WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrier design requirements

  1. Engineered barrier systems (EBS): design requirements and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled 'Engineered Barrier Systems: Design Requirements and Constraints' was organised in Turku, Finland on 26-29 August 2003 and hosted by Posiva Oy. The main objectives of the workshop were to promote interaction and collaboration among experts responsible for engineering design and safety assessment in order to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the integration needed for the successful design of engineered barrier systems, and to clarify the role that an EBS can play in the overall safety case for a repository. These proceedings present the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  2. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  4. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  5. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for multiple barriers. Demonstration of compliance with § 63.113(a) must: (a) Identify those design features of the engineered barrier system, and natural features of the geologic setting, that are... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115...

  6. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-01-01

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  7. Overcoming natural replication barriers: differential helicase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ranjith P; Shah, Kartik A; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Mirkin, Sergei M; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2012-02-01

    DNA sequences that form secondary structures or bind protein complexes are known barriers to replication and potential inducers of genome instability. In order to determine which helicases facilitate DNA replication across these barriers, we analyzed fork progression through them in wild-type and mutant yeast cells, using 2-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis of the replication intermediates. We show that the Srs2 protein facilitates replication of hairpin-forming CGG/CCG repeats and prevents chromosome fragility at the repeat, whereas it does not affect replication of G-quadruplex forming sequences or a protein-bound repeat. Srs2 helicase activity is required for hairpin unwinding and fork progression. Also, the PCNA binding domain of Srs2 is required for its in vivo role of replication through hairpins. In contrast, the absence of Sgs1 or Pif1 helicases did not inhibit replication through structural barriers, though Pif1 did facilitate replication of a telomeric protein barrier. Interestingly, replication through a protein barrier but not a DNA structure barrier was modulated by nucleotide pool levels, illuminating a different mechanism by which cells can regulate fork progression through protein-mediated stall sites. Our analyses reveal fundamental differences in the replication of DNA structural versus protein barriers, with Srs2 helicase activity exclusively required for fork progression through hairpin structures.

  8. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain

  9. Barrier design for tornado-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant facilities and many other structures need protection against missiles generated by tornados and explosions. The missile impacts result in both local and overall effects on barriers or targets. The local effects are characterized by penetration, perforation and backface spalling or scabbing of the target material. The overall effects of missile impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the flexural and shear behaviour of the target. Empirical formulas are presented to determine the local effects on concrete and steel barriers. Procedures are given for determining the design loads for overall effects. Design methods are described. (Auth.)

  10. Barrier design for tornado-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear powerplant facilities and many other structures need protection against missiles generated by tornadoes and explosions. The missile impacts result in both local and overall effects on barriers or targets. The local effects are characterized by penetration, perforation, and backface spalling or scabbing of the target material. The overall effects of missile impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the flexural and shear behavior of the target. Empirical formulas are presented to determine the local effects on concrete and steel barriers. Procedures are given for determining the design loads for overall effects. Design methods are described

  11. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  12. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  13. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  14. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  15. Model assessment of protective barrier designs: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. This study assesses the effectiveness of protective barriers for isolation of wastes from water. In this report, barrier designs are reviewed and several barrier modeling assumptions are tested. 20 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Design and analysis of the Collider SPXA/SPRA spool piece vacuum barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, G.; Aksel, G.

    1993-04-01

    A design for the Collider SPXA/SPRA spool piece vacuum barrier was developed to meet a variety of thermal and structural performance requirements. Both composite and stainless steel alternatives were investigated using detailed finite-element analysis before selecting an optimized version of the ASST SPR spool vacuum barrier design. This design meets the structural requirements and will be able to meet the thermal performance requirements by using some newer thermal strapping configurations

  17. The Effects of information barrier requirements on the trilateral initiative attribute measurement system (AVNG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Langner, D.C.; Whiteson, R.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the detection techniques used for measuring classified materials are very similar to those used in unclassified measurements, the surrounding packaging is generally very different. If iZ classified item is to be measured, an information barrier is required to protect any classified data acquired. This information barrier must protect the classified information while giving the inspector confidence that the unclassified outputs accurately reflect the classified inputs, Both information barrier and authentication considerations must be considered during all phases of system design and fabrication. One example of such a measurement system is the attribute measurement system (termed the AVNG) designed for the: Trilateral Initiative. We will discuss the integration of information barrier components into this system as well as the effects of an information barrier (including authentication) concerns on the implementation of the detector systems.

  18. Design of barrier bucket kicker control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fa-Fu; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yin, Jun; Zhou, De-Tai; Shen, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Yang-De.; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Yin, Jia; Bai, Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Li

    2018-05-01

    The Heavy-Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) contains two synchrotrons: the main cooler storage ring (CSRm) and the experimental cooler storage ring (CSRe). Beams are extracted from CSRm, and injected into CSRe. To apply the Barrier Bucket (BB) method on the CSRe beam accumulation, a new BB technology based kicker control system was designed and implemented. The controller of the system is implemented using an Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Machine (ARM) chip and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. Within the architecture, ARM is responsible for data presetting and floating number arithmetic processing. The FPGA computes the RF phase point of the two rings and offers more accurate control of the time delay. An online preliminary experiment on HIRFL was also designed to verify the functionalities of the control system. The result shows that the reference trigger point of two different sinusoidal RF signals for an arbitrary phase point was acquired with a matched phase error below 1° (approximately 2.1 ns), and the step delay time better than 2 ns were realized.

  19. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  20. A DESIGN STUDY OF AN INNOVATIVE BARRIER SYSTEM FOR PERSONAL PARKING LOTS

    OpenAIRE

    BÖRKLÜ, Hüseyin; KALYON, Sadık

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the number of cars made it necessary to protectthe parking areas. This research includes a literature review aboutcommercially available barriers, which are arm barriers, rising bollards, chainbarriers, automatic and manual private barriers from the point of common andside-by-side parking lots. Their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.After the literature review work, a design requirements list for a car parkprotector, which includes important and strong properties of ...

  1. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE DESIGN OF NOISE BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz BOCZKOWSKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue connected with effectiveness of noise barriers has been the subject of numerous considerations among acousticians. On the one hand, noise barriers are still the most popular and the most frequently used protection against traffic noise, on the other hand, however, the excessive number of noise barriers and the results of research focusing on effectiveness of the existing barriers make us reflect whether it is reasonable to use them. Very often low effectiveness of noise barriers is related to a badly conducted designing process. This article presents the basic mistakes made by noise barriers’ designers and the consequences thereof. Next, the paper describes the appropriate approach to the process of the noise barriers’ design which consists in the use of computer methods and conducting of a detailed analysis of the acoustic field’s distribution both behind the barrier and on the facades of the acoustically protected buildings.

  2. Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani Bidabadi, Nahid; Nasr Isfahani, Ahmmadreza; Rouhollahi, Amir; Khalili, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors). Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors' behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors' outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors' operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers' preparation in education are discussed. In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities should be awarded of these barriers and requirements as a way to

  3. Effective teaching methods in higher education: requirements and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID SHIRANI BIDABADI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching is one of the main components in educational planning which is a key factor in conducting educational plans. Despite the importance of good teaching, the outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aimed to investigate effective teaching in higher education in Iran based on the experiences of best professors in the country and the best local professors of Isfahan University of Technology. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted through purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten faculty members (3 of them from the best professors in the country and 7 from the best local professors. Content analysis was performed by MAXQDA software. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process that began from semantic units or direct quotations to general themes. Results: According to the results of this study, the best teaching approach is the mixed method (student-centered together with teacher-centered plus educational planning and previous readiness. But whenever the teachers can teach using this method confront with some barriers and requirements; some of these requirements are prerequisite in professors’ behavior and some of these are prerequisite in professors’ outlook. Also, there are some major barriers, some of which are associated with the professors’ operation and others are related to laws and regulations. Implications of these findings for teachers’ preparation in education are discussed. Conclusion: In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers, as the agents of responsibility for change. But training through this method has some barriers and requirements. To have an effective teaching; the faculty members of the universities

  4. Barriers to Strategic Design: A Perspective from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Xihui Liu

    Full Text Available Strategic design is a driver for innovation that can lead to sustainable competitive advantage. Over the past two decades, the barriers limiting breakthrough strategic design development have been studied in much detail. However, that research is based on well-developed practices in Europe, where strategic design and innovation capabilities have been nurtured for a long period. Barriers to the adoption of strategic design practices and leadership have seldom been studied in high growth economies in which design and innovation competencies are not yet mature. We examined design-led innovation cases from Chinese design clients and consultancies, and uncovered twelve barriers to strategic design practice and leadership in China. Six of these are similar to hindrances experienced elsewhere, and the other six are unique to this study. We found that in China, certain constraints limiting the adoption of strategic design in practice exist in the environment outside the firm. Based on these findings, we offer suggestions to stakeholders for overcoming the barriers to utilizing design at the strategic level. Key words: Breakthrough innovation, Design-led innovation, Design implementation, Strategic design

  5. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  7. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  8. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  9. HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...

  10. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  11. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  12. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  13. BARRIER DESIGN STRATEGIES TO CONTROL NOISE INGRESS INTO DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise source for buildings adjacent to streets is traffic-generated predominantly. Where people are mostly spend their time indoors, it is important for buildings to have screening or blocking to control noise intrusion into living spaces. But this blocking should also permit airflow. This is important for middle to low-cost domestic buildings, which do not employ conditioned ventilation. A common feature of Indonesian buildings, fence, is studied to perform noise barrier. The fence -a barrier to be- should obey three factors: position, dimension, and material. All these three factors were studied to seek compromised design for acoustic performance and natural ventilation purpose. Domestic building situated in the urban area of Yogyakarta was studying to see the most possible design of the barrier to be. There are two calculation methods employed to investigate the proposed design. The study shows that it is possible to gain minimum of 10 dB noise reduction by placing windows within the shadow effect of approximately 1.5 height fence-barrier.

  14. Using a systems engineering process to develop engineered barrier system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Short, D.W.

    1991-05-01

    The methodology used to develop conceptual designs of the engineered barrier system and waste packages for a geologic repository is based on an iterative systems engineering process. The process establishes a set of general mission requirements and then conducts detailed requirements analyses using functional analyses, system concept syntheses, and trade studies identifications to develop preliminary system concept descriptions. The feasible concept descriptions are ranked based on selection factors and criteria and a set of preferred concept descriptions is then selected for further development. For each of the selected concept descriptions, a specific set of requirements, including constraints, is written to provide design guidance for the next and more detailed phase of design. The process documents all relevant waste management system requirements so that the basis and source for the specific design requirements are traceable and clearly established. Successive iterations performed during design development help to insure that workable concepts are generated to satisfy the requirements. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Finite-element model evaluation of barrier configurations to reduce infiltration into waste-disposal structures: preliminary results and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.; Phillips, S.J.; Adams, M.R.

    1982-09-01

    Barriers to reduce infiltration into waste burial disposal structures (trenches, pits, etc.) may be required to provide adequate waste confinement. The preliminary engineering design of these barriers should consider interrelated barrier performance factors. This paper summarizes preliminary computer simulation activities to further engineering barrier design efforts. Several barrier configurations were conceived and evaluated. Models were simulated for each barrier configuration using a finite element computer code. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that barrier configurations, depending on their morphology and materials, may significantly influence infiltration, flux, drainage, and storage of water through and within waste disposal structures. 9 figures

  16. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  17. Municipal Officials’ Perceived Barriers to Consideration of Physical Activity in Community Design Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Karin Valentine; Schneider, Kristin L.; Brownson, Ross; Carnoske, Cheryl; Evenson, Kelly; Eyler, Amy; Heinrich, Katie; Litt, Jill; Lyn, Rodney; Maddock, Jay; Reed, Hannah; Tompkins, Nancy O’Hara; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Built environment-focused interventions and policies are recommended as sustainable approaches for promoting physical activity. Physical activity has not traditionally been considered in land use and transportation decision making. Effective collaboration with non-public health partners requires knowledge of their perceived barriers to consideration of physical activity in decision making. Objective This study aimed to 1) identify barriers to the consideration of physical activity in community design and planning decisions among municipal decision makers and 2) explore differences in these barriers among a wide range of job functions and departments in a geographically diverse sample. Design A web-based survey was conducted among municipal officials in 94 cities and towns with populations of at least 50,000 residents in eight states. Participants 453 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measures Five barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design and layout were assessed. Results The most common barriers included lack of political will (23.5%), limited staff (20.4%) and lack of collaboration across municipal departments (16.2%). Fewer participants reported opposition from the business community or residents as barriers. Compared to other professionals, public health department personnel were more likely to report the barriers of limited staff and lack of collaboration across municipal departments. They were also more likely to report lack of political will compared to city managers or mayors and municipal legislators. Conclusions Barriers to increasing consideration of physical activity in decision making about community design and layout are encouragingly low. Implications for public health practice include the need to strategically increase political will

  18. Nonfunctional requirements in systems analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Kevin MacG

    2015-01-01

    This book will help readers gain a solid understanding of non-functional requirements inherent in systems design endeavors. It contains essential information for those who design, use, and maintain complex engineered systems, including experienced designers, teachers of design, system stakeholders, and practicing engineers. Coverage approaches non-functional requirements in a novel way by presenting a framework of four systems concerns into which the 27 major non-functional requirements fall: sustainment, design, adaptation, and viability. Within this model, the text proceeds to define each non-functional requirement, to specify how each is treated as an element of the system design process, and to develop an associated metric for their evaluation. Systems are designed to meet specific functional needs. Because non-functional requirements are not directly related to tasks that satisfy these proposed needs, designers and stakeholders often fail to recognize the importance of such attributes as availability, su...

  19. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-climber, emergency egress, emergency interior lighting, and interior configuration design requirements set... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design...

  20. Progress in waste package and engineered barrier system performance assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.; Stahl, D.; Harrison, D.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's evaluation of site suitability for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, long-term interactions between the engineered barrier system and the site must be determined. This requires a waste-package/engineered-system design, a description of the environment around the emplacement zone, and models that simulate operative processes describing these engineered/natural systems interactions. Candidate designs are being evaluated, including a more robust, multi-barrier waste package, and a drift emplacement mode. Tools for evaluating designs, and emplacement mode are the currently available waste-package/engineered-system performance assessment codes development for the project. For assessments that support site suitability, environmental impact, or licensing decisions, more capable codes are needed. Code capability requirements are being written, and existing codes are to be evaluated against those requirements. Recommendations are being made to focus waste-packaging/engineered-system code-development

  1. Municipal officials' perceived barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Karin Valentine; Schneider, Kristin L; Brownson, Ross; Carnoske, Cheryl; Evenson, Kelly R; Eyler, Amy; Heinrich, Katie; Litt, Jill; Lyn, Rodney; Maddock, Jay; Reed, Hannah; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2013-01-01

    Built environment-focused interventions and policies are recommended as sustainable approaches for promoting physical activity. Physical activity has not traditionally been considered in land use and transportation decision making. Effective collaboration with non-public health partners requires knowledge of their perceived barriers to such consideration. This analysis sought to (a) establish prevalence estimates of selected barriers to the consideration of physical activity in community design and layout decisions and (b) describe how barrier reporting by public health officials differs from other municipal officials among a wide range of job functions and departments in a geographically diverse sample. A Web-based survey was conducted among municipal officials in 94 cities and towns with populations of at least 50 000 residents in 8 states. A total of 453 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures in 83 cities and towns responded to the survey. Five barriers to consideration of physical activity in community design and layout were assessed. The most common barriers included lack of political will (23.5%), limited staff (20.4%), and lack of collaboration across municipal departments (16.2%). Fewer participants reported opposition from the business community or residents as barriers. Public health department personnel were more likely to report the barriers of limited staff and lack of collaboration across municipal departments than other professionals. They were also more likely to report lack of political will than city managers or mayors and municipal legislators. Barriers to increasing consideration of physical activity in decision making about community design and layout are encouragingly low. Implications for public health practice include the need to strategically increase political will despite public health staffing

  2. Optimal design of wind barriers using 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Wu, X.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Desertification is a significant global environmental and ecological problem that requires human-regulated control and management. Wind barriers are commonly used to reduce wind velocity or trap drifting sand in arid or semi-arid areas. Therefore, optimal design of wind barriers becomes critical in Aeolian engineering. In the current study, we perform 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for flow passing through wind barriers with different structural parameters. To validate the simulation results, we first inter-compare the simulated flow field results with those from both wind-tunnel experiments and field measurements. Quantitative analyses of the shelter effect are then conducted based on a series of simulations with different structural parameters (such as wind barrier porosity, row numbers, inter-row spacing and belt schemes). The results show that wind barriers with porosity of 0.35 could provide the longest shelter distance (i.e., where the wind velocity reduction is more than 50%) thus are recommended in engineering designs. To determine the optimal row number and belt scheme, we introduce a cost function that takes both wind-velocity reduction effects and economical expense into account. The calculated cost function show that a 3-row-belt scheme with inter-row spacing of 6h (h as the height of wind barriers) and inter-belt spacing of 12h is the most effective.

  3. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  4. Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approcach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In the future, it will be a huge challenge to make sustainable building design by using a more holistic and innovative approach in order to be able to decrease or reduce the use of energy for heating and cooling in new building projects. This is seen in the perspective of the Kyoto agre....... It also describes the barriers and the challenges that must be overcome when trying to cross the borders between the two fields of engineering and architecture to design sustainable architecture....... agreement for reducing the global heating. This paper will briefly present the method of the Integrated Design Process, IDP [1]. It describes the background and means for developing a new method for designing integrated architecture in an interdisciplinary approach between architecture and engineering...

  5. Understand the Design Requirement in Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    requirements can lead to inappropriate products (Hall, et al., 2002). Understanding the nature of design requirements and the sources, from where they can or should be generated, is critical to before developing methods and processes to support this process. Requirement Engineering research, originated from...

  6. Design requirements for the new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, S.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation deals with the safety related design requirements specified for the new nuclear power plant to be built in Finland (FINS). The legislation, codes and standards, on which the design requirements are based, can be arranged into a hierarchical pyramid as follows: The safety related design criteria are based on the three uppermost hierarchical levels: Finnish legislation (e.g. decisions of the State Council) Basic Regulations (75-INSAG-3, USNRC General Design Criteria) Process oriented nuclear documents (YVL- guides or corresponding US/German rules). The European Utility Requirements (EUR) document was used as the starting point for the writing of the design requirements document. The structure and headlines of EUR could be kept, but in many cases the contents had to be deleted and rewritten to correspond to the requirement level of the above codes and standards. This was the case, for example, with the requirements concerning safety classification or application of failure criteria. In the presentation, the most important safety related design criteria are reviewed, with an emphasis on those requirements which exceed the requirement level applied on the existing plant units. Some hints are also given on the main differences between Finnish and international safety requirements. (orig.)

  7. Designed to deter. Community barriers to physical activity for people with visual or motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Corinne E; Gerber, Elaine G; Smith, Brooke C

    2008-04-01

    People with disabilities are more likely to be obese, in poor health, and get less physical activity than the general population. However, research on community factors for physical activity has generally either excluded most people with disabilities, or overlooked relevant factors of community accessibility. This exploratory study investigated environmental factors affecting people with motor impairments and people with visual impairments in urban neighborhoods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used with a nonrandom sample (n=134) of users of four types of assistive mobility technologies: guide dogs, long canes, and motorized and manual wheelchairs. From July 2005 to August 2006, the sample participated in two telephone surveys. Between the surveys, a stratified random subsample (n =32) engaged in an ethnographic phase of observation and interviews. Most participants in all groups using assistive mobility technologies rated their neighborhoods as accessible, although they also reported many specific barriers. Users of assistive mobility technologies differed in the amount of reported physical activity and on specific barriers. Problems with sidewalk pavement and puddles/poor drainage were the most frequently mentioned environmental barriers, by 90% and 80%, respectively. Users of assistive mobility technologies were more similar on main strategies for dealing with barriers. All groups reported having to plan routes for outings, to alter planned routes, to go more slowly than planned, or to wait for a different time. Despite legislative requirements for accommodation, people with disabilities face barriers to physical activity, both in the built and social environments. Determined people with disabilities were able to overcome barriers, but required additional expenditure of resources to do so. Community design that can include people with disabilities requires detailed understanding of barriers specific both to types of impairments and to different types

  8. Systems engineering requirements impacting MHTGR circulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, H.W.; Baccaglini, G.M.; Potter, R.C.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    At the initiation of the MHTGR program, an important task involved translating the plant users' requirements into design conditions. This was particularly true in the case of the heat transport and shutdown cooling systems since these embody many components. This paper addresses the two helium circulators in these systems. An integrated approach is being used in the development of design and design documentation for the MHTGR plant. It is an organized and systematic development of plant functions and requirements, determined by top-down design, performance, and cost trade-off studies and analyses, to define the overall plant systems, subsystems, components, and human actions. These studies, that led to the identification of the major design parameters for the two circulators, are discussed in this paper. This includes the performance information, steady state and transient data, and the various interface requirements. The design of the circulators used in the MHTGR is presented. (author). 1 ref., 17 figs

  9. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  10. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770

  11. Requirements Engineering and Design Technology Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganska, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the STSC's recommendations for the selection and usage of software engineering products aimed at the requirements analysis and high-level design portions of the software lifecycle...

  12. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE DESIGN OF NOISE BARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz BOCZKOWSKI

    2013-01-01

    The issue connected with effectiveness of noise barriers has been the subject of numerous considerations among acousticians. On the one hand, noise barriers are still the most popular and the most frequently used protection against traffic noise, on the other hand, however, the excessive number of noise barriers and the results of research focusing on effectiveness of the existing barriers make us reflect whether it is reasonable to use them. Very often low effectiveness of noise barriers is ...

  13. Requirements for and barriers towards interoperable ehealth technology in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Wendeline; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Huygens, Martine; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Despite eHealth technology's rapid growth, eHealth applications are rarely embedded within primary care, mostly because systems lack interoperability. This article identifies requirements for, and barriers towards, interoperable eHealth technology from healthcare professionals' perspective -- the

  14. Safety requirements applicable to the SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Wee Kyong; Kim, Hho Jung

    1999-01-01

    The 330 MW thermal power of integral reactor, named SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), is under development at KAERI for seawater desalination application and electricity generation. The final product of nuclear desalination plant (NDP) is electricity and fresh water. Thus, in addition to the protection of the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the fresh water should be prevented from radioactivity contamination. In this study, to ensure the safety of SMART reactor in the early stage of design development, the safety requirements applicable to the SMART design were investigated, based on the current regulatory requirements for the existing NPPs and the advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs. The interface requirements related to the desalination facility were also investigated, based on the recent IAEA research activities pertaining to the NDP. As a result, it was found that the current regulatory requirements and guidance for the existing NPPs and advanced LWR designs are applicable to the SMART design and its safety evaluation. However, the safety requirements related to the SMART-specific design and the desalination plant are needed to develop in the future to assure the safety of the SMART reactor

  15. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  16. Lower-Temperature Invert Design For Diffusion Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce Stanley

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to advance the state of the subsurface facilities design to primarily support the ''Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report'' (DOE 2001) and to also support the preparation and revision of System Description Document's Section 2 system descriptions (CRWMS M and O 2001, pp. 9 and 11). The results may also eventually support the License Application (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 3). The Performance Assessment Department will be the primary user of the information generated and will be used in abstraction modeling for the lower-temperature scenario (CRWMS M and O 200 1, p. 27). This analysis will evaluate the invert relative to the lower- and higher-temperature conditions in accordance with the primary tasks below. Invert design is a major factor in allowing water entering the drift to pass freely and enter the drift floor without surface ponding and in limiting diffusive transport into the host rock. Specific cost effective designs will be conceptualized under the new lower-temperature conditions in this analysis. Interfacing activities and all aspects of Integrated Safety Management and Nuclear Culture principles are included in this work scope by adhering to the respective principles during this design activity and by incorporating safety into the design analysis (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 8). Primary tasks of this analysis include identifying available design information from existing sources on the invert as a diffusive barrier, developing concepts that reduce the amount steel, and developing other design features that accommodate both lower- and higher-temperature operating modes (CRWMS M and O 2001, p.16)

  17. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... on a pre-defined coding scheme. The results of the study shows that change in requirements were initiated by internal stakeholders through analysis and evaluation activities during the design process, meanwhile external stakeholders were requested changes during the meeting with consultant. All...

  18. Steam generator design requirements for ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subash, S.; Hau, K.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the ACR-1000 (Advanced CANDU Reactor-1000 ) to meet market expectations for enhanced safety of plant operation, high capacity factor, low operating cost, increased operating life, simple component replacement, reduced capital cost, and shorter construction schedule. The ACR-1000 design is based on the use of horizontal fuel channels surrounded by a heavy water moderator, the same feature as in all CANDU reactors. The major innovation in the ACR-1000 is the use of low enriched uranium fuel, and light water as the coolant, which circulates in the fuel channels. This results in a compact reactor core design and a reduction of heavy water inventory, both contributing to a significant decrease in capital cost per MWe produced. The ACR-1000 plant is a two-unit, integrated plant with each unit having a nominal gross output of about 1165 MWe with a net output of approximately 1085 MWe. The plant design is adaptable to a single unit configuration, if required. This paper focuses on the technical considerations that went into developing some of the important design requirements for the steam generators for the ACR-1000 plant and how these requirements are specified in the Technical Specification, which is the governing document for the steam generator (SG) detail design. Layout of these SGs in the plant is briefly described and their impacts on the SG design. (author)

  19. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW th , heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS

  1. Measurement of leakage and design for the protective barrier of the high energy radiation therapy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.S.; Park, C.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The logical development of an optimum structural shielding design and the computation of protective barriers for high energy radiation therapy room, Toshiba 13 MeV are presented. We obtained following results by comparison in between the precalculating values and actual survey after complete installation of radiogenerating units. 1) The calculating formula for the protective barrier written in NCRP report no. 34(1970) was the most ideal and economic calculating methods for the construction of barrier and to determine thickness for the meeting requirements of the number of patients of 80-100 in daily treatment. 2) The precalculating values of protective barrier are 5 times more protective than that of actual measurement. It is depending on radiation workload and utilization the data most securely. 3) The dose rate during exposure are 2-10 mR/hr at out of the door and the control room. 4) The foul smelling and ozone gas production from long exposure of cancer patients cannot be estimated when the room is ill ventilated. (author)

  2. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  3. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Turbine Engines: A Design and Performance Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis; Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBC) for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating long-term durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature, strength and stability requirements in engine high heat-flux combustion environments, especially for highly-loaded rotating turbine components. Advanced TEBC systems, including nano-composite based HfO2-aluminosilicate and rare earth silicate coatings are being developed and tested for higher temperature capable SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade applications. This paper will emphasize coating composite and multilayer design approach and the resulting performance and durability in simulated engine high heat-flux, high stress and high pressure combustion environments. The advances in the environmental barrier coating development showed promise for future rotating CMC blade applications.

  4. Test design requirements for overcoring stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1985-12-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for a series of overcoring stress measurements to be performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility. The stress measurements will be made to determine the in situ state of stress within the candidate repository horizon and to determine the magnitude and distribution of the stresses induced by the mined openings of the facility. The overcoring technique involves the measurement of strain (or deformation) in a volume of rock as the stress acting on the rock volume is relieved. This document presents an overview of the measurements, including objectives and rationale for the measurements. A description of the measurements is included. The support requirements are identified as are constraints for the design of the measurements. Discussions on Quality Assurance and Safety are also included in the document. 13 refs

  5. Basic design requirements for indigenous irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Abd Rahman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Fadil Ismail; Muhd Nor Atan

    2007-01-01

    Most of the irradiators owned by Nuclear Malaysia are imported from other countries. The irradiators are used for various applications such as Research and Development, agriculture and industry. There is a plan to develop locally made multi-purpose gamma irradiator in 9th Malaysia Plan which equipped with better safety features. This paper will discuss the basic requirements for the design of the irradiator. (Author)

  6. A modelling approach to designing microstructures in thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Nylen, P.; Wigren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermomechanical properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are strongly influenced by coating defects, such as delaminations and pores, thus making it essential to have a fundamental understanding of microstructure-property relationships in TBCs to produce a desired coating. Object-Oriented Finite element analysis (OOF) has been shown previously as an effective tool for evaluating thermal and mechanical material behaviour, as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent material microstructure as input to the model. In this work, OOF was used to predict the thermal conductivity and effective Young's modulus of TBC topcoats. A Design of Experiments (DoE) was conducted by varying selected parameters for spraying Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) topcoat. The microstructure was assessed with SEM, and image analysis was used to characterize the porosity content. The relationships between microstructural features and properties predicted by modelling are discussed. The microstructural features having the most beneficial effect on properties were sprayed with a different spray gun so as to verify the results obtained from modelling. Characterisation of the coatings included microstructure evaluation, thermal conductivity and lifetime measurements. The modelling approach in combination with experiments undertaken in this study was shown to be an effective way to achieve coatings with optimised thermo-mechanical properties.

  7. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grider, Gary Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  8. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.

  9. Safety Design Approach for the Development of Safety Requirements for Design of Commercial HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Yan, Xing; Sakaba, Nariaki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The research committee on “Safety requirements for HTGR design” was established in 2013 under the Atomic Energy Society of Japan to develop the draft safety requirements for the design of commercial High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), which incorporate the HTGR safety features demonstrated using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), lessons learned from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and requirements for the integration of the hydrogen production plants. The safety design approach for the commercial HTGRs which is a basement of the safety requirements is determined prior to the development of the safety requirements. The safety design approaches for the commercial HTGRs are to confine the radioactive materials within the coated fuel particles not only during normal operation but also during accident conditions, and the integrity of the coated fuel particles and other requiring physical barriers are protected by the inherent and passive safety features. This paper describes the main topics of the research committee, the safety design approaches and the safety functions of the commercial HTGRs determined in the research committee. (author)

  10. Breakthrough revisited: investigating the requirements for growth of dust beyond the bouncing barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard A.; Meru, Farzana; Lee, Man Hoi; Clarke, Cathie J.

    2018-03-01

    For grain growth to proceed effectively and lead to planet formation, a number of barriers to growth must be overcome. One such barrier, relevant for compact grains in the inner regions of the disc, is the `bouncing barrier' in which large grains (˜mm size) tend to bounce off each other rather than sticking. However, by maintaining a population of small grains, it has been suggested that cm-size particles may grow rapidly by sweeping up these small grains. We present the first numerically resolved investigation into the conditions under which grains may be lucky enough to grow beyond the bouncing barrier by a series of rare collisions leading to growth (so-called `breakthrough'). Our models support previous results, and show that in simple models breakthrough requires the mass ratio at which high-velocity collisions transition to growth instead of causing fragmentation to be low, ϕ ≲ 50. However, in models that take into account the dependence of the fragmentation threshold on mass ratio, we find that breakthrough occurs more readily, even if mass transfer is relatively inefficient. This suggests that bouncing may only slow down growth, rather than preventing growth beyond a threshold barrier. However, even when growth beyond the bouncing barrier is possible, radial drift will usually prevent growth to arbitrarily large sizes.

  11. Basic Block of Pipelined ADC Design Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kledrowetz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design requirements of a basic stage (called MDAC - Multiplying Digital-to- Analog Converter of a pipelined ADC. There exist error sources such as finite DC gain of opamp, capacitor mismatch, thermal noise, etc., arising when the switched capacitor (SC technique and CMOS technology are used. These non-idealities are explained and their influences on overall parameters of a pipelined ADC are studied. The pipelined ADC including non-idealities was modeled in MATLAB - Simulink simulation environment.

  12. Requirements and Designs for Mars Rover RTGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Shirbacheh, M; Sankarankandath, V

    2012-01-19

    The current-generation RTGs (both GPHS and MOD) are designed for operation in a vacuum environment. The multifoil thermal insulation used in those RTGs only functions well in a good vacuum. Current RTGs are designed to operate with an inert cover gas before launch, and to be vented to space vacuum after launch. Both RTGs are sealed with a large number of metallic C-rings. Those seals are adequate for retaining the inert-gas overpressure during short-term launch operations, but would not be adequate to prevent intrusion of the Martian atmospheric gases during long-term operations there. Therefore, for the Mars Rover application, those RTGs just be modified to prevent the buildup of significant pressures of Mars atmosphere or of helium (from alpha decay of the fuel). In addition, a Mars Rover RTG needs to withstand a long-term dynamic environment that is much more severe than that seen by an RTG on an orbiting spacecraft or on a stationary planetary lander. This paper describes a typical Rover mission, its requirements, the environment it imposes on the RTG, and a design approach for making the RTG operable in such an environment. Specific RTG designs for various thermoelectric element alternatives are presented.; Reference CID #9268 and CID #9276.

  13. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  14. Design and validation of a microfluidic device for blood-brain barrier monitoring and transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Giovanni Stefano; Occhetta, Paola; Saccani, Alessandra; Re, Francesca; Krol, Silke; Rasponi, Marco; Redaelli, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier models are highly relevant for drug screening and drug development studies, due to the challenging task of understanding the transport mechanism of drug molecules through the blood-brain barrier towards the brain tissue. In this respect, microfluidics holds potential for providing microsystems that require low amounts of cells and reagent and can be potentially multiplexed for increasing the ease and throughput of the drug screening process. We here describe the design, development and validation of a microfluidic device for endothelial blood-brain barrier cell transport studies. The device comprises of two microstructured layers (top culture chamber and bottom collection chamber) sandwiching a porous membrane for the cell culture. Microstructured layers include two pairs of physical electrodes, embedded into the device layers by geometrically defined guiding channels with computationally optimized positions. These electrodes allow the use of commercial electrical measurement systems for monitoring trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). We employed the designed device for performing preliminary assessment of endothelial barrier formation with murine brain endothelial cells (Br-bEnd5). Results demonstrate that cellular junctional complexes effectively form in the cultures (expression of VE-Cadherin and ZO-1) and that the TEER monitoring systems effectively detects an increase of resistance of the cultured cell layers indicative of tight junction formation. Finally, we validate the use of the described microsystem for drug transport studies demonstrating that Br-bEnd5 cells significantly hinder the transport of molecules (40 kDa and 4 kDa dextran) from the top culture chamber to the bottom collection chamber.

  15. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study plant is to describe tests known as Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT), which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The EBSFT is designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers), the surrounding rock mass, and its vadose water. The Yucca Mountain site is being characterized to determine its suitability as a potential deep geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. Water is the main medium by which radioactive nuclides travel to the accessible environment. Therefore, the movement of water over the approximate 10,000--year lifetime required for radioactive nuclide decay must be understood. Development of a repository and emplacement of nuclear wastes impose stress loadings on the repository rock mass. The stress loadings include (1) thermal energy and irradiation from the waste packages, and (2) mechanical stress due to the mining of openings, and the transporting of waste canisters. The influence f the thermal stress may extend to all lithological units, including the saturated zone under the ground water table, in Yucca Mountain. In general, the purpose of this study is to investigate the movement of water in the rock mass under the influence of the thermal loading of the waste packages. Specifically, the study will investigate heat flow mechanism, relationship between boiling and dry-out, and the rewetting of the dry-out region when the repository is cooled down

  16. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondevila, Damian; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Monica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (α max ) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining α max , which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t E ) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL e ) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that α max increases for increasing TVL e (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t E , with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation

  17. Maximum dose angle for oblique incidence on primary beam protective barriers in the design of medical radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Damián; Arbiser, Silvio; Sansogne, Rosana; Brunetto, Mónica; Dosoretz, Bernardo

    2008-05-01

    Primary barrier determinations for the shielding of medical radiation therapy facilities are generally made assuming normal beam incidence on the barrier, since this is geometrically the most unfavorable condition for that shielding barrier whenever the occupation line is allowed to run along the barrier. However, when the occupation line (for example, the wall of an adjacent building) runs perpendicular to the barrier (especially roof barrier), then two opposing factors come in to play: increasing obliquity angle with respect to the barrier increases the attenuation, while the distance to the calculation point decreases, hence, increasing the dose. As a result, there exists an angle (alpha(max)) for which the equivalent dose results in a maximum, constituting the most unfavorable geometric condition for that shielding barrier. Based on the usual NCRP Report No. 151 model, this article presents a simple formula for obtaining alpha(max), which is a function of the thickness of the barrier (t(E)) and the equilibrium tenth-value layer (TVL(e)) of the shielding material for the nominal energy of the beam. It can be seen that alpha(max) increases for increasing TVL(e) (hence, beam energy) and decreases for increasing t(E), with a range of variation that goes from 13 to 40 deg for concrete barriers thicknesses in the range of 50-300 cm and most commercially available teletherapy machines. This parameter has not been calculated in the existing literature for radiotherapy facilities design and has practical applications, as in calculating the required unoccupied roof shielding for the protection of a nearby building located in the plane of the primary beam rotation.

  18. Design Requirements for Designing Responsive Modular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Madsen, Ole; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Customers demand the newest technologies, newest designs, the ability to customise, high quality, and all this at a low cost. These are trends which challenge the traditional way of operating manufacturing companies, especially in regard to product development and manufacturing. Research...... the needed flexibility and responsiveness, but such systems are not yet fully achieved. From related theory it is known that achieving modular benefits depend on the modular architecture; a modular architecture which must be developed according to the customer needs. This makes production needs a design...... requirement in order to achieve responsiveness and other benefits of modular manufacturing systems (MMS). Due to the complex and interrelated nature of a production system and its surroundings these production needs are complex to identify. This paper presents an analysis framework for identification...

  19. Overview and Design Considerations of Storm Surge Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, L.F.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    The risk of flooding in coastal zones is expected to increase due to sea level rise and economic development. In larger bays, estuaries, and coastal waterways, storm surge barriers can be constructed to temporarily close off these systems during storm surges to provide coastal flood protection.

  20. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS

  1. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E; Link, Steven O

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. After establishing a set of design and performance objectives, a package of design solutions was developed for 1000-year surface barriers over nuclear waste sites. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was then constructed in 1994 in the field over an existing waste site as a demonstration. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all objectives in the past two decades. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford's semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr -1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion and bio-intrusion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of the processes and mechanisms that could affect barrier stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the basis for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineered surface barriers for waste disposal sites: lysimeter facility design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ruben, M.S.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A facility to evaluate performance of engineered surface carriers for confinement of buried wastes has been designed, constructed, and operations initiated. The Field Lysimeter Test Facility is located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The facility consists of 18 one-dimensional drainage and weighing lysimeters used to evaluate 7 replicated barrier treatments. Distinct layers of natural earth materials were used to construct layered soil and rock barriers in each lysimeter. These barrier designs are capable in principal of significantly reducing or precluding infiltration of meteoric water through barriers into underlying contaminated zones. This paper summarizes salient facility design and construction features used in testing of the Hanford Site's engineered surface barriers

  3. Design of tandem mirror reactors with thermal barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    End-plug technologies for tandem mirror reactors include high-field superconducting magnets, neutral beam injectors, and gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). In addition to their normal use for sustenance of the end-plug plasmas, neutral beam injectors are used for ''pumping'' trapped ions from the thermal barrier regions by charge exchange. An extra function of the axially directed pump beams is the removal of thermalized alpha particles from the reactor. The principles of tandem mirror operation with thermal barriers will be demonstrated in the upgrade of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX-U) in 1981 and the tandem configuration of the Mirror fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) in 1984

  4. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Kim, Y. J.

    1998-03-01

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs

  5. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Kim, Y. J

    1998-03-01

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs.

  6. Coping with the knowledge sharing barriers in Product Service Systems design

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marco; Larsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the knowledge sharing process that characterizes Product Service Systems (PSS) design, drawing on data from an in-depth study in the Swedish manufacturing industry. It categorizes and describes the most relevant knowledge sharing barriers affecting early PSS development phases, discussing them in terms of capabilities to be included in a knowledge engineering system to fulfil the increasing need for knowledge in product-service design. To cope with these barriers, the auth...

  7. Functions and requirements for subsurface barriers used in support of single-shell tank waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Program includes project and program activities for receiving, storing, maintaining, treating, and disposing onsite, or packaging for offsite disposal, all Hanford tank waste. Hanford tank waste includes the contents of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), plus any new waste added to these facilities, and all encapsulated cesium and strontium stored onsite and returned from offsite users. A key element of the TWRS Program is retrieval of the waste in the SSTs. The waste stored in these underground tanks must be removed in order to minimize environmental, safety, and health risks associated with continuing waste storage. Subsurface barriers are being considered as a means to mitigate the effects of tank leaks including those occurring during SST waste retrieval. The functions to be performed by subsurface barriers based on their role in retrieving waste from the SSTs are described, and the requirements which constrain their application are identified. These functions and requirements together define the functional baseline for subsurface barriers

  8. A Design Theory for Requirements Mining Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meth, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Software requirements are often communicated in unstructured text documents, which need to be analyzed in order to identify and classify individual needs. This process is referred to as requirements mining in the context of this thesis. It is known to be time-consuming and error-prone when performed manually by a requirements engineer. Thus, there is a demand to support requirements mining through information technology. However, little research has been conducted to conceptualize theoretical...

  9. Sustainable Hydraulic Barrier Design Technologies for Effective Infrastructure Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitral Wijeyesekera Devapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of liquids lead to embarrassing post construction scenarios such as that of leaks from roofs, potable water leaking from water tanks/ reservoirs, rising damp in walls with groundwater seeping into basement structures, leakage of water from ornamental lakes and ponds or leachate leakage into the environment from MSW landfill sites. Such failures demand immediate and expensive maintenance. A stringent control on structural and waterproof stability is deemed necessary for long term service life of structures and in particular underground and near surface structures. On a micro scale and over a longer time scale, the phenomenon of rising dampness occurs in older buildings with the groundwater rising up through walls, floors and masonry via capillary action. Even slower rates of contaminant fluid migration occur through landfill base liners. In this paper a variety of hydraulic barrier technologies is critically discussed against a backdrop of relevant case studies. The choice of an appropriate hydraulic barrier technology for a given scenario will depend also on the sustainability, financial affordability and subjective aesthetics.

  10. Designing a highly sensitive Eddy current sensor for evaluating damage on thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Seong; Lee, Yeong Ze [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seul Gi [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been widely applied to machine components working under high temperature as a thermal insulator owing to its critical financial and safety benefits to the industry. However, the nondestructive evaluation of TBC damage is not easy since sensing of the microscopic change that occurs on the TBC is required during an evaluation. We designed an eddy current probe for evaluating damage on a TBC based on the finite element method (FEM) and validated its performance through an experiment. An FEM analysis predicted the sensitivity of the probe, showing that impedance change increases as the TBC thermally degrades. In addition, the effect of the magnetic shield concentrating magnetic flux density was also observed. Finally, experimental validation showed good agreement with the simulation result.

  11. A closed-loop based framework for design requirement management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhinan; Li, Xuemeng; Liu, Zelin

    2014-01-01

    management from product lifecycle, and requirement and requirement management lifecycle views. This paper highlights the importance of requirement lifecycle management and aims at closing the requirement information loop in product lifecycle. Then, it addresses the requirement management in engineering...... design field with focusing on the dynamics nature and incomplete nature of requirements. Finally, a closed-loop based framework is proposed for requirement management in engineering design....

  12. Designer's requirements for evaluation of sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Today, sustainability of products is often evaluated on the basis of assessments of their environmental performance. Established means for this purpose are formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods. Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for life...... cycle-based evaluation methods. However, the application of LCA in the design process, when for example different materials and manufacturing processes have to be selected, is difficult. This is, among other things, because only a few designers have a deeper background in this area and even simplified...... LCAs involve calculations with a relatively high accuracy. Most LCA methods do therefore not qualify as hands-on tool for utilisation by typical designers.In this context, the authors raise the question, whether a largely simplified LCA-method which is exclusively based on energy considerations can...

  13. The Sources and Methods of Engineering Design Requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Zhang, Zhinan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    to be defined in a new context. This paper focuses on understanding the design requirement sources at the requirement elicitation phase. It aims at proposing an improved design requirement source classification considering emerging markets and presenting current methods for eliciting requirement for each source...

  14. Assessment as a Barrier in Developing Design Expertise: Interior Design Student Perceptions of Meanings and Sources of Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kennon M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a portion of a larger qualitative study focused on a group of interior design students' perceptions of their educational experiences. Twelve interior design students enrolled in their final studio course participated in interviews intended to elicit their perceptions of key barriers encountered during their undergraduate…

  15. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  16. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  17. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  18. Simulation Data Management - Requirements and Design Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Friedman-Hill, Ernest J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Marcus J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, Kevin H. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Reston, VA (United States); Laney, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Simulation Data Management (SDM), the ability to securely organize, archive, and share analysis models and the artifacts used to create them, is a fundamental requirement for modern engineering analysis based on computational simulation. We have worked separately to provide secure, network SDM services to engineers and scientists at our respective laboratories for over a decade. We propose to leverage our experience and lessons learned to help develop and deploy a next-generation SDM service as part of a multi-laboratory team. This service will be portable across multiple sites and platforms, and will be accessible via a range of command-line tools and well-documented APIs. In this document, we’ll review our high-level and low-level requirements for such a system, review one existing system, and briefly discuss our proposed implementation.

  19. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  20. Improving the requirements process in Axiomatic Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to integrate the traditional requirements process into Axiomatic Design Theory and proposes a method to structure the requirements process. The method includes a requirements classification system to ensure that all requirements information can be included...... in the Axiomatic Design process, a stakeholder classification system to reduce the chances of excluding one or more key stakeholders, and a table to visualize the mapping between the stakeholders and their requirements....

  1. EU-APR Design in compliance with EUR Grid Requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Keun-Sung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    European Utility Requirements (EUR) provides technical requirements for the generation III nuclear power plant in the European countries. EUR grid requirements present the plant requirements to satisfy the needs of the grid network. The grid requirements are the precondition for the operation of a generating plant on the network. This paper describes EU-APR design which has taken account of EUR grid requirements. In this paper, EU-APR designs according to the EUR grid requirements were described. EU-APR was designed in compliance with the voltage and frequency operation field and also designed to have the capability of load following such as primary control, secondary control, and daily load following. Consequently, the EU-APR design according to the EUR grid requirements is expected to get competitiveness and enhance the license feasibility in the European nuclear market.

  2. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Longmire, Patrick A.; Strietelmeier, Elizabeth A.; Taylor, Tammy P.; Den-Baars, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the

  3. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design requirements incorporated by reference. 801.12 Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements incorporated...

  4. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system

  5. Design requirement for electrical system of an advanced research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, J. S.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-12-01

    An advanced research reactor is being designed since 2002 and the conceptual design has been completed this year for the several types of core. Also the fuel was designed for the potential cores. But the process system, the I and C system, and the electrical system design are under pre-conceptual stage. The conceptual design for those systems will be developed in the next year. Design requirements for the electrical system set up to develop conceptual design. The same goals as reactor design - enhance safety, reliability, economy, were applied for the development of the requirements. Also the experience of HANARO design and operation was based on. The design requirements for the power distribution, standby power supply, and raceway system will be used for the conceptual design of electrical system.

  6. 7 CFR 801.11 - Related design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Related design requirements. 801.11 Section 801.11... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.11 Related design requirements. (a) Suitability. The design... tolerances prescribed in §§ 801.3 through 801.10, be capable of repeating its results when the equipment is...

  7. Two psig service requires proper design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veraa, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Washington Gas (WG) established a 2 psig house line delivery system in the late 1980s to compete with electric utilities and recapture its share of the natural gas market. A trend away from installing natural gas in new housing required WG to improve construction materials, develop cost-cutting techniques and provide new regulators and metering to convince builders of the advantages of natural gas systems. WG serves approximately 650,000 customers in Washington D.C. and the surrounding counties in Virginia and Maryland. Over the last few years, WG has been adding about 20,000 new customers per year. In the 1970s when natural gas was in short supply, a moratorium was imposed on new customers. When the moratorium was finally lifted in the late 1970s, the electric utilities had captured most of the new housing energy market. Innovative marketing efforts were needed to win market share and compete with the electric utilities, but several factors combined to inhibit new gas sales. First, builders had grown accustomed to specifying electric heat pumps for house heating and had a certain amount of resistance to change. Although market research indicated that new home buyers preferred natural gas, many builders did not want to deal with another utility. Also, gas piping increased construction costs. Traditional gas house piping is rigid black pipe which is cut and fit on the job. The right angle turns limit where the pipe can be run, making it labor intensive to install. Safety was another important consideration. Normally, an internal relief valve provides sufficient over-pressure protection in the event of a regulator full-valve failure. The 2 psig delivery pressure required a review of what type of over-pressure protection should be provided

  8. REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION MODE OF TAXI VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norayr Oganesovich Bludyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of international experience in application of requirements for the taxi vehicles design and equipment. The approaches to improvement of cabbing have been defined by determination of requirements for taxi vehicles.

  9. Inclusive design drivers and barriers – a manufacturing perspective from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographics of older people and people with disabilities in developing countries are discussed in the context of inclusive design and the drivers and barriers to inclusive design have been identified. Data were collected from 50 individuals from various industrial sectors in Pakistan. Corporate social responsibility (CSR relates to inclusive aspects of products, but most respondents either did not know about CSR or did not have a CSR post in their organizations, but 64% had awareness of inclusive design terminology. The study concluded that motivation through social responsibility; innovation and differentiation; demographics and consumer trends; brand enhancement; customer satisfaction; new market opportunity; and legislation were the perceived drivers for manufacturers in Pakistan. Most respondents felt that lack of resources and guidance, lack of awareness about inclusive design, difficulty in changing the business culture, lack of government regulations, and the perception that inclusive design is expensive were the most significant barriers.

  10. Development of a design package for a viscous barrier at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes elements of a design for a pilot-scale field demonstration of a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), which uses a new generation of barrier liquids for permeation grouting. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS), originally built to control contaminated runoff for the H Reactor, and which has been contaminated mainly by radionuclides. The LBNL viscous barrier technology employs barrier liquids which, when injected into the subsurface, produce chemically benign nearly impermeable barriers through a very large increase in viscosity. The initially low-viscosity liquids are emplaced through multiple injection points in the subsurface and the intersecting plumes merge and completely surround the contaminant source and/or plume. Once in place, they gel or cure to form a nearly impermeable barrier. The barrier liquid to be used in this application is Colloidal Silica (CS), an aqueous suspension of silica microspheres in a stabilizing electrolyte. It has excellent durability characteristics, poses no health hazard, is practically unaffected by filtration, and is chemically and biologically benign

  11. The Barriers and Causes of Building Information Modelling Usage for Interior Design Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. B. Abd; Taib, M. Z. Mohd; Razak, A. H. N. Abdul; Embi, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) has since developed alongside the improvement in the construction industry, purposely to simulate the design, management, construction and documentation. It facilitates and monitors the construction through visualization and emphasizes on various inputs to virtually design and construct a building using specific software. This study aims to identify and elaborate barriers of BIM usage in interior design industry in Malaysia. This study is initiated with a pilot survey utilising sixteen respondents that has been randomly chosen. Respondents are attached with interior design firms that are registered by Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). The research findings are expected to provide significant information to encourage BIM adoption among interior design firms.

  12. Building Information Modelling: Challenges and Barriers in Implement of BIM for Interior Design Industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. B. Abd; Taib, M. Z. Mohd; Razak, A. H. N. Abdul; Embi, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an innovative approach that has developed crossways the global in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. The construction industry of Malaysia has undergone a rapid development and dynamic technology adoption in advance and methods between the players industry and stakeholders. Consequently, limited technologies and devices have not been successful as it should have been. This study will be emphasizing scenarios of challenges and barriers in adopting BIM in interior design industry in Malaysia. The study was emphasizing the challenges and barriers in BIM usage from the designer’s perspective. The data are collected through the questionnaires as to identifying the barriers, knowledge, readiness and awareness and distributed to interior design firms were selected randomly. The finding of this research is to examine the barriers and causes of variables BIM usage for interior design industry in Malaysia. The outcome of this study is to identify the constraint of adoption BIM in interior design industry compare to others players in same industry.

  13. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  14. National Ignition Facility system design requirements conventional facilities SDR001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirements (SDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the minimum design requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) site infrastructure and conventional facilities. These consist of the physical site and buildings necessary to house the laser, target chamber, target preparation areas, optics support and ancillary functions

  15. Directives and general design requirements for a small PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, L.A.

    1992-08-01

    A proposal of directives and general requirements for the development of a small PWR conceptual design is presented. These directives address the main safety, performance and economic design aspects. The purpose is to use this work as a base for a wide discussion, involving all project participants, culminating with the definition of the final directives and general requirements. (author)

  16. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  17. Safety design guides for seismic requirements for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide for seismic requirements for CANDU 9 describes the seismic design philosophy, defines the applicable earthquakes and identifies the structures and systems requiring seismic qualification to ensure that the essential safety function can be adequately satisfied following earthquake. The detailed requirements for structures, systems and components which must be seismically qualified are specified in the Appendix. The change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  18. Design requirement on KALIMER blanket fuel assembly duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.

    1998-03-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER as design guidance. The blanket fuel assembly duct of the KALIMER consists of fuel rods, mounting rail, nosepiece, duct with pad, handling socket with pad. Blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with solid ferritic-martensitic steel rod and key way blanket fuel slug, cladding, and wire wrap. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array, and the rod bundle is attached to the nosepiece with mounting rails. The bottom end of the assembly duct is formed by a long nosepiece which provides the lower restraint function and the paths for coolant inlet. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. (author). 20 refs., 4 figs

  19. Assessment of Performance-based Requirements for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2005-01-01

    and for a detailed assessment of the requirements. The design requirements to be used for a factory producing elements for industrial housing for unknown costumers are discussed, and a fully developed fire is recommended as a common requirement for domestic houses, hotels, offices, schools and hospitals. In addition...

  20. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier

  1. Project W-441 cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage

  2. Visual Pollution in the Context of Conflicting Design Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumartono Sumartono

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available All designs (graphic, product, and interior designs are directed to consider certain requirements which are followed by logical thinking to fulfill a design process. Once the requirements of each design have been well-considered and the logical design process has been fulfilled, the design is complete. Ideally, all designs are not supposed to be in conflict with each other because each one is based on a logical design process. In reality, however, the mutual existence of these designs has produced conflicting requirements and thereby conflicting logics. This conflict can be seen in visual pollution. This paper will examine the impact of visual pollution caused by billboards, street signs, posters, houses/buildings, automobiles, shopfront graphic designs, packaging designs, graffiti, etc. in the context of conflicting logics/requirements. Today, opposition grows everywhere against all visually polluting designs and outdoor advertising is the most prominent one. Some people think that it should be banned from the city. Some others, however, think that if advertisements are removed from the city, it will become a bland concrete jungle. Every city in Indonesia needs a clean-city law to control illegal advertisements and signs. It is possible to make legal yet attractive advertisements that will give positive contribution to “visual democracy” in Indonesia.

  3. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-01-01

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased

  4. Update of bridge design standards in Alabama for AASHTO LRFD seismic design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) has been required to update their bridge design to the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. This transition has resulted in changes to the seismic design standards of bridges in the state. Multiple bridg...

  5. Safety design requirements for safety systems and components of JSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shigenobu; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Yamano, Hidemasa; Kotake, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Safety design requirements for JSFR were summarized taking the development targets of the FaCT project and design feature of JSFR into account. The related safety principle and requirements for Monju, CRBRP, PRISM, SPX, LWRs, IAEA standards, goals of GIF, basic principle of INPRO etc. were also taken into account so that the safety design requirements can be a next-generation global standard. The development targets for safety and reliability are set based on those of FaCT, namely, ensuring safety and reliability equal to future LWR and related fuel cycle facilities. In order to achieve these targets, the defence-in-depth concept is used as the basic safety design principle. General features of the safety design requirements are 1) Achievement of higher reliability, 2) Achievement of higher inspectability and maintainability, 3) Introduction of passive safety features, 4) Reduction of operator action needs, 5) Design consideration against Beyond Design Basis Events, 6) In-Vessel Retention of degraded core materials, 7) Prevention and mitigation against sodium chemical reactions, and 8) Design against external events. The current specific requirements for each system and component are summarized taking the basic design concept of JSFR into account, which is an advanced loop-type large-output power plant with a mixed-oxide-fuelled core. (author)

  6. Multi-channel spintronic transistor design based on magnetoelectric barriers and spin-orbital effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-01-01

    We present a spin transistor design based on spin-orbital interactions in a two-dimensional electron gas, with magnetic barriers induced by a patterned ferromagnetic gate. The proposed device overcomes certain shortcomings of previous spin transistor designs such as long device length and degradation of conductance modulation for multi-channel transport. The robustness of our device for multi-channel transport is unique in spin transistor designs based on spin-orbit coupling. The device is more practical in fabrication and experimental respects compared to previously conceived single-mode spin transistors

  7. Requirements' Role in Mobilizing and Enabling Design Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Mark

    Requirements play a critical role in a design conversation of systems and products. Product and system design exists at the crossroads of problems, solutions and requirements. Requirements contextualize problems and solutions, pointing the way to feasible outcomes. These are captured with models and detailed specifications. Still, stakeholders need to be able to understand one-another using shared design representations in order to mobilize bias and transform knowledge towards legitimized, desired results. Many modern modeling languages, including UML, as well as detailed, logic-based specifications are beyond the comprehension of key stakeholders. Hence, they inhibit, rather than promote design conversation. Improved design boundary objects (DBO), especially design requirements boundary objects (DRBO), need to be created and refined to improve the communications between principals. Four key features of design boundary objects that improve and promote design conversation are discussed in detail. A systems analysis and design case study is presented which demonstrates these features in action. It describes how a small team of analysts worked with key stakeholders to mobilize and guide a complex system design discussion towards an unexpected, yet desired outcome within a short time frame.

  8. Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificates: Scheme design flaws and perceived investment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnerud, Kristin; Simonsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The EU Commission recommends using market-based support schemes for renewable-electricity projects. One example is the Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificate scheme. We examine whether design features in the Norwegian part of this scheme, specifically, the scheme's short duration and the way it is to be abruptly terminated, contribute to investors' perceptions of barriers. We apply econometric techniques on primary data collected in two surveys of Norwegian investors in hydropower, and we use real options theory to predict and interpret investors' responses. We show that: (1) immediately after the scheme was introduced, investors are eager to lock in future subsidies by investing immediately and concerned with factors that may delay the completion of their projects; (2) as the certificate deadline neared, investors have become increasingly pessimistic and concerned with economic and risk barriers. Investors in big hydropower plants with regulation reservoirs are particularly concerned with the risk of not completing their projects in time to gain the right to sell certificates. These findings are consistent with the predicted responses to the scheme design derived from real options theory. In contrast to earlier studies, we find no difference in responses to the scheme design across investor types. - Highlights: • The Swedish-Norwegian tradable green certificate scheme is intended to promote cost-efficiency. • We examine the optimism about and barriers against investing in new hydropower projects in Norway. • We find that scheme design may have contributed to barriers against Norwegian hydropower projects. • Thus, scheme design flaws may have prevented the scheme from working as intended. • These findings are consistent with real options theory predictions.

  9. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  10. Operation and maintenance requirements of system design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Hanley, N.E.

    1989-01-01

    All system designs make assumptions about system operation testing, inspection, and maintenance. Existing industry codes and standards explicitly address design requirements of new systems, while issues related to system and plant reliability, life, design margins, effects of service conditions, operation, maintenance, etc., usually are implicit. However, system/component design documents of existing power plants often address the code requirements without considering the operation, maintenance, inspection, and testing (OMIT) requirements. The nuclear industry is expending major efforts at most nuclear power plants to reassemble and/or reconstitute system design bases. Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) recently addressed the OMIT requirements of system/component design as an integral part of a utility's preventive maintenance program. For each component, SWEC reviewed vendor recommendations, NPRDS data/industry experience, the existing maintenance program, component service conditions, and actual plant experience. A maintenance program that considers component service conditions and plant experience ensures a connection between maintenance and design basis. Root cause analysis of failure and engineering evaluation of service condition are part of the program. System/component OMIT requirements also are compared against system design, service condition, degradation mechanism, etc., through system/component life-cycle evaluation

  11. A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 238 Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached

  12. Design and installation of a strategically placed algae mesh barrier at OPG Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marttila, D.; Patrick, P.; Gregoris, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation's Pickering Nuclear has experienced a number of events in which attached algae have become entrained in the water intake costing approximately $30M over the 1995-2005 period as a result of deratings, Unit shutdowns and other operational issues. In 2005-2006 OPG and Kinectrics worked collaboratively on evaluating different potential solutions to reduce the impact of algae on the station. One of the solutions developed by Kinectrics included a strategically placed barrier net designed to regulate algae flow into the station intake. In 2006, Kinectrics designed and installed the system, the first of its kind at a Nuclear Power Plant in Canada. The system was operational by May 2007. OPG completed an effectiveness study in 2007 and concluded the barrier system had a beneficial effect on reducing algae impact on the station. (author)

  13. Commercial tandem mirror reactor design with thermal barriers: WITAMIR-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Emmert, G.A.; Maynard, C.W.

    1980-10-01

    A conceptual design of a near term commercial tandem mirror power reactor is presented. The basic configuration utilizes yin-yang minimum-B plugs with inboard thermal barriers. The maximum magnetic fields are 6.1 T, 8.1 T, and 15 T in the central cell, yin-yang, and thermal barrier magnets, respectively. The blanket utilizes Pb 83 Li 17 as the coolant and HT-9 as the structural material. This yields a high energy multiplication (1.37), a sufficient tritium breeding ratio (1.07) and has a major advantage with respect to maintenance. The plasma Q is 28 at a fusion power level of 3000 MW(t); the net electrical output is 1530 MW(e); and the overall efficiency is 39%. Cost estimates indicate that WITAMIR-I is competitive with recent tokamak power reactor designs

  14. Transforming Multidisciplinary Customer Requirements to Product Design Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Guo-Fu; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Li, Rong; Yan, Kai-Yin; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing of complexity of complex mechatronic products, it is necessary to involve multidisciplinary design teams, thus, the traditional customer requirements modeling for a single discipline team becomes difficult to be applied in a multidisciplinary team and project since team members with various disciplinary backgrounds may have different interpretations of the customers' requirements. A new synthesized multidisciplinary customer requirements modeling method is provided for obtaining and describing the common understanding of customer requirements (CRs) and more importantly transferring them into a detailed and accurate product design specifications (PDS) to interact with different team members effectively. A case study of designing a high speed train verifies the rationality and feasibility of the proposed multidisciplinary requirement modeling method for complex mechatronic product development. This proposed research offersthe instruction to realize the customer-driven personalized customization of complex mechatronic product.

  15. Distributed Cognition in the Management of Design Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Sean; Lyytinen, Kalle

    2009-01-01

    In this position statement, we outline a new theoretical framework of the distribution of design requirements processes. Building upon the Theory of Distributed Cognition, we characterize contemporary requirements efforts as distributed cognitive systems in which elements of a design vision are distributed socially, structurally, and temporally. We discuss the various forms of distribution observed in real-world systems development projects and the processes by which representational states ...

  16. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  17. Design of Thermal Barrier Coatings Thickness for Gas Turbine Blade Based on Finite Element Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Biao; Fan, Xueling; Li, Dingjun; Jiang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are deposited on the turbine blade to reduce the temperature of underlying substrate, as well as providing protection against the oxidation and hot corrosion from high temperature gas. Optimal ceramic top-coat thickness distribution on the blade can improve the performance and efficiency of the coatings. Design of the coatings thickness is a multiobjective optimization problem due to the conflicts among objectives of high thermal insulation performance, long op...

  18. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  19. Interaction between periodic in-service inspection requirements and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prot, A.C.; Saglio, R.

    1979-03-01

    After reviewing the requirements specific of periodic In-Service Inspection related to safety problems, especially for the pressure vessels, and taking into account the experience gained with several PWR reactors, the authors show these requirements could lead to modify the primary circuit design

  20. Physics design requirements for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.; Goldston, R.J.; Jardin, S.C.; Reiersen, W.T.; Porkolab, M.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-01-01

    The design of TPX is driven by physics requirements that follow from its mission. The tokamak and heating systems provide the performance and profile controls needed to study advanced steady state tokamak operating modes. The magnetic control systems provide substantial flexibility for the study of regimes with high beta and bootstrap current. The divertor is designed for high steady state power and particle exhaust

  1. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  2. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Acan Clements

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1 electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2 coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  3. Bayesian Chance-Constrained Hydraulic Barrier Design under Geological Structure Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazan, Nima; Pham, Hai V; Tsai, Frank T-C

    2015-01-01

    The groundwater community has widely recognized geological structure uncertainty as a major source of model structure uncertainty. Previous studies in aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of geological structure uncertainty. This study combines chance-constrained (CC) programming with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the impact of geological structure uncertainty in remediation design. To pursue this goal, the BMA-CC method is compared with traditional CC programming that only considers model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from salt water intrusion in the "1500-foot" sand and the "1700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address geological structure uncertainty, three groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphic architectures are developed. The results show that using traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from the connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing the injection rate can be achieved by reducing the reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station may not be economically attractive. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Supplemental design requirements document solid waste operations complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Broz, D.R.; Eaton, H.E.; Greager, T.M.; Huckfeldt, R.A.; Kooiker, S.L.; Lamberd, D.L.; Lang, L.L.; Myers, J.B.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to the WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, WHC-SD-W113-FDC-001, and WHC-SD-W100-FDC-001. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design common to the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities (Project W-112, Project W-113, and WRAP 2A)

  5. [Focus Notified Bodies. New requirements for designation and monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, U; Edelhäuser, R

    2014-12-01

    For medical devices with a higher risk, Notified Bodies assess whether the manufacturers and their products fulfill the requirements laid down in the European directives on medical devices. Notified Bodies are designated through a designation procedure by the designating authority, in Germany by ZLG. The requirements for the designation arise from the respective annexes of the directives on medical devices. Since these are only minimal criteria, different documents have been compiled on a European and national level to concretize these minimal criteria regarding the organization, quality management system, resources, and certification procedure. The rules of the ZLG are thereby the essential documents for designation in Germany. Moreover, according to Implementing Regulation (EU) no. 912/2013, the European commission and the other European designating authorities also have to be involved in the designation process. The aim of continuous monitoring of the Notified Bodies with assessments on the bodies' premises as well as with observed audits is to ensure the permanent fulfillment of the requirements. If nonconformities are found in a body's quality management system or in its implementation of the conformity assessment procedures, the body is obliged to provide ZLG with a corrective actions plan. In the case that the nonconformities are not resolved in time or critical nonconformities are found, ZLG may take actions, e.g., restrict the scope of designation, suspend, or - as last resort - withdraw the designation.

  6. Research requirements for improved design of reinforced concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Holley, M.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is a competitive material for the construction of nuclear power plant containment structures. However, the designer is constrained by limited data on the behavior of certain construction details which require him to use what may be excessive rebar quantities and lead to difficult and costly construction. This paper discusses several design situations where research is recommended to increase the designer's options, to facilitate construction, and to extend the applicability of reinforced concrete to such changing containment requirements as may be imposed by an evolving nuclear technology. (Auth.)

  7. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  8. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided

  9. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  10. Selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1992-01-01

    A method concerning selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222 Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption. The proper parameter value of diffusion barrier is obtained by means of linearization of 222 Rn adsorption versus the exposure time. Thus, the influence of temperature on measured results may be greatly decreased, and higher sensitivity of the detector may be maintained

  11. System requirements and design description for the environmental requirements management interface (ERMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI). The ERMI database assists Tank Farm personnel with scheduling, planning, and documenting procedure compliance, performance verification, and selected corrective action tracking activities for Tank Farm S/RID requirements. The ERMI database was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This document was prepared by SAIC and edited by LMHC

  12. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  13. Design Requirements for Communication-Intensive Interactive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Paolini, Paolo

    Online interactive applications call for new requirements paradigms to capture the growing complexity of computer-mediated communication. Crafting successful interactive applications (such as websites and multimedia) involves modeling the requirements for the user experience, including those leading to content design, usable information architecture and interaction, in profound coordination with the communication goals of all stakeholders involved, ranging from persuasion to social engagement, to call for action. To face this grand challenge, we propose a methodology for modeling communication requirements and provide a set of operational conceptual tools to be used in complex projects with multiple stakeholders. Through examples from real-life projects and lessons-learned from direct experience, we draw on the concepts of brand, value, communication goals, information and persuasion requirements to systematically guide analysts to master the multifaceted connections of these elements as drivers to inform successful communication designs.

  14. Identifying and Managing Engineering Design Requirements for Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng

    , especially for those companies originally from developed markets, to acquire an in-depth understanding of particular design requirements in emerging markets in order to adapt both company products and approaches in such contexts. Prior studies on the identification and management of design requirements have...... predominantly been conducted in the context of developed countries and relatively affluent markets. Emerging markets are distinct from developed markets in terms of numerous contextual factors, e.g., regulatory environments and competitive landscapes. These factors influence the requirement identification...... attention. There is a need for an overview of different perspectives in requirement identification for manufacturing companies and their corresponding assessments in the context of emerging markets. Therefore, this research project is motivated to 1) investigate the process of identifying and managing...

  15. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  16. National Ignition Facility system design requirements Laser System SDR002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Bowers, J.M.; Bliss, E.S.; Karpenko, V.P.; English, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIP Laser System. The Laser System generates and delivers high-power optical pulses to the target chamber, and is composed of all optical puke creating and transport elements from Puke Generation through Final Optics as well as the special equipment that supports, energizes and controls them. The Laser System consists of the following WBS elements: 1.3 Laser System 1.4 Beam Transport System 1.6 Optical Components 1.7 Laser Control 1.8.7 Final Optics

  17. Design Requirements, Epistemic Uncertainty and Solution Development Strategies in Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Linden J.; Onarheim, Balder; Christensen, Bo Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential involvement of “epistemic uncertainty” in mediating between complex design requirements and strategic switches in software design strategies. The analysis revealed that the designers produced an initial “first-pass” solution to the given design brief in a bre...... a view of software design as involving a mixed breadth-first and depth-first solution development approach, with strategic switching to depth-first design being triggered by requirement complexity and being mediated by associated feelings of uncertainty....

  18. Smart Contract Templates: essential requirements and design options

    OpenAIRE

    Clack, Christopher D.; Bakshi, Vikram A.; Braine, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Smart Contract Templates support legally-enforceable smart contracts, using operational parameters to connect legal agreements to standardised code. In this paper, we explore the design landscape of potential formats for storage and transmission of smart legal agreements. We identify essential requirements and describe a number of key design options, from which we envisage future development of standardised formats for defining and manipulating smart legal agreements. This provides a prelimin...

  19. REQUIREMENTS PROCESSING TOOLS AND THE BUILDING DESIGNERS MOTIVATION ON USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of projects requires, among other conditions, the ability to process requirements. In the construction literature, researchers have figured out that human difficulties was often at the root of Requirements Processing (RP problems throughout the design phases, and that the employment of tools could be a key factor for RP implementation. To check these outcomes and to look at how current practitioners behave in relation to the RP tools, an exploratory case study was conducted with a building design team from a public university. The aim of this paper was to investigate the perception of benefits and the motivation of designers regarding the RP tools. The results indicated that 42% of the participants are highly motivated to use new tools and that they have more interest in tools that deal directly with design activities than in those focused on data. Validation tools aroused interest as the most useful tools for designers. 66,7% of the participants mentioned that the tools can make the design process clearer, and that training and adaptation are crucial to promote acceptance and commitment to RP. The main contribution is the indication of gaps for further research and for tools improvement from the designers’ perspective.

  20. Design of Thermal Barrier Coatings Thickness for Gas Turbine Blade Based on Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs are deposited on the turbine blade to reduce the temperature of underlying substrate, as well as providing protection against the oxidation and hot corrosion from high temperature gas. Optimal ceramic top-coat thickness distribution on the blade can improve the performance and efficiency of the coatings. Design of the coatings thickness is a multiobjective optimization problem due to the conflicts among objectives of high thermal insulation performance, long operation durability, and low fabrication cost. This work developed a procedure for designing the TBCs thickness distribution for the gas turbine blade. Three-dimensional finite element models were built and analyzed, and weighted-sum approach was employed to solve the multiobjective optimization problem herein. Suitable multiregion top-coat thickness distribution scheme was designed with the considerations of manufacturing accuracy, productivity, and fabrication cost.

  1. Design requirements of communication architecture of SMART safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Sin, Y. C.; Lee, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    To develop the communication network architecture of safety system of SMART, the evaluation elements for reliability and performance factors are extracted from commercial networks and classified the required-level by importance. A predictable determinacy, status and fixed based architecture, separation and isolation from other systems, high reliability, verification and validation are introduced as the essential requirements of safety system communication network. Based on the suggested requirements, optical cable, star topology, synchronous transmission, point-to-point physical link, connection-oriented logical link, MAC (medium access control) with fixed allocation are selected as the design elements. The proposed architecture will be applied as basic communication network architecture of SMART safety system

  2. Design requirements for new nuclear reactor facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, S.; Ohn, M.; Harwood, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has been establishing the regulatory framework for the efficient and effective licensing of new nuclear reactor facilities. This regulatory framework includes the documentation of the requirements for the design and safety analysis of new nuclear reactor facilities, regardless of size. For this purpose, the CNSC has published the design and safety analysis requirements in the following two sets of regulatory documents: 1. RD-337, Design of New Nuclear Power Plants and RD-310, Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants; and 2. RD-367, Design of Small Reactor Facilities and RD-308, Deterministic Safety Analysis for Small Reactor Facilities. These regulatory documents have been modernized to document past practices and experience and to be consistent with national and international standards. These regulatory documents provide the requirements for the design and safety analysis at a high level presented in a hierarchical structure. These documents were developed in a technology neutral approach so that they can be applicable for a wide variety of water cooled reactor facilities. This paper highlights two particular aspects of these regulatory documents: The use of a graded approach to make the documents applicable for a wide variety of nuclear reactor facilities including nuclear power plants (NPPs) and small reactor facilities; and, Design requirements that are new and different from past Canadian practices. Finally, this paper presents some of the proposed changes in RD-337 to implement specific details of the recommendations of the CNSC Fukushima Task Force Report. Major changes were not needed as the 2008 version of RD-337 already contained requirements to address most of the lessons learned from the Fukushima event of March 2011. (author)

  3. Future CANDU nuclear power plant design requirements document executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; S. A. Usmani

    1996-03-01

    The future CANDU Requirements Document (FCRED) describes a clear and complete statement of utility requirements for the next generation of CANDU nuclear power plants including those in Korea. The requirements are based on proven technology of PHWR experience and are intended to be consistent with those specified in the current international requirement documents. Furthermore, these integrated set of design requirements, incorporate utility input to the extent currently available and assure a simple, robust and more forgiving design that enhances the performance and safety. The FCRED addresses the entire plant, including the nuclear steam supply system and the balance of the plant, up to the interface with the utility grid at the distribution side of the circuit breakers which connect the switchyard to the transmission lines. Requirements for processing of low level radioactive waste at the plant site and spent fuel storage requirements are included in the FCRED. Off-site waste disposal is beyond the scope of the FCRED. 2 tabs., 1 fig. (Author) .new

  4. IT Requirements Integration in High-Rise Construction Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Anastasia; Ilin, Igor; Esedulaev, Rustam

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses the growing role of IT support for the operation of modern high-rise buildings, due to the complexity of managing engineering systems of buildings and the requirements of consumers for the IT infrastructure. The existing regulatory framework for the development of design documentation for construction, including high-rise buildings, is analyzed, and the lack of coherence in the development of this documentation with the requirements for the creation of an automated management system and the corresponding IT infrastructure is stated. The lack of integration between these areas is the cause of delays and inefficiencies both at the design stage and at the stage of putting the building into operation. The paper proposes an approach to coordinate the requirements of the IT infrastructure of high-rise buildings and design documentation for construction. The solution to this problem is possible within the framework of the enterprise architecture concept by coordinating the requirements of the IT and technological layers at the design stage of the construction.

  5. Robot-Assisted Fracture Surgery: Surgical Requirements and System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgilas, Ioannis; Dagnino, Giulio; Tarassoli, Payam; Atkins, Roger; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2018-03-09

    The design of medical devices is a complex and crucial process to ensure patient safety. It has been shown that improperly designed devices lead to errors and associated accidents and costs. A key element for a successful design is incorporating the views of the primary and secondary stakeholders early in the development process. They provide insights into current practice and point out specific issues with the current processes and equipment in use. This work presents how information from a user-study conducted in the early stages of the RAFS (Robot Assisted Fracture Surgery) project informed the subsequent development and testing of the system. The user needs were captured using qualitative methods and converted to operational, functional, and non-functional requirements based on the methods derived from product design and development. This work presents how the requirements inform a new workflow for intra-articular joint fracture reduction using a robotic system. It is also shown how the various elements of the system are developed to explicitly address one or more of the requirements identified, and how intermediate verification tests are conducted to ensure conformity. Finally, a validation test in the form of a cadaveric trial confirms the ability of the designed system to satisfy the aims set by the original research question and the needs of the users.

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....

  7. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  8. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  9. Execution techniques for high level radioactive waste disposal. 4. Design and manufacturing procedure of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhide; Kosaki, Akio; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Ensuring the physical integrity of engineered barriers for an extremely long time period is necessary for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. This report describes the design process and the designed configurations of both overpack and buffer as engineered barriers. Manufacturing procedure, quality control and inspection methods are also summarized. Carbon steel was selected as a structural material of the overpack and the specification of the overpack was determined assuming disposal in the depths of 1000 m below surface of crystalline rock site. The mixture of bentonite and sand (80% sodium bentonite and 20% silica sand by mass) was selected as material for a buffer from mainly its permeability and characteristics of self-sealing of a gap occurred in construction work. Welding method of a lid onto the main body of the overpack, uniting method of a corrosion-resistance layer and the structural component in the case of a composite overpack and manufacturing procedures of both blocks-type and monolithic-type buffers are also investigated. (author)

  10. Process of establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for conceptual design of a VLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.

  11. Preliminary Design Requirements Document for Project W-314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-04-27

    This document sets forth functional requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints for the tank farm systems elements identified in Section 3.1 of this document. These requirements shall be used to develop the Design Requirements Baseline for those system elements. System Overview--The tank farm system at Hanford Site currently consists of 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks with associated facilities and equipment, located in 18 separate groupings. Each grouping is known as a tank farm. They are located in the areas designated as 200 West and 200 East. Table 1-1 shows the number of tanks in each farm. The farms are connected together through a transfer system consisting of piping, diversion boxes, Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) and other miscellaneous facilities and elements. The tank farm system also connects to a series of processing plants which generate radioactive and hazardous wastes. The primary functions of the tank farm system are to store, transfer, concentrate, and characterize radioactive and hazardous waste generated at Hanford, until the waste can be safely retrieved, processed and dispositioned. The systems provided by Project W-314 support the store and transfer waste functions. The system elements to be upgraded by Project W-314 are identified in Section 3.1.

  12. Data Requirements and the Basis for Designing Health Information Kiosks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mina; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mahmoudvand, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Health kiosks are an innovative and cost-effective solution that organizations can easily implement to help educate people. To determine the data requirements and basis for designing health information kiosks as a new technology to maintain the health of society. By reviewing the literature, a list of information requirements was provided in 4 sections (demographic information, general information, diagnostic information and medical history), and questions related to the objectives, data elements, stakeholders, requirements, infrastructures and the applications of health information kiosks were provided. In order to determine the content validity of the designed set, the opinions of 2 physicians and 2 specialists in medical informatics were obtained. The test-retest method was used to measure its reliability. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. In the proposed model for Iran, 170 data elements in 6 sections were presented for experts' opinion, which ultimately, on 106 elements, a collective agreement was reached. To provide a model of health information kiosk, creating a standard data set is a critical point. According to a survey conducted on the various literature review studies related to the health information kiosk, the most important components of a health information kiosk include six categories; information needs, data elements, applications, stakeholders, requirements and infrastructure of health information kiosks that need to be considered when designing a health information kiosk.

  13. Preliminary Design Requirements Document for Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document sets forth functional requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints for the tank farm systems elements identified in Section 3.1 of this document. These requirements shall be used to develop the Design Requirements Baseline for those system elements. System Overview--The tank farm system at Hanford Site currently consists of 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks with associated facilities and equipment, located in 18 separate groupings. Each grouping is known as a tank farm. They are located in the areas designated as 200 West and 200 East. Table 1-1 shows the number of tanks in each farm. The farms are connected together through a transfer system consisting of piping, diversion boxes, Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) and other miscellaneous facilities and elements. The tank farm system also connects to a series of processing plants which generate radioactive and hazardous wastes. The primary functions of the tank farm system are to store, transfer, concentrate, and characterize radioactive and hazardous waste generated at Hanford, until the waste can be safely retrieved, processed and dispositioned. The systems provided by Project W-314 support the store and transfer waste functions. The system elements to be upgraded by Project W-314 are identified in Section 3.1

  14. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  15. Design of durability and lifetime assessment method under thermomechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Gyoo; Choi, Young Kue; Jeon, Seol; Lee, Hee Soo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Min Seok [Korea Testing Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A durability testing method under thermo-mechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) specimens was designed by a combination of an electric furnace and a tensile testing machine, which was done on TBCs on NIMONIC 263 substrates by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) deposition method. The testing conditions were chosen according to a preliminary experiment that identified the elastic deformation region of the top coating and the substrate during mechanical loading. Surface cracking and a decrease in the thickness of the top coating, which are typical degradation behaviors under conventional thermal shock testing, were observed after the designed thermal fatigue test, and delamination at the top coating-bond coating interface occurred by the mechanical load. Lifetime assessment was conducted by statistical software using life cycle data which were obtained after the thermal fatigue test.

  16. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, John

    This dissertation will provide a detailed approach and analysis of a new collaborative requirements prioritization methodology that has been used successfully on four Coast Guard avionics acquisition and development programs valued at $400M+. A statistical representation of participant study results will be discussed and analyzed in detail. Many technically compliant projects fail to deliver levels of performance and capability that the customer desires. Some of these systems completely meet "threshold" levels of performance; however, the distribution of resources in the process devoted to the development and management of the requirements does not always represent the voice of the customer. This is especially true for technically complex projects such as modern avionics systems. A simplified facilitated process for prioritization of system requirements will be described. The collaborative prioritization process, and resulting artifacts, aids the systems engineer during early conceptual design. All requirements are not the same in terms of customer priority. While there is a tendency to have many thresholds inside of a system design, there is usually a subset of requirements and system performance that is of the utmost importance to the design. These critical capabilities and critical levels of performance typically represent the reason the system is being built. The systems engineer needs processes to identify these critical capabilities, the associated desired levels of performance, and the risks associated with the specific requirements that define the critical capability. The facilitated prioritization exercise is designed to collaboratively draw out these critical capabilities and levels of performance so they can be emphasized in system design. Developing the purpose, scheduling and process for prioritization events are key elements of systems engineering and modern project management. The benefits of early collaborative prioritization flow throughout the

  17. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  18. Codes, standards, and requirements for DOE facilities: natural phenomena design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The basic requirements for codes, standards, and requirements are found in DOE Orders 5480.1A, 5480.4, and 6430.1. The type of DOE facility to be built and the hazards which it presents will determine the criteria to be applied for natural phenomena design. Mandatory criteria are established in the DOE orders for certain designs but more often recommended guidance is given. National codes and standards form a great body of experience from which the project engineer may draw. Examples of three kinds of facilities and the applicable codes and standards are discussed. The safety program planning approach to project management used at Westinghouse Hanford is outlined. 5 figures, 2 tables

  19. Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Gilai, T. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1982-01-01

    Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs.

  20. Uncertainty reduction requirements in cores designed for passive reactivity shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe the changed focus of neutronics accuracy requirements existing in the current US advanced LMR development program where passive shutdown is a major design goal. The second purpose is to provide the background and rationale which supports the selection of a formal data fitting methodology as the means for the application of critical experiment measurements to meet these accuracy needs. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Strength and Numerical Analysis in the Design of Permeable Reactive Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Katarzyna; Wrzesiński, Grzegorz; Lendo-Siwicka, Marzena

    2017-10-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are one of the most important in situ technologies in groundwater remediation. Most of the installed PRBs have tended to use singular reactive media, but there is an increasing number of applications using combined or sequenced media to treat mixtures of contaminants within a groundwater plume. The concept of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (MPRB) to prevent and protect groundwater along traffic routes, especially in ecologically and naturally valuable areas, was developed following several field and laboratory investigations conducted in the Department of Geotechnical Engineering of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. In accordance with the guidelines of the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council for the selection of reactive materials, numerous laboratory and field investigations should be performed to determine the environmental conditions, type and concentrations of the contaminants, and the physical-chemical and permeability properties of the reactive materials. However, the deformation and strength properties of the reactive materials should be also considered in the design and evaluation of the safety conditions. In this paper, strength and deformation properties of silica spongolite, zeolite, and activated carbon were investigated using direct shear and oedometer tests. The laboratory test results were used in numerical calculations with the application of the finite element method. The aim of this study was to define the impact of the installation stages of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier on the stability of a road embankment. Numerical analysis may prevent, reduce or eliminate the risk in the case of a breakdown during the construction or/and exploitation of a PRB.

  2. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  3. Design requirements for ubiquitous computing environments for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, Magnus; Larsson, Anders; Eriksson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing environments can support clinical administrative routines in new ways. The aim of such computing approaches is to enhance routine physical work, thus it is important to identify specific design requirements. We studied healthcare professionals in an emergency room and developed the computer-augmented environment NOSTOS to support teamwork in that setting. NOSTOS uses digital pens and paper-based media as the primary input interface for data capture and as a means of controlling the system. NOSTOS also includes a digital desk, walk-up displays, and sensor technology that allow the system to track documents and activities in the workplace. We propose a set of requirements and discuss the value of tangible user interfaces for healthcare personnel. Our results suggest that the key requirements are flexibility in terms of system usage and seamless integration between digital and physical components. We also discuss how ubiquitous computing approaches like NOSTOS can be beneficial in the medical workplace.

  4. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  5. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  6. Design Requirements of an Advanced HANARO Reactor Core Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Chul; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2007-12-01

    An advanced HANARO Reactor (AHR) is an open-tank-type and generates thermal power of 20 MW and is under conceptual design phase for developing it. The thermal power is including a core fission heat, a temporary stored fuel heat in the pool, a pump heat and a neutron reflecting heat in the reflector vessel of the reactor. In order to remove the heat load, the reactor core cooling system is composed of a primary cooling system, a primary cooling water purification system and a reflector cooling system. The primary cooling system must remove the heat load including the core fission heat, the temporary stored fuel heat in the pool and the pump heat. The purification system must maintain the quality of the primary cooling water. And the reflector cooling system must remove the neutron reflecting heat in the reflector vessel of the reactor and maintain the quality of the reflector. In this study, the design requirement of each system has been carried out using a design methodology of the HANARO within a permissible range of safety. And those requirements are written by english intend to use design data for exporting the research reactor

  7. Evolution of general design requirements for french pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, G.; Jalouneix, J.; Rollinger, F.

    1988-10-01

    The design of French pressurized water reactors is based first on deterministic principles, using the well-known defense in depth concept. This safety approach, basically reflected current American practice at that time, which consisted notably in designing engineered safeguard systems capable of limiting the consequences of accidents assumed to be credible despite the preventive measures taken. Further reflections have led to complete this approach, resulting in modifications to regulatory practice, mainly related to better practical assimilation of the problems arising during plant unit operation and reactor control after an accident and to the determination to enhance the overall consistency of the safety approach. As regards system redundancy, it should be noted that common cause failures can result in the total loss of a redundant system. System redundancy aspects will be dealt with in Chapter 2. As regards study of design basis accidents, attention was focused on the human intervention stage following automatic activation of protection and safeguard systems. This resulted, for all plant units, in the revision of operating procedures, accompanied by examination of the means required for their implementation. These subjects will be discussed in Chapter 3. Finally, as regards equipment classification, the range of equipment subjected to particular requirements, formerly limited to design basis safety classified equipment, was enlarged to include important for safety equipment. This subject will be dealt with in Chapter 5

  8. Discontinuous permeable adsorptive barrier design and cost analysis: a methodological approach to optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonastaso, Giovanni Francesco; Bortone, Immacolata; Chianese, Simeone; Di Nardo, Armando; Di Natale, Michele; Erto, Alessandro; Karatza, Despina; Musmarra, Dino

    2017-09-19

    The following paper presents a method to optimise a discontinuous permeable adsorptive barrier (PAB-D). This method is based on the comparison of different PAB-D configurations obtained by changing some of the main PAB-D design parameters. In particular, the well diameters, the distance between two consecutive passive wells and the distance between two consecutive well lines were varied, and a cost analysis for each configuration was carried out in order to define the best performing and most cost-effective PAB-D configuration. As a case study, a benzene-contaminated aquifer located in an urban area in the north of Naples (Italy) was considered. The PAB-D configuration with a well diameter of 0.8 m resulted the best optimised layout in terms of performance and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, in order to identify the best configuration for the remediation of the aquifer studied, a comparison with a continuous permeable adsorptive barrier (PAB-C) was added. In particular, this showed a 40% reduction of the total remediation costs by using the optimised PAB-D.

  9. Design of InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared barrier detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, M.; Rossignol, R.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Christol, P.

    2017-04-01

    Design of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) infrared barrier detectors is theoretically investigated. Each part of the barrier structures is studied in order to achieve optimal device operation at 150 K and 77 K, in the midwave and longwave infrared domain, respectively. Whatever the spectral domain, nBp structure with a p-type absorbing zone and an n-type contact layer is found to be the most favourable detector architecture allowing a reduction of the dark-current associated with generation-recombination processes. The nBp structures are then compared to pin photodiodes. The MWIR nBp detector with 5 μm cut-off wavelength can operate up to 120 K, resulting in an improvement of 20 K on the operating temperature compared to the pin device. The dark-current density of the LWIR nBp device at 77 K is expected to be as low as 3.5 × 10-4 A/cm2 at 50 mV reverse bias, more than one decade lower than the usual T2SL photodiode. This result, for a device having cut-off wavelength at 12 μm, is at the state of the art compared to the well-known MCT 'rule 07'.

  10. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Barrier Free Park Design for the Disabled Persons: A Case Study of the KLCC Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreena Hussein

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Making green spaces accessible to as many people as possible is now mainstream thinking in planning, design and management. Green spaces call be internal or external, integrated or separated with building. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify the characteristics in creating green spaces for the disabled persons' to enjoy. This research is dedicated specially for those with sensory disabilities, i.e. visually impaired' persons.The research will focus on issues and constraints that seem to impede their basic necessity, which is a barrier to them in enjoying the green spaces alongside their sighted peers. However, this research can also be applied to other users such as children, elderly people, pregnant women and parent with strollers. An example of a case study selected is the Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC Park, where the author will explore the objectives and design principles of the Park. The findings are intended to provide recommendation on appropriate design criteria for the visually impaired persons in helping to maintain and manage green spaces. This is also to provide general information on different type of plants, highlighting their value and use in design as advised by landscape architects.

  12. Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S.D.; Steefel, C.I.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

  13. Defining Requirements and Related Methods for Designing Sensorized Garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andreoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing smart garments has strong interdisciplinary implications, specifically related to user and technical requirements, but also because of the very different applications they have: medicine, sport and fitness, lifestyle monitoring, workplace and job conditions analysis, etc. This paper aims to discuss some user, textile, and technical issues to be faced in sensorized clothes development. In relation to the user, the main requirements are anthropometric, gender-related, and aesthetical. In terms of these requirements, the user’s age, the target application, and fashion trends cannot be ignored, because they determine the compliance with the wearable system. Regarding textile requirements, functional factors—also influencing user comfort—are elasticity and washability, while more technical properties are the stability of the chemical agents’ effects for preserving the sensors’ efficacy and reliability, and assuring the proper duration of the product for the complete life cycle. From the technical side, the physiological issues are the most important: skin conductance, tolerance, irritation, and the effect of sweat and perspiration are key factors for reliable sensing. Other technical features such as battery size and duration, and the form factor of the sensor collector, should be considered, as they affect aesthetical requirements, which have proven to be crucial, as well as comfort and wearability.

  14. Current practice and guidelines for the safe design of water barrier pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rangasamy, T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available adjacent to barrier pillars was conducted to ascertain the relationship between compartment water head, barrier pillar width and flow rates for combinations of roof bound, coal bound and floor bound flow. The results obtained from the instrumentation... pillars. A survey of South African Collieries revealed that water leakage associated with barrier pillars can be classed into seven predominant geotechnical flow categories. Through extensive numerical modelling and case history matching, barrier pillar...

  15. Design consideration of high voltage Ga2O3 vertical Schottky barrier diode with field plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.-H.; Cho, C.-H.; Cha, H.-Y.

    2018-06-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) based vertical Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were designed for high voltage switching applications. Since p-type Ga2O3 epitaxy growth or p-type ion implantation technique has not been developed yet, a field plate structure was employed in this study to maximize the breakdown voltage by suppressing the electric field at the anode edge. TCAD simulation was used for the physical analysis of Ga2O3 SBDs from which it was found that careful attention must be paid to the insulator under the field plate. Due to the extremely high breakdown field property of Ga2O3, an insulator with both high permittivity and high breakdown field must be used for the field plate formation.

  16. Designed cellulose nanocrystal surface properties for improving barrier properties in polylactide nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Pérez, Etzael; Bras, Julien; Almeida, Giana; Plessis, Cédric; Belgacem, Naceur; Perré, Patrick; Domenek, Sandra

    2018-03-01

    Nanocomposites are an opportunity to increase the performance of polymer membranes by fine-tuning their morphology. In particular, the understanding of the contribution of the polymer matrix/nanofiller interface to the overall transport properties is key to design membranes with tailored selective and adsorptive properties. In that aim, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposites were fabricated with chemically designed interfaces, which were ensuring the compatibility between the constituents and impacting the mass transport mechanism. A detailed analysis of the mass transport behaviour of different permeants in CNC/PLA nanocomposites was carried out as a function of their chemical affinity to grafted CNC surfaces. Penetrants (O 2 and cyclohexane), which were found to slightly interact with the constituents of the nanocomposites, provided information on the small tortuosity effect of CNC on diffusive mass transport. The mass transport of water (highly interacting with CNC) and anisole (interacting only with designed CNC surfaces) exhibited non-Fickian, Case II behaviour. The water vapour caused significant swelling of the CNC, which created a preferential pathway for mass transport. CNC surface grafting could attenuate this phenomenon and decrease the water transport rate. Anisole, an aromatic organic vapour, became reversibly trapped at the specifically designed CNC/PLA interface, but without any swelling or creation of an accelerated pathway. This caused the decrease of the overall mass transport rate. The latter finding could open a way to the creation of materials with specifically designed barrier properties by designing nanocomposites interfaces with specific interactions towards permeants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design requirements and performance requirements for reactor fuel recycle manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a new generation of remote handling devices for remote production work in support of reactor fuel recycle systems is discussed. These devices require greater mobility, speed and visual capability than remote handling systems used in research activities. An upgraded manipulator system proposed for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel refabrication facility is described. Design and performance criteria for the manipulators, cranes, and TV cameras in the proposed system are enumerated

  18. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  19. Design requirements, operation and maintenance of gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    At the invitation of the Government of the USA the Technical Committee Meeting on Design Requirements, Operation and Maintenance of Gas-Cooled Reactors, was held in San Diego on September 21-23, 1988, in tandem with the GCRA Conference. Both meetings attracted a large contingent of foreign participants. Approximately 100 delegates from 18 different countries participated in the Technical Committee meeting. The meeting was divided into three sessions: Gas-cooled reactor user requirement (8 papers); Gas-cooled reactor improvements to facilitate operation and maintenance (10 papers) and Safety, environmental impacts and waste disposal (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 23 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Test design requirements: Canister-scale heater test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, M.I.; Craig, P.A.; Stickney, R.G.

    1986-03-01

    This document establishes the Test Design Requirements for the design of a canister scale heater test to be performed in the Exploratory Shaft test facility. The purpose of the test is to obtain thermomechanical rock mass response data for use in validation of the numerical models. The canister scale heater test is a full scale simulation of a high-level nuclear waste container in a prototypic emplacement borehole. Electric heaters are used to simulate the heat loads expected in an actual waste container. This document presents an overview of the test including objectives and justification for the test. A description of the test as it is presently envisioned is included. Discussions on Quality Assurance and Safety are also included in the document. 12 refs., 1 fig

  1. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  2. Acoustic design of open plan schools and comparison of requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    between groups and satisfac¬tory speech intelligibility internally in groups. This paper describes the newest Danish requirements and recommendations for such open plan areas and presents the design, measurements and subjective evaluation of two newer Danish schools. According to the users, the general...... conditions at both schools are satisfactory due to both optimized acoustical conditions and teaching methods adapted to the special open environment. The results from room acoustical modelling, verification measurements and questionnaire survey are presented and evaluated in relation to the newest Danish...

  3. Investigating the Potential Barrier Function of Nanostructured Materials Formed in Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) Designed for Nuclear Waste Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Ruiz, Ana Isabel; Fernández, Raúl

    2018-02-21

    Clay and cement are known nano-colloids originating from natural processes or traditional materials technology. Currently, they are used together as part of the engineered barrier system (EBS) to isolate high-level nuclear waste (HLW) metallic containers in deep geological repositories (DGR). The EBS should prevent radionuclide (RN) migration into the biosphere until the canisters fail, which is not expected for approximately 10 3  years. The interactions of cementitious materials with bentonite swelling clay have been the scope of our research team at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) with participation in several European Union (EU) projects from 1998 up to now. Here, we describe the mineral and chemical nature and microstructure of the alteration rim generated by the contact between concrete and bentonite. Its ability to buffer the surrounding chemical environment may have potential for further protection against RN migration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Technology development for the design of waste repositories at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion and capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.; Hakonson, T.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving the development of technology for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of biointrusion barriers installed at an active low-level radioactive waste disposal site (Area G) at Los Alamos are presented. A second experiment was designed to test the ability of a capillary barrier to effectively convey water infiltrating a SLB trench around and away from underlying buried wastes. The performance of the capillary barrier was tested in the field for a barrier of known thickness (2 m), slope (10%), and slope length (2 m), and for one combination of porous materials [a crushed tuff-clay (2% w/w) mixture overlying Ottawa sand] subjected to a known water addition rate. The waste management implications of both studies are also discussed

  5. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  6. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers for Patient Safety in a Medicine Label Design System Using Patient Simulation and Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Clemmensen, Marianne Hald; Sørensen, Trine Kart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medicine label design plays an important role in improving patient safety. This study aimed at identifying facilitators and barriers in a medicine label system to prevent medication errors in clinical use by health care professionals. Methods The study design is qualitative and explora......Objectives Medicine label design plays an important role in improving patient safety. This study aimed at identifying facilitators and barriers in a medicine label system to prevent medication errors in clinical use by health care professionals. Methods The study design is qualitative...... of the system and some inconsistencies (different meaning of colors) posed challenges, when considered with the actual application context, in which there is little time to get familiar with the design features. Conclusions For optimizing medicine labels and obtaining the full benefit of label design features...

  7. Waste package/engineered barrier system design concepts for the direct disposal of spent fuel in the potential United States' repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, D.; Harrison, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package development program is to design a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level waste (HLW) in a geologic repository. Attainment of this goal relies on a multi-barrier approach, the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site, consideration of technical alternatives, and sufficient resolution of technical and regulatory uncertainties. To accomplish this, an iterative system engineering approach will be used. The NWPA of 1982 limits the content of the first US repository to 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM). The DOE Mission Plan describes the implementation of the provisions of the NWPA for the waste management system. The Draft 1988 approach will involve selecting candidate designs, evaluating them against performance requirements, and then selecting one or two preferred designs for further detailed evaluation and final design. The reference design of the waste package described in the YMP Site Characterization Plan is a thin-walled, vertical borehole-emplaced waste package with an air gap between the package and the rock wall. The reference design appeared to meet the design requirement. However, the degree of uncertainty was large. This uncertainty led to considering several more-robust design concepts during the Advanced Conceptual Design phase of the program that include small, drift-emplaced packages and higher capacity, drift-emplaced packages, both partially and totally self-shielded. Metallic as well as ceramic materials are being considered

  8. Nuclear design and technical development required for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Yamano, Naoki.

    1987-01-01

    The report outlines some results of a study carried out by the ISER (intrinsically safe and economical reactor) Investigation Group. In particular, nuclear design concepts are examined in relation to the fuel cycle. Discussion is also made on technical development efforts to be made for realizing an ISER. Calculation of some basic nuclear design parameters is performed and results are used to examine the reactor core and fuel for ISER. As a result, it is indicated that a high-burnup type reactor core should be used on a 4.5-batch replacement, 15 EFPM (effective full power month) scheme to optimize an ISER. For technical development, consideration is made on various tests to be performed with an experimental reactor, called ISER-E, as well as other tests to provide basic data required for demonstrating the inherent safety of ISER. The study also deals with the possibility of the application of currently available light water reactor techniques to experiments with a critical assembly, non-nuclear test loop, and the experimental reactor ISER-E. It is revealed that many of the required experiments can be carried out by using test facilities and light water reactor techniques which are currently, or will be readily, available. It is stressed that international cooperation is necessary to accomplish these tests. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Requirements and Design Guidelines for a Trusted Hypervisor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Dirk; Weber, Arnd; Presti, Stéphane Lo

    Hypervisor technology in combination with tamper-resistant hardware such as Trusted Platform Modules has the potential of providing a significant new level of security for computers. These new systems will be able to protect legacy applications from applications such as malware, and they will enable the creation of new secure applications. This paper analyses the requirements for the graphical user interface (GUI) of such a system. First, application scenarios are presented to illustrate how extended Trusted Computing (TC) systems might be used in the future. Requirements for a trusted GUI are then derived from the analysis of articles on TC found in the media and from a survey of experts in information technology. These requirements are compared to existing proposals, showing how some of them are either inconvenient or insecure in the hands of end users. Based on this analysis, proposals are derived for the design of a trusted GUI suitable for laypersons and administrators, which uses familiar patterns, and yet protects against visual mimicry attacks. These proposals pave the way for hypervisors’ security-enhanced GUI.

  10. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil's hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing

  11. Model-Based Requirements Management in Gear Systems Design Based On Graph-Based Design Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, a wide-spread consensus concerning the enormous importance of an in-depth clarification of the specifications of a product has been observed. A weak clarification of specifications is repeatedly listed as a main cause for the failure of product development projects. Requirements, which can be defined as the purpose, goals, constraints, and criteria associated with a product development project, play a central role in the clarification of specifications. The collection of activities which ensure that requirements are identified, documented, maintained, communicated, and traced throughout the life cycle of a system, product, or service can be referred to as “requirements engineering”. These activities can be supported by a collection and combination of strategies, methods, and tools which are appropriate for the clarification of specifications. Numerous publications describe the strategy and the components of requirements management. Furthermore, recent research investigates its industrial application. Simultaneously, promising developments of graph-based design languages for a holistic digital representation of the product life cycle are presented. Current developments realize graph-based languages by the diagrams of the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and allow the automatic generation and evaluation of multiple product variants. The research presented in this paper seeks to present a method in order to combine the advantages of a conscious requirements management process and graph-based design languages. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is the investigation of a model-based integration of requirements in a product development process by means of graph-based design languages. The research method is based on an in-depth analysis of an exemplary industrial product development, a gear system for so-called “Electrical Multiple Units” (EMU. Important requirements were abstracted from a gear system

  12. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    800 nanometers with three additional discrete near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) ocean aerosol correction bands. Also, to avoid drift in sensor sensitivity from being interpreted as environmental change, climate change research requires rigorous monitoring of sensor stability. For SeaWiFS, monthly lunar imaging accurately tracked stability at an accuracy of approximately 0.1% that allowed the data to be used for climate studies [2]. It is now acknowledged by the international community that future missions and sensor designs need to accommodate lunar calibrations. An overview of ocean color remote sensing and a review of the progress made in ocean color remote sensing and the variety of research applications derived from global satellite ocean color data are provided. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the design options for ocean color satellite radiometers, performance and testing criteria, and sensor components (optics, detectors, electronics, etc.) that must be integrated into an instrument concept. These ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of data that can be delivered as a trade against mission cost. Historically, science and sensor technology have advanced in a "leap-frog" manner in that sensor design requirements for a mission are defined many years before a sensor is launched and by the end of the mission, perhaps 15-20 years later, science applications and requirements are well beyond the capabilities of the sensor. Section 3 provides a summary of historical mission science objectives and sensor requirements. This progression is expected to continue in the future as long as sensor costs can be constrained to affordable levels and still allow the incorporation of new technologies without incurring unacceptable risk to mission success. The IOCCG Report Number 13 discusses future ocean biology mission Level-1 requirements in depth.

  13. Durability and Design Issues of Thermal/environmental Barrier Coatings on Sic/sic Ceramic Matrix Composites Under 1650 C Test Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Currently, advanced T/EBC systems, which typically include a high temperature capable zirconia- (or hahia-) based oxide top coat (thermal barrier) on a less temperature capable mullite/barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS)/Si inner coat (environmental barrier), are being developed and tested for higher temperature capability Sic combustor applications. In this paper, durability of several thermal/environmental barrier coating systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites was investigated under laser simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic, and 1650 C (3000 F) test conditions. The coating cracking and delamination processes were monitored and evaluated. The effects of temperature gradients and coating configurations on the ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation were analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA) models based on the observed failure mechanisms, in conjunction with mechanical testing results. The environmental effects on the coating durability will be discussed. The coating design approach will also be presented.

  14. The Ly6 protein coiled is required for septate junction and blood brain barrier organisation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Hijazi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of the Drosophila septate junctions has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the assembly of these adhesion structures, which bear strong similarities with the vertebrate tight junctions and the paranodal septate junctions. These adhesion complexes share conserved molecular components and have a common function: the formation of paracellular barriers restraining the diffusion of solutes through epithelial and glial envelopes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we characterise the function of the Drosophila cold gene, that codes for a protein belonging to the Ly6 superfamily of extracellular ligands. Analysis of cold mutants shows that this gene is specifically required for the organisation of the septate junctions in epithelial tissues and in the nervous system, where its contribution is essential for the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. We show that cold acts in a cell autonomous way, and we present evidence indicating that this protein could act as a septate junction component. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss the specific roles of cold and three other Drosophila members of the Ly6 superfamily that have been shown to participate in a non-redundant way in the process of septate junction assembly. We propose that vertebrate Ly6 proteins could fulfill analogous roles in tight junctions and/or paranodal septate junctions.

  15. The Ly6 protein coiled is required for septate junction and blood brain barrier organisation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Assia; Haenlin, Marc; Waltzer, Lucas; Roch, Fernando

    2011-03-15

    Genetic analysis of the Drosophila septate junctions has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the assembly of these adhesion structures, which bear strong similarities with the vertebrate tight junctions and the paranodal septate junctions. These adhesion complexes share conserved molecular components and have a common function: the formation of paracellular barriers restraining the diffusion of solutes through epithelial and glial envelopes. In this work we characterise the function of the Drosophila cold gene, that codes for a protein belonging to the Ly6 superfamily of extracellular ligands. Analysis of cold mutants shows that this gene is specifically required for the organisation of the septate junctions in epithelial tissues and in the nervous system, where its contribution is essential for the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. We show that cold acts in a cell autonomous way, and we present evidence indicating that this protein could act as a septate junction component. We discuss the specific roles of cold and three other Drosophila members of the Ly6 superfamily that have been shown to participate in a non-redundant way in the process of septate junction assembly. We propose that vertebrate Ly6 proteins could fulfill analogous roles in tight junctions and/or paranodal septate junctions.

  16. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  17. Requirements and design concept for a facility mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.E.; Burks, B.L.; Little, C.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has for some time been considering the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D ampersand D) of facilities which are no longer in use, but which are highly contaminated with radioactive wastes. One of the holdups in performing the D ampersand D task is the accumulation of accurate facility characterizations that can enable a safe and orderly cleanup process. According to the Technical Strategic Plan for the Decontamination and Decommissioning Integrated Demonstration, open-quotes the cost of characterization using current baseline technologies for approximately 100 acres of gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge alone is, for the most part incalculableclose quotes. Automated, robotic techniques will be necessary for initial characterization and continued surveillance of these types of sites. Robotic systems are being designed and constructed to accomplish these tasks. This paper describes requirements and design concepts for a system to accurately map a facility contaminated with hazardous wastes. Some of the technologies involved in the Facility Mapping System are: remote characterization with teleoperated, sensor-based systems, fusion of data sets from multiple characterization systems, and object recognition from 3D data models. This Facility Mapping System is being assembled by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Technology Development Program

  18. The IFS for WFIRST CGI: Science Requirements to Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Tyler; Gong, Qian; Mandell, Avi M.; Zimmerman, Neil; Rizzo, Maxime; McElwain, Michael; harvey, david; Saxena, Prabal; cady, eric; mejia prada, camilo

    2018-01-01

    Direct Imaging of exoplanets using a coronagraph has become a major field of research both on the ground and in space. Key to the science of direct imaging is the spectroscopic capabilities of the instrument, our ability to extract spectra, and measure the abundance of molecular species such as Methane. To take these spectra, the WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) uses an integral field spectrograph (IFS), which encodes the spectrum into a two-dimensional image on the detector. This results in more efficient detection and characterization of targets, and the spectral information is critical to achieving detection limits below the speckle floor of the imager. The CGI IFS operates in three 18% bands spanning 600nm to 970nm at a nominal spectral resolution of R50. We present the current science and engineering requirements for the IFS design, the instrument design, anticipated performance, and how the calibration is integrated into the focal plane wavefront control algorithms. We also highlight the role of the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) at the JPL High Contrast Imaging Testbed to demonstrate performance and validate calibration methodologies for the flight instrument.

  19. Soil-bentonite design mix for slurry cutoff walls used as containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, N.S.; Bachus, R.C.; Jacobson, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, soil-bentonite slurry cutoff walls have been increasingly used as containment barriers around contaminated soils to impede or, in some cases, nearly eliminate the off-site migration of contaminated ground water or other potentially hazardous liquids. The paper presents the procedures used and the results obtained during an extensive laboratory testing program performed to select varying soil-bentonite slurry mix components for a soil-bentonite slurry cutoff wall constructed around an old landfill at a former oil refinery. The landfill is underlain to varying depths by a coarse granular soils that has been exposed to oil-products. Compatibility of three commercially available bentonite products with the free oil-products and the oil-contaminated ground water found at some locations in the landfill was initially investigated. Based on the test results, one of the bentonite products was selected for use in the soil-bentonite slurry testing program. A clayey soil from a borrow source, potable water from the site, and subsurface soils from the proposed soil-bentonite slurry wall alignment were used to form different soil-bentonite slurry mixes. Slump tests were performed to evaluate the workability of the mixes. Based on the test results, a single mix was selected for further study, including permeability/compatibility testing. The results of the compatibility testing program are presented and discussed in the paper. A specific design mix methodology for evaluating the chemical compatibility of soil-bentonite slurry mixes with permeants is proposed

  20. Man as a protective barrier in nuclear power technology: the requirements, viewed by the Federal Minister for Home Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-06-01

    Evaluation of nuclear power plant incidents frequently reveals man as a major element of risk. Yet, in a nuclear power plant man has the function of an important protective barrier, either by maintaining the plant, by detecting and limiting faults or incidents, or by taking proper measures in accidents. This is true despite, or perhaps because of, the high degree of plant automation. For this reason, it is indispensable that a high level of engineered plant safeguards be accompanied by a minimum of faults contributed by human action. This implies that the staff and their working conditions must meet the same stringent safety requirements as the nuclear power plant proper. Reactor manufacturers, nuclear power plant operators and the responsible authorities try to optimize this human contribution. The Federal Ministry of the Interior, through its Special Technical Guidelines and its continuation training measures, occupies an important position in this respect. Further measures and ordinances are being prepared by that Ministry

  1. National Ignition Facility system design requirements NIF integrated computer controls SDR004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is covered in NIF WBS element 1.5. This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in the NIF Functional Requirements/Primary Criteria, and is supported by subsystem design requirements documents for each major ICCS Subsystem

  2. Novel design of high voltage pulse source for efficient dielectric barrier discharge generation by using silicon diodes for alternating current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoa Thi; Hayashi, Misaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on design, construction, and optimization of configuration of a novel high voltage pulse power source for large-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generation. The pulses were generated by using the high-speed switching characteristic of an inexpensive device called silicon diodes for alternating current and the self-terminated characteristic of DBD. The operation started to be powered by a primary DC low voltage power supply flexibly equipped with a commercial DC power supply, or a battery, or DC output of an independent photovoltaic system without transformer employment. This flexible connection to different types of primary power supply could provide a promising solution for the application of DBD, especially in the area without power grid connection. The simple modular structure, non-control requirement, transformer elimination, and a minimum number of levels in voltage conversion could lead to a reduction in size, weight, simple maintenance, low cost of installation, and high scalability of a DBD generator. The performance of this pulse source has been validated by a load of resistor. A good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally measured responses has been achieved. The pulse source has also been successfully applied for an efficient DBD plasma generation.

  3. Thermal-Hydrologic Sensitivity Analysis of Engineered Barrier System Design Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.

    2000-01-01

    This sensitivity study presents the effects that changing the ventilation time and initial linear power loading can have on specific thermal-hydrologic response parameters, such as waste package peak temperatures. Results show that an approximate 55 C drop in waste package peak temperature can be expected from the reference case design if the initial line loading is reduced to 0.90 kW/m or if the ventilation time is increased to 125 years. Increasing the waste package to waste package spacing in order to reduce the linear load to 0.90 kW/m requires additional emplacement drifts and an expansion of the area that the repository occupies. Increasing the ventilation duration requires that the repository remains open and is maintained for long periods of time. The effectiveness and expense of each design alternative must be weighed in determining the best way to achieve a particular thermal goal. Also, this sensitivity study shows that certain thermal goals may not be reached if only using ventilation, sometimes only the reduction of the linear load or a combination of linear loading and ventilation can reduce the thermal response to lower temperature specifications, if considered. As an example, Figure 1 shows that waste package peak temperatures below 96 C would require both a reduction in the linear load and an increase in ventilation duration

  4. Design requirements for a metal-smelting facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.C.; Mack, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Functional requirements for the smelting of metal scrap contaminated with low-enriched uranium in a Metal Smelting Faclity (MSF) have been determined. The process will be designed to smelt ferrous metal scrap that has accumulated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) into one-ton ingots at a rate of 40 ingots per day (10,000 tons/year). Total scrap inventories at the ORGDP are currently estimated at 28,000 tons. The diffusion plant scrap is primarily contaminated with 100 to 200 ppm U at an enrichment of 0.5 to 1.5% 235 U. The scrap is considered special nuclear material (SNM) and cannot be handled by commercial smelters without specific licensing. Slagging will be performed to remove contaminants from the metal and concentrate them in the slag. Process systems will include scrap handling, size reduction, preheating and charging, melting and slagging, ingot casting and storage, and fume exhaust. The MSF has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding

  5. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors. Requirements situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R. Allan; Holmstrom, Heikki; Reocreux, Michel; Schulz, Helmut; Liesch, Klaus; Santarossa, Giampiero; Hayamizu, Yoshitaka; Asmolov, Vladimir; Bolshov, Leonid; Strizhov, Valerii; Bougaenko, Sergei; Nikitin, Yuri N.; Proklov, Vladimir; Potapov, Alexandre; Kinnersly, Stephen R.; Voronin, Leonid M.; Honekamp, John R.; Frescura, Gianni M.; Maki, Nobuo; Reig, Javier; ); Bekjord, Eric S.; Rosinger, Herbert E.

    1998-01-01

    integrity must be verified, and material property data bases extended. - VVER severe accident research should focus on validation of codes for accident management procedures, and on extension and qualification of an appropriate data base for materials properties and their interactions. - RBMK thermal-hydraulic research is needed to improve the technical basis for further development of RBMK safety criteria. - Assessment of the integrity of the RBMK primary coolant circuit, and especially the fuel channel, requires urgent research. Methods of assessing RBMK pressure boundary integrity must be verified, and material property data bases extended. - RBMK severe accident research should focus on prevention of accidents and Accident Management for cases of loss of heat sink and Beyond Design-Basis Loss-of-Coolant Accidents. For these purposes, simple physical models and parametric codes need development and should be systematically used in plant specific analysis. Recommendations; - A Safety Research Strategic Plan should be developed. Such a plan sets goals, defines products, and describes when and how work will be done, including determination of research priorities. - Key players, including regulators, operators, plant designers and researchers should be involved in developing and implementing this plan and its execution and applying the results. - International cooperation in safety research should be encouraged for purposes of improving quality, preventing technical isolation and cost sharing. - New approaches, such as technical fora for specific technical topics, should be established to make safety research information in OECD countries available to researchers working on the safety of Russian-designed reactors

  6. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Survey requirements and mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabrouille, J.; de Bernardis, P.; Bouchet, F. R.; Achúcarro, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Allison, R.; Arroja, F.; Artal, E.; Ashdown, M.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Barbosa, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Basu, K.; Battistelli, E. S.; Battye, R.; Baumann, D.; Benoít, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Bideaud, A.; Biesiada, M.; Bilicki, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cabass, G.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Caputo, A.; Carvalho, C.-S.; Casas, F. J.; Castellano, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Charles, I.; Chluba, J.; Clements, D. L.; Clesse, S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colantoni, I.; Contreras, D.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; D'Amico, G.; da Silva, A.; de Avillez, M.; de Gasperis, G.; De Petris, M.; de Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Désert, F.-X.; Desjacques, V.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Doyle, S.; Durrer, R.; Dvorkin, C.; Eriksen, H. K.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Fernández-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Franceschet, C.; Fuskeland, U.; Galli, S.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Giusarma, E.; Gomez, A.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Goupy, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hindmarsh, M.; Hivon, E.; Hoang, D. T.; Hooper, D. C.; Hu, B.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamagna, L.; Lapi, A.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lizarraga, J.; Luzzi, G.; Macìas-P{érez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Martin, S.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mennella, A.; Mohr, J.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Montier, L.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Noviello, F.; Oppizzi, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Paiella, A.; Pajer, E.; Paoletti, D.; Paradiso, S.; Partridge, R. B.; Patanchon, G.; Patil, S. P.; Perdereau, O.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Ponthieu, N.; Poulin, V.; Prêle, D.; Quartin, M.; Ravenni, A.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Ringeval, C.; Roest, D.; Roman, M.; Roukema, B. F.; Rubiño-Martin, J.-A.; Salvati, L.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Signorelli, G.; Starobinsky, A. A.; Sunyaev, R.; Tan, C. Y.; Tartari, A.; Tasinato, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torrado, J.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tucker, C.; Urrestilla, J.; Väliviita, J.; Van de Weygaert, R.; Van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Verde, L.; Vermeulen, G.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Voisin, F.; Wallis, C.; Wandelt, B.; Wehus, I. K.; Weller, J.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    Future observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarisation have the potential to answer some of the most fundamental questions of modern physics and cosmology, including: what physical process gave birth to the Universe we see today? What are the dark matter and dark energy that seem to constitute 95% of the energy density of the Universe? Do we need extensions to the standard model of particle physics and fundamental interactions? Is the ΛCDM cosmological scenario correct, or are we missing an essential piece of the puzzle? In this paper, we list the requirements for a future CMB polarisation survey addressing these scientific objectives, and discuss the design drivers of the COREmfive space mission proposed to ESA in answer to the "M5" call for a medium-sized mission. The rationale and options, and the methodologies used to assess the mission's performance, are of interest to other future CMB mission design studies. COREmfive has 19 frequency channels, distributed over a broad frequency range, spanning the 60–600 GHz interval, to control astrophysical foreground emission. The angular resolution ranges from 2' to 18', and the aggregate CMB sensitivity is about 2 μKṡarcmin. The observations are made with a single integrated focal-plane instrument, consisting of an array of 2100 cryogenically-cooled, linearly-polarised detectors at the focus of a 1.2-m aperture cross-Dragone telescope. The mission is designed to minimise all sources of systematic effects, which must be controlled so that no more than 10‑4 of the intensity leaks into polarisation maps, and no more than about 1% of E-type polarisation leaks into B-type modes. COREmfive observes the sky from a large Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point on an orbit that offers stable observing conditions and avoids contamination from sidelobe pick-up of stray radiation originating from the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The entire sky is observed repeatedly during four years of continuous scanning

  7. Design and Characterization of High-strength Bond Coats for Improved Thermal Barrier Coating Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, David John

    High pressure turbine blades in gas turbine engines rely on thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for protection from the harsh combustion environment. These coating systems consist of a ceramic topcoat for thermal protection, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) for oxidation passivation, and an intermetallic bond coat to provide compatibility between the substrate and ceramic over-layers while supplying aluminum to sustain Al2O 3 scale growth. As turbine engines are pushed to higher operating temperatures in pursuit of better thermal efficiency, the strength of industry-standard bond coats limits the lifetime of these coating systems. Bond coat creep deformation during thermal cycling leads to a failure mechanism termed rumpling. The interlayer thermal expansion differences, combined with TGO-imposed growth stresses, lead to the development of periodic undulations in the bond coat. The ceramic topcoat has low out-of-plane compliance and thus detaches and spalls from the substrate, resulting in a loss of thermal protection and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. New creep resistant Ni3Al bond coats were designed with improved high-temperature strength to inhibit this type of premature failure at elevated temperatures. These coatings resist rumpling deformation while maintaining compatibility with the other layers in the system. Characterization methods are developed to quantify rumpling and assess the TGO-bond coat interface toughness of experimental systems. Cyclic oxidation experiments at 1163 °C show that the Ni3Al bond coats do not experience rumpling but have faster oxide growth rates and are quicker to spall TGO than the (Pt,Ni)Al benchmark. However, the Ni 3Al coatings outperformed the benchmark by over threefold in TBC system life due to a higher resistance to rumpling (mechanical degradation) while maintaining adequate oxidation passivation. The Ni3Al coatings eventually grow spinel NiAl2O4 on top of the protective Al2O3 layer, which leads to the

  8. Interactive urban design using integrated planning requirements control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Tabak, V.; Achten, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Urban planning and urban design are separated disciplines. As a consequence, there is hardly any feedback from the urban design process to the urban planning process. To improve interaction between these two, an interactive urban design (IUD) tool has been developed. The tool is implemented in a

  9. Cryogenic propellant management: Integration of design, performance and operational requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlund, A. L.; Jamieson, J. R., Jr.; Cole, T. W.; Lak, T. I.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of the design features of the Shuttle elements into a cryogenic propellant management system is described. The implementation and verification of the design/operational changes resulting from design deficiencies and/or element incompatibilities encountered subsequent to the critical design reviews are emphasized. Major topics include: subsystem designs to provide liquid oxygen (LO2) tank pressure stabilization, LO2 facility vent for ice prevention, liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline high point bleed, pogo suppression on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), LO2 low level cutoff, Orbiter/engine propellant dump, and LO2 main feedline helium injection for geyser prevention.

  10. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their children with language impairment (LI). The authors examined caregiver-level data corresponding to implementation issues from two randomized controlled trials and mapped these to domains in the TDF as well as empirically validated behavior-change techniques. Results Four barriers to implementation were identified as potentially affecting caregivers' implementation: time pressures, reading difficulties, discomfort with reading, and lack of awareness of benefits. These were mapped to 3 TDF domains: intentions, beliefs about capabilities, and skills. In turn, 4 behavior-change techniques were identified as potential vehicles for affecting these domains: reward, feedback, model, and encourage. An ongoing study is described that is determining the effects of these techniques for improving caregivers' implementation of a shared-reading intervention. Conclusions A description of the steps to identifying barriers to implementation, in conjunction with an ongoing experiment that will explicitly determine whether behavior-change techniques affect these barriers, provides a model for how implementation science can be used to identify and overcome implementation barriers in the treatment of communication disorders. PMID:26262941

  11. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices.

  12. Design and construction of a system for determination of Radon-222 by a surface-barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work the design and construction of a system for the determination of 222 Rn is described, which utilizes silicon surface-barrier detectors. The 222 Rn gas was obtained a source of 226 Ra electrodeposited on stainless-steel discs. The well separated energies with this system makes possible the measurement and identification of alpha particles of 222 Rn, and its daughters 210 Po, 218 Po and 214 Po. (Author) 3 figs, 19 refs

  13. Layout designs of surface barrier coatings for boosting the capability of oxygen/vapor obstruction utilized in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Chen; He, Jing-Yan

    2018-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diode-based flexible and rollable displays have become a promising candidate for next-generation flexible electronics. For this reason, the design of surface multi-layered barriers should be optimized to enhance the long-term mechanical reliability of a flexible encapsulation that prevents the penetration of oxygen and vapor. In this study, finite element-based stress simulation was proposed to estimate the mechanical reliability of gas/vapor barrier design with low-k/silicon nitride (low-k/SiNx) stacking architecture. Consequently, stress-induced failure of critical thin films within the flexible display under various bending conditions must be considered. The feasibility of one pair SiO2/SiNx barrier design, which overcomes the complex lamination process, and the critical bending radius, which is decreased to 1.22 mm, were also examined. In addition, the influence of distance between neutral axes to the concerned layer surface dominated the induced-stress magnitude rather than the stress compliant mechanism provided from stacked low-k films.

  14. It Comes With the Job: Work Organizational, Job Design, and Self-Regulatory Barriers to Improving the Health Status of Train Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naweed, Anjum; Chapman, Janine; Allan, Matthew; Trigg, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impacts of key barriers to improving the occupational health status of Australian train drivers. From May to June, 2015, five semi-structured qualitative focus groups were conducted with 29 train drivers from South Australian, Victorian, and New South Wales-based rail organizations in Australia. Occupational health was impeded by multiple barriers regarding sleep (patterns/fatigue), diet (planning/context), mental health (occupational stress), rostering (low autonomy), sedentary time, low fitness motivation, and family/social life conflicts. Work organizational barriers included communication issues, low organizational support, and existing social norms. Job design barriers included rostering, fatigue, stimulant reliance, and family/social life imbalances. Self-regulatory barriers included dietary and exercise patterns habits and patterns. Occupational health interventions for Australian train drivers must address work organizational, job design, and self-regulatory barriers to healthier lifestyle behaviors.

  15. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target positioning subsystem SSDR 1.8.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the target positioner subsystem (WBS 1.8.2) of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8)

  16. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...

  17. A requirements specification for a software design support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Most existing software design systems (SDSS) support the use of only a single design methodology. A good SDSS should support a wide variety of design methods and languages including structured design, object-oriented design, and finite state machines. It might seem that a multiparadigm SDSS would be expensive in both time and money to construct. However, it is proposed that instead an extensible SDSS that directly implements only minimal database and graphical facilities be constructed. In particular, it should not directly implement tools to faciliate language definition and analysis. It is believed that such a system could be rapidly developed and put into limited production use, with the experience gained used to refine and evolve the systems over time.

  18. Tunnel barrier design in donor nanostructures defined by hydrogen-resist lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascher, Nikola; Hennel, Szymon; Mueller, Susanne; Fuhrer, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    A four-terminal donor quantum dot (QD) is used to characterize potential barriers between degenerately doped nanoscale contacts. The QD is fabricated by hydrogen-resist lithography on Si(001) in combination with n-type doping by phosphine. The four contacts have different separations (d = 9, 12, 16 and 29 nm) to the central 6 nm × 6 nm QD island, leading to different tunnel and capacitive coupling. Cryogenic transport measurements in the Coulomb-blockade (CB) regime are used to characterize these tunnel barriers. We find that field enhancement near the apex of narrow dopant leads is an important effect that influences both barrier breakdown and the magnitude of the tunnel current in the CB transport regime. From CB-spectroscopy measurements, we extract the mutual capacitances between the QD and the four contacts, which scale inversely with the contact separation d. The capacitances are in excellent agreement with numerical values calculated from the pattern geometry in the hydrogen resist. Furthermore, we show that by engineering the source-drain tunnel barriers to be asymmetric, we obtain a much simpler excited-state spectrum of the QD, which can be directly linked to the orbital single-particle spectrum.

  19. Prognostic significance of blood-brain barrier disruption in patients with severe nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury requiring decompressive craniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Honeybul, Stephen; Yip, Cheng B; Silbert, Benjamin I

    2014-09-01

    The authors assessed the risk factors and outcomes associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in patients with severe, nonpenetrating, traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring decompressive craniectomy. At 2 major neurotrauma centers in Western Australia, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 97 adult neurotrauma patients who required an external ventricular drain (EVD) and decompressive craniectomy during 2004-2012. Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were used to assess neurological outcomes. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with BBB disruption, defined by a ratio of total CSF protein concentrations to total plasma protein concentration > 0.007 in the earliest CSF specimen collected after TBI. Of the 252 patients who required decompressive craniectomy, 97 (39%) required an EVD to control intracranial pressure, and biochemical evidence of BBB disruption was observed in 43 (44%). Presence of disruption was associated with more severe TBI (median predicted risk for unfavorable outcome 75% vs 63%, respectively; p = 0.001) and with worse outcomes at 6, 12, and 18 months than was absence of BBB disruption (72% vs 37% unfavorable outcomes, respectively; p = 0.015). The only risk factor significantly associated with increased risk for BBB disruption was presence of nonevacuated intracerebral hematoma (> 1 cm diameter) (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.23-7.50; p = 0.016). Although BBB disruption was associated with more severe TBI and worse long-term outcomes, when combined with the prognostic information contained in the Corticosteroid Randomization after Significant Head Injury (CRASH) prognostic model, it did not seem to add significant prognostic value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.855 vs 0.864, respectively; p = 0.453). Biochemical evidence of BBB disruption after severe nonpenetrating TBI was common, especially among patients with large intracerebral hematomas. Disruption of the BBB was associated with more severe

  20. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ

  1. "There is no carnival without samba": Revealing barriers hampering biodiversity-based R&D and eco-design in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Charbel Jose Chiappetta; Jugend, Daniel; Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa; Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Leal Filho, Walter

    2018-01-15

    Considering the unique relevance of Brazilian biodiversity, this research aims to investigate the main barriers to biodiversity-based R&D and eco-design development in a leading national company which has been commended for its innovation and sustainability. The methodology for this research was based on on-location visits, in-depth interviews, and consensus building among R&D, sustainability, and quality managers. A multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach was adopted through interpretive structural modelling (ISM), a method that assists decision makers to transform complex models with unclear data into structural models. Some of the most influential barriers to biodiversity-based eco-design initiatives are "lack of legal incentive", "not enough demand from the market", and "not enough available knowledge/scientific data." The most relevant barrier was "no legal incentive" from government. Consequently, managers should concentrate their efforts in tackling those barriers that may affect other barriers known as 'key barriers'. Government should work decisively toward promoting a framework of legal incentives for bio-based eco-design; otherwise, metaphorically, "there is not carnival without the samba singer who pushes the rhythm". The results given here reveal the barriers for bio-based eco-design in a Brazilian leading company, and this is the first work combining ISM to barriers to biodiversity R&D and eco-design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying technology to operator requirements in medical equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, P L

    1986-01-01

    The methodology used by the author consists of the following elements: Expose the design team to the user environment, followed by question and answer periods with users while still in the use environment. Place biomedical engineers in the leading teaching institutions where they will have day-to-day exposure to the use of products similar to the one being designed. Bring biomedical engineers back into the company as part of the design team. Expose concepts to focus groups while the product is in the definition stage. Bring a select group of users into the design review process. Evaluate the ease of use of the device as part of clinical trials. Establish a means of monitoring product performance after the product has been released. How well such a methodology will work in any particular environment is a function of management's recognition of the concept that ease of operator use is a vital element to the overall success of the product.

  3. REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication contains edited versions of the material presented at ten Technology Transfer seminars conducted in 1988 on this subject. Sections are included on design of clay and flexible membrane liners, leachate collector systems, and landfill covers. Construction quality a...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.305 - Structural design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wind pressures. (iii) One-piece metal roofing capable of resisting the design wind pressures for... deflection not to exceed one-eighth inch relative to floor framing. Perimeter wood joists of more than six...

  5. Large Wind Turbine Design Characteristics and R and D Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, S. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technical presentations on large wind turbine research and development activities sponsored by public and private organizations are presented. Both horizontal and vertical axis machines are considered with emphasis on their structural design.

  6. Basic national requirements for safe design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have to be save. Vendors and utilities operating such plants, are convinced that their plants meet this requirement. Who, however, is establishing the safety requirements to be met by those manufacturing and operating nuclear power plants. What are the mechanisms to control whether the features provided assure the required safety level. Who controls whether the required and planned safety features are really provided. Who is eventually responsible for assuring safety after commissioning of a nuclear power plant. These fundamental questions being raised in many discussions on safety and environmental protection are dealt with in the following sections: (1) Fundamental safety requirements on nuclear power plants, in which such items as risk, legal bases and licensing procedure are discussed, (2) Surveillance during construction, in which safety analysis report, siting, safety evaluation, document examination, quality assurance, and commissioning testing are dealt with, (3) Operating tests and conditions in which recurrent inspections, environmental protection during operation, investigation of abnormal occurences and backfitting requirements as reviewed, and (4) Safety philosophy and safety policy to conclude this presentation. The German approach to nuclear safety serves as an example for an effective way of assuring safe nuclear power. (orig.)

  7. Implications of Clinical Trial Design on Sample Size Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal in designing a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) is to minimize bias in the estimate of treatment effect. Randomized group assignment, double-blinded assessments, and control or comparison groups reduce the risk of bias. The design must also provide sufficient statistical power to detect a clinically meaningful treatment effect and maintain a nominal level of type I error. An attempt to integrate neurocognitive science into an RCT poses additional challenges. Two par...

  8. Design basis ground motion (Ss) required on new regulatory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    New regulatory guide is enforced on July 8. Here, it is introduced how the design basis ground motion (Ss) for seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities was revised on the new guide. Ss is formulated as two types of earthquake ground motions, earthquake ground motions with site specific earthquake source and with no such specific source locations. The latter is going to be revised based on the recent observed near source ground motions. (author)

  9. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  10. Functional requirements for design of the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) system simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. T.; Hornfeck, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The functional requirements for the design of an interpretive simulator for the space ultrareliable modular computer (SUMC) are presented. A review of applicable existing computer simulations is included along with constraints on the SUMC simulator functional design. Input requirements, output requirements, and language requirements for the simulator are discussed in terms of a SUMC configuration which may vary according to the application.

  11. Design and testing of 45 kV, 50 kHz pulse power supply for dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2016-10-01

    The design, construction, and testing of high frequency, high voltage pulse power supply are reported. The purpose of the power supply is to generate dielectric barrier discharges for industrial applications. The power supply is compact and has the advantage of low cost, over current protection, and convenient control for voltage and frequency selection. The power supply can generate high voltage pulses of up to 45 kV at the repetitive frequency range of 1 kHz-50 kHz with 1.2 kW input power. The output current of the power supply is limited to 500 mA. The pulse rise time and fall time are less than 2 μs and the pulse width is 2 μs. The power supply is short circuit proof and can withstand variable plasma load conditions. The power supply mainly consists of a half bridge series resonant converter to charge an intermediate capacitor, which discharges through a step-up transformer at high frequency to generate high voltage pulses. Semiconductor switches and amorphous cores are used for power modulation at higher frequencies. The power supply is tested with quartz tube dielectric barrier discharge load and worked stably. The design details and the performance of the power supply on no load and dielectric barrier discharge load are presented.

  12. Proposal for elicitation and analysis of environmental requirements into the construction design process: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: As new demands from sustainable development, environmental requirements arise as another challenge to design process management. It is already known that companies which design buildings are usually exposed to many managerial difficulties. Faced to the environmental demands, these companies require new facilities to align environmental requirements to the business goals and to include them properly in design process. This paper is based on a case study in a construction company, which was developed through interviews and document analysis. It is intended to present a procedure for the project environmental requirements elicitation, organization and analysis, which is based on the requirements engineering (ER concepts. As results it was concluded that the ER concepts are useful for the environmental requirements integration into the design process and that strategic planning should give directions for the effective environmental requirements adherence. Moreover, a procedure for environmental requirements modeling is proposed. Key-words: Design process, Requirements management, Environmental requirements, Construction

  13. Airport Planning and Design - Legal and Professional Competence Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, Antonin

    2017-12-01

    Airport design and planning considerably differs from the design of other transport infrastructure. The reasons are the wide scope of regulation in civil aviation and the lack of links between the Civil Aviation Act and the Building Act. The effect is that the sequence of procedures, negotiation, and/or document approval is not clearly defined. The situation is further complicated by the fact that an airport is a unique construction both for the investor and for the local building authority. The paper is an outcome of our research, building on long-term experience in airport planning and design, and the elucidation of planning and approval processes with experts from the Transport Authority and the Ministry of Transport and Construction of the Slovak Republic.

  14. Implications of clinical trial design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Andrew C

    2008-07-01

    The primary goal in designing a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) is to minimize bias in the estimate of treatment effect. Randomized group assignment, double-blinded assessments, and control or comparison groups reduce the risk of bias. The design must also provide sufficient statistical power to detect a clinically meaningful treatment effect and maintain a nominal level of type I error. An attempt to integrate neurocognitive science into an RCT poses additional challenges. Two particularly relevant aspects of such a design often receive insufficient attention in an RCT. Multiple outcomes inflate type I error, and an unreliable assessment process introduces bias and reduces statistical power. Here we describe how both unreliability and multiple outcomes can increase the study costs and duration and reduce the feasibility of the study. The objective of this article is to consider strategies that overcome the problems of unreliability and multiplicity.

  15. Medical requirements for design of endoscopes for otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Jai; Pankratov, Michail M.; Poe, Dennis S.; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1993-07-01

    Endoscopy has revolutionized the field of medicine and surgery by aiding the clinician in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of patient care. Endoscopy in Otolaryngology has provided the surgeon with unique access to areas of the head and neck which were previously inaccessible for direct inspection in an atraumatic and minimally invasive fashion. Specific areas of Otolaryngology where endoscopy has made advances are the rhinology and otology. The relevant anatomy, clinical requirements, and `state of the art' endoscopic techniques are discussed for these areas. Further advances in endoscopy for otolaryngology requires the cooperation from both the clinical and technical standpoints.

  16. Integrating speech technology to meet crew station design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Ruth, John C.; Moore, Carolyn A.

    The last two years have seen improvements in speech generation and speech recognition technology that make speech I/O for crew station controls and displays viable for operational systems. These improvements include increased robustness of algorithm performance in high levels of background noise, increased vocabulary size, improved performance in the connected speech mode, and less speaker dependence. This improved capability makes possible far more sophisticated user interface design than was possible with earlier technology. Engineering, linguistic, and human factors design issues are discussed in the context of current voice I/O technology performance.

  17. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  18. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  19. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  20. Designing interactive ambient multimedia applications : requirements and implementation challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Nack, F.-M.; Hardman, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence opens new possibilities for interactive multimedia, leading towards applications where the selection, generation and playback of multimedia content can be directed and influenced by multiple users in an ambient sensor network. In this paper, we derive the basic requirements for

  1. 40 CFR 264.221 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and other equipment; and human error. (h) A surface impoundment must have dikes that are designed... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the waste or leachate to which they are exposed...

  2. 40 CFR 264.273 - Design and operating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the facility permit how the owner or operator will design, construct, operate, and maintain the land..., construct, operate, and maintain the treatment zone to minimize run-off of hazardous constituents during the... maintain a run-on control system capable of preventing flow onto the treatment zone during peak discharge...

  3. Small nuclear reactor safety design requirements for autonomous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.; Kupca, S.

    1997-01-01

    Small nuclear power reactors offer compelling safety advantages in terms of the limited consequences that can arise from major accident events and the enhanced ability to use reliable, passive means to eliminate their occurrence by design. Accordingly, for some small reactor designs featuring a high degree of safety autonomy, it may be-possible to delineate a ''safety envelope'' for a given set of reactor circumstances within which safe reactor operation can be guaranteed without outside intervention for time periods of practical significance (i.e., days or weeks). The capability to operate a small reactor without the need for highly skilled technical staff permanently present, but with continuous remote monitoring, would aid the economic case for small reactors, simplify their use in remote regions and enhance safety by limiting the potential for accidents initiated by inappropriate operator action. This paper considers some of the technical design options and issues associated with the use of small power reactors in an autonomous mode for limited periods. The focus is on systems that are suitable for a variety of applications, producing steam for electricity generation, district heating, water desalination and/or marine propulsion. Near-term prospects at low power levels favour the use of pressurized, light-water-cooled reactor designs, among which those having an integral core arrangement appear to offer cost and passive-safety advantages. Small integral pressurized water reactors have been studied in many countries, including the test operation of prototype systems. (author)

  4. 30 CFR 74.7 - Design and construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall measure respirable coal mine dust concentrations accurately, as specified under § 74.8, for an end... 15.1 through 15.407 (FCC Radio Frequency Devices). Persons must proceed in accordance with IEEE Std... CPDM shall be designed and constructed to remain safe and measure respirable coal mine dust...

  5. Requirements for nuclear data from ITER/FER nuclear design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    Considering ITER and FER activities and future programme of fusion reactor developments, the present situations in fusion neutronics were explained up to now from the previous fusion nuclear data specialist meeting. Vicissitude of development of FUSION-J3 was also explained. From these discussions we clarified the required accuracies in nuclear data, their time limits and their priorities of nuclides to be improved for fusion reactor developments. (author)

  6. Robust design requirements specification: a quantitative method for requirements development using quality loss functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard; Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Product requirements serve many purposes in the product development process. Most importantly, they are meant to capture and facilitate product goals and acceptance criteria, as defined by stakeholders. Accurately communicating stakeholder goals and acceptance criteria can be challenging and more...

  7. Ergonomic requirements to control room design - evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The method of evaluation introduced is the result of work carried out by the sub-committee 'Control Room Design' of the Engineering Standards Committee in DIN Standards, Ergonomy. This committee compiles standards for the design of control rooms (instrumentation and control) for the monitoring and operation of process engineering cycles. With the agreement of the committee - whom we wish to take the opportunity of thanking at this point for their constructive collaboration - a planned partial standard will be introduced thematically in the following, in order that knowledge gained from the discussion can be included in further work on the subject. The matter in question is a procedure for the qualitative evaluation of the duties to be performed under the control of operators in order that an assessment can be made of existing control concepts or such concepts as are to be found in the draft phase. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Ohio River navigation investment model: Requirements and model design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronzini, M.S.; Curlee, T.R.; Leiby, P.N.; Southworth, F.; Summers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is assisting the US Army Corps of Engineers in improving its economic analysis procedures for evaluation of inland waterway investment projects along the Ohio River System. This paper describes the context and design of an integrated approach to calculating the system-wide benefits from alternative combinations of lock and channel improvements, providing an ability to project the cost savings from proposed waterway improvements in capacity and reliability for up to fifty years into the future. The design contains an in-depth treatment of the levels of risk and uncertainty associated with different multi-year lock and channel improvement plans, including the uncertainty that results from a high degree of interaction between the many different waterway system components.

  9. Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness and Structural Design

    OpenAIRE

    Richard L. Daft; Robert H. Lengel

    1986-01-01

    This paper answers the question, "Why do organizations process information?" Uncertainty and equivocality are defined as two forces that influence information processing in organizations. Organization structure and internal systems determine both the amount and richness of information provided to managers. Models are proposed that show how organizations can be designed to meet the information needs of technology, interdepartmental relations, and the environment. One implication for managers i...

  10. Handling Quality Requirements for Advanced Aircraft Design: Longitudinal Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    true integracion of a variety of subsystems. The motivation for digital control is simply stated: expensive hardware-intensive control logic and...control. The discussions of system: "architecture" (bus structure, single vs multiple central processing units (CPUs), input/output design, etc.) are...more complex than multiplication by’a constant. This would occur, for example, if one * 22 4 .. -. wished to mechanize a pitch damper. How does one

  11. Site characterization requirements for nuclear-cratering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Carlson, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A material properties measurement program for the design of large engineering nuclear-excavation projects by computer calculation is presented. Material properties of the site and their relative effect on crater size are analyzed and ordered in relation to their importance in determining the overall cratering efficiency. The measurement program includes both in situ logging and laboratory measurement of core samples, together with the reason for each measurement and its use in the calculations

  12. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk

  13. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F. [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Cifuentes, Héctor, E-mail: bulte@us.es [University of Seville, School of Industrial Engineering, Continuum Mechanics and Structural Analysis Department, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Seville (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.

  14. Application of kinetic models to the design of a calcite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for fluoride remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qianqian; Turner, Brett D; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott

    2018-03-01

    The kinetics of fluoride sorption by calcite in the presence of metal ions (Co, Mn, Cd and Ba) have been investigated and modelled using the intra-particle diffusion (IPD), pseudo-second order (PSO), and the Hill 4 and Hill 5 kinetic models. Model comparison using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the Schwarz Bayseian Information Criterion (BIC) and the Bayes Factor allows direct comparison of model results irrespective of the number of model parameters. Information Criterion results indicate "very strong" evidence that the Hill 5 model was the best fitting model for all observed data due to its ability to fit sigmoidal data, with confidence contour analysis showing the model parameters were well constrained by the data. Kinetic results were used to determine the thickness of a calcite permeable reactive barrier required to achieve up to 99.9% fluoride removal at a groundwater flow of 0.1 m.day -1 . Fluoride removal half-life (t 0.5 ) values were found to increase in the order Ba ≈ stonedust (a 99% pure natural calcite) barrier width of 0.97 ± 0.02 m was found to be required for the fluoride/calcite (stonedust) only system when using no factor of safety, whilst in the presence of Mn and Co, the width increased to 2.76 ± 0.28 and 19.83 ± 0.37 m respectively. In comparison, the PSO model predicted a required barrier thickness of ∼46.0, 62.6 & 50.3 m respectively for the fluoride/calcite, Mn and Co systems under the same conditions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J.; Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R ampersand D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of ∼1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of ∼1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of ≥1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement (τ E = 0.85 x τ ITER93H ), helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E = 10), representative plasma impurities (n Be /n e = 2%), and beta limit [β N = β(%)/(I/aB) ≤ 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power (∼ 1--1.5 GW) and fluence (∼1 MWa/m 2 ) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ≤ 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance

  16. Incorporating functional requirements into the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiu, F.J.; Ng, C.K.; Almuti, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vitrification Building-type structures have unique features and design needs. The structural design requires new concepts and custom detailing. The above special structural designs have demonstrated the importance of the five design considerations listed in the introduction. Innovative ideas and close coordination are required to achieve the design objectives. Many of these innovations have been applied to the DWPF facility which is a first of a kind

  17. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  18. Requirements and design structure for Surya Satellite-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, H.; Huzain, M. F.

    2018-05-01

    Currently, there are various references on the manufacture of nanosatellite specifications weighing 1KG - 10KG.The Surya Satellite-1 is the first nanosatellite made by universities in Indonesia. The Surya Satellite-1 team gets a launch offer from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and, all the nanosatellites manufacturer racers at ICD (Interface Control Document) obtained from JAXA. The formation of the Satellite-1 Surya framework is also based on the provisions of JAXA. The various specifications and requirements specified by the JAXA space agency consisting of specific specifications such as the mass of nanosatellite 1U (10cm x 10cm x 11.65cm) size of at least 0.13KG and a maximum of 1.33KG, with the determination of a gravity point not exceeding 2 cm from the nanosatellite geometry center point. In the case of preventing solar radiation in space, there is a requirement that the structure of satellite structures on hard black anodization should be more than 10 meters in the surface of the satellite structure. In terms of detail, the satellite structure is a black hard anodized aluminum after its manufacturing process derived from the MIL-A-8625 document, type 3.

  19. Requirements Elicitation of Passengers With Reduced Mobility for the Design of High Quality, Accessible and Inclusive Public Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzyńska Beata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors present the methodology adopted and the results obtained in the first stage of the research encompassing focus group interviews (FGI about the needs of public transport users in a selected city (Poznań. The elicitation and assessment of the requirements were carried out for three groups of people with disabilities using public transport in the city of Poznań: blind and partially sighted people, deaf and hearing-impaired people, as well as people with locomotor dysfunctions. A study carried out on the basis of a scenario especially designed for the FGI purpose has made it possible to identify barriers for people with disabilities and, consequently, to formulate their pre-trip,on-trip and post-trip requirements when it comes to urban public transport services. The results will be used to construct a questionnaire to be used further on in the project.

  20. Design for tsunami barrier wall based on numerical analyses of tsunami inundation at Shimane Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshige, Naoya; Yoshitsugu, Shinich; Kawahara, Kazufumi; Ookubo, Yoshimi; Nishihata, Takeshi; Ino, Hitoshi; Kotoura, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The conventional tsunami assessment of the active fault beneath the Japan sea in front of the Shimane nuclear power plant and the earthquake feared to happen at the eastern margin of the Japan sea does not expect a huge tsunami as to be assumed on the Pacific sea coast. Hence, the huge tsunami observed at the power plant located near the source of the Tohoku Pacific sea earthquake tsunami whose run-up height reached TP+15m is regarded as the level 2 tsunami for the Shimane nuclear power plant and planned to construct the tsunami barrier walls to endure the supposed level 2 tsunami. In this study, the setting of the Level 2 tsunami by using the numerical analysis based on the non-linear shallow water theory and evaluation for the design tsunami wave pressure exerted on the counter measures by using CADMAS-SURF/3D are discussed. The designed tsunami barrier walls which are suitable to the power plant feasibility and decided from the design tsunami wave pressure distribution based on Tanimoto's formulae and standard earthquake ground motion Ss are also addressed. (author)

  1. Analysis of regulatory requirement for beyond design basis events of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Seol, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    To enhance the safety of SMART reactor, safety and regulatory requirements associated with beyond design basis events (beyond BDE), which were developed and applied to advanced light water reactor designs, were analyzed along with a design status of passive reactor. And, based on these requirements, their applicability on the SMART design was evaluated. In the design aspect, severe accident prevention and mitigation features, containment performance, and accident management were analyzed. The evaluation results show that the requirement related to beyond DBE such as ATWS, loss of residual heat removal during shutdown operation, station blackout, fire, inter-system LOCA, and well-known events from severe accident phenomena is applicable to the SMART design. However, comprehensive approach against beyond DBE is not yet provided in the SMART design, and then it is required to designate and analyze the beyond DBE-related features. This study is expected to contribute to efforts to improve plant safety and to establish regulatory requirements for safety review

  2. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements computer system SSDR 1.5.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, J.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Computer System, WBS 1.5.1 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in ICCS (WBS 1.5) which is the document directly above

  3. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements supervisory control software SSDR 1.5.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Supervisory Control Software, WBS 1.5.2, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in ICCS (WBS 1-5)

  4. Regulatory requirements for designing PET-CT facility in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    In India, cyclotron-produced radionuclides are gaining importance in molecular imaging in Nuclear Medicine (NM) departments. The importance of this modality among others is due to the fact that it provides valuable clinical information, which was lacking in other available modalities. Presently, every well-established hospital would like to procure Medical Cyclotron or positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) facility in their NM department. Because cyclotron-produced radionuclides have higher energy than the other routinely used radionuclides for diagnosis, it becomes essential for the user to know about the regulatory requirement and radiation safety precautions that one has to take for the installation of this new modality in their premises. The various stages of approval of PET-CT facility by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and important steps that one has to know/follow before planning for this new facility are summarized

  5. A randomized controlled design reveals barriers to citizenship for low-income immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Lawrence, Duncan; Gest, Justin; Hotard, Michael; Koslowski, Rey; Laitin, David D

    2018-01-30

    Citizenship endows legal protections and is associated with economic and social gains for immigrants and their communities. In the United States, however, naturalization rates are relatively low. Yet we lack reliable knowledge as to what constrains immigrants from applying. Drawing on data from a public/private naturalization program in New York, this research provides a randomized controlled study of policy interventions that address these constraints. The study tested two programmatic interventions among low-income immigrants who are eligible for citizenship. The first randomly assigned a voucher that covers the naturalization application fee among immigrants who otherwise would have to pay the full cost of the fee. The second randomly assigned a set of behavioral nudges, similar to outreach efforts used by service providers, among immigrants whose incomes were low enough to qualify them for a federal waiver that eliminates the application fee. Offering the fee voucher increased naturalization application rates by about 41%, suggesting that application fees act as a barrier for low-income immigrants who want to become US citizens. The nudges to encourage the very poor to apply had no discernible effect, indicating the presence of nonfinancial barriers to naturalization. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. An overview of some basic design features of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station highlighting how regulatory requirements can influence design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper attempts to show that licensing requirements significantly influence the design of nuclear power plants. The French designed Pressurised Water Reactor system adopted by Escom at Koeberg has its origins in the General Design Criteria set out in the American Code of Federal Regulations document 10CFR50. Three of the General Design Criteria have been selected for illustrating how the requirements have influenced Koeberg in terms of design, both from a hardware and software view point. The requirements of the criteria on quality standard and records are to a certain extent reflected in the Licensing Branch Guide developed by the Atomic Energy Corporation to address quality assurance. The criterion on containment design sets requirements in respect of containment design which are incorporated in the Koeberg design. The criterion on electric power systems sets many of the basic design requirements for the electrical power supply systems inside and outside the station. The existence of the criterion led Escom to introduce changes in the transmission network to meet the requirements in respect of the independent criteria for the grid connections

  7. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 2: System requirements and conceptual description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    In the development of the business system for the SRB automated production control system, special attention had to be paid to the unique environment posed by the space shuttle. The issues posed by this environment, and the means by which they were addressed, are reviewed. The change in management philosphy which will be required as NASA switches from one-of-a-kind launches to multiple launches is discussed. The implications of the assembly process on the business system are described. These issues include multiple missions, multiple locations and facilities, maintenance and refurbishment, multiple sources, and multiple contractors. The implications of these aspects on the automated production control system are reviewed including an assessment of the six major subsystems, as well as four other subsystem. Some general system requirements which flow through the entire business system are described.

  8. Requirements on PWR reactor design with respect to seismic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Pecinka, L.

    1981-01-01

    From the seismic point of view the individual parts of a nuclear power plant must be built such as to allow the shutdown of the reactor up to the safe shutdown earthquake level, the removal of after-heat and the prevention of uncontrolled release of radioactivity into the environment. To the level of operating basic earthquake the plant must be designed such as to allow the operation of the reactor for a period of 100 hours from the seismic event without exceeding the permissible annual dose to personnel and population. The possibility of a loss-of-coolant accident owing to a seismic event is reduced mainly by the integrated performance of the primary circuit, the high-strength structure, the insulation of the main components from the shift of the foundations and the use of floating structures. The pressure vessel of the WWER-1000 reactor is therefore pAaced in a shaft on a support ring and is locked by another support ring. (Z.M.)

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Design-Driven Requirements Using SysML

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research will develop SysML requirements modeling patterns and scripts to automate the evaluation of the impact of design driven requirements....

  10. A design and construction of wire drive mechanical barrier system on the medium dose brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Khasan; Tri Harjanto; Ari Satmoko

    2012-01-01

    A design and construction of wire drive mechanical barrier system on the medium dose brachytherapy for cervical cancer has been done as a complete system for security of both mechanically and electrically during the operation of the device as a whole. The design and construction were carried out by paying attention to the length of wire dimensions, the diameter of the roller drum for wire, the process of wire rolling and delivery path length of the radioactive source or also the checker. The length dimension of wire or delivery path length with a diameter of drum rollers which is converted into 2 pieces of limiting the size of the circular line on the gear system is integrated with the limit switch/divider electrically. By using this barrier the security and certainty of the wire rolling and delivery process are assured, either wire of radioactive sources or also wire of checker. The materials or components used are aluminum for gear system and limit switches for electrical systems. The result of the construction is a set of equipment that is used to complete a safety facility operating on the wire drive module of medium dose brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  11. The Knowledge Wall for the Global 2000 War Game: Design Solutions to Match JOC User Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smallman, H

    2001-01-01

    ...) for the Global 2000 War Game. What features and content should this new display possess? This report presents a Knowledge Wall design capable of meeting these requirements and elaborates its design features from the 'ground...

  12. Design studies on the engineered barrier system and on the in-situ experiments under the conditions of geological environment in Horonobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yuji; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    Following studies have been done in this papers in order to apply the technologies based on H12 report to the actual geological conditions of Horonobe underground research laboratory. 1) Reconsidering the process of repository design, the design process charts of a repository were presented. In the H12 report, the design process of the engineering barrier system was followed by the facility design process. In this paper, the both processes were placed in parallel position. 2) The relation between geological conditions and the performance of engineering barrier systems and the specifications of engineering barrier systems was arranged and the geological information needed for design of engineering barrier were selected. 3) The appropriate form of geological information as input-data for design were showed and the procedure for setting input-data was presented. 4) Based on the state of geological investigations at Horonobe, mechanical input-data were arranged for the design of the in-situ experiments on engineered barrier system at HORONOBE. 5) The stability of the hall for the in-situ experiments was studied by numerical analysis and the results indicated that there are difference in stability between the depth of 500 m and 570 m. (author)

  13. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  14. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  15. Site selection and design basis of the National Disposal Facility for LILW. Geological and engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Content of the presentation: Site selection; Characteristics of the “Radiana” site (location, geological structure, physical and mechanical properties, hydro-geological conditions); Design basis of the Disposal Facility; Migration analysis; Safety assessment approach

  16. 47 CFR 54.209 - Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers. 54.209 Section 54.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Service Support § 54.209 Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers...

  17. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems

  18. 78 FR 32988 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets by inserting a missing... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets (77 FR 36612, June 19, 2012...

  19. The development and validation of a mathematical model for the design of protection barriers for nuclear powered ships. Report for 10 June 1976--31 March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    1978-03-01

    A mathematical model for the analysis and design of protection barrier structures is developed. The analysis procedure is based on the collapse theorems, i.e., the Upper Bound Theorem and the Lower Bound Theorem. The collision protection barrier is analyzed by a finite element program with capabilities of nonlinear and elastoplastic analysis. The results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those obtained from the collision model tests

  20. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity

  1. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optics subsystems SSDR 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystems Design Requirement (SSDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the subsystems design requirements for the major optical components. These optical components comprise those custom designed and fabricated for amplification and transport of the full aperture NIF beam and does not include those off-the-shelf components that may be part of other optical sub-systems (i.e. alignment or diagnostic systems). This document also describes the optical component processing requirements and the QA/damage testing necessary to ensure that the optical components meet or exceed the requirements

  2. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  3. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  4. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  5. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  6. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project

  7. Physical barriers formed from gelling liquids: 1. numerical design of laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1994-01-01

    The emplacement of liquids under controlled viscosity conditions is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Design calculations are performed for a laboratory experiment on a decimeter scale, and a field experiment on a meter scale. The purpose of the laboratory experiment is to study the behavior of multiple gout plumes when injected in a porous medium. The calculations for the field trial aim at designing a grout injection test from a vertical well in order to create a grout plume of a significant extent in the subsurface

  8. The Evolution of Design Requirements in the Trajectory of Artificiality: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Romme, Georges

    Managing design requirements of complex socio-technical designs in heterogeneous and rapidly-changing environments demands new approaches. In this chapter we use the framework described by Krippendorff [1] to describe the evolution of requirements thinking and subsequently develop a research agenda. Krippendorff’s trajectory of artificiality shows an increasing dematerialization and human-centeredness of artifacts. He distinguishes six kinds of artifacts, namely material products; goods, services, and identities; interfaces; multi-user systems and networks; projects; and finally, discourses. Based on a review of the design literature, involving two major design journals, we find that the design of socio-technical systems currently tends to be situated on the level of multi-user systems and networks. Projects and discourses hardly get any attention in requirements thinking. We therefore develop an agenda for future research directed toward advancing requirements thinking at the level of projects and discourses as artifacts of design.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  10. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements transportation and handling, SSDR 1.1.1.3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakuma, S.; McNairy, R.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Transportation ampersand Material Handling Systems (WBS 1.1.1.3.2) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3 and 1.4). The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 5 figs

  11. The Videographic Requirements Gathering Method for Adolescent-Focused Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Peyton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for conducting requirements gathering with adolescent populations. Called videographic requirements gathering, this technique makes use of mobile phone data capture and participant creation of media images. The videographic requirements gathering method can help researchers and designers gain intimate insight into adolescent lives while simultaneously reducing power imbalances. We provide rationale for this approach, pragmatics of using the method, and advice on overcoming common challenges facing researchers and designers relying on this technique.

  12. Incorporating Army Design Methodology into Army Operations: Barriers and Recommendations for Facilitating Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    interactively complex systems must be systemic, rather than reductionist, and qualitative rather than quantitative , and must use different heuristic...traditional approach and the military culture more broadly, and post- positivism that characterizes Design. He argues that the military culture is

  13. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  14. Requirements for High Level Models Supporting Design Space Exploration in Model-based Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Steven P.; Bonnema, G. Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during detailed design. In this paper, we define requirements for a high level model that is firstly driven by key systems engineering challenges present in industry and secondly connects to several formal and d...

  15. Implementing ergonomics in large-scale engineering design. Communicating and negotiating requirements in an organizational context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, Ingrid Anette

    1997-12-31

    This thesis investigates under what conditions ergonomic criteria are being adhered to in engineering design. Specifically, the thesis discusses (1) the ergonomic criteria implementation process, (2) designer recognition of ergonomic requirements and the organization of ergonomics, (3) issues important for the implementation of ergonomic requirements, (4) how different means for experience transfer in design and operation are evaluated by the designers, (5) how designers ensure usability of offshore work places, and (6) how project members experience and cope with the large amount of documentation in large-scale engineering. 84 refs., 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities

  17. Formal Functional Test Designs: Bridging the Gap Between Test Requirements and Test Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the testing life cycle, the purpose of the test design phase, and test design methods and gives an example application. Also included is a description of Test Representation Language (TRL), a summary of the language, and an example of an application of TRL. A sample test requirement and sample test design are included.

  18. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  19. The rational design of biomimetic skin barrier lipid formulations using biophysical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsara, P A; Varlashkin, P; Dickens, J; Moore, D J; Rawlings, A V; Clarke, M J

    2017-04-01

    The focus of this communication was to study phospholipid-structured emulsions whose phase behaviour is modified with monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles. Ideally, these systems would mimic key physical and structural attributes observed in human stratum corneum (SC) so that they better alleviate xerotic skin conditions. Phosphatidylcholine-structured emulsions were prepared, and their phase behaviour modified with monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles. The effect of molecular volume, acyl chain length and head-group interactions was studied using a combination of physical methods. Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) was used as a primary test to assess occlusive character. Changes in the vibrational modes observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and bilayer spacing measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) were then applied to elucidate the lateral and lamellar microstructural characteristics in the systems. Water vapour transmission rate demonstrated that as the phosphatidylcholine acyl chain length increased from C14, to C18, to C22, there was a corresponding increase in occlusive character. The addition of monoalkyl fatty amphiphiles such as behenic acid, behenyl alcohol or cetostearyl alcohol to a base formulation incorporating dipalmitoyl and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (C18) was seen to further increase barrier characteristics of the emulsions. FTIR methods used to probe lipid-chain conformational ordering demonstrated that as phosphatidylcholine acyl chain lengths increased, there was a corresponding improvement in acyl chain ordering, with an increase in thermal transition temperatures. The addition of a monoalkyl fatty amphiphile resulted in conformational order and thermal transition temperature improvements trending towards those observed in stratum corneum. FTIR also demonstrated that systems containing behenic acid or behenyl alcohol exhibited features associated with orthorhombic character. X-ray diffraction data showed that addition of monoalkyl fatty

  20. Assessing barriers to a rational chemoprevention trial design in young patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanna P; Howells, Lynne M; Brown, Karen; Thomas, Anne L

    2017-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Colonic adenomas form and almost all patients will develop colorectal cancer if they are not managed at an early stage. The safest preventive strategy is surgical resection of the colon, most commonly performed in late teenage years. There is a paucity of trials investigating the use of primary chemoprevention to delay polyp formation in paediatric FAP. There are extensive preclinical and early clinical data demonstrating that curcumin may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent in reducing the polyp burden in this disease. We ultimately proposed to design and conduct a clinical study to assess whether curcumin treatment delays the need for surgery and/or prevents cancer in young patients with FAP. Research into clinical trial protocols has demonstrated that assessing patients' perceptions at the initial stage leads to better outcomes. We therefore conducted a questionnaire study of patients and parents of children affected by FAP to gain information to aid the protocol design. Results demonstrated that there are some FAP patients for whom this study is relevant and desirable. Those with a personal history of curcumin use reported that it was well tolerated. However, the response rate was poor (25%), indicating that there are potential difficulties ensuring adequate recruitment to the proposed trial. This report draws on lessons learnt from prior trials and the findings from the questionnaire to outline the challenges faced in designing such a study.

  1. Yucca Mountain near-field environment considerations for engineered barrier system design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1991-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository. This responsibility includes materials testing and selections, design criteria development, waste form characterizations, performance assessments, and Near-Field (NF) environment characterization. These areas of responsibility are interrelated and to a large extent depend on environmental conditions surrounding the EBS components. The focus of this paper is to discuss what is currently known about the NF environment, particularly those aspects whose interaction with EBS components have significant impacts on the performance of the EBS and its ability to contribute to the isolation of radioactive waste. Reference designs and design/processes assumptions are used to evaluate the expected NF environmental conditions. This report will not focus on providing parameter values but rather on the processes that influence those parameters and on the impacts of those parameters on the performance of EBS components. Where values are given, they should be viewed as typical of YM as a whole but not necessarily representative of the actual NF environment conditions that surround the EBS components. 19 refs., 6 figs

  2. Epidermal transglutaminase (TGase 3 is required for proper hair development, but not the formation of the epidermal barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan John

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGase, a family of cross-linking enzymes present in most cell types, are important in events as diverse as cell-signaling and matrix stabilization. Transglutaminase 1 is crucial in developing the epidermal barrier, however the skin also contains other family members, in particular TGase 3. This isoform is highly expressed in the cornified layer, where it is believed to stabilize the epidermis and its reduction is implicated in psoriasis. To understand the importance of TGase 3 in vivo we have generated and analyzed mice lacking this protein. Surprisingly, these animals display no obvious defect in skin development, no overt changes in barrier function or ability to heal wounds. In contrast, hair lacking TGase 3 is thinner, has major alterations in the cuticle cells and hair protein cross-linking is markedly decreased. Apparently, while TGase 3 is of unique functional importance in hair, in the epidermis loss of TGase 3 can be compensated for by other family members.

  3. Design and operation of ventilation in low energy residences – A survey on code requirements and building reality from six European countries and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Bocanegra-Yanez, Maria; Rojas, Gabriel; Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria

    involved in the Annex. There were two main objectives, firstly, to describe and analyse a transition between actual requirements (national building codes and standards) and current practice. Secondly, to investigate current barriers and challenges regarding installation of mechanical ventilation......One of the key objectives of the IEA Annex 68 research programme entitled “Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings” is to provide a generic guideline for the design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings. Modern and refurnished domestic buildings...

  4. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  5. Innovative product design based on comprehensive customer requirements of different cognitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Wu; Zheng, Yake; Wang, Rui; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    To improve customer satisfaction in innovative product design, a topology structure of customer requirements is established and an innovative product approach is proposed. The topology structure provides designers with reasonable guidance to capture the customer requirements comprehensively. With the aid of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the importance of the customer requirements is evaluated. Quality function deployment (QFD) is used to translate customer requirements into product and process design demands and pick out the technical requirements which need urgent improvement. In this way, the product is developed in a more targeted way to satisfy the customers. the theory of innovative problems solving (TRIZ) is used to help designers to produce innovative solutions. Finally, a case study of automobile steering system is used to illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  6. Innovative Product Design Based on Comprehensive Customer Requirements of Different Cognitive Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve customer satisfaction in innovative product design, a topology structure of customer requirements is established and an innovative product approach is proposed. The topology structure provides designers with reasonable guidance to capture the customer requirements comprehensively. With the aid of analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the importance of the customer requirements is evaluated. Quality function deployment (QFD is used to translate customer requirements into product and process design demands and pick out the technical requirements which need urgent improvement. In this way, the product is developed in a more targeted way to satisfy the customers. the theory of innovative problems solving (TRIZ is used to help designers to produce innovative solutions. Finally, a case study of automobile steering system is used to illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  7. Project W-236A, work plan for preparation of a design requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    This work plan outlines the tasks necessary, and defines the organizational responsibilities for preparing a Design Requirements Document (DRD) for project W-236A, Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). A DRD is a Systems Engineering document which bounds, at a high level, the requirements of a discrete system element of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. This system element is usually assigned to a specific project, in this case the MWTF. The DRD is the document that connects the TWRS program requirements with the highest level projects requirements and provides the project's link to the overall TWRS mission. The MWTF DRD effort is somewhat unique in that the project is already in detailed design, whereas a DRO is normally prepared prior to preliminary design. The MWTF design effort was initiated with a Functional Design Criteria (FDC) and a Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) bounding the high level requirements. Another unique aspect of this effort is that some of the TWRS program requirements are still in development. Because of these unique aspects of the MWTF DRD development, the MWTF will be developed from existing TWRS Program requirements and project specific requirements contained in the FDC and SDRD. The following list describes the objectives of the MWTF DRD: determine the primary functions of the tanks through a functional decomposition of the TWRS Program high level functions; allocate the primary functions to a sub-system architecture for the tanks; define the fundamental design features in terms of performance requirements for the system and subsystems; identify system interfaces and design constraints; and document the results in a DRD

  8. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  9. Design requirements of instrumentation and control systems for next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Lee, Byung Sun; Park, Kwang Hyun; Park, Heu Yoon; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Jung Taek; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chul Hwan; Hur, Seop; Kim, Chang Hoi; Na, Nan Ju

    1994-03-01

    In this report, the basic design requirements of Instrumentation and Control systems for next generation reactor are described, which are top-tier level, to support the advanced I and C systems. It contains the requirements in accordance with the plant reliability, the plant performance, the operator's aid functions, the features for maintenance and testing, licensing issues for I and C systems. Advanced I and C systems are characterized such as the application of the digital and the human engineering technologies. To development of this requirements, the I and C systems for the foreign passive and the evolutionary types of reactor and the domestic conventional reators were reviewed and anlysed. At the detail design stage, these requirements will be used for top-tier requirements. To develop the detail design requirements in the future, more quantitive and qualitive analyses are need to be added. (Author) 44 refs

  10. Preliminary design requirements document (DRD) for Project W-236B, ''Initial Pretreatment Module''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to separate Hanford Site tank waste supernatants into low-level and high-level fractions. This documents sets forth function requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). System and physical interfaces between the IPM project and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. Supplemental DRDs will be prepared to provide more detailed requirements specific to systems described in the DRD

  11. USER REQUIREMENTS CUSTOMIZATION AND ATTRACTIVE QUALITY CREATION FOR DESIGN IMPROVEMENT ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Wilson Taifa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to customize user requirements and quality creation for design improvement of furniture. The major purpose has been achieved with the use of Quality Function Deployment technique and Kano Model. The study involved 564 students from 3 engineering colleges. Extensive user requirements were identified with the help of Questionnaires. The use of House of Quality, Kano Model and Pareto Diagram helped in prioritizing all important features which are needed in customizing user requirements. The prioritized requirements include ergonomic design, desk adjustability, comfortability, product corners (sharp corners and latest material. All these factors both got high relative and absolute weight. Therefore, more engineering efforts need to be directed towards these requirements for achieving user customization for design improvement. The developed House of Quality with the help of Kano Model results has proved to be a good tool in customizing user requirements.

  12. Design requirements of instrumentation and control systems for next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Lee, Byung Sun; Park, Kwang Hyun; Park, Heu Yoon; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Jung Taek; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chul Hwan; Hur, Seop; Kim, Chang Hoi; Na, Nan Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-01

    In this report, the basic design requirements of Instrumentation and Control systems for next generation reactor are described, which are top-tier level, to support the advanced I and C systems. It contains the requirements in accordance with the plant reliability, the plant performance, the operator`s aid functions, the features for maintenance and testing, licensing issues for I and C systems. Advanced I and C systems are characterized such as the application of the digital and the human engineering technologies. To development of this requirements, the I and C systems for the foreign passive and the evolutionary types of reactor and the domestic conventional reators were reviewed and anlysed. At the detail design stage, these requirements will be used for top-tier requirements. To develop the detail design requirements in the future, more quantitive and qualitive analyses are need to be added. (Author) 44 refs.

  13. The Translation between Functional Requirements and Design Parameters for Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Husung, Stephan; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The specification of and justification for design parameter (DP) tolerances are primarily based on the acceptable variation of the functions’ performance and the functions’ sensitivity to the design parameters. However, why certain tolerances are needed is often not transparent, especially...... computer aided functional tolerancing. Non-optimal tolerances yield potentials for cost improvements in manufacturing and more consistency of the functional performance of the product. In this contribution a framework is proposed to overcome the observed problems and increase the clarity, transparency...... and traceability of tolerances by analyzing the translation between the DPs and their influence on the final function....

  14. Design requirements and development of an airborne descent path definition algorithm for time navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, K. H.; Thompson, J. L.; Groce, J. L.; Schwab, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements for a 4D path definition algorithm are described. These requirements were developed for the NASA ATOPS as an extension of the Local Flow Management/Profile Descent algorithm. They specify the processing flow, functional and data architectures, and system input requirements, and recommended the addition of a broad path revision (reinitialization) function capability. The document also summarizes algorithm design enhancements and the implementation status of the algorithm on an in-house PDP-11/70 computer. Finally, the requirements for the pilot-computer interfaces, the lateral path processor, and guidance and steering function are described.

  15. Designed to deter: Barriers to facilities at secondary schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K. Danso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are varied and complex problems associated with the admission of students with disabilities into secondary (senior high schools all over the world. This situation is further complicated by difficulties encountered in the built environment of these institutions and, in this, Ghana is no exception. Objectives: This exploratory study investigated the level of accessibility of the built environment in secondary schools in eight out of the ten regions of Ghana, in order to determine whether they conform to guidelines provided in international building standards and also assess the extent to which they have been designed and constructed to meet the provisions of the Persons with Disability Act 2006, which allows for equal access to public buildings in Ghana. Method: In total, 705 building elements in 264 facilities were surveyed using international standards, building codes, regulations and guidelines. These facilities included car parks, classrooms, dormitories, assembly halls, telephone booths and administration blocks. Results: Our findings revealed that most of the building elements were barring and not disability-friendly. Just to name a few: there were obstructions on access routes to and around buildings, absence of designated car parks, unfriendly vertical and horizontal means of circulation in buildings and lack of accessible sanitary accommodations. In addition, the general lighting and signage were poor. As a result, very few students with disabilities are admitted and retained in these schools. Conclusion: Mainstreaming of people with disabilities into the Ghanaian educational system remains impossible unless urgent action is taken to alter the facilities at secondary schools. Based on this research outcome, recommendations have been made to the Ghanaian government and the Ghana Education Service, as well as non-governmental organisations and relevant professional bodies for the amelioration of the present situation in

  16. Generalized requirements and decompositions for the design of test parts for micro additive manufacturing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    The design of experimental test parts to characterize micro additive manufacturing (AM) processes is challenging due to the influence of the manufacturing and metrology processes. This work builds on the lessons learned from a case study in the literature to derive generalized requirements and high...... level decompositions for the design of test parts and the design of experiments to characterize micro additive manufacturing processes. While the test parts and the experiments described are still work in progress, the generic requirements derived from them can serve as a starting point for the design...... of other micro additive manufacturing related studies and their decompositions can help structure future work....

  17. Toward the Design of Multi Asymmetric Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ASDBD) Actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeh, Massiel; Rohani, V.; Cauneau, F.; Fabry, F.; Fulcheri, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the electrical and mechanical behaviors of a single-ASDBD actuator and a two-ASDBD one supplied in sinusoidal mode (1–10 kHz). The main objective of our research is to determine the optimum frequency values for the function of these actuators with a given power supply. For this purpose, we determine the electrical power density input to the actuators versus frequency through two methods: i) a semi-theoretical method, based on an impedance calculation, and ii) an experimental method, based on direct electrical measurements. These methods show that the addition of a second ASDBD changes the resonance frequency value of the actuator by moving it towards low frequencies. After characterizing the aerodynamic mobile layer structure induced by the single-ASDBD actuator, we analyze experimentally the mechanical response of a two-ASDBD actuator as a function of the inter-ASDBD distance. The experiments demonstrate that the induced electric wind velocity and the electro-mechanical yield of a two-ASDBD actuator reach a maximum value for an optimum inter-ASDBD distance, which is a useful value for the design of highly efficient multi-ASDBD actuators. (plasma technology)

  18. Opportunities and barriers for implementing CO2 capture ready designs: A case study of stakeholder perceptions in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Xi Liang; Cockerill, Tim; Gibbins, Jon; Reiner, David

    2012-01-01

    China has been building at least 50 gigawatt (GW) of new coal-fired power plants every year since 2004. In the absence of CO 2 capture ready (CCR) designs, a large fraction of new coal power plants built in the next decade could face ‘carbon lock-in’. Building on the existing engineering and economic literature on CO 2 capture ready, the aim of this study is to understand the opportunities and challenges in implementing CCR in China. In early 2010, opinion-leaders perceptions towards implementing CCR in Guangdong with two empirical phases are presented: an online consultation of 31 respondents (out of a sample of 82), three face-to-face focus group discussions including 16 officials from five power plants and two oil companies in the Guangdong province. A majority of respondents in the online survey were engineers. The survey results are compared with an earlier study of stakeholders’ views on demonstrating CCS in China, conducted in April 2009 as part of the EU–UK–China Near Zero Emissions Coal initiative (NZEC) project. - Highlights: ► Without national support, interests from project management and local government help deploy CCR. ► Space on-site and access to storage sites are two essential criteria. ► It is also necessary to investigate the local plant design conventions and regulations. ► Five potential barriers to implementing CCR are identified. ► Four potential drivers may accelerate the implementation of CCR.

  19. Design basis and requirements for 241-SY Modular Exhauster concrete pad and retaining wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the design and functional requirements for a concrete pad for the new 241-SY Modular Exhauster and for a retaining wall to be built near the new ventilation systems

  20. Acoustic design of open-plan offices and comparison of requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Møller; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, most office buildings include open-plan offices. However, to optimize working conditions, such spaces require special acoustic design to obtain reasonable sound attenuation between groups and satisfactory speech intelligibility internally in groups, although optimal worki...

  1. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optical mounts SSDR 1.4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for NIF Beam Transport Optomechanical Subsystems. optomechanical Subsystems includes the mounts for the beam transport mirrors, LMl - LM8, the polarizer mount, and the spatial filter lens mounts

  2. Public transport service design requirements for the changing face of the South African customer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the life cycle dynamics of the South African population, the paper investigates the implications of such dynamics on the design requirements of public transport services. The life cycle dynamics considered in this paper refer specifically...

  3. Specification of Behavioural Requirements within Compositional Multi-Agent System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herlea, D.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how informal and formal specification of behavioural requirements and scenarios for agents and multi-agent systems can be integrated within multi-agent system design. In particular, it is addressed how a compositional

  4. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  5. Evaluation and decision of products conceptual design schemes based on customer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Li, Yan Feng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhonglai; Liu, Wenhai

    2011-01-01

    Within the competitive market environment, understanding customer requirements is crucial for all corporations to obtain market share and survive competition. Only the products exactly meeting customer requirements can win in the market place. Therefore, customer requirements play a very important role in the evaluation and decision process of conceptual design schemes of products. In this paper, an evaluation and decision method based on customer requirements is presented. It utilizes the importance of customer requirements, the satisfaction degree of each evaluation metric to the specification, and an evaluation metric which models customer requirements to evaluate the satisfaction degree of each design scheme to specific customer requirements via the proposed BP neural networks. In the evaluation and decision process, fuzzy sets are used to describe the importance of customer requirements, the relationship between customer requirements and evaluation metrics, the satisfaction degree of each scheme to customer requirements, and the crisp set is used to describe the satisfaction degree of each metric to specifications. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an example of front suspension fork design of mountain bikes

  6. Evaluation and decision of products conceptual design schemes based on customer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Li, Yan Feng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhonglai [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan (China); Liu, Wenhai [2China Science Patent Trademark Agents Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2011-09-15

    Within the competitive market environment, understanding customer requirements is crucial for all corporations to obtain market share and survive competition. Only the products exactly meeting customer requirements can win in the market place. Therefore, customer requirements play a very important role in the evaluation and decision process of conceptual design schemes of products. In this paper, an evaluation and decision method based on customer requirements is presented. It utilizes the importance of customer requirements, the satisfaction degree of each evaluation metric to the specification, and an evaluation metric which models customer requirements to evaluate the satisfaction degree of each design scheme to specific customer requirements via the proposed BP neural networks. In the evaluation and decision process, fuzzy sets are used to describe the importance of customer requirements, the relationship between customer requirements and evaluation metrics, the satisfaction degree of each scheme to customer requirements, and the crisp set is used to describe the satisfaction degree of each metric to specifications. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an example of front suspension fork design of mountain bikes.

  7. Supplmental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage: Phase 5, Project W-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    This Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate Project W-113 specific plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). The SDRD is prepared after the completion of the project Conceptual Design report (CDR) and prior to the initiation of definitive design. Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Title I and Title II design. The Solid Waste Retrieval Project (W-113) SDRD has been restructured from the equipment based outline used in previous SDRDs to a functional systems outline. This was done to facilitate identification of deficiencies in the information provided in the initial draft SDRD and aid design confirmation. The format and content of this SDRD adhere as closely as practicable to the requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices for Functional Design Criteria

  8. Implementing electronic medical record in family practice in Slovenia and other former Yugoslav Republics: Barriers and requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolšek Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes problems related to the implementation of electronic medical record in family medicine in Slovenia since 1992 when first personal computers have been delivered to family physicians' practices. The situation of health care informatization and implementation of electronic medical record in primary health care in new countries, other former Yugoslav republics, is described. There are rather big differences among countries and even among some regions of one country, but in the last year the situation improved, especially in Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The main problem that is still unsolved is software offered by several companies which do not offer many functions, are non-standardized or user friendly enough and is not adapted to doctors' needs. Some important questions on medical records are discussed, e.g. what is in fact a medical record, what is its purpose, who uses it, which record is a good one, what should contain and confidentiality issue. The author describes what makes electronic medical record better than paper-based one (above all it is of better quality, efficiency and care-safe, easier in data retrieval and does it offer the possibility of data exchange with other health care professionals and what are the barriers to its wider implementation.

  9. Endothelial β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Maintaining Adult Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Central Nervous System Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khiem A; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F; Göthert, Joachim R; Malik, Asrar B; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang

    2016-01-12

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible endothelial cell-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), we show here that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and central nervous system homeostasis in adult mice. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and central nervous system inflammation, and all had postictal death. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of the specific tight junction proteins claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain endothelial cells. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain endothelial cells of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity, and central nervous system inflammation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.36 - Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction requirements for exit routes. (a) Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design... your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code. (c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit discharge... route must be adequate. (1) Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor...

  12. Design of a modular digital computer system, DRL 4. [for meeting future requirements of spaceborne computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design is reported of an advanced modular computer system designated the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System, which anticipates requirements for higher computing capacity and reliability for future spaceborne computers. Subjects discussed include: an overview of the architecture, mission analysis, synchronous and nonsynchronous scheduling control, reliability, and data transmission.

  13. 30 CFR 77.804 - High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.804 High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements. (a) High-voltage trailing cables used in resistance grounded systems shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design...

  14. 75 FR 80571 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 Core Principles and Other... CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract... Principles 1. Subpart B--Designation as Contract Market 2. Subpart C--Compliance With Rules i. Proposed Sec...

  15. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  16. Man/machine interface for a nuclear cask remote handling control station: system design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.; Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Design requirements are presented for a control station of a proposed semi-automated facility for remote handling of nuclear waste casks. Functional and operational man/machine interface: controls, displays, software format, station architecture, and work environment. In addition, some input is given to the design of remote sensing systems in the cask handling areas. 18 references, 9 figures, 12 tables

  17. Technical report of comparison in design control on R and D and industrial quality requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to establish the requirements on nuclear R and D facilities. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in research reactor. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of nuclear project

  18. Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsen, Lex; Wentzel, Jobke; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2013-06-24

    Requirements development is a crucial part of eHealth design. It entails all the activities devoted to requirements identification, the communication of requirements to other developers, and their evaluation. Currently, a requirements development approach geared towards the specifics of the eHealth domain is lacking. This is likely to result in a mismatch between the developed technology and end user characteristics, physical surroundings, and the organizational context of use. It also makes it hard to judge the quality of eHealth design, since it makes it difficult to gear evaluations of eHealth to the main goals it is supposed to serve. In order to facilitate the creation of eHealth that matters, we present a practical, multidisciplinary requirements development approach which is embedded in a holistic design approach for eHealth (the Center for eHealth Research roadmap) that incorporates both human-centered design and business modeling. Our requirements development approach consists of five phases. In the first, preparatory, phase the project team is composed and the overall goal(s) of the eHealth intervention are decided upon. Second, primary end users and other stakeholders are identified by means of audience segmentation techniques and our stakeholder identification method. Third, the designated context of use is mapped and end users are profiled by means of requirements elicitation methods (eg, interviews, focus groups, or observations). Fourth, stakeholder values and eHealth intervention requirements are distilled from data transcripts, which leads to phase five, in which requirements are communicated to other developers using a requirements notation template we developed specifically for the context of eHealth technologies. The end result of our requirements development approach for eHealth interventions is a design document which includes functional and non-functional requirements, a list of stakeholder values, and end user profiles in the form of

  19. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD [computer-aided design] system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described

  20. Comparative Study on Research Reactor Design Requirements between IAEA and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won Joon; Yune, Young Gill; Song, Myung Ho; Cho, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study has identified the gaps in the safety requirements for design of research reactors of Korea comparing with those of the IAEA. The review results showed that the gaps have arisen mainly from the following aspects: - The differences in the characteristics of design and operation between power reactor and research reactor - Enhancement of the level of safety of nuclear reactor facility - Consideration of advanced safety technologies. The review results will be utilized to reflect the IAEA safety requirements for design of research reactors into those of Korea, which will contribute to enhancing the level of safety and improving the technical standards of research reactors of Korea. The IAEA safety standards encompass international consensus to strengthen the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of nuclear safety technologies. Also, they provide reliable means to ensure the effective fulfillment of obligations under the various international safety conventions. Many countries have adopted the IAEA safety standards as their national standards in nuclear regulations. Since Korea has exported research reactor technologies abroad these days and will continue to export them in the future, it is desirable to harmonize domestic safety requirements for research reactor with those of the IAEA. The KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has performed a review of the IAEA safety requirements for design of research reactors comparing with those of Korea. The purpose of this comparative study is to harmonize the safety requirements for the design of research reactors of Korea with those of the IAEA as a member state of the IAEA, and to encompass global efforts to enhance the nuclear safety and to reflect the latest advancement of nuclear safety technologies into the safety requirements for the design of research reactors of Korea. Design requirements for structures, systems, and components of research reactors important to safety, which are required to

  1. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  2. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave validation standard antenna – requirements and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    from a validation campaign is achieved when a dedicated Validation Standard (VAST) antenna specifically designed for this purpose is available. The driving requirements to VAST antennas are their mechanical stability with respect to any orientation of the antenna in the gravity field and thermal...... are briefly reviewed and the baseline design is described. The emphasis is given to definition of the requirements for the mechanical and thermal stability of the antenna, which satisfy the stringent stability requirement for the mm-VAST electrical characteristics....

  3. National Ignition Facility, subsystem design requirements beam control and laser diagnostics SSDR 1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Alignment subsystem (WBS 1.7.1), Beam Diagnostics (WBS 1.7.2), and the Wavefront Control subsystem (WBS 1.7. 3) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3). These three subsystems are collectively referred to as the Beam Control ampersand Laser Diagnostics Subsystem. The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Requirements on the mechanical design of reactor systems operating at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Glahn, M.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the contemporary status of the requirements on the mechanical design and analysis developed during the licensing procedure of reactor systems operating at elevated temperature. General requirements for the design at elevated temperature are reviewed. The main proposal is to point out some limit strain criteria which are not included in present design guidelines and codes. The developed strain criteria are used to limit the component deformations in case of power excursions like the Bethe-Tait accident. It is also applicable for loads arising from other faulted conditions. (orig.)

  5. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  6. Analytical model for the design of in situ horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) for the mitigation of chlorinated solvent vapors in the unsaturated zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verginelli, Iason; Capobianco, Oriana; Hartog, Niels; Baciocchi, Renato

    In this work we introduce a 1-D analytical solution that can be used for the design of horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) as a vapor mitigation system at sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents. The developed model incorporates a transient diffusion-dominated transport with a

  7. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  8. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  9. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  10. Research gaps in routine health information system design barriers to data quality and use in low- and middle-income countries: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Gotz, David; Nutley, Tara; Smith, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Despite the potential impact of health information system (HIS) design barriers on health data quality and use and, ultimately, health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), no comprehensive literature review has been conducted to study them in this context. We therefore conducted a formal literature review to understand system design barriers to data quality and use in LMICs and to identify any major research gaps related understanding how system design affects data use. We conducted an electronic search across 4 scientific databases-PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Global Health-and consulted a data use expert. Following a systematic inclusion and exclusion process, 316 publications (316 abstracts and 18 full papers) were included in the review. We found a paucity of scientific publications that explicitly describe system design factors that hamper data quality or data use for decision making. Although user involvement, work flow, human-computer interactions, and user experience are critical aspects of system design, our findings suggest that these issues are not discussed or conceptualized in the literature. Findings also showed that individual training efforts focus primarily on imparting data analysis skills. The adverse impact of HIS design barriers on data integrity and health system performance may be even bigger in LMICs than elsewhere, leading to errors in population health management and clinical care. We argue for integrating systems thinking into HIS strengthening efforts to reduce the HIS design-user reality gap. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Establish Human System Interface Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    Across all fields of human-system interface design it is vital to posses a sound methodology dictating the constraints on the system based on the capabilities of the human user. These limitations may be based on strength, mobility, dexterity, cognitive ability, etc. and combinations thereof. Data collected in an isolated environment to determine, for example, maximal strength or maximal range of motion would indeed be adequate for establishing not-to-exceed type design limitations, however these restraints on the system may be excessive over what is basally needed. Resources may potentially be saved by having a technique to determine the minimum measurements a system must accommodate. This paper specifically deals with the creation of a novel methodology for establishing mobility requirements for a new generation of space suit design concepts. Historically, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station vehicle and space hardware design requirements documents such as the Man-Systems Integration Standards and International Space Station Flight Crew Integration Standard explicitly stated that the designers should strive to provide the maximum joint range of motion capabilities exhibited by a minimally clothed human subject. In the course of developing the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) for the new space exploration initiative (Constellation), an effort was made to redefine the mobility requirements in the interest of safety and cost. Systems designed for manned space exploration can receive compounded gains from simplified designs that are both initially less expensive to produce and lighter, thereby, cheaper to launch.

  12. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Fiedler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  13. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  14. Safety and environmental requirements and design targets for TIBER-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1987-09-01

    A consistent set of safety and environmental requirements and design targets was proposed and adopted for the TIBER-II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design effort. TIBER-II is the most recent US version of a fusion experimental test reactor (ETR). These safety and environmental design targets were one contribution of the Fusion Safety Program in the TIBER-II design effort. The other contribution, safety analyses, is documented in the TIBER-II design report. The TIBER-II approach, described here, concentrated on logical development of, first, a complete and consistent set of safety and environmental requirements that are likely appropriate for an ETR, and, second, an initial set of design targets to guide TIBER-II. Because of limited time in the TIBER-II design effort, the iterative process only included one iteration - one set of targets and one design. Future ETR design efforts should therefore build on these design targets and the associated safety analyses. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Optical design of adjustable light emitting diode for different lighting requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jia-Ning; Yu Jie; Tong Yu-Zhen; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) sources have been widely used for illumination. Optical design, especially freedom compact lens design is necessary to make LED sources applied in lighting industry, such as large-range interior lighting and small-range condensed lighting. For different lighting requirements, the size of target planes should be variable. In our paper we provide a method to design freedom lens according to the energy conservation law and Snell law through establishing energy mapping between the luminous flux emitted by a Lambertian LED source and a certain area of the target plane. The algorithm of our design can easily change the radius of each circular target plane, which makes the size of the target plane adjustable. Ray-tracing software Tracepro is used to validate the illuminance maps and polar-distribution maps. We design lenses for different sizes of target planes to meet specific lighting requirements. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Changing Social Structure in Europe calls for Tailor-made, Barrier-free Living and new Interior Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brausch Carsten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe is experiencing a demographic change, resulting in a change in social structure. People are living longer and birth rates are declining. This changing structure in Europe poses special challenges for housing designers and builders. A new approach in the design of real estate must be created and implemented that caters for the future needs of the occupants of the living space in all phases and allows residents to remain self-sufficient in their "home" for as long as possible. In the earliest stages of design, the typical requirements for each phase of life of future, potential residents must already be considered. This is especially true for people with special protection needs, such as those with visual or hearing impairments.

  17. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  18. ASME Code requirements for multi-canister overpack design and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The baseline requirements for the design and fabrication of the MCO include the application of the technical requirements of the ASME Code, Section III, Subsection NB for containment and Section III, Subsection NG for criticality control. ASME Code administrative requirements, which have not historically been applied at the Hanford site and which have not been required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for licensed spent fuel casks/canisters, were not invoked for the MCO. As a result of recommendations made from an ASME Code consultant in response to DNFSB staff concerns regarding ASME Code application, the SNF Project will be making the following modifications: issue an ASME Code Design Specification and Design Report, certified by a Registered Professional Engineer; Require the MCO fabricator to hold ASME Section III or Section VIII, Division 2 accreditation; and Use ASME Authorized Inspectors for MCO fabrication. Incorporation of these modifications will ensure that the MCO is designed and fabricated in accordance with the ASME Code. Code Stamping has not been a requirement at the Hanford site, nor for NRC licensed spent fuel casks/canisters, but will be considered if determined to be economically justified

  19. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2017-01-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  20. Safety Design Requirements for The Interior Architecture of Scientific Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElDib, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses one of the primary objectives of interior architecture design of research laboratories (specially those using radioactive materials) where it should provide a safe, accessible environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work. A secondary objective is to allow for maximum flexibility for safe research. Therefore, health and safety hazards must be anticipated and carefully evaluated so that protective measures can be incorporated into the interior architectural design of these facilities wherever possible. The interior architecture requirements discussed in this paper illustrate some of the basic health and safety design features required for new and remodeled laboratories.The paper discusses one of the primary objectives of interior architecture design of research laboratories (specially those using radioactive materials) where it should provide a safe, accessible environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work. A secondary objective is to allow for maximum flexibility for safe research. Therefore, health and safety hazards must be anticipated and carefully evaluated so that protective measures can be incorporated into the interior architectural design of these facilities wherever possible. The interior architecture requirements discussed in this paper illustrate some of the basic health and safety design features required for new and remodeled laboratories.

  1. Waste Receiving and Packaging, Module 2A, Supplemental Design Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberd, D.L.; Boothe, G.F.; Hinkle, A.L.; Horgos, R.M.; LeClair, M.D.; Nash, C.R.; Ocampo, V.P.; Pauly, T.R.; Stroup, J.L.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in a Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report; and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Conceptual Design Report. The mission of WRAP 2A on the Hanford site is the treatment of contact handled low level mixed waste (MW) for final disposal. The overall systems engineering steps used to reach construction and operation of WRAP 2A are depicted in Figure 1. The WRAP 2A SDRD focuses on the requirements to address the functional analysis provided in Figure 1. This information is provided in sections 2 through 5 of this SDRD. The mission analysis and functional analysis are to be provided in a separate supporting document. The organization of sections 2 through 5 corresponds to the requirements identified in the WRAP 2A functional analysis

  2. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-01-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T and FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T and FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation

  3. Requirements for the data transfer during the examination of design documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakozova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When you transfer the design documents to the examination office, number of incompatible electronic documents increases dramatically. The article discusses the way to solve the problem of transferring of the text and graphic data of design documentation for state and non-state expertise, as well as verification of estimates and requirement management. The methods for the recognition of the system elements and requirements for the transferring of text and graphic design documents are provided. The need to use the classification and coding of various elements of information systems (structures, objects, resources, requirements, contracts, etc. in data transferring systems is indicated separately. The authors have developed a sequence of document processing and transmission of data during the examination, and propose a language for describing the construction of the facility, taking into account the classification criteria of the structures and construction works.

  4. Basic requirements for a preliminary conceptual design of the Korea advanced pyroprocess facility (KAPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Hee; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Song, Dae Yong; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Jung Won

    2008-12-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing technologies for pyroprocessing for spent PWR fuels. This study is part of a long term R and D program in Korea to develop an advanced recycle system that has the potential to meet and exceed the proliferation resistance, waste minimization, resource minimization, safety and economic goals of approved Korean Government energy policy, as well as the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) program. To support this R and D program, KAERI requires that an independent estimate be made of the conceptual design and cost for construction and operation of a 'Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility', This document describes the basic requirements for preliminary conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility (KAPF). The presented requirements will be modified to be more effective and feasible on an engineering basis during the subsequent design process

  5. Basic requirements for a preliminary conceptual design of the Korea advanced pyroprocess facility (KAPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Hee; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Song, Dae Yong; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing technologies for pyroprocessing for spent PWR fuels. This study is part of a long term R and D program in Korea to develop an advanced recycle system that has the potential to meet and exceed the proliferation resistance, waste minimization, resource minimization, safety and economic goals of approved Korean Government energy policy, as well as the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) program. To support this R and D program, KAERI requires that an independent estimate be made of the conceptual design and cost for construction and operation of a 'Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility', This document describes the basic requirements for preliminary conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility (KAPF). The presented requirements will be modified to be more effective and feasible on an engineering basis during the subsequent design process.

  6. Consequences for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components due to future requirements in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans-Joachim, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of European harmonization, a lot of changes on requirements for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components have been performed. Differed organizations are involved in preparing future requirements for nuclear application. On one side the French German cooperation on the development of EPR. At the origin of this project was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate through NPI, to design the Nuclear Island, which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of the main German Utilities joined this cooperation in 1991 and since then they have been totally involved to the progress of the work. In addition, all the process was backed up to the end by the strong cooperation between the French and the German. Safety Authorities, which have a long lasting cooperation to define common requirements, which have to be applied to future Nuclear Power Plants. Furthermore an organization has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) or the German KTA safety standards, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). On the other side, the European utilities co-operate on a much broader basis for the establishment of European Utilities Requirements (EUR). These requirements are prepared by a group of European utilities that represent the major European electricity generating companies that are determined to keep the nuclear option open. The technical requirements specified in the EUR document define the boundaries in which future plants need to be designed in order to be acceptable for the needs of the utilities and in order to fulfill the basic requirements of competitive power generation costs and licensability in all countries represented in the EUR group. All the new requirements have to be applied by designer and manufacturer. Siemens /SNP act as a designer of a lot of various vessels and tanks, heat exchangers and other items of process

  7. User requirements and conceptual design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carannante, Giuseppe, E-mail: Giuseppe.Carannante@F4E.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Cavinato, Mario [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Gandini, Franco [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Granucci, Gustavo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Henderson, Mark; Purohit, Dharmesh [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Saibene, Gabriella; Sartori, Filippo [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sozzi, Carlo [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma ENEA-CNR-EURATOM, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Electron Cyclotron (EC) plant is a complex system, essential for plasma operation. The system is being designed to supply up to 20 MW of power at 170 GHz; it consists of 24 RF sources (or Gyrotrons) connected by switchable transmission lines to four upper and one equatorial launcher. The complexity of the EC plant requires a Plant Controller, which provides the functional and operational interface with CODAC and the Plasma Control System and coordinates the various Subsystem Control Units, i.e. the local controllers of power supplies, Gyrotrons, transmission lines and launchers. A conceptual design of the Electron Cyclotron Control System (ECCS) was developed, starting from the collection of the user requirements, which have then been organized as a set of operational scenarios exploiting the EC system. The design consists in a thorough functional analysis, including also protection functions, and in the development of a conceptual I&C architecture. The main aim of the work was to identify the physics requirements and to translate them into control system requirements, in order to define the interfaces within the components of the ECCS. The definition of these interfaces is urgent because some of the subsystems are already in an advanced design phase. The present paper describes both the methodology used and the resulting design.

  8. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Kugel; H. Neilson; W. Reiersen; M. Zarnstorff

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M[Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  9. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Neilson, H.; Reiersen, W.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M [Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  10. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System are presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented

  11. The effect of regulatory requirements on the control and instrumentation system designer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The difficulties encountered by the designer of control and protection systems for nuclear plant in attempting to satisfy the large number of imprecise regulations and recommendations which exist are described. The absence of fundamental quantitative safety requirements of international acceptability is deplored and the adoption of a major incident criteria expressed in quantitative terms as the basis for the derivation of target design criteria for protection systems and plant components is suggested. (author)

  12. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  13. Requirements and Design Reference Mission for the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument take s advantage of AFTA s 2.4 -meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes : Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, yot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architecture s. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predict s the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  14. Using naturalistic driving films as a design tool for investigating driver requirements in HMI design for ADAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Sun, Dong; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there are many naturalistic driving projects have been conducted, such as the 100-Car Project (Naturalistic Driving study in United State), EuroFOT(European Large-Scale Field Operational Tests on Vehicle Systems), SeMi- FOT(Sweden Michigan Naturalistic Field Operational Test and etc. However, those valuable naturalistic driving data hasn't been applied into Human-machine Interaction (HMI) design for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), a good HMI design for ADAS requires a deep understanding of drive environment and the interactions between the driving car and other road users in different situations. The results demonstrated the benefits of using naturalistic driving films as a mean for enhancing focus group discussion for better understanding driver's needs and traffic environment constraints. It provided an efficient tool for designers to have inside knowledge about drive and the needs for information presentation; The recommendations for how to apply this method is discussed in the paper.

  15. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on applying Monte Carlo simulation to probabilistic launch vehicle design and requirements verification. The approaches developed in this paper can be applied to other complex design efforts as well. Typically the verification must show that requirement "x" is met for at least "y" % of cases, with, say, 10% consumer risk or 90% confidence. Two particular aspects of making these runs for requirements verification will be explored in this paper. First, there are several types of uncertainties that should be handled in different ways, depending on when they become known (or not). The paper describes how to handle different types of uncertainties and how to develop vehicle models that can be used to examine their characteristics. This includes items that are not known exactly during the design phase but that will be known for each assembled vehicle (can be used to determine the payload capability and overall behavior of that vehicle), other items that become known before or on flight day (can be used for flight day trajectory design and go/no go decision), and items that remain unknown on flight day. Second, this paper explains a method (order statistics) for determining whether certain probabilistic requirements are met or not and enables the user to determine how many Monte Carlo samples are required. Order statistics is not new, but may not be known in general to the GN&C community. The methods also apply to determining the design values of parameters of interest in driving the vehicle design. The paper briefly discusses when it is desirable to fit a distribution to the experimental Monte Carlo results rather than using order statistics.

  16. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  17. New requirements for the WWER fuel and their consideration in designing the fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, I.; Ananyev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In 2001-2002 the base designs of the new generation fuel assemblies for the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors were developed. The ways of their further modernisation were defined. The present report deals with the urgent requirements and how they have been implemented in these designs. The assessment of the efficiency of new designs is carried out on the basis of the existing data of the world market on the cost of: Uranium concentrate; dividing operations; fabrication. It is additionally possible also to take into account the cost of transportation, storage and processing of the irradiated fuel including burial of wastes

  18. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  19. 76 FR 36870 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Design Roll Maneuver Requirement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... issue a finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant to section 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control... Requirement for Electronic Flight Controls AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with an electronic flight control system...

  20. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements final optics assembly subsystem SSDR 1.8.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Final Optic Assembly (FOA). The FOA (WBS 1.8.7) as part of the Target Experimental System (1.8) includes vacuum windows, frequency conversion crystals, focus lens, debris shields and supporting mechanical equipment

  1. A Curriculum Model: Engineering Design Graphics Course Updates Based on Industrial and Academic Institution Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meznarich, R. A.; Shava, R. C.; Lightner, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Engineering design graphics courses taught in colleges or universities should provide and equip students preparing for employment with the basic occupational graphics skill competences required by engineering and technology disciplines. Academic institutions should introduce and include topics that cover the newer and more efficient graphics…

  2. Computing requirements for S.S.C. accelerator design and studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.; Talman, R.; Siemann, R.; Dell, G.F.; Leemann, B.; Leemann, C.; Nauenberg, U.; Peggs, S.; Douglas, D.

    1984-01-01

    We estimate the computational hardware resources that will be required for accelerator physics studies during the design of the Superconducting SuperCollider. It is found that both Class IV and Class VI facilities (1) will be necessary. We describe a user environment for these facilities that is desirable within the context of accelerator studies. An acquisition scenario for these facilities is presented

  3. 21 CFR 111.355 - What are the design requirements for manufacturing operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the design requirements for manufacturing operations? 111.355 Section 111.355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  4. Inertial subsystem functional and design requirements for the orbiter (Phase B extension baseline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, J. H.; Green, J. P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements use the Phase B extension baseline system definition. This means that a GNC computer is specified for all command control functions instead of a central computer communicating with the ISS through a databus. Forced air cooling is used instead of cold plate cooling.

  5. Design for the magnetic field requirements of the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Chargin, A.K.; Denhoy, B.S.; Waugh, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The tandem mirror magnetic geometry is described, followed by an analysis of the magnet set designed to meet the requirements of the TMX experiment. The final magnet line-up is composed of a baseball coil with two C coils for each plug, six solenoidal coils for the central cell, and two RC coils plus one octupole coil for each transition

  6. 40 CFR 80.219 - Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation and downstream requirements for GPA gasoline. 80.219 Section 80.219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sold or dispensed for use in motor vehicles at a retail outlet or wholesale purchaser-consumer facility...

  7. A Review of Safety and Design Requirements of the Artificial Pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw, Helga; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Koops, Robin; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    As clinical studies with artificial pancreas systems for automated blood glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes move to unsupervised real-life settings, product development will be a focus of companies over the coming years. Directions or requirements regarding safety in the design of an

  8. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target diagnostics subsystem SSDR 1.8.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Target Experimental System's Diagnostic, WBS 1.8. 3. This includes the individual diagnostic components, the Target Diagnostic Data Acquisition System (Target DAS), the diagnostic vacuum system, the timing/fiducial system, and the EMI protection system

  9. Design requirements, criteria and methods for seismic qualification of CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Duff, C.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes the requirements and criteria for the seismic design and qualification of systems and equipment in CANDU nuclear power plants. Acceptable methods and techniques for seismic qualification of CANDU nuclear power plants to mitigate the effects or the consequences of earthquakes are also described. (auth)

  10. Design impacts of safeguards and security requirements for a US MOX fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Rinard, P.M.; Thomas, K.E.; Zack, N.R.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The disposition of plutonium that is no longer required for the nation's defense is being structured to mitigate risks associated with the material's availability. In the 1997 Record of Decision, the US Government endorsed a dual-track approach that could employ domestic commercial reactors to effect the disposition of a portion of the plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) reactor fuels. To support this decision, the Office of Materials Disposition requested preparation of a document that would review US requirements for safeguards and security and describe their impact on the design of a MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intended users are potential bidders for the construction and operation of the facility. The document emphasizes the relevant DOE Orders but also considers the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. Where they are significantly different, the authors have highlighted this difference and provided guidance on the impact to the facility design. Finally, the impacts of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards on facility design are discussed. Security and materials control and accountability issues that influence facility design are emphasized in each area of discussion. This paper will discuss the prepared report and the issues associated with facility design for implementing practical, modern safeguards and security systems into a new MOX fuel fabrication facility

  11. ASME section XI - design and access requirements for in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Owner of a nuclear power plant has the regulatory commitment to perform Section XI in-service inspection throughout the service life of a plant. In anticipation of what will be needed to perform adequately the required examinations and tests, sub-article IWA-1500 of Section XI not only requires that sufficient access be provided to accommodate equipment and inspection personnel but also requires that other provisions be considered such as: component surface preparations, material selections, shielding, removal and storage of hardware, handling equipment, and provisions for repairs and replacements. It is, therefore, the owner's and the architect engineer's responsibility to ensure that proper design and access provisions are incorporated to enable the owner to meet his commitments. Since the architect engineer usually has the prime responsibility for the implementation of design criteria, the owner must ensure that these provisions be considered in each phase of design and construction. The benefits of this can result in shorter outages, more meaningful examinations and tests and less radiation exposure of inspection personnel. This paper will address in detail those topics that affect design and access provisions which need to be considered during the design and construction of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  12. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  13. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, C.

    1981-01-01

    Design and layout of the buildings of a nuclear power plant are governed by the safety requirements regarding nearby population as called for by government regulations as well as by operational and maintenance requirements called for by the power utilities in order to assure smooth operation and easy service conditions. The lecture will focus on the different functional circumstances to be considered, their relative importance, criteria to be applied, pertinent regulations etc. and also give examples on the solutions to the above requirements. Main topics to be covered will be those circumstances that impose the highest demands on the civil engineering layout and design: airplane impact, earthquake, loss of coolant accident, pipe whipping, fuel cask transfer, annual overhaul, leak detection etc. (orig./RW)

  14. Ex-vessel core catcher design requirements and preliminary concepts evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, A.J.; Tilbrook, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the overall study of the consequences of a hypothetical failure to scram following loss of pumping power, design requirements and preliminary concepts evaluation of an ex-vessel core catcher (EVCC) were performed. EVCC is the term applied to a class of devices whose primary objective is to provide a stable subcritical and coolable configuration within containment following a postulated accident in which it is assumed that core debris has penetrated the Reactor Vessel and Guard Vessel. Under these assumed conditions a set of functional requirements were developed for an EVCC and several concepts were evaluated. The studies were specifically directed toward the FFTF design considering the restraints imposed by the physical design and construction of the FFTF plant

  15. Testing Requirements to Manage Data Exchange Specifications in Enterprise Integration - A Schema Design Quality Focus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the requirements to test W3C XML Schema usage when defining message schemas for data exchange in any large and evolving enterprise integration project. We then decompose the XML Schema testing into four (4) aspects including the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification grammar, the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification semantics, the message schema conformance to design quality testing, and canonical semantics testing of the message schema. We describe these four testing aspects in some detail and point to other related efforts. We further focus to provide some technical details for the message schema design quality testing. As a future work, we describe the requirements for canonical semantics testing and potential solution approaches. Finally, we describe an implementation architecture for the message schema design quality testing.

  16. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants

  17. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  18. Functional Mobility Testing: A Novel Method to Create Suit Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott A.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to aide in the creation of design requirements for the next generation of space suits that more accurately describe the level of mobility necessary for a suited crewmember through the use of an innovative methodology utilizing functional mobility. A novel method was utilized involving the collection of kinematic data while 20 subjects (10 male, 10 female) performed pertinent functional tasks that will be required of a suited crewmember during various phases of a lunar mission. These tasks were selected based on relevance and criticality from a larger list of tasks that may be carried out by the crew. Kinematic data was processed through Vicon BodyBuilder software to calculate joint angles for the ankle, knee, hip, torso, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. Maximum functional mobility was consistently lower than maximum isolated mobility. This study suggests that conventional methods for establishing design requirements for human-systems interfaces based on maximal isolated joint capabilities may overestimate the required mobility. Additionally, this method provides a valuable means of evaluating systems created from these requirements by comparing the mobility available in a new spacesuit, or the mobility required to use a new piece of hardware, to this newly established database of functional mobility.

  19. A modal H∞-norm-based performance requirement for damage-tolerant active controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genari, Helói F. G.; Mechbal, Nazih; Coffignal, Gérard; Nóbrega, Eurípedes G. O.

    2017-04-01

    Damage-tolerant active control (DTAC) is a recent research area that encompasses control design methodologies resulting from the application of fault-tolerant control methods to vibration control of structures subject to damage. The possibility of damage occurrence is not usually considered in the active vibration control design requirements. Damage changes the structure dynamics, which may produce unexpected modal behavior of the closed-loop system, usually not anticipated by the controller design approaches. A modal H∞ norm and a respective robust controller design framework were recently introduced, and this method is here extended to face a new DTAC strategy implementation. Considering that damage affects each vibration mode differently, this paper adopts the modal H∞ norm to include damage as a design requirement. The basic idea is to create an appropriate energy distribution over the frequency range of interest and respective vibration modes, guaranteeing robustness, damage tolerance, and adequate overall performance, taking into account that it is common to have previous knowledge of the structure regions where damage may occur during its operational life. For this purpose, a structural health monitoring technique is applied to evaluate modal modifications caused by damage. This information is used to create modal weighing matrices, conducting to the modal H∞ controller design. Finite element models are adopted for a case study structure, including different damage severities, in order to validate the proposed control strategy. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology with respect to damage tolerance.

  20. What do information reuse and automated processing require in engineering design? Semantic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Nykänen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize, analyze, and demonstrate machine-understandable semantic process for validating, integrating, and processing technical design information. This establishes both a vision and tools for information reuse and semi-automatic processing in engineering design projects, including virtual machine laboratory applications with generated components.Design/methodology/approach: The process model has been developed iteratively in terms of action research, constrained by the existing technical design practices and assumptions (design documents, expert feedback, available technologies (pre-studies and experiments with scripting and pipeline tools, benchmarking with other process models and methods (notably the RUP and DITA, and formal requirements (computability and the critical information paths for the generated applications. In practice, the work includes both quantitative and qualitative components.Findings: Technical design processes may be greatly enhanced in terms of semantic process thinking, by enriching design information, and automating information validation and transformation tasks. Contemporary design information, however, is mainly intended for human consumption, and needs to be explicitly enriched with the currently missing data and interfaces. In practice, this may require acknowledging the role of technical information or knowledge engineer, to lead the development of the semantic design information process in a design organization. There is also a trade-off between machine-readability and system complexity that needs to be studied further, both empirically and in theory.Research limitations/implications: The conceptualization of the semantic process is essentially an abstraction based on the idea of progressive design. While this effectively allows implementing semantic processes with, e.g., pipeline technologies, the abstraction is valid only when technical design is organized into

  1. The european passive plant (EPP) design: compliance with the european utilities requirements (EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Oyarzabal, M.

    1996-01-01

    Back 1986, most of the European firms have participated to the American program called the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) including the development of the Utilities Requirements as well as four projects as for instance AP600. Later, in the year 1990, seven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years 1980 can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, in 1994, eight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP600 compliance with the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and to develop the required alterations. Today, the phase I of the EPP (European Passive Plant) program has been completed. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached. (O.M.)

  2. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  3. Facing the facts: the suspension of a design requirement applicable to nuclear power reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria; Biaggio, Alfredo; Canoba, Analia; Curti, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    A design requirement aimed at limiting the discharge of globally dispersed long-lived radionuclides released by nuclear power reactors was in force in Argentine since 1979 till recently. The practical results of such regulatory measure was the need to retain C-14 in the PHWR under construction, as well as in furniture heavy water reactors to be built in the country. This paper explains the basis of such requirement, which was formulated as a collective dose constraint per unit of energy generated, and the main assumptions that triggered it. The differences between the assumptions made at the time and the reality of nuclear power generation at the beginning of the 21 st century, as well as their implications in relation to the requirement are described, including the Suess effect and its impact in the total dose due to C-14. Finally, the facts that made no longer reasonable to keep in force the above mentioned requirement are presented. (author)

  4. Reliable Thermoelectric Module Design under Opposing Requirements from Structural and Thermoelectric Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Mo, Changki

    2018-06-01

    Structural reliability of thermoelectric generation (TEG) systems still remains an issue, especially for applications such as large-scale industrial or automobile exhaust heat recovery, in which TEG systems are subject to dynamic loads and thermal cycling. Traditional thermoelectric (TE) system design and optimization techniques, focused on performance alone, could result in designs that may fail during operation as the geometric requirements for optimal performance (especially the power) are often in conflict with the requirements for mechanical reliability. This study focused on reducing the thermomechanical stresses in a TEG system without compromising the optimized system performance. Finite element simulations were carried out to study the effect of TE element (leg) geometry such as leg length and cross-sectional shape under constrained material volume requirements. Results indicated that the element length has a major influence on the element stresses whereas regular cross-sectional shapes have minor influence. The impact of TE element stresses on the mechanical reliability is evaluated using brittle material failure theory based on Weibull analysis. An alternate couple configuration that relies on the industry practice of redundant element design is investigated. Results showed that the alternate configuration considerably reduced the TE element and metallization stresses, thereby enhancing the structural reliability, with little trade-off in the optimized performance. The proposed alternate configuration could serve as a potential design modification for improving the reliability of systems optimized for thermoelectric performance.

  5. 46 CFR 154.460 - Design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Barrier § 154.460 Design criteria. At static angles of heel up through 30°, a secondary barrier must (a) If a complete secondary barrier is required in § 154.459, hold all of the liquid cargo in the cargo...

  6. Requirements on software lifecycle process (RSLP) for KALIMER digital computer-based MMIS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jang Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Digital Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) systems of Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER) may share code, data transmission, data, and process equipment to a greater degree than analog systems. Although this sharing is the basis for many of the advantages of digital systems, it also raises a key concern: a design using shared data or code has the potential to propagate a common-cause or common-mode failure via software errors, thus defeating the redundancy achieved by the hardware architectural structure. Greater sharing of process equipment among functions within a channel increases the consequences of the failure of a single hardware module and reduces the amount of diversity available within a single safety channel. The software safety plan describes the safety analysis implementation tasks that are to be carried out during the software life cycle. Documentation should exist that shows that the safety analysis activities have been successfully accomplished for each life cycle activity group. In particular, the documentation should show that the system safety requirement have been adequately addressed for each life cycle activity group, that no new hazards have been introduced, and that the software requirements, design elements, and code elements that can affect safety have been identified. Because the safety of software can be assured through both the process Verification and Validation (V and V) itself and the V and V of all the intermediate and final products during the software development lifecycle, the development of KALIMER Software Safety Framework (KSSF) must be established. As the first activity for establishing KSSF, we have developed this report, Requirement on Software Life-cycle Process (RSLP) for designing KALIMER digital MMIS. This report is organized as follows. Section I describes the background, definitions, and references of RSLP. Section II describes KALIMER safety software categorization. In Section III, we define the

  7. Defining System Requirements: a critical assessment of the Niam conceptual design procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Darke

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements definition is a fundamental activity within information systems development. Social and organisational issues are at the centre of many of the problems experienced during the development and implementation of information systems, and these need to be explored during requirements definition. The NIAM Conceptual Schema Design Procedure (CSDP is a method for identifying and describing information requirements using fact types. This paper discusses some limitations of the information requirements definition step of the CSDP which result from its lack of focus on the socio-organisational dimension of information systems development. Four different approaches to exploring the socio-organisational contexts of systems are discussed. It is proposed that one of these, viewpoint development, be incorporated into the NIAM CSDP to provide a means of exploring and understanding a system's socio organisational context and to ensure that contextual information is a major input to the requirements definition process. This results in an enhanced design procedure. Future and current research areas are identified.

  8. Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

    1975-01-01

    The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

  9. System requirements and design description for the document basis database interface (DocBasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes system requirements and the design description for the Document Basis Database Interface (DocBasis). The DocBasis application is used to manage procedures used within the tank farms. The application maintains information in a small database to track the document basis for a procedure, as well as the current version/modification level and the basis for the procedure. The basis for each procedure is substantiated by Administrative, Technical, Procedural, and Regulatory requirements. The DocBasis user interface was developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)

  10. A pilot's opinion - VTOL control design requirements for the instrument approach task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents pilot opinion supported by test data concerning flight control and display concepts and control system design requirements for VTOL aircraft in the instrument approach task. Material presented is drawn from research flights in the following aircraft: Dornier DO-31, Short SC-1, LTV XC-142A, and Boeing-Vertol CH-46. The control system concepts and mechanizations employed in the above aircraft are discussed, and the effect of control system augmentation is shown on performance. Operational procedures required in the instrument approach task are described, with comments on need for automation and combining of control functions.

  11. Design Requirements for Unmanned Rotorcraft Used in Low-Risk Concepts of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Neogi, Natasha A.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    This technical report presents the results of the second of two research studies on design and performance requirements supporting airworthiness certification of midrange unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) intended for commercial use. The two studies focused attention on UAS in the middle of the multidimensional spectrum of UAS; that is, UAS with attributes and capabilities exceeding the criteria to operate under Part 107 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs), but without the design or operational capabilities to comply with the airworthiness standards for commercially-operated manned aircraft. The goal of the two studies was to help address the gap in airworthiness standards for some UAS that fall between the extremes.

  12. Design methodology for the physical protection upgrade rule requirements for fixed sites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.J. Jr.; Allen, T.

    1980-06-01

    This Design Methodology document aids the licensee in understanding how the fixed site requirements of the Physical Protection Upgrade Rule affect the design of physical protection systems for fuel processing plants, fuel manufacturing plants, or other fixed site special nuclear material operations involving possession or use of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material. The document consists of three major elements: Logic Trees, Safeguards Jobs and Component Matrices, and Effectiveness Test Questionnaires. The work is based upon a previous study conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  13. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System is presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the Ventilation and Air Cleaning System Design Concepts for Safety Requirements during Fire Conditions in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.; El-Fawal, M.; Kandil, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ventilation and air cleaning system in the nuclear or radiological installations is one of the essential nuclear safety concerns. It is responsible for confining the radioactive materials involved behind suitable barriers during normal and abnormal conditions. It must be designed to prevent the release of harmful products (radioactive gases, or airborne radioactive materials) from the system or facility, impacting the public or workers, and doing environmental damage. There are two important safety functions common to all ventilation and air cleaning system in nuclear facilities. They are: a) the requirements to maintain the pressure of the ventilated volume below that of surrounding, relatively non-active areas, in order to inhibit the spread of contamination during normal and abnormal conditions, and b) the need to treat the ventilated gas so as to minimize the release of any radioactive or toxic materials. Keeping the two important safety functions is achieved by applying the fire protection for the ventilation system to achieve safety and adequate protection in nuclear applications facilities during fire and accidental criticality conditions.The main purpose of this research is to assist ventilation engineers and experts in nuclear installations for safe operation and maintaining ventilation and air cleaning system during fire accident in nuclear facilities. The research focuses on fire prevention and protection of the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. High-Efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are extremely susceptible to damage when exposed to the effects of fire, smoke, and water; it is the intent of this research to provide the designer with the experience gained over the years from hard lessons learned in protecting HEPA filters from fire. It describes briefly and evaluates the design safety features, constituents and working conditions of ventilation and air cleaning system in nuclear and radioactive industry.This paper provides and

  15. Relation of fuel rod service parameters and design requirements to produced fuel rod and their components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the presented material it is possible to state that there is a very close link between the fuel operational parameters and the requirements for its design and production process. The required performance and life-time of a fuel rod can be only assured by the correctly selected design and process solutions. The economical aspect of this problem is significantly depend on the commercial feasibility of a particular selected solution with the provision of an automated and comparative by inexpensive production of a fuel rod and its components. The operational conditions are also important for the life time of the fuel rods. If there are no special measures for the mitigation of the certain operation conditions the leakage of fuel elements can take place before the planned time. (authors)

  16. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements

  17. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements optics assembly building (OAB) SSDR 1.2.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements 'for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document

  18. The role of advanced nuclear power technologies in developing countries: Criteria and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The document includes the papers presented at the following two technical committee meetings organized by the IAEA: Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Criteria for the Introduction of Advanced Nuclear Power Technologies for Specific Applications in Developing Countries, Vienna, 27-30 June 1988 (14 papers) and Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Design Requirements for the Application of Advanced Concepts in Developing Countries, Vienna, 6-9 December 1988 (16 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  19. The Swedish Utilities joint approach to form common basis for design requirements for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Owners of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants have decided to form a document that should state the design principals and requirement for cost-effective and continuous development of the reactor safety in the future. The development of this document will be a part of the modernization and development of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The basis for this document is an evaluation of Swedish and International standards and regulations as IAEA/INSAG, US-regulations, EUR etc. (author)

  20. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 1: Requirements definition and conceptual design study, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Space Station Freedom Furnace (SSFF) Study was awarded on June 2, 1989, to Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) to define an advanced facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF will be designed for research in the solidification of metals and alloys, the crystal growth of electronic and electro-optical materials, and research in glasses and ceramics. The SSFF is one of the first 'facility' class payloads planned by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications of NASA Headquarters. This facility is planned for early deployment during man-tended operations of the SSF with continuing operations through the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC). The SSFF will be built around a general 'Core' facility which provides common support functions not provided by SSF, common subsystems which are best centralized, and common subsystems which are best distributed with each experiment module. The intent of the facility approach is to reduce the overall cost associated with implementing and operating a variety of experiments. This is achieved by reducing the launch mass and simplifying the hardware development and qualification processes associated with each experiment. The Core will remain on orbit and will require only periodic maintenance and upgrading while new Furnace Modules, samples, and consumables are developed, qualified, and transported to the SSF. The SSFF Study was divided into two phases: phase 1, a definition study phase, and phase 2, a design and development phase. The definition phase 1 is addressed. Phase 1 was divided into two parts. In the first part, the basic part of the effort, covered the preliminary definition and assessment of requirements; conceptual design of the SSFF; fabrication of mockups; and the preparation for and support of the Conceptual Design Review (CoDR). The second part, the option part, covered requirements update and

  1. Study design requirements for RNA sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mer, Arvind Singh; Klevebring, Daniel; Grönberg, Henrik; Rantalainen, Mattias

    2016-02-01

    Sequencing-based molecular characterization of tumors provides information required for individualized cancer treatment. There are well-defined molecular subtypes of breast cancer that provide improved prognostication compared to routine biomarkers. However, molecular subtyping is not yet implemented in routine breast cancer care. Clinical translation is dependent on subtype prediction models providing high sensitivity and specificity. In this study we evaluate sample size and RNA-sequencing read requirements for breast cancer subtyping to facilitate rational design of translational studies. We applied subsampling to ascertain the effect of training sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads on classification accuracy of molecular subtype and routine biomarker prediction models (unsupervised and supervised). Subtype classification accuracy improved with increasing sample size up to N = 750 (accuracy = 0.93), although with a modest improvement beyond N = 350 (accuracy = 0.92). Prediction of routine biomarkers achieved accuracy of 0.94 (ER) and 0.92 (Her2) at N = 200. Subtype classification improved with RNA-sequencing library size up to 5 million reads. Development of molecular subtyping models for cancer diagnostics requires well-designed studies. Sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads directly influence accuracy of molecular subtyping. Results in this study provide key information for rational design of translational studies aiming to bring sequencing-based diagnostics to the clinic.

  2. Gathering Requirements for Teacher Tools: Strategies for Empowering Teachers Through Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuk, Camillia; Gerard, Libby; Lim-Breitbart, Jonathan; Linn, Marcia

    2016-02-01

    Technology can enhance teachers' practice in multiple ways. It can help them better understand patterns in their students' thinking, manage class progress at individual and group levels, and obtain evidence to inform modifications to curriculum and instruction. Such technology is most effective when it is aligned with teachers' goals and expectations. Participatory methods, which involve teachers closely in the design process, are widely recommended for establishing accurate design requirements that address users' needs. By collaborating with researchers, teachers can contribute their professional expertise to shape the tools of their practice, and ultimately ensure their sustained use. However, there is little guidance available for maintaining effective teacher-researcher design partnerships. We describe four strategies for engaging teachers in designing tools intended to support and enhance their practice within a web-based science learning environment: discussing physical artifacts, reacting to scenarios, customizing prototypes, and writing user stories. Using design artifacts and documents of teachers' reflections, we illustrate how we applied these techniques over 5 years of annual professional development workshops, and examine their affordances for eliciting teachers' ideas. We reflect on how these approaches have helped inform technology refinements and innovations. We moreover discuss the further benefits these strategies have had in encouraging teachers to reflect on their own practice and on the roles of technology in supporting it; and in allowing researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between technology, teaching, and design.

  3. Safety requirements in the design of research reactors: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Langman, V.J.

    2000-01-01

    In Canada, the formal development of safety requirements for the design of research reactors in general began under an inter-organizational Small Reactor Criteria Committee. This committee developed safety and licensing criteria for use by several small reactor projects in their licensing discussions with the Atomic Energy Control Board. The small reactor projects or facilities represented included the MAPLE-X10 reactor, the proposed SES-10 heating reactor and its prototype, the SDR reactor at the Whiteshell Laboratories, the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (a.k.a., HANARO) in Korea, the SCORE project, and the McMaster University Nuclear Reactor. The top level set of criteria which form a safety philosophy and serve as a framework for more detailed developments was presented at an IAEA Conference in 1989. AECL continued this work to develop safety principles and design criteria for new small reactors. The first major application of this work has been to the design, safety analysis and licensing of the MAPLE 1 and 2 reactors for the MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor Project. This paper provides an overview of the safety principles and design criteria. Examples of an implementation of these safety principles and design criteria are drawn from the work to design the MAPLE 1 and 2 reactors. (author)

  4. The comparison between layout and design of APR1400 MCR and EPRI requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis; Sigit Santoso; T J Suryono

    2013-01-01

    A good man-machine interface system is needed by a nuclear power reactor because of its complexity and high safety factor. The man-machine interface system is centralized in the main control room (MCR). All of monitoring and controlling activity to keep the installation operation safety can be done from this place. In order to increase its ability in monitoring and controlling a hard effort to raise the interface system to the highest possible level is done not only by using the latest computer technology and instrumentation system but also using Human Engineering, as well. The paper aims to compare the lay out and design the APR1400 MCR and the requirement from EPRI about main control room lay out and design as response of TMI-2 accident. We can see from the discussion that the design of the MCR of APR1400 have been applied the request of EPRI. (author)

  5. Design of the breeder units in the new HCPB modular blanket concept and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Fischer, U.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.; Xu, Z.; Koehly, C.

    2004-01-01

    A major revision of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept took place in 2002-2003 as consequence of the results of the EU Power Plant Conceptual Study. In particular, it was decided to give up the previous maintenance schema based on segments in favour of a large module concept extrapolated from ITER. The adaptation of the HCPB concept to these modules (typical dimension at the FW of 2.0 x 2.0 m) required a complete revision of the box. The coolant flow scheme is based on a radial He flow (at 8 MPa) in order to have the entire manifold system in the rear part of the box. Furthermore, the requirement of a box capable of withstanding the coolant pressure of 8 MPa in case of an in-box LOCA led to a design of modules with an internal stiffening grid in toroidal and poloidal direction This grid results in cells open in the rear radial direction with toroidal-poloidal dimensions of about 20 cm x 20 cm that accommodate the breeder units. These units contain the ceramic breeder (CB) and the Beryllium in form of pebble beds and have to assure the main functions of the blanket, namely, a tritium breeding ratio significantly above one, heat removal with a temperature control in the beds and in the structure, mechanical stability of the beds and extraction of the produced tritium. Due to the relatively high quantity of steel necessary to assure the mechanical stability of the box, a strong requirement for the design of these units is to minimise the amount of steel to improve the neutronic performance. A satisfactory design has been achieved with a radial-toroidal bed configuration similar to the old DEMO design reaching the Tritium self-sufficiency with a radial depth of 47 cm, using monosized Beryllium and CB beds and, using Li 4 SiO 4 , a 6 Li enrichment of about 40%. This design allows a satisfactory control of the maximum acceptable temperatures in the CB and Be beds and the steel structure. The design of the breeder units has not been yet analysed thermo-mechanically in detail

  6. Cross-sector surveys assessing perceptions of key stakeholders towards barriers, concerns and facilitators to the appropriate use of adaptive designs in confirmatory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Julious, Steven A; Todd, Susan; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Boote, Jonathan

    2015-12-23

    Appropriately conducted adaptive designs (ADs) offer many potential advantages over conventional trials. They make better use of accruing data, potentially saving time, trial participants, and limited resources compared to conventional, fixed sample size designs. However, one can argue that ADs are not implemented as often as they should be, particularly in publicly funded confirmatory trials. This study explored barriers, concerns, and potential facilitators to the appropriate use of ADs in confirmatory trials among key stakeholders. We conducted three cross-sectional, online parallel surveys between November 2014 and January 2015. The surveys were based upon findings drawn from in-depth interviews of key research stakeholders, predominantly in the UK, and targeted Clinical Trials Units (CTUs), public funders, and private sector organisations. Response rates were as follows: 30(55 %) UK CTUs, 17(68 %) private sector, and 86(41 %) public funders. A Rating Scale Model was used to rank barriers and concerns in order of perceived importance for prioritisation. Top-ranked barriers included the lack of bridge funding accessible to UK CTUs to support the design of ADs, limited practical implementation knowledge, preference for traditional mainstream designs, difficulties in marketing ADs to key stakeholders, time constraints to support ADs relative to competing priorities, lack of applied training, and insufficient access to case studies of undertaken ADs to facilitate practical learning and successful implementation. Associated practical complexities and inadequate data management infrastructure to support ADs were reported as more pronounced in the private sector. For funders of public research, the inadequate description of the rationale, scope, and decision-making criteria to guide the planned AD in grant proposals by researchers were all viewed as major obstacles. There are still persistent and important perceptions of individual and organisational obstacles

  7. Report to Congress: Coastal Barrier Resources System with recommendations as required by Section 10 of Public Law 97-348, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. shoreline bordering the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico contains one of the longest and best defined chains of coastal barriers in the world. In recognition of the fact, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) (16 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) was enacted in October 1982. The Act established the Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) consisting of 186 coastal barrier units along 670 mi of shoreline on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. The philosophy behind the CBRA is that the risk associated with new development in these areas should be borne by those who choose to live and work along the coast, and not by all American taxpayers. By restricting Federal expenditures and financial assistance on specific undeveloped coastal barriers, the Federal Government can minimize the loss of human life, reduce the wasteful expenditure of Federal revenues, and reduce the damage to fish and wildlife and other natural resources that can accompany development of these fragile areas. Section 10 of the CBRA directs the Department of the Interior to study the CBRS and prepare for Congress a report which includes recommendations for changes in the CBRS based on an evaluation of management alternatives that would foster conservation of the natural resources of the CBRS

  8. European DEMO divertor target: Operational requirements and material-design interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. You

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an integrated program of conceptual design activities for the European DEMO reactor was launched in the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium, where reliable power handling capability was identified as one of the most critical scientific as well as technological challenges for a DEMO reactor. The divertor is the key in-vessel plasma-facing component being in charge of power exhaust and removal of impurity particles. The DEMO divertor target will have to withstand extreme thermal loads where the local peak heat flux is expected to reach up to 20 MW/m2 during slow transient events in DEMO. To assure sufficient heat removal capability of the divertor target against normal and transient operational scenarios under expected cumulative neutron dose of up to 13 dpa is one of the fundamental engineering challenges imposed on target design. To develop the design of the DEMO divertor and related technologies, an R&D work package ‘Divertor’ has been set up in this consortium. The subproject ‘Target Development’ is devoted to the development of the conceptual design and the core technologies of the plasma-facing target. Devising and implementing novel structural heat sink materials (e.g. W/Cu composites to advanced target design concepts is one of the major objectives of this subproject. In this paper, the underlying design requirements imposed by the envisaged power exhaust goal and the prominent material-design interface issues are discussed. In addition, the candidate design concepts being currently considered are presented together with the related material issues. Finally, the first results achieved so far are presented.

  9. Tailoring barrier properties of thermoplastic corn starch-based films (TPCS) by means of a multilayer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo; Cabedo, Luis; Lagaron, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    This work compares the effect of adding different biopolyester electrospun coatings made of polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on oxygen and water vapour barrier properties of a thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) film. The morphology of the developed multilayer structures was also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a positive linear relationship between the amount of the electrospun coatings deposited onto both sides of the TPCS film and the thickness of the coating. Interestingly, the addition of electrospun biopolyester coatings led to an exponential oxygen and water vapour permeability drop as the amount of the electrospun coating increased. This study demonstrated the versatility of the technology here proposed to tailor the barrier properties of food packaging materials according to the final intended use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent results from TMX-U thermal barrier experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.; Allen, S.; Barter, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) device was designed to study plasma confinement in a tandem mirror with thermal barriers. Previously the author reported improved axial confinement with high end-plug potentials, consistent with thermal barrier operation. Now, the existence of thermal barriers in TMX-U confirmed by measuring the axial potential profile. Specifically, measured the change in energy of a 5-keV deuterium neutral beam that is injected nearly parallel to the axis and is ionized between the barrier and the central cell. The authors found that the barrier potential is lower than the central cell potential, as required for a thermal barrier. The peak potential is at least 2.4 keV, as determined from the minimum energy of end loss ions. In addition, radial transport is reduced by the use of floating and electrodes that map to concentric cylinders in the central cell. Sloshing ions continue to be microstable

  11. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  12. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  13. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements NIF site improvements SSDR 1.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirements (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements associated with the NIF Project Site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Livermore, California. It identifies generic design conditions for all NIF Project facilities, including siting requirements associated with natural phenomena, and contains specific requirements for furnishing site-related infrastructure utilities and services to the NIF Project conventional facilities and experimental hardware systems. Three candidate sites were identified as potential locations for the NIF Project. However, LLNL has been identified by DOE as the preferred site because of closely related laser experimentation underway at LLNL, the ability to use existing interrelated infrastructure, and other reasons. Selection of a site other than LLNL will entail the acquisition of site improvements and infrastructure additional to those described in this document. This SSDR addresses only the improvements associated with the NIF Project site located at LLNL, including new work and relocation or demolition of existing facilities that interfere with the construction of new facilities. If the Record of Decision for the PEIS on Stockpile Stewardship and Management were to select another site, this SSDR would be revised to reflect the characteristics of the selected site. Other facilities and infrastructure needed to support operation of the NIF, such as those listed below, are existing and available at the LLNL site, and are not included in this SSDR. Office Building. Target Receiving and Inspection. General Assembly Building. Electro- Mechanical Shop. Warehousing and General Storage. Shipping and Receiving. General Stores. Medical Facilities. Cafeteria services. Service Station and Garage. Fire Station. Security and Badging Services

  14. Special requirements for the fluid mechanical design of hard coal-fired SCR retrofit units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The system design of high-dust SCR units for retrofits is a challenge that is to be mastered in order to meet the fluid mechanical requirements. Retrofitting power plants with NOx control technologies is a cost-intensive adventure that many utilities are undertaking. Except for a few recent new boiler installations, SCR installations must be considered as retrofit projects. In most cases the limitation of space on site entails unfavorable conditions that do not allow appropriate upstream conditions for SCR catalysts. To comply with the requirements of high performance DeNOx systems and to lower the investment costs for retrofit units, several technical solutions and concepts for the reactor layout, for NOx and dust distribution, for flow stabilization in diffusers, and advanced ammonia injection systems are explained in this paper. Balcke-Duerr offers customer-tailored solutions for flow optimization, which are evaluated by model studies. Physical flow and dust model tests in an appropriate scale provide flexibility to test various engineering concepts. The experience of Balcke-Duerr is based on continuous research and development activities over the last 25 years and more than 350 executed projects for gas flow optimization applications. The success of these installations is a direct result of the key decisions based on the improved fluid mechanical design and proper system integration. This paper also identifies the sensible design particularities and solutions that have two be considered in the fluid mechanical design of high-dust SCR retrofit units. This article demonstrates that the layout of SCR units must be carefully reviewed in order to meet the performance requirements and to avoid problems, i.e. wear, catalyst plugging and ammonia slip. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  15. Thermal and mechanical analyses of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister and its barriers according to the design variable change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young Joo

    2006-03-01

    This work constitutes a summary of research and development made for design and dimensioning of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term (usually 10,000 years) safe repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal should be secured. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. Many various analyses should be performed to secure the structural safety of the canister. For past years, these analyses have been performed to develop the canister model (so-called DKC-1 model). The diameter of the designed KDC-1 canister model is D=102m. However, there still remain some structural evaluations to make sure the structural safety of the designed KDC-1 canister mode. The one is the structural safety evaluation of the canister for the falling accident in the repository while handling the canister. There may happen two typical falling accidents in the repository. The one is the falling accident of the canister in the borehole while depositing the canister into the borehole. In these falling accidents the collision impact force between the canister and the surface of the ground or the bottom of the borehole may cause the structural damage onto the canister. However, the canister should be designed to withstand this impact force. Hence, the structural analysis of the canister for this impact force is required to guarantee the structural safety of the canister for this falling accident. Therefore in this report, the structural analyses of the KDC-1 canister model of the diameter of 102cm for two types of falling accidents are carried out for the impact forces while the canister collides onto the surface of the ground or the bottom of the borehole. The nonlinear structural analyses are performed for the canister to get the accurate analysis results assuming the materials composing canister parts as elasto

  16. Data Collection for Mental Health Studies Through Digital Platforms: Requirements and Design of a Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Triana Hoyos, Ana Maria; Alakörkkö, Tuomas; Kaski, Kimmo; Saramäki, Jari; Isometsä, Erkki; Darst, Richard K

    2017-06-09

    described why each of these features are important for digital data collection for psychiatry, gave examples of projects where Niima was used or is going to be used in the future, and demonstrated how incorporating these design principles opens new possibilities for studies. The new methods of digital psychiatry are still immature and need further research. The design features we suggested are a first step to design platforms which can adapt to the upcoming requirements of digital psychiatry. ©Talayeh Aledavood, Ana Maria Triana Hoyos, Tuomas Alakörkkö, Kimmo Kaski, Jari Saramäki, Erkki Isometsä, Richard K Darst. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 09.06.2017.

  17. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  18. The 18 basic requirement of quality assurance for American design NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliza, Ana Rosa

    2013-01-01

    On April 17th, 1969, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published in the U.S. Federal Register (FR), Volume 34, Number 73, a proposed amendment to 10CFR50 to insert Appendix B - 'Quality assurance criteria for Nuclear Power Plant'. This Appendix was officially approved on June 27th, 1970 and published in the FR, volume 35, number 125. Appendix B is the Quality Assurance document for U.S. nuclear facilities. This document establishes eighteen basic requirements (BR) to design, construction, manufacture and operation of structures, systems and components (SSC) related to safety. The 18 BR describe 'what' shall be done, but not 'how' to do. In order to standardize the actions of nuclear facilities during 10 CFR 50 App B implementation, the industry has developed some documents, the main ones are: ASME NQA-1 (Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications) and the series ANSI N 45.2 (Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities). Both documents are approved by the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The NRC is the licensing body of U.S. nuclear facilities. In Brazil, the licensing body is CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear). This paper describes the 18 BR for American Designed Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), applicable to Angra-1 NPP. (author)

  19. Improving mine-mill water network design by reducing water and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunson, A.J.; Klein, B.; Veiga, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining is an energy-intensive industry, and most processing mills use wet processes to separate minerals from ore. This paper discussed water reduction, reuse and recycling options for a mining and mill operation network. A mine water network design was then proposed in order to identify and reduce water and system energy requirements. This included (1) a description of site water balance, (2) a description of potential water sources, (3) a description of water consumers, (4) the construction of energy requirement matrices, and (5) the use of linear programming to reduce energy requirements. The design was used to determine a site water balance as well as to specify major water consumers during mining and mill processes. Potential water supply combinations, water metering technologies, and recycling options were evaluated in order to identify the most efficient energy and water use combinations. The method was used to highlight potential energy savings from the integration of heating and cooling systems with plant water systems. 43 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  1. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D

    1976-04-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria.

  2. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria. (Auth.)

  3. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic environment. The operational requirements can be met with cognitive vehicle design features made possible by advances in artificial intelligence-supported methodology, improved understanding of human factors, and advances in communication technology. This paper describes cognitive features and their information system requirements. The architecture of an information system is presented that supports the features of the cognitive connected vehicle. For better focus, information processing capabilities are specified and the role of Bayesian artificial intelligence is defined for data fusion. Example applications illustrate the role of information systems in integrating intelligent technology, Bayesian artificial intelligence, and abstracted human factors. Concluding remarks highlight the role of the information system and Bayesian artificial intelligence in the design of a new generation of cognitive connected vehicle.

  4. A Review of Safety and Design Requirements of the Artificial Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Helga; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Koops, Robin; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-11-01

    As clinical studies with artificial pancreas systems for automated blood glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes move to unsupervised real-life settings, product development will be a focus of companies over the coming years. Directions or requirements regarding safety in the design of an artificial pancreas are, however, lacking. This review aims to provide an overview and discussion of safety and design requirements of the artificial pancreas. We performed a structured literature search based on three search components-type 1 diabetes, artificial pancreas, and safety or design-and extended the discussion with our own experiences in developing artificial pancreas systems. The main hazards of the artificial pancreas are over- and under-dosing of insulin and, in case of a bi-hormonal system, of glucagon or other hormones. For each component of an artificial pancreas and for the complete system we identified safety issues related to these hazards and proposed control measures. Prerequisites that enable the control algorithms to provide safe closed-loop control are accurate and reliable input of glucose values, assured hormone delivery and an efficient user interface. In addition, the system configuration has important implications for safety, as close cooperation and data exchange between the different components is essential.

  5. Designing for Underserved Populations: Constraints and Requirements of Personal Health Record Systems

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Thomas Horan discusses how language, literacy, and access barriers can be overcome with electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) systems to improve health among the most vulnerable, isolated, and underserved populations.

  6. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  8. Pre-conceptual design requirements and system description for FED frame seal welder and cutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; Watts, K.D.; Williams, S.A.

    1981-03-01

    The Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is being designed in a torus shape using ten removable segments to form the torus geometry. The torus consists of a frame and ten shield assemblies which fit into the frame and are held in place structurally using electrically insulated backing plates. It is then necessary to seal the shield segment to the frame for the assembly to sustain an internal vacuum of 10 -7 torr. This task is intended to be accomplished by welding a frame seal between the frame and the shield segment. An example of this concept is shown. This document covers the equipment requirements and pre-conceptual design description for installing and removing the frame seal

  9. MHD/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annen, K.D.; Eustis, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems require a small amount of cooling water. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine systems have very good thermal and economic performances. The base case I MHD/gas turbine system (782 MW /SUB e/ ) requires no cooling water, has a heat rate which is 13% higher, and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher than a comparable MHD/steam system (878 MW /SUB e/ ) having a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW. The case I vapor cycle bottomed systems have thermal and economic performances which approach and even exceed those of the MHD/steam system, while having substantially lower cooling water requirements. Performances of a second-generation MHD/gas turbine system and an oxygen-enriched, early commercial system are also evaluated. An analysis of nitric oxide emissions shows compliance with emission standards

  10. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wernly, K.D. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp., Bensalem, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

  11. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V.; Wernly, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238 Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238 Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented

  12. Requirements, design and specifications of a multipurpose 7 Tesla NMR-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlkopf, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements as well as the design and the specifications of a multi-purpose high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with superconducting magnet are described. The spectrometer operates at a magnetic fluxdensity of 7 Tesla and has 5 transmitter channels with 4 different frequencies, which can have values between 20 and 300 MHz. With this spectrometer almost all the current high resolution magnetic resonance techniques can be performed under computer control. It can also operate in the non-computer controlled slow passage mode. (Auth.)

  13. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition); Bezopasnost' atomnykh ehlektrostantsij: proektirovanie. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  14. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  15. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented

  16. 21 CFR 111.60 - What are the design requirements for the production and process control system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to Establish a Production and Process Control System § 111.60 What are the design requirements for... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the design requirements for the production and process control system? 111.60 Section 111.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  17. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements

  18. Considerations on the Application of the IAEA Safety Requirements for the Design of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    Revised to take into consideration findings from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, has introduced some new concepts with respect to the earlier safety standard published in the year 2000. The preparation of SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1) was carried out with constant and intense involvement of IAEA Member States, but some new requirements, because of the novelty of the concepts introduced and the complexity of the issues, are not always interpreted in a unique way. The IAEA is confident that a complete clarification and a full understanding of the new requirements will be available when the supporting safety guides for design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants are prepared. The IAEA expects that the effort devoted to the preparation of this publication, which received input and comments from several Member States and experts, will also facilitate and harmonize the preparation or revision of these supporting standards

  19. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements.

  20. Barriers to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C T

    1986-09-01

    Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).

  1. Licensing requirements for initial commissioning programs in Spain: Application to different PWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munuera, A.; Conde, J.M.; Martinez, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the overall licensing process in Spain, focusing on the initial commissioning requirements. The significance of this part of the regulatory work is evident both from the licensing and the licensee's points of view. Licensing in Spain is ruled by different laws which determine the general requirements and fix the licensing frame. Being a nuclear technology importer country, the base of the regulatory work lies on the rules and regulations of the country of origin of the planet, with the addition of case specific requirements. The application of this methodology to plants designed in different countries produces licensing processes which are similar to the overall, but very different in its development. It also means a special technical effort on the part of the regulatory body to cope with the problems arising from the use of different technologies and safety standards. The start-up programs from fuel loading to full power of a Westinghouse plant (Vandellos 2) and a Siemens-KWU plant (Trillo 1) are compared from the technical point of view, enhancing the differences that can be relevant for the regulatory work. The difficulties arising from the application of both the German and US concepts are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Design for an x-ray nanoprobe prototype, with a sub-10-nm positioning requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Maser, J.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline with 30 nm resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Imaging and spectroscopy at this resolution level require staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 10 nm. We have developed a prototype instrument with a novel interferometrically controlled scanning stage system. The system consists of nine DC-motor-driven stages, four picomotor-driven stages, and two PZT-driven stages. An APS-designed custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurement with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. Also included is the alignment and stable positioning of two stacked zone plates for increasing the focusing efficiency. The entire scanning system was designed with high stiffness, high repeatability, low drift, flexible scanning schemes, and possibility of fast feedback for differential motion. Designs of the scanning stage system, as well as preliminary mechanical test results, are presented in this paper.

  3. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no open-quotes provenclose quotes long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems

  4. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  5. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-11-01

    The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  7. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  8. Status for seismic design requirements of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental purpose for the aseismic design of the nuclear power plants is to protect the inhabitants near the plant from radiation accidents during and after earthquake vibrations. In order to achieve the above purpose, the following considerations have been made. All buidlings, structures, system and components are classified into three Classes A, B and C according to their degree of importance for plant safety, and are designed to meet the requirements specified for each class, respectively. Magnitude and epicenter of the design basis earthquake are determined based upon seismological and geological investigations and observation of ground motion in the site, and the maximum ground acceleration which could be expected can be calculated empirically. With respect to time history waves, more than three are selected referring to dynamic characteristic of base rock in the site, observed ground motion records in the site or other strong motion seismographs.The figures of horizontal seismic coefficients to be used in determining design forces on Class A buildings and structures are 3 Co (where Co. is as defined in the Japan Building Standard Law). On the other hand the horizontal design force should not be less than those determined as the results of the dynamic analyses based on DEGM (Design Earthquake Ground Motion). The figures of horizontal seismic coefficient and forces for Class A system and components are usually determined based on the dynamic analyses for DEGM. The buildings and structures treated as an elastic column system with masses, and the bottom mass is supported by elastic springs representing the soil-foundation interaction characteristics. DEGM is used as the input disturbance in the dynamic response analysis, and the model analysis or time history method is worked out. System and components are modeled as elastic bars with lumped masses of 3 dimensional degree of freedom, and the response analysis is carried out using floor respone spectra

  9. Design of Protein Multi-specificity Using an Independent Sequence Search Reduces the Barrier to Low Energy Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Sevy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational protein design has found great success in engineering proteins for thermodynamic stability, binding specificity, or enzymatic activity in a 'single state' design (SSD paradigm. Multi-specificity design (MSD, on the other hand, involves considering the stability of multiple protein states simultaneously. We have developed a novel MSD algorithm, which we refer to as REstrained CONvergence in multi-specificity design (RECON. The algorithm allows each state to adopt its own sequence throughout the design process rather than enforcing a single sequence on all states. Convergence to a single sequence is encouraged through an incrementally increasing convergence restraint for corresponding positions. Compared to MSD algorithms that enforce (constrain an identical sequence on all states the energy landscape is simplified, which accelerates the search drastically. As a result, RECON can readily be used in simulations with a flexible protein backbone. We have benchmarked RECON on two design tasks. First, we designed antibodies derived from a common germline gene against their diverse targets to assess recovery of the germline, polyspecific sequence. Second, we design "promiscuous", polyspecific proteins against all binding partners and measure recovery of the native sequence. We show that RECON is able to efficiently recover native-like, biologically relevant sequences in this diverse set of protein complexes.

  10. Design Smart Games with requirements, generate them with a Click, and revise them with a GUIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza COFINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available TERENCE is an FP7 ICT European project that is developing an adaptive learning system for supporting poor comprehenders and their educators. Its learning material are books of stories and games. The games are specialised into smart games, which stimulate inference-making for story comprehension, and relaxing games, which stimulate visual perception and not story comprehension. The paper focuses on smart games. It first describes the TERENCE system architecture, thus delves into the design of smart games starting from the requirements and their automated generation, by highlighting the role of the reasoning module therein. Finally, it outlines the manual revision of the generated smart games, and ends with short conclusions about the planned improvements on the automated generation process.

  11. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF MEASUREMENT ITEMS OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR LEAN AND AGILE SUPPLY CHAIN-CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Venkata Ramana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of strategic design requirements. The design requirements includes use of information technology, sourcing procedures, new product development, flexible manufacturing functions and demand management supply chain net work design, management, commitment and inventory management policies among manufacturers of volatile and unforeseeable products in Andhraadesh, India. This study suggested that the seven factor model with 20 items of the leagile supply chain design requirements had a good fit. Further, the study showed a val id and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the design requirements of leagile supply chains.

  13. Treatment of barrier evolution: the SKB perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper serves as a point of departure for the discussions to be held within the Working Group of Technical Topic entitled 'Barriers and System Performances within a safety case: Their functioning and Evolution with Time'. The paper gives the SKB perspective of the issues to be discussed within the Working Group for this Topic. The following issues to be discussed by the Working Group are: What is the role of each barrier as a function of time or in the different time frames? What is its contribution to the overall system performance or safety as a function of time? Which are the main uncertainties on the performance of barriers in the timescales? To what extent should we enhance the robustness of barriers because of the uncertainties of some component behaviour with time? What is the requested or required performance versus the expected or realistic or conservative behaviour with time? How are these safety margins used as arguments in a safety case? What is the issue associated with the geosphere stability for different geological systems? How is barriers and system performances as a function of time evaluated (and presented and communicated) in a safety case? What kind of measures are used for siting, designing and optimising robust barriers corresponding to situations that can vary with time? Are human actions considered to be relevant? (authors)

  14. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  15. The role of requirements management in the design of built environments: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the known difficulties on managing the design process of built environments, researchers and entrepreneurs have continuously developed and implemented best practices from areas such as Project Management (PM. However, there are still gaps to be filled, such as difficulties on monitoring the stakeholder’s requirements and their dynamics. In attempt to eliminate this gap, this paper aims to analyze if requirements management (RM can be integrated to PM and which are the main advantages and disadvantages of this integration. The research includes a literature review which presents PM and RM concepts, the last one based on software engineering approach. Moreover, a case study was performed in a construction company, using semi-structured interviews. The research showed that the use of RM is advantageous, even not solving all the projects difficulties, and that the proper structuring of the projects is a condition for the success of RM implementation. The main contribution is a generic and systematic proposal for integrating the stages of the RM to the projects.

  16. TWT design requirements for 30/20 GHz digital communications' satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, N.; Anzic, G.

    1979-01-01

    The rapid growth of communication traffic (voice, data, and video) requires the development of additional frequency bands before the 1990's. The frequencies currently in use for satellite communications at 6/4 GHz are crowded and demands for 14/12 GHz systems are increasing. Projections are that these bands will be filled to capacity by the late 1980's. The next higher frequency band allocated for satellite communications is at 30/20 GHz. For interrelated reasons of efficiency, power level, and system reliability criteria, a candidate for the downlink amplifier in a 30/20 GHz communications' satellite is a dual mode traveling wave tube (TWT) equipped with a highly efficient depressed collector. A summary is given of the analyses which determine the TWT design requirements. The overall efficiency of such a tube is then inferred from a parametric study and from experimental data on multistaged depressed collectors. The expected TWT efficiency at 4 dB below output saturation is 24 percent in the high mode and 22 percent in the low mode.

  17. Physics design requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment liquid lithium divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.; Bell, M.; Berzak, L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Menard, J.; Stotler, D.; Zakharov, L.E.; Maingi, Rajesh; Nygren, R.E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wakeland, P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) high-power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on plasma facing components (PFCs) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15 25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW 1), to enable ne scan capability (2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), for future reactor designs based on the Spherical Tokamak, and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with long pulse discharges (>1.5 s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  18. Establishment of design and performance requirements using cost and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Defreece, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The current uncertainty in design approach and performance requirements for a commercial fusion power plant poses a problem for the designer in configuring the plant and for the utilities in analyzing the attractiveness of a future fusion power plant. To provide direction and insight in this area, a systems analysis model was constructed at McDonnell Douglas, utilizing fusion subsystem algorithms with subsystem cost estimating relationships into a self-consistent computerized model for several fusion reactor concepts. Cost estimating data has been compiled by utilizing McDonnell Douglas' experience in fabricating large, complex metal assemblies and soliciting the accumulated store of knowledge in existing power plants and new emerging technologies such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Using the computer model, sensitivities to plasma, reactor and plant parameters are a few of the options that have been evaluated to yield recommended concepts/techniques/solutions. This is a very beneficial tool in assessing the impact of the fusion reactor on the electrical power community and charting the optimum developmental approach

  19. Requirements and design of a high stable infrared free electron laser at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Berz, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Gough, R.; Kim, C.; Kung, A.H.; Xie, M.; Edighoffer, J.; Stein, W.

    1990-06-01

    An infrared free electron laser (IRFEL) is being designed for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The FEL is based on a 50 MeV RF linac operating in synchronization to the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and will produce intense (100 μJ per micropulse), narrow bandwidth (narrower than 0.1%) radiation between 3 μ and 50 μ. In the design, we pay particular attention to the FEL stability issues and require that the fluctuations in electron beam energy and in timing be less than 0.05% and 0.1 ps, respectively. The FEL spectrum can then be stabilized to about 10 -3 , or if grating is used, to 10 -4 . We discuss various sources of fluctuations in the gun, the bunchers and the accelerator sections, as well as the feedback and feedforward schemes to reduce these fluctuations. The accelerator structure is chosen to be of the side coupled, standing wave type for easier control. The beam transport is made isochronous to avoid the coupling between the energy and the timing fluctuations. 9 refs., 2 figs

  20. Design basis and requirements for 241-SY modular exhauster mechanical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A new ventilation system is being installed to serve as the K-1 primary exhauster. The existing K-1 primary exhauster will then become the backup. This ventilation system services waste tanks 241-SY-101, 102 and 103. The nominal flow rate through the ventilation system is 1,000 cfm. The new ventilation system will contain a moisture eliminator, a heater, a prefilter, two stages of HEPA filtration, an exhaust fan, a stack and stack sampling system. The purpose of this document is to serve as the design and functional requirements for the mechanical installation of the new 241-SY modular exhauster. The mechanical installation will include modifying the existing ductwork (i.e., installing a ''T'' to connect the new exhauster to the existing system), modifying the existing condensate drain lines to accommodate the new lines associated with the new exhauster, a maintenance platform near the stack of the new exhauster, guy wires and guy wire footings to support the stack of the new exhauster, as well as other miscellaneous tasks associated with the mechanical installation design effort