployment. • We have tested this hypothesis using a supply-demand analytical framework. • We found that the effect is likely to occur and should be further investigated.

  14. Solar thermal energy in Latin America and the Caribbean: Status, barriers and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avalos, C.

    1991-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide an overview of the status of solar development and use in the Region to pinpoint, as best as possible, the causes for solar energy market penetration at less than expected levels, and to suggest solutions for the future. 2 refs, 2 tabs

  15. The energy highways. The three safety barriers at nuclear power plants. Where does coal fit into the energy mix?. Sustainable urban development in Hanover. Energy in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter contains a main press-kit about the economics of interconnected power distribution systems and 4 articles dealing with reactors safety, the advantages and drawbacks of coal in the energy mix, the environmental policy of Hanover city, and the energy situation in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 - 'The energy highways': Spotlight on the electrical power grids. From the much needed modernization of existing installations to the extension of networks in developing countries, Alternatives takes a look at these infrastructures that shape our environment, which can be considered as veritable 'energy highways' ensuring the coverage of our planet. 2 - 'The three safety barriers at nuclear power plants': Review of the three protective barriers deployed in the nuclear industry to ensure reactor safety. 3 - 'Where does coal fit into the energy mix?': Two experts put into perspective the challenges related to the use of coal, its efficiency and its environmental impact, on the basis of the Chinese and Polish examples. 4 - 'Sustainable urban development in Hanover': Bringing together quality of living and energy savings, this is the challenge taken up by Hanover in the Kronsberg area. Alternatives has examined this original model, which could serve as an example for other European cities. 5 - 'Energy in sub-Saharan Africa': Relatively abundant resources but which are poorly utilized and distributed characterize the energy situation in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of the situation and explanation of this paradox

  16. Living with comfort in the Kelheim district. Energy efficient - safe - barrier-free; Wohnen mit Komfort im Landkreis Kelheim. Energieeffizient - sicher - barrierefrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-01

    In the future, the increasing costs of energy will shape the housing conditions more and more. A house should be built not only energy efficiently but also barrier-free. Under this aspect, the brochure under consideration provides information on the future planning of a building and on the alteration of the existing housing situation. Financial supports and offers of consultancy as well as energy consultants in the Kelheim district (Federal Republic of Germany) are presented.

  17. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  18. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2010-01-26

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent highresolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO3 - ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the γ-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in βTP and, thus, promote ATP. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Energy renovation of Danish single-family houses Economy - barrier, motivation and limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Plenge, Mary-Ann Knudstrup

    a large percentage who have not heard about the offers compared to the other income groups. There have been many reflections about energy saving initiatives and many of the initiatives have already been performed. There is however still a high number missing and particularly the depth of the renovation...... needs to be increased for Denmark to approach the defined objectives. The positive is that the listed tasks are predominantly carried out or considered to save energy, indicating that the homeowners are aware of this benefit. On the wish list presented to the homeowners, five wishes were selected.......000 DKK and 310.000DKK) are fair compared to the outcome, but when the needed investment is at 550.000 DKK and above, the majority think it is too expensive despite the benefits. The investment limit for the private renovations is defined on the basis on the homeowners’ interest in performing similar...

  20. A = 4 0+ - 1+ binding-energy difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.; Lehman, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The A = 4 Λ-hypernuclei provide a rich source of information about the s-wave properties of the fundamental hyperon-nucleon (YN) force as well as offer a unique opportunity to investigate the complications that arise in calculations of the properties of bound systems in which one baryon (here the Λ) with a given isospin couples strongly to another (the Σ) with a different isospin. The Λ 4 H - Λ 4 He isodoublet ground-state energies are not consistent with a charge symmetry hypothesis for the YN interaction. The (spin-flip) excitation energies are quite sensitive to the ΛN - ΣN coupling of the YN interaction. In particular, when one represents the free YN interaction in terms of one-channel effective ΛN potentials, the resulting 0 + (ground) state and 1 + (excited) spin-flip state are inversely ordered in terms of binding energies, the 1 + state being more bound. It is the Σ suppression that results from the reduced strength of the ΛN - ΣN off-diagonal coupling potential when the trinucleon core is restricted to isospin-1/2 which we study here. We find this spin-isospin suppression of the Λ-Σ conversion, which is due to the composite nature of the nuclear cores of the Λ 4 H and Λ 4 He hypernuclei, to be a significant factor in understanding the 0 + - 1 + binding energy relationship

  1. Fusion cross sections for 6,7Li + 24Mg at energies around the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Maitreyi; Pradhan, M.K.; Kshetri, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Biswas, M.; Roy, S.; Basu, P.; Majumdar, H.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Sinha, M.; Palit, R.; Mazumdar, I.; Joshi, P.K.; Jain, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The 6,7 Li + 24 Mg reactions in the energy interval E lab = 11-32 MeV using 6,7 Li beams have been investigated from the 14 UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai. The γ-ray cross sections were measured using a Compton suppressed clover detector, placed at 55 deg with respect to the beam direction

  2. Acetylated rice starches films with different levels of amylose: Mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Biduski, Bárbara; Prietto, Luciana; Castilhos, Danilo Dufech; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-15

    Biodegradable films from native or acetylated starches with different amylose levels were prepared. The films were characterized according to the mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties. The films from acetylated high amylose starches had higher moisture content and water solubility than the native high amylose starch film. However, the acetylation did not affect acid solubility of the films, regardless of the amylose content. Films made from high and medium amylose rice starches were obtained; however low amylose rice starches, whether native or acetylated, did not form films with desirable characteristics. The acetylation decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation of the films. The acetylated starch-based films had a lower decomposition temperature and higher thermal stability than native starch films. Acetylated starches films exhibited more rapid degradation as compared with the native starches films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface oxygenation of polypropylene using an air dielectric barrier discharge: the effect of different electrode-platen combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, D.J.; Cui, N.-Y.; Anderson, C.A.; Brown, N.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Polypropylene film has been modified in an air dielectric barrier discharge using two different electrode-platen configurations: stainless steel wire electrode-rubber platen or ceramic electrode-aluminium platen combinations. Modified films were characterised by static contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR). Surface hydrophilic modification appears to be governed by the presence of low-molecular weight oxidised functionalities using XPS and SIMS techniques. Irrespective of the type of electrode-platen combination used to obtain the discharge, oxygenated functionalities of identical nature are formed on the polymer surface. However, the degree of oxidation obtained by the discharge using the wire electrodes with the rubber platen was considerably greater. Further increase in the observed hydrophilicity due to molecular rearrangement and development of stable oxygenated functionalities was evident after 1 month of post-processing analysis

  4. Limitations and barriers for adopting sustainable management practices in different farm types across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Pedrera, Ana; Jesús Gaitán, Antonio; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Although apparently the conservation of natural resources such as water and soil does not represent important concerns for our society, the evolution of the world population and the degradation of these resources pose a challenge to improving agricultural food production capacity and conserving, and in some cases restoring, the environmental quality. Unfortunately, the history contains numerous examples of abandonment of these resources (McNeill 1992, Montgomery 2007). Although most of the agronomic conservation practices have been known for millennia, their implementation has often been hindered by non-agricultural motives (Davis et al. 2012). The European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) started last year with the aim of evaluating sustainable soil management practices and exploring the difficulties for their adoption, both at farm and institutional level, to overcome them in the near future. As a first step with that purpose, a selection of best management practices (BMPs) based on interviews with advisors and scientific knowledge were proposed for each of the considered farm typologies: arable crops, permanent crops and pasture. These farm types are representative of the Mediterranean area in terms of agroecological properties, extension, economical importance and soil degradation problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out by addressing different profiles of farmers to identify in a qualitative way the main limitations for adopting these BMPs on their farms. Different questionnaires were prepared based on the farmers' responses and launched at a larger scale, with the aim of achieving approximately 100 responses per each farm typology. Finally, responses from the questionnaires will be analyzed to explore the causes that hinder or impede the adoption of BMPs in different farm typologies. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. McNeill, J.R. 1992. The mountains of the Mediterranean world. Cambridge

  5. Medical risks presented by different types of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This article reports on discussions held during the conference which took place in Paris from 24th to 28th January 1980 and covered the following topics:- The risk concept from the point of view of the epidemiologist and the engineer - perception of the risk. The gulf which exists between the objective risk and that perceived by the public. The need to realize this phenomenon. The particular problems of each type of energy: coal (industrial diseases) - oil - gas - nuclear power (irradiation). Long-term effects and problems: air pollution and effects on health, the growth effect on stocks of atmospheric carbon, water pollution. The methodology of comparative studies of the risks presented by different types of energy. (In French)

  6. Initiatives for the energy renovation of single-family houses inDenmark evaluated on the basis of barriers and motivators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified, and arr......The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified......, suggestions are madefor improvement in four areas: (1) focus on non-energy benefits rather than investment, (2) enhance-ment of subsidy system, (3) including relevant renovation plans in the energy performance certificate(EPC), and (4) long-term regulation on the maximum allowed energy consumption of houses....

  7. Evaluation of Different Dentin Bonding Agents Accompanied with Composite Coronal Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Mohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of dentin bonding agents in root canals obturated with gutta-percha and MTA. Methods: Forty-five single rooted human premolar teeth were decoronated so that remaining root portions were 12 mm in length. The samples were divided randomly into three experimental (n=13 and two control groups (n=3. All teeth were instrumented up to #40 K-file using step-back technique. The roots were obturated with gutta-percha/AH26 and MTA for 5 and 3 mm, respectively. Excite, Clearfil SE Bond, and iBond were applied for experimental groups and then 2mm was filled with composite Filtek Z250. The roots in the controls were merely instrumented and obturated. Two coats of nail varnish were applied on the surface of the teeth in the experimental and positive groups, except 2 mm around the apical foramen and coronal surfaces. In the negative control, the surfaces were completely covered by two layers of nail varnish. After thermocycling, the roots mounted in plastic caps of tubes containing BHI medium and inoculated coronally with Enterococcus faecalis. The data were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact and Kaplan-Meier survival Analysis. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between three experimental groups regarding the leakage rate (P=0.738. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that the adhesive systems in alliance with gutta-percha and MTA obturation could not entirely

  8. Analysis of Energy Demand for Low-Energy Multi-Dwelling Buildings of Different Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Streckienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To meet the goals established by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, the topics of energy efficiency in new and old buildings must be solved. Research and development of new energy solutions and technology are necessary for increasing energy performance of buildings. Three low-energy multi-dwelling buildings have been modelled and analyzed in the presented study. All multi-dwelling houses are made of similar single-family house cells. However, multi-dwelling buildings are of different geometry, flat number and height. DesignBuilder software was used for simulating and determining heating, cooling and electricity demand for buildings. Three different materials (silicate, ceramic and clay concrete blocks as bearing constructions of external walls have been analyzed. To decrease cooling demand for buildings, the possibility of mounting internal or external louvers has been considered. Primary energy savings for multi-dwelling buildings using passive solar measures have been determined.

  9. Ballistic transport through graphene nanostructures of velocity and potential barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstajic, P M; Vasilopoulos, P

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the electronic properties of graphene nanostructures when the Fermi velocity and the electrostatic potential vary in space. First, we consider the transmission T and conductance G through single and double barriers. We show that G for velocity barriers differs markedly from that for potential barriers for energies below the height of the latter and it exhibits periodic oscillations as a function of the energy for strong velocity modulation. Special attention is given to superlattices (SLs). It is shown that an applied bias can efficiently widen or shrink the allowed minibands of velocity-modulated SLs. The spectrum in the Kronig-Penney limit is periodic in the strength of the barriers. Collimation of an electron beam incident on an SL with velocity and potential barriers is present but it disappears when the potential barriers are absent. The number of additional Dirac points may change considerably if barriers and wells have sufficiently different Fermi velocities.

  10. Full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    The field of work of the Advisory Group Meeting/Workshop, i.e. full-energy chain emissions of greenhouse gases, is defined, and its environment, i.e. the Earth Summit -the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio-, is discussed. It is inferred that countries that ratified the Earth Summit's Convention on Climate Change have committed themselves to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from their energy use, and that this can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy chain emissions of all greenhouse gases. The scatter in literature values of greenhouse gas emission factors of the full energy chain of individual energy sources is discussed. The scatter among others is due to different analytical methods, data bases and system boundaries, and due to neglect of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and professional biases. Generic values for greenhouse gas emission factors of energy and materials use are proposed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  11. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  12. Calculation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces for even-even transuranium nuclei: systematic investigation of the triaxiality effect on the fission barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Juan; Liu, Min-Liang; Wang, Hua-Lei

    2018-05-01

    Static fission barriers for 95 even-even transuranium nuclei with charge number Z = 94–118 have been systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the potential energy surface approach in multidimensional (β 2, γ, β 4) deformation space. Taking the heavier 252Cf nucleus (with the available fission barrier from experiment) as an example, the formation of the fission barrier and the influence of macroscopic, shell and pairing correction energies on it are analyzed. The results of the present calculated β 2 values and barrier heights are compared with previous calculations and available experiments. The role of triaxiality in the region of the first saddle is discussed. It is found that the second fission barrier is also considerably affected by the triaxial deformation degree of freedom in some nuclei (e.g., the Z=112–118 isotopes). Based on the potential energy curves, general trends of the evolution of the fission barrier heights and widths as a function of the nucleon numbers are investigated. In addition, the effects of Woods-Saxon potential parameter modifications (e.g., the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the nuclear surface diffuseness) on the fission barrier are briefly discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675148, 11505157), the Project of Youth Backbone Teachers of Colleges and Universities of Henan Province (2017GGJS008), the Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province (162300410222), the Outstanding Young Talent Research Fund of Zhengzhou University (1521317002) and the Physics Research and Development Program of Zhengzhou University (32410017)

  13. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E; Umeno, Y

    2017-01-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses. (paper)

  14. The Immune System Bridges the Gut Microbiota with Systemic Energy Homeostasis: Focus on TLRs, Mucosal Barrier, and SCFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiljar, Martina; Merkler, Doron; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for the development and regulation of the immune system and the metabolism of the host. Germ-free animals have altered immunity with increased susceptibility to immunologic diseases and show metabolic alterations. Here, we focus on two of the major immune-mediated microbiota-influenced components that signal far beyond their local environment. First, the activation or suppression of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) by microbial signals can dictate the tone of the immune response, and they are implicated in regulation of the energy homeostasis. Second, we discuss the intestinal mucosal surface is an immunologic component that protects the host from pathogenic invasion, is tightly regulated with regard to its permeability and can influence the systemic energy balance. The short chain fatty acids are a group of molecules that can both modulate the intestinal barrier and escape the gut to influence systemic health. As modulators of the immune response, the microbiota-derived signals influence functions of distant organs and can change susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  15. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  16. Ion activation energy delivered to wounds by atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharges: sputtering of lipid-like surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J; Ning Ning; Graves, David B

    2012-01-01

    The application of atmospheric pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. These effects are attributed to production of UV photon fluxes, electric fields and beneficial radicals which intersect with biological reaction chains, and to energetic ions bombarding the surface. In this paper we report on results from a computational investigation of the ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) in a dielectric-barrier discharge sustained in air incident directly on cell membranes for small dry and wet wounds in human skin. We found that ion energies in excess of 20-30 eV can be delivered onto cell membranes of dry wounds, and up to 60 eV onto the liquid interface of the wet wound. The details of the IEADs depend on the orientation of the cell membrane and on the relative location of the plasma streamer to the wound. Using results from a molecular dynamics simulation of ion sputter probabilities of typical lipid-like material, we show that prolonged exposure of the cell membrane to such IEADs can produce significant carbon removal. (paper)

  17. Ion activation energy delivered to wounds by atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharges: sputtering of lipid-like surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Ning, Ning; Graves, David B.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-03-01

    The application of atmospheric pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. These effects are attributed to production of UV photon fluxes, electric fields and beneficial radicals which intersect with biological reaction chains, and to energetic ions bombarding the surface. In this paper we report on results from a computational investigation of the ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) in a dielectric-barrier discharge sustained in air incident directly on cell membranes for small dry and wet wounds in human skin. We found that ion energies in excess of 20-30 eV can be delivered onto cell membranes of dry wounds, and up to 60 eV onto the liquid interface of the wet wound. The details of the IEADs depend on the orientation of the cell membrane and on the relative location of the plasma streamer to the wound. Using results from a molecular dynamics simulation of ion sputter probabilities of typical lipid-like material, we show that prolonged exposure of the cell membrane to such IEADs can produce significant carbon removal.

  18. Energy savings due to building insulation of different thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the plans of thermo-modernisation of historic buildings, strict requirements on energy performance are often relaxed. Detailed analyses are performed to select thermal upgrading technology that would ensure maximum environmental benefits while preserving the historic value of the building. The analysis of the costs of thermal upgrading with the use of heat-preserving plasters having different insulation properties is made for a coal-fired boiler plant. Optimal and advantageous ranges of insulation materials application are shown in reference to coal savings in boilers with variable and constant efficiency. Climatic conditions and environmental benefits are indicated.

  19. UK innovation systems for new and renewable energy technologies: drivers, barriers and systems failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Gross, R.; Chase, A.; Howes, J.; Arnall, A.; Anderson, D.

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the systemic processes by which innovation occurs is useful, both conceptually and to inform policy-making in support of innovation in more sustainable technologies. This paper analyses current innovation systems in the UK for a range of new and renewable energy technologies, and generates policy recommendations for improving the effectiveness of these innovation systems. Although incentives are in place in the UK to encourage innovation in these technologies, system failures - or 'gaps' - are identified in moving technologies along the innovation chain, preventing their successful commercialisation. Sustained investment will be needed for these technologies to achieve their potential. It is argued that a stable and consistent policy framework is required to help create the conditions for this. In particular, such a framework should be aimed at improving risk/reward ratios for demonstration and pre-commercial stage technologies. This would enhance positive expectations, stimulate learning effects leading to cost reductions, and increase the likelihood of successful commercialisation

  20. Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.

  1. Energy difference and energy of mixing for crystalline structures of Ni-Ti-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorentsev, L.F.; Demidenko, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    Using the locator variant of the coherent potential method combined with the canonical d band approximation, we have obtained the energy characteristics of molybdenum-containing titanium nickelide alloys for real and virtual high-symmetry crystalline phases. We have analyzed the reasons implied by the calculation results for the difference in the properties of molybdenum- and iron-containing alloys

  2. Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2015-04-01

    To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory's criteria. The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Role of particle-hole symmetry in mirror energy difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.; Hasan, Z.; Kumar, D.; Koranga, B.S.; Rohitash; Singh, D.; Negi, D.; Angus, L.

    2011-01-01

    Charge symmetry between protons and neutrons means that they can be viewed as two states of the same particle, the nucleon, characterized by different projections of the isospin quantum number. In the hypothesis of charge symmetry expected identical behaviour of excited states of two nuclei with the same total number of nucleons (isobaric nuclei). The nuclei with magic number are considered to be spherical. When the number of particles/holes increase, the nucleus try towards more deformed upto mid-shell. It shows symmetry between particles and holes towards the deformation. The hypothesis of Particle-hole symmetry expected identical behaviour of excited states of two nuclei close to magic number. It is worthwhile to examine the shape of mirror energy difference (MED) close to magic number nuclei, which will also an example of particle-hole symmetry

  4. Similar Students and Different Countries? An Analysis of the Barriers and Drivers for Erasmus Participation in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Souto-Otero, Manuel; de Wit, Hans; Huisman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing participation in the Erasmus study abroad program in Europe is a clear policy goal, and student-reported barriers and drivers are regularly monitored. This article uses student survey data from seven countries to examine the extent to which student-level barriers can explain the considerable cross-country variation in Erasmus…

  5. Evaluation of effect of different disposable infection control barriers on light intensity of light-curing unit and microhardness of composite - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khode, Rajiv Tarachand; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Kubde, Rajesh R; Makade, Chetana S; Wadekar, Kanchan D; Khode, Priyanka Tarachand

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated effect of infection control barriers on light intensity (LI) of light-curing unit (LCU) and microhardness of composite. Four different disposable barriers ( n = 30) were tested against the control. LI for each barrier was measured with Lux meter. One hundred and fifty Teflon molds were equally divided into five groups of thirty each. Composite was filled in bulk in these molds and cured without and with barrier. Microhardness was evaluated on top and bottom surface of composite specimen with microhardness testing machine and hardness ratio (HR) was derived. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference test, and paired t -test using SPSS version 18 software. All barriers had significantly reduced the baseline LI of LCU ( P glove pieces (LCGP) significantly reduced the microhardness of the composite ( P < 0.05). However, HR determined inadequate curing only with LCGP. Although entire tested barrier significantly reduced the LI; none, except LCGP markedly affected the degree of cure of the composite.

  6. Importance of sports during youth and exercise barriers in 20- to 29-year-old male nonathletes differently motivated for regular physical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The number of sedentary young adults has dramatically increased in past decades, and sedentary lifestyles are adopted at an increasingly earlier age. Little is known about barriers or predictors to (re)initiate regular physical activity in this group. The purpose of the study is to (a) identify...... subgroups in nonathletes differing in their amenability to physical exercise, (b) to analyze them for differences in barriers and intention to exercise, and (c) compare importance of sports during youth in nonathletes to trained peers. Using a health and fitness questionnaire 589 nonathletes were queried.......5%), the other groups showed significantly more barriers and a broader distribution. Similar characteristics but minor differences were observed for perceived importance of sports during youth. The most significant differences between athletes and nonathletes emerged enquiring the attitude and activity...

  7. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  8. Inter-Layer Energy Transfer through Wetting-Layer States in Bi-layer InGaAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Structures with Thick Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhang-Cheng; Zhang, Ya-Ting; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2009-01-01

    The inter-layer energy transfer in a bi-layer InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure with a thick GaAs barrier is studied using temperature-dependent photoluminescence. The abnormal enhancement of the photoluminescence of the QDs in the layer with a larger amount of coverage at 110K is observed, which...

  9. The health cost of energy. The health impacts of the different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This publication proposes an assessment of impacts of the different energy sources on public health. After a discussion of general aspects regarding this issue, the author addresses the identification and assessment of risks. While referring to different statistical data, he discusses the impacts of accidents in terms of dead, injured or evacuated people. He also addresses health impacts during a normal operation of power plants, i.e. in the case of nuclear plants (issue of exposure to various levels of radiation at the different steps of fuel cycle), of carbon-based plants (health risks and impacts during coal extraction, due to CO 2 emissions and to other toxic emissions, due to atmospheric pollution, identified risks, modelling attempts, assessment of a loss in life expectancy), and of other energies. While acknowledging that there are still many unknowns to assess these health impacts, the author compares these assessments. A summarized version of this article is proposed, in which the author briefly comments data regarding severe accidents related to energy production, discusses health consequences of electric power production and use, and makes a distinction between the most and less hazardous energies as far as public health is concerned

  10. Effect of parallel magnetic field on repetitively unipolar nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge under different pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Guo, Hongfei; Fan, Zhihui; Wang, Yuying; Wu, Yun; Ren, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    A magnetic field, with the direction parallel to the electric field, is applied to the repetitively unipolar positive nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge. The effect of the parallel magnetic field on the plasma generated between two parallel-plate electrodes in quiescent air is experimentally studied under different pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). It is indicated that only the current pulse in the rising front of the voltage pulse occurs, and the value of the current is increased by the parallel magnetic field under different PRFs. The discharge uniformity is improved with the decrease in PRF, and this phenomenon is also observed in the discharge with the parallel magnetic field. By using the line-ratio technique of optical emission spectra, it is found that the average electron density and electron temperature under the considered PRFs are both increased when the parallel magnetic field is applied. The incremental degree of average electron density is basically the same under the considered PRFs, while the incremental degree of electron temperature under the higher-PRFs is larger than that under the lower-PRFs. All the above phenomena are explained by the effect of parallel magnetic field on diffusion and dissipation of electrons.

  11. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing

    2011-08-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform dynamic atomic relaxation in the presence of an electric current while evaluating the current-voltage characteristics. The central idea consists of expressing the system energy density matrix in terms of Green\\'s functions. To validate our implementation, we perform a series of benchmark calculations, both at zero and at finite bias. First we evaluate the current-induced forces acting over an Al nanowire and compare them with previously published results for fixed geometries. Then we perform structural relaxation of the same wires under bias and determine the critical voltage at which they break. We find that although a perfectly straight wire does not break at any of the voltages considered, a zigzag wire is more fragile and snaps at 1.4 V, with the Al atoms moving against the electron flow. The critical current density for the rupture is estimated to be 9.6 × 1010 A/cm2, in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 5 × 1010 A/cm2. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of our scheme to tackle the electromigration problem by studying the current-induced motion of a single Si atom covalently attached to the sidewall of a (4,4) armchair single-walled carbon nanotube. Our calculations indicate that if Si is attached along the current path, then current-induced forces can induce migration. In contrast, if the bonding site is away from the current path, then the adatom remains stable regardless of the voltage. An analysis based on decomposing the total force into a wind and an electrostatic component, as well as on a detailed evaluation of the bond currents, shows that this remarkable electromigration phenomenon is due solely to the position-dependent wind force. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  12. Nonstochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Wells, J.; Charles, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Circular areas of pig skin from 1- to 40-mm diameter were irradiated with β emitters of high, medium, and low energies, 90 Sr, 170 Tm, and 147 Pm, respectively. The study provides information for radiological protection problems of localized skin exposures. During the first 16 weeks after irradiation 90 Sr produced a first reaction due to epithelial cell death followed by a second reaction attributable to damage to the dermal blood vessels. 170 Tm and 147 Pm produced the epithelial reaction only. The epithelial dose response varied as a function of β energy. The doses required to produce moist desquamation in 50% of 15- to 22.5-mm fields (ED 50 ) were 30-45 Gy from 90 Sr, approx.80 Gy from 170 Tm, and approx.500 Gy from 147 Pm. An area effect was observed in the epithelial response to 90 Sr irradiation. The ED 50 for moist desquamation ranged from approx.25 Gy for a 40-mm source to approx.450 Gy for a 1-mm source. It is also suggested that the area effects could be explained by different modes of epithelial repopulation after irradiation

  13. Targeting for energy efficiency and improved energy collaboration between different companies using total site analysis (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Andersson, Eva; Harvey, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Rising fuel prices, increasing costs associated with emissions of green house gases and the threat of global warming make efficient use of energy more and more important. Industrial clusters have the potential to significantly increase energy efficiency by energy collaboration. In this paper Sweden's largest chemical cluster is analysed using the total site analysis (TSA) method. TSA delivers targets for the amount of utility consumed and generated through excess energy recovery by the different processes. The method enables investigation of opportunities to deliver waste heat from one process to another using a common utility system. The cluster consists of 5 chemical companies producing a variety of products, including polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), amines, ethylene, oxygen/nitrogen and plasticisers. The companies already work together by exchanging material streams. In this study the potential for energy collaboration is analysed in order to reach an industrial symbiosis. The overall heating and cooling demands of the site are around 442 MW and 953 MW, respectively. 122 MW of heat is produced in boilers and delivered to the processes. TSA is used to stepwise design a site-wide utility system which improves energy efficiency. It is shown that heat recovery in the cluster can be increased by 129 MW, i.e. the current utility demand could be completely eliminated and further 7 MW excess steam can be made available. The proposed retrofitted utility system involves the introduction of a site-wide hot water circuit, increased recovery of low pressure steam and shifting of heating steam pressure to lower levels in a number heat exchangers when possible. Qualitative evaluation of the suggested measures shows that 60 MW of the savings potential could to be achieved with moderate changes to the process utility system corresponding to 50% of the heat produced from purchased fuel in the boilers of the cluster. Further analysis showed that after implementation

  14. Stuck between a ROC and a hard place? Barriers to the take up of green energy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the UK mechanisms for ensuring future investment in renewable energy through consumer adoption of green energy tariffs and the Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) system. Using a national survey and focus groups the stated willingness by UK customers to pay a premium for renewable or green energy and actual take up of such tariffs is assessed. Substantial differences between willingness to pay for and the adoption of green energy tariffs are reported. This disparity is linked to a range of factors including consumer confusion, lack of supply, complexities of constructing 'green source' tariffs under the ROC system and a lack of customer trust. It is concluded that the re-definition of the green energy market in favour of 'green source' tariffs, greater direct compliance with the Renewable Obligation by addressing supply constraints, and efforts in providing clearer information and choices for consumers via a compulsory green energy accreditation scheme are required if willing consumers' are to contribute to investment in renewable energy

  15. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  16. Ignition in net for different energy confinement time scalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.; Prevot, F.

    1988-06-01

    A zero-dimensional profile dependent model is used to assess the feasibility of ignition in the extended version of NET. Five recent scalings for the energy confinement time (Goldston, Kaye All, Kaye Big, Shimomura-Odajima, Rebut-Lallia) are compared in the frame of two different scenarii, i.e., H-mode with a flat density profile or L-mode with a peaked density profile. For the flat density H-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the peaked density L-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the two Kaye's scalings, ignition is forbidden in H-mode even with the peaked density profile. For the Rebut-Lallia scaling, ignition is allowed in L-mode even with the flat density profile

  17. Response of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes to alpha-particle irradiation at different fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omotoso, E., E-mail: ezekiel.omotoso@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Departments of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Diale, M.; Ngoepe, P.N.M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been carried out on 1.9×10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC at room temperature using 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiation over a fluence ranges from 2.6×10{sup 10} to 9.2×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}. Current–voltage (I–V), capacitance–voltage (C–V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been carried out to study the change in characteristics of the devices and free carrier removal rate due to alpha-particle irradiation, respectively. As radiation fluence increases, the ideality factors increased from 1.20 to 1.85 but the Schottky barrier height (SBH{sub I–V}) decreased from 1.47 to 1.34 eV. Free carrier concentration, N{sub d} decreased with increasing fluence from 1.7×10{sup 16} to 1.1×10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} at approximately 0.70 μm depth. The reduction in N{sub d} shows that defects were induced during the irradiation and have effect on compensating the free carrier. The free carrier removal rate was estimated to be 6480±70 cm{sup −1}. Alpha-particle irradiation introduced two electron traps (E{sub 0.39} and E{sub 0.62}), with activation energies of 0.39±0.03 eV and 0.62±0.08 eV, respectively. The E{sub 0.39} as attribute related to silicon or carbon vacancy, while the E{sub 0.62} has the attribute of Z{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}.

  18. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money

  19. Large-scale renewable energy project barriers: Environmental impact assessment streamlining efforts in Japan and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures have been identified as a major barrier to renewable energy (RE) development with regards to large-scale projects (LS-RE). However EIA laws have also been neglected by many decision-makers who have been underestimating its impact on RE development and the stifling potential they possess. As a consequence, apart from acknowledging the shortcomings of the systems currently in place, few governments momentarily have concrete plans to reform their EIA laws. By looking at recent EIA streamlining efforts in two industrialized regions that underwent major transformations in their energy sectors, this paper attempts to assess how such reform efforts can act as a means to support the balancing of environmental protection and climate change mitigation with socio-economic challenges. Thereby this paper fills this intellectual void by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese EIA law by contrasting it with the recently revised EIA Directive of the European Union (EU). This enables the identification of the regulatory provisions that impact RE development the most and the determination of how structured EIA law reforms would affect domestic RE project development. The main focus lies on the evaluation of regulatory streamlining efforts in the Japanese and EU contexts through the application of a mixed-methods approach, consisting of in-depth literary and legal reviews, followed by a comparative analysis and a series of semi-structured interviews. Highlighting several legal inconsistencies in combination with the views of EIA professionals, academics and law- and policymakers, allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of what streamlining elements of the reformed EU EIA Directive and the proposed Japanese EIA framework modifications could either promote or stifle further RE deployment. - Highlights: •Performs an in-depth review of EIA reforms in OECD territories •First paper to compare Japan and the European

  20. Simultaneous escaping of explicit and hidden free energy barriers: application of the orthogonal space random walk strategy in generalized ensemble based conformational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Chen, Mengen; Yang, Wei

    2009-06-21

    To overcome the pseudoergodicity problem, conformational sampling can be accelerated via generalized ensemble methods, e.g., through the realization of random walks along prechosen collective variables, such as spatial order parameters, energy scaling parameters, or even system temperatures or pressures, etc. As usually observed, in generalized ensemble simulations, hidden barriers are likely to exist in the space perpendicular to the collective variable direction and these residual free energy barriers could greatly abolish the sampling efficiency. This sampling issue is particularly severe when the collective variable is defined in a low-dimension subset of the target system; then the "Hamiltonian lagging" problem, which reveals the fact that necessary structural relaxation falls behind the move of the collective variable, may be likely to occur. To overcome this problem in equilibrium conformational sampling, we adopted the orthogonal space random walk (OSRW) strategy, which was originally developed in the context of free energy simulation [L. Zheng, M. Chen, and W. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 20227 (2008)]. Thereby, generalized ensemble simulations can simultaneously escape both the explicit barriers along the collective variable direction and the hidden barriers that are strongly coupled with the collective variable move. As demonstrated in our model studies, the present OSRW based generalized ensemble treatments show improved sampling capability over the corresponding classical generalized ensemble treatments.