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Sample records for barrel toroid superconducting

  1. Cryogenic Characteristics of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Superconducting Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Delruelle, N; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Passardi, Giorgio; Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS, one of the experiments of the LHC accelerator under commissioning at CERN, is equipped with a large superconducting magnet the Barrel Toroid (BT) that has been tested at nominal current (20500 A). The BT is composed of eight race-track superconducting coils (each one weights about 45 tons) forming the biggest air core toroidal magnet ever built. By means of a large throughput centrifugal pump, a forced flow (about 10 liter/second at 4.5 K) provides the indirect cooling of the coils in parallel. The paper describes the results of the measurements carried out on the complete cryogenic system assembled in the ATLAS cavern situated 100 m below the ground level. The measurements include, among other ones, the static heat loads, i.e., with no or constant current in the magnet, and the dynamic ones, since additional heat losses are produced, during the current ramp-up or slow dump, by eddy currents induced on the coil casing.

  2. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  3. 20.5 kA current leads for ATLAS Barrel Toroid superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Boxman, E W; Keilin, V E; Kopeikin, N P; Kovalev, I A; Kuljamzin, A N; Romanovski, V G; Shcherbakov, V I; Shugaev, I; Stepanov, V V

    2002-01-01

    Three pairs of 20.5 kA current leads for the ATLAS Toroid Magnets have been designed, manufactured and tested at Kurchatov Institute. The current leads have a high mechanical reliability and the vacuum tightness under 30 bars of internal pressure. The insulation between the current carrying parts and the mounting flange, the hydraulic connections and the temperature gauges withstand the overvoltage of at least 2 kV. The current leads are fully equipped with diagnostics needed for safety and control. The current leads were tested up to 24 kA. According to CERN's specification they were also tested in the absence of any cooling at very slow current discharge rate (5 A/s) from 20.5 kA to zero without any excessive overheating. Nowadays the current leads are successfully used at the ATLAS Magnet Test Facility at CERN. (6 refs).

  4. Mechanical Commissioning of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Foussat, A; Dudarev, A; Bajas, H; Védrine, P; Berriaud, C; Sun, Z; Sorbi, M

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Its features include the 4 T Barrel Toroid magnet, the largest superconducting magnet (25 m long, 20 m diameter) that provides the magnetic field for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The coils integrated at CERN, were tested individually at maximum current of 22 kA in 2005. Following the mechanical assembly of the Barrel Toroid in the ATLAS underground cavern, the test of the full Barrel Toroid was performed in October 2006. Further tests are foreseen at the end 2007 when the system will include the two End Cap Toroids (ECT). The paper gives an overview of the good mechanical test results achieved in comparison with model predictions and the experience gained in the mechanical behavior of the ATLAS Toroidal coils is discussed.

  5. Celebrating the Barrel Toroid commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jenni

    ATLAS invited Funding Agency representatives and Laboratory Heads directly related to the funding and construction of the Barrel Toroid for a small ceremony on 13th December 2006 at Point 1, in order to mark the successful first full excitation of the BT (see last eNews). On that date, which was during the December CERN Council week, several of the Funding Agency Heads or their representatives could be present, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. Speeches were delivered by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni thanking the Funding Partners in the name of the Collaboration, by Magnet Project Leader Herman ten Kate tracing the BT construction history, and by the CERN Director-General Robert Aymar congratulating all those who have contributed to the successful project. Herman ten Kate addressing the delegates. The text of the introductory address by Peter Jenni is reproduced here. "It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here...

  6. Celebration for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from Funding Agencies and Barrel Toroid Magnet Laboratories during the ceremony. From left to right: Jean Zinn-Justin (Head of DAPNIA/CEA/Saclay), CERN Director-General Robert Aymar, and Roberto Petronzio (President INFN).Allan Clark (DPNC University Geneva) and Enrique Fernandez (IFAE Barcelona) were among the guests visiting the ATLAS cavern. The barrel toroid is visible in the background. A celebration took place at Point 1 on 13 December to toast the recent powering-up of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet to full field (Bulletin No. 47-48/06). About 70 guests were invited to attend, mainly composed of representatives from funding partners and key members of the laboratory management teams of the barrel toroid magnet, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. An introductory speech by ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni the scene for evening. This was followed by the ATLAS magnet system project leader Herman Ten Kate's account of the...

  7. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  8. First ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first of eight 25-metre long coil casings for the ATLAS experiment's barrel toroid magnet system arrived at CERN on Saturday 2 March by road from Heidelberg. This structure will be part of the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever made.   The first coil casing for the toroidal magnets of Atlas arrives at Building 180. This is the start of an enormous three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Each of the eight sets of double pancake coils will be housed inside aluminium coil casings, which in turn will be held inside a stainless steel vacuum vessel. A huge construction, the casing that arrived at CERN measures 25 metres in length and 5 metres in width. It weighs 20 tones. And this is just the beginning of the toroid jigsaw: by early April a batch of four double pancake coils, which altogether weighs 65 tones, will arrive from Ansaldo in Italy. The first vacuum vessel will also be arriving from Felguera in Spain this month. It will take about two years for all these 25 m long structures of casings, coils a...

  9. Manufacturing aspects of the ATLAS barrel toroid double pancakes

    CERN Document Server

    Drago, G; Gagliardi, P; Laurenti, A; Marabotto, R; Penco, R

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) ordered to ANSALDO the manufacturing of 16 double pancakes for the ATLAS BARREL TOROID. In July 2001 four Double Pancakes have already been completed and shipped to the integration site. In this paper the main aspects of the manufacturing of the largest superconducting coils ever built (5*25 m) are described. The main phases of the manufacturing procedure are reviewed starting from the conductor preparation to the VPI impregnation, including references to the materials used as well as to the relevant customer's requirements. In particular the special winding form and the winding technique are treated. For each phase the most critical aspects and the relevant solutions are pointed out. Particular details about the technical solutions adopted for the impregnation and curing of the Double Pancake, which could not be performed inside an autoclave due to the huge dimension of the coil itself, are reported. Finally the methods used for the dimensional and electri...

  10. ATLAS barrel toroid integration and test area in building 180

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two 'double-pancake' windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The barrel toroid is being assembled in building 180 on the Meyrin site. In the first phase of assembly, the coils are packed into their aluminium-alloy casing. These photos show the double-pancake coils from ANSALDO and the coil casings from ALSTOM. In the foreground is the tooling from COSMI used to turn over the coil casings during this first phase. In the right background is the yellow lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia which will transport the coil casings to a heating table for prestressing. Two test benches with magnetic mirror are also visible.

  11. Barrel Toroid fully charged to nominal field, and it works!

    CERN Multimedia

    Herman ten Kate

    After a few weeks of testing up to intermediate currents, finally, on Thursday evening November 9, the current in the Barrel Toroid was pushed up to its nominal value of 20500 A and even 500 A beyond this value to prove that we have some margin. It went surprisingly well. Of course, the 8 coils forming the toroid were already tested individually at the surface but still, some surprise may have come from those parts added to the toroid in the cavern for the first time like the 8 cryoring sections linking the coils as well as the valve box at the bottom in sector 13 regulating the helium flow or the current lead cryostat on the top in sector 5. No training quenches, nothing to worry about, and the test was concluded with a fast dump triggered at 00:40 in the very early morning of November 10. (left) The toroid current during the evening and night of November 9. (right) The test crew oscillated between fear and hope while looking at the control panels as the current approached 21kA. Big relief was in the...

  12. The Superconducting Toroid for the New International AXion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    IAXO, the new International AXion Observatory, will feature the most ambitious detector for solar axions to date. Axions are hypothetical particles which were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. This detector aims at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions to detectable X-ray photons. Inspired by the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroid is being designed. The toroid comprises eight, one meter wide and twenty one meters long racetrack coils. The assembled toroid is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length and its mass is about 250 tons. The useful field in the bores is 2.5 T while the peak magnetic field in the windings is 5....

  13. General Atomic's superconducting toroidal field coil concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, J.; Purcell, J.

    1978-01-01

    General Atomic's concept for a superconducting toroidal field coil is presented. The concept is generic for large tokamak devices, while a specific design is indicated for a 3.8 meter (major radius) ignition/burn machine. The concept utilizes bath cooled NbTi conductor to generate a peak field of 10 tesla at 4.2 K. The design is simple and straightforward, requires a minimum of developmental effort, and draws extensively upon the perspective of past experience in the design and construction of large superconducting magnets for high energy physics. Thus, the primary emphasis is upon economy, reliability, and expeditious construction scheduling. (author)

  14. The common cryogenic test facility for the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroid magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O

    2004-01-01

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requ...

  15. The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the Atlas Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O

    2004-01-01

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific re...

  16. The CERN Cryogenic Test Facility for the Atlas Barrel Toroid Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroidal magnets (ECT) and the barrel toroid magnet (BT) made of eight coils symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. The magnets will be tested individually in a 5000 m2 experimental area prior to their final installation at an underground cavern of the LHC Collider. For the BT magnets, a dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed which is currently under the construction and commissioning phase. A liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit and a 1200 W@4.5K refrigerator will allow flexible operating conditions via a rather complex distribution and transfer line system. Flow of two-phase helium for cooling the coils is provided by centrifugal pumps immersed in a saturated liquid helium bath. The integration of the pumps in an existing cryostat required the adoption of novel mechanical solutions. Tests conducted permitted the validation of the technical design of the cryostat and its ins...

  17. The CERN cryogenic test facility for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroidal magnets (ECT) and the barrel toroid magnet (BT) made of eight coils symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. The magnets will be tested individually in a 5000 m/sup 2/ experimental area prior to their final installation at an underground cavern of the LHC Collider. For the BT magnets, a dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed which is currently under the construction and commissioning phase. A liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit and a 1200 W@4.5K refrigerator will allow flexible operating conditions via a rather complex distribution and transfer line system. Flow of two-phase helium for cooling the coils is provided by centrifugal pumps immersed in a saturated liquid helium bath. The integration of the pumps in an existing cryostat required the adoption of novel mechanical solutions. Tests conducted permitted the validation of the technical design of the cryostat and i...

  18. Engineering status of the superconducting end cap toroid magnets for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Carr, F S; Courthold, M J D; Cragg, D A; Densham, C J; Evans, D; Holtom, E; Rochford, J; Sole, D; Towndrow, Edwin F; Warner, G P

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC, CERN will utilise a large, superconducting, air-cored toroid magnet system for precision muon measurements. The magnet system will consist of a long barrel and two end-cap toroids. Each end-cap toroid will contain eight racetrack coils mounted as a single cold mass in cryostat vessel of ~10 m diameter. The project has now moved from the design/specification stage into the fabrication phase. This paper presents the engineering status of the cold masses and vacuum vessels that are under fabrication in industry. Final designs of cold mass supports, cryogenic systems and control/protection systems are presented. Planning for toroid integration, test and installation is described. (3 refs).

  19. Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)

  20. The control on the deformation of the ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F; Giraud, P F; Védrine, P; Guyot, C; Levesy, B; Ponsot, P; Schune, P; Sun, Z

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure supports the barrel toroid and the muon detectors. The warm structure is about 26 meters long with an outer diameter of 20 meters. In order to ensure the physics performance of the muon detectors, the deformation of the warm structure is minimised during the design phase. The barrel toroid assembly has been carried out in the cavern of the ATLAS experiment since end of 2004. In September 2005, the warm structure has been completely released. The release has been followed-up in real time using optical alignment sensors. Good agreement has been found within 1 mm, between the alignment system measurement, the geometer survey and the predicted values according to the finite element analyses results.

  1. Progress on large superconducting toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.; Beard, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Large superconducting toroidal field coils of competing designs are being produced by six major industrial teams. In the US, teams headed by General Dynamics Convair, General Electric, and Westinghouse are under contract to design and fabricate one coil each to specifications established by the Large Coil Program. A facility for testing 6 coils in a toroidal array at fields to 8 to 12 tesla is under construction at Oak Ridge. Through an international agreement, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland will produce one coil each for testing with the US coils. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape winding bore and is designed to operate at a current of 10 to 18 kA at a peak field of 8T while subjected to pulsed fields of 0.14 T applied in 1.0 s. There are significant differences among the six coil designs: five use NbTi, one Nb 3 Sn; three are cooled by pool boiling helium, three by forced flow; five have welded or bolted stainless steel coil cases, one has aluminum plate structure. All are designed to be cryostable at 8T, with structural margin for extended operation. The three US coil teams are almost or completely finished with detailed design and are now procuring materials and setting up manufacturing equipment. The non-US teams are at various stages of verification testing and design. The GDC and GE coils are scheduled for delivery in the spring of 1981 and the others will be completed a year later. The 11-m diameter vessel at the test facility has been completed and major components of the test stand are being procured. Engineering and procurement to upgrade the helium liquifier-refrigerator system are under way

  2. The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D event display of a cosmic muon event, showing the path of a muon travelling through three layers of the barrel muon spectrometer. Three of the eight coils of the barrel toroid magnet can be seen in the top half of the drawing.

  3. Models for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, F.; Brechna, H.; Erb, J.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Maurer, W.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the design of large GJ toroidal magnet systems it is appropriate to procure small scale models, which can simulate their pertinent properties and allow to investigate their relevant phenomena. The important feature of the model is to show under which circumstances the system performance can be extrapolated to large magnets. Based on parameters such as the maximum magnetic field and the current density, the maximum tolerable magneto-mechanical stresses, a simple method of designing model magnets is presented. It is shown how pertinent design parameters are changed when the toroidal dimensions are altered. In addition some conductor cost estimations are given based on reactor power output and wall loading

  4. Control and monitoring of the Tore Supra toroidal superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prou, M.

    1989-07-01

    Light nuclei controlled fusion reactions are seen as a possible way to produce nuclear energy. For this reason, the interest in hot plasma researches in tokamaks has increased. The Tore Supra main characteristic is related to the superconducting magnet coils. They allow a suitable energy balance, however, they require an accurate and preventive fault detection. The Tore Supra machine and the different methods to detect a transition (from superconducting to normal mode) in the toroidal coils are described. The voltage of the coils, the pressure of the helium superfluid at 1.8 K and the electric current in the circuit parallel resistances, are measured. A computer aided control system allows the toroidal field monitoring (current in the coils, fault detection). The superconducting magnet configuration chosen for Tore Supra seems to be suitable for future large Tokamak devices [fr

  5. Conceptual Design of a New Large Superconducting Toroid for IAXO, the New International AXion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate a new generation detector for axions, a hypothetical particle, which was postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP problem. The new IAXO experiment is aiming at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, represented by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into x-ray photons. Utilizing the designs of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroidal magnet is currently being designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. The new toroid will be built up from eight, one meter wide and 20 m long, racetrack coils. The toroid is sized about 4 m in diameter and 22 m in length. It is designed to realize a peak magnetic field of 5.4 T with a ...

  6. New Superconducting Toroidal Magnet System for IAXO, the International AXion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I; Silva, H; Wagner, U; Kate, H H J ten

    2013-01-01

    Axions are hypothetical particles that were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. The new International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate the most promising solar axions detector to date, which is designed to enhance the sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling by one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into X-ray photons. Inspired by the successful realization of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a very large superconducting toroid is currently designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. This toroid will comprise eight, one meter wide and twenty one meter long, racetrack coils. The system is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length. Its peak magnetic field is 5.4 T with a stored e...

  7. Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization approach minimizes both the magnet size and necessary cable length of a sectored toroidal SMES unit. • Design approach is suitable for low temperature superconducting cable suitable for medium size SMES unit. • It investigates coil parameters with respect to practical engineering aspects. - Abstract: A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium–titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy

  8. Superconducting Magnet with the Reduced Barrel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Berriaud, C.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Hervé, A.; Mentink, M.; Rolando, G.; Pais Da Silva, H.F.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 24.518 m long has seven 3.5 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 21 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and 0.7 m thick nose disk, four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks, and three 0.8 m thick muon toroid disks each side. The outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length without the forward muon toroids is 33 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity of \\pm 3.5. The conventional forward muon spectrometer provides the measuring of the muon momenta in the pseudorapidity region from \\pm 2.7...

  9. The First ATLAS Barrel Toroid Coil Successfully Tested in Hall 180

    CERN Multimedia

    Rabbers, J J

    2004-01-01

    The first Barrel Toroid coil has been successfully tested with magnetic mirror at nominal current I=20.5 kA, up to a maximum current Imax=22 kA. After 14 days of cooling down, BT1 reached 4.5 Kelvin and the test program started on September 2nd. First the instrumentation and safety systems of the coil were tested at relatively low operating currents, up to 5 kA. Since all the systems and the coil were performing well, the current was increased by steps in several runs, while monitoring and evaluating the temperatures, voltages and mechanics. On early Wednesday morning September 8th the current was ramped up to 22 kA, shown by the red curve in the picture shown below: Thereafter the current was ramped down by a slow dump, where the stored energy of about 130 MJ is dissipated in a resistor/diode ramp down unit. This is the regular way of ramping down the current, which takes about one hour. Thereafter the current was ramped up to 22 kA for a second time, this time a so-called fast dump was initiated, ...

  10. Superconducting toroidal field coil current densities for the TFCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.S.; Hooper, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    A major goal of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) study was to minimize the size of the device and achieve lowest cost. Two key factors influencing the size of the device employing superconducting magnets are toroidal field (TF) winding current density and its nuclear heat load withstand capability. Lower winding current density requires larger radial build of the winding pack. Likewise, lower allowable nuclear heating in the winding requires larger shield thickness between the plasma and coil. In order to achieve a low-cost device, it is essential to maximize the winding's current density and nuclear heating withhstand capability. To meet the above objective, the TFCX design specification adopted as goals a nominal winding current density of 3500 A/cm 2 with 10-T peak field at the winding and peak nuclear heat load limits of 1 MW/cm 3 for the nominal design and 50 MW/cm 3 for an advanced design. This study developed justification for these current density and nuclear heat load limits

  11. Safety analysis of superconducting toroidal field magnet for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Safety analysis of the superconducting toroidal field magnet for a Tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been carried out. Works were accident classification, FMEA and FTA analyses, coil stability and quench behavior calculations, failure detection and coil protection system designs, structure analysis, fracture and fatigue studies, and earthquake response analysis. Accident analysis of cryostat and refrigeration system was also performed. The objective of this work is to reveal technological problems of the toroidal field magnet by safety analysis. (author)

  12. Program for development of toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research, May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, H.M.; Lubell, M.S.

    1975-11-01

    The objective of this program is a tested magnet design which demonstrates the suitability and reliability needed to qualify toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research devices in a time compatible with the D-T burning experiments time frame. The overall applied development program including tasks, manpower, and cost estimates is detailed here, but for the full toroidal system only the cost and time frame are outlined to show compatibility with the present program. The details of the full toroidal system fall under major device fabrication and will be included in a subsequent document

  13. Some characteristics of the superconducting magnetic system of toroidal spectrometer STORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, S.V.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Kakurin, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting toroidal spectrometer (STORS) has been suggested to provide precision measurements of structure functions in muon beams. In this paper we present the calculation of the magnet induction and forces influencing the elements of the magnet, requirements to the reliability and rigidity of the carrying elements of the magnet construction. (author.) 14 refs.; 50 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Test Results of a 1.2 kg/s Centrifugal Liquid Helium Pump for the ATLAS Superconducting Toroid Magnet System

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Passardi, Giorgio; Pirotte, O; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The toroid superconducting magnet of ATLAS-LHC experiment at CERN will be indirectly cooled by means of forced flow of liquid helium at about 4.5 K. A centrifugal pump will be used, providing a mass flow of 1.2 kg/s and a differential pressure of 40 kPa (ca. 400 mbar) at about 4300 rpm. Two pumps are foreseen, one for redundancy, in order to feed in parallel the cooling circuits of the Barrel and the two End-Caps toroid magnets. The paper describes the tests carried out at CERN to measure the characteristic curves, i.e. the head versus the mass flow at different rotational speeds, as well as the pump total efficiency. The pump is of the "fullemission" type, i.e. with curved blades and it is equipped with an exchangeable inducer. A dedicated pump test facility has been constructed at CERN, which includes a Coriolis-type liquid helium mass flow meter. This facility is connected to the helium refrigerator used for the tests at CERN of the racetrack magnets of the Barrel and of the End-Cap toroids.

  15. Considerations of coil protection and electrical connection schemes in large superconducting toroidal magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1976-03-01

    A preliminary comparison of several different coil protection and electrical connection schemes for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems (STMS) is carried out. The tentative recommendation is to rely on external dump resistors for coil protection and to connect the coils in the toroidal magnet in several parallel loops (e.g., every fourth coil is connected into a single series loop). For the fault condition when a single coil quenches, the quenched coil should be isolated from its loop by switching devices. The magnet, as a whole, should probably be discharged if more than a few coils have quenched

  16. A novel superconducting toroidal field magnetic concept using advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: Low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high-T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high-T c superconductors within a low-T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress rate, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated. 54 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Program for development of toroidal superconducting magnets for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, H.M.; Lubell, M.S.

    1976-04-01

    Research progress on the following subprograms is described/: (1) system design, (2) coil design, (3) conductor selection and test, (4) radiation effects on superconducting coils, (5) coil protection, eddy current shielding, and power supply, (6) structural analysis and materials investigation, (7) cryogenics and refrigeration, (8) subsize coil fabrication, (9) large coil project, (10) coil testing and evaluation, (11) administrative plan, and (12) quality assurance and reliability

  18. Superconducting toroidal combined-function magnet for a compact ion beam cancer therapy gantry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, D.S.; Arbelaez, D.; Caspi, S.; Sun, C.; Sessler, A.; Wan, W.; Yoon, M.

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting, combined-function, 5 T, 90°, toroidal magnet with a large bore is described in this paper. This magnet is designed to be the last and most difficult part of a compact superconducting magnet-based carbon gantry optics for ion beam cancer therapy. The relatively small size of this toroidal magnet allows for a gantry the size of which is smaller or at least comparable to that of a proton gantry. The gantry design places the toroidal magnet between the scanning magnets and the patient, that is the scanning magnets are placed midway through the gantry. By optimizing the coil winding configuration of this magnet, near point-to-parallel optics is achieved between the scanning magnets and the patient; while at the same time there is only a small distortion of the beam-shape when scanning. We show that the origin of the beam-shape distortion is the strong sextupole components, whose effects are greatly pronounced when the beam is widely steered in the magnet. A method to correct such an undesirable effect is suggested and demonstrated by a numerical particle tracking through the calculated three-dimensional magnetic field.

  19. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  20. Procedures for parametric studies of costs of superconducting toroidal test assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1976-05-01

    A cost scaling procedure, based on a detailed reference conceptual design, has been developed to determine the effects of variations in the characteristic parameters of superconducting toroidal field coils on project costs. The primary purpose was to provide reasonably simple rational formulae for obtaining approximate costs of a complete installation, focusing on the trends and sensitivities of costs to changes in various parameters such as field strength, coil size, number of coils, and current density rather than establishing absolute costs. No results are included here because early studies applying these procedures are no longer pertinent to the present Superconducting Magnet Development Program. However, planning for the Large Coil Project and the preliminary conceptual design of the Technology Test Assembly with Plasma have employed the techniques described and results will be reported in the appropriate project documents

  1. Design study of superconducting toroidal magnet for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Design study of the superconducting toroidal magnet for the Tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been carried out. Performed here were conductor design, magnetic field calculation, design of coil support, stress analysis, design of refrigeration system and safety analysis. The maximum toroidal field at the coil is 12.0 T, providing 6.0 T at the plasma center. The coil bore is 7.3 x 11.2 m, and the coil shape is deformed constant-tension D-shape. 16 coil design was chosen, considering the necessity for good access for the evacuation port or the support structure of blanket and shield. The maximum field ripple obtained in the plasma region is 0.47%. The operational current is 25,100 amperes, and the cryogenic stabilization is fulfilled. Nb 3 Sn superconductor was chosen in spite of its brittleness, to attain a toroidal field of 12 T which is higher than a practical limit for NbTi superconductor. The development of large Nb 3 Sn coil technology would be necessary to realize an economic fusion power reactor. (auth.)

  2. Proposal for the renegotiation of a contract for the supply of eight coil casings for the barrel toroid magnet of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the renegotiation of a contract for the supply of eight coil casings for the Barrel Toroid Magnet of the ATLAS detector. The proposal for the award of a contract with ABB ENERTECH (CH) was presented to Finance Committee for information in September 1998 (CERN/FC/4089). In view of the developments outlined in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the renegotiation of a contract with ALSTOM SWITZERLAND (CH), for the supply of eight coil casings for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet for a total Ex-works price of 12 580 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001, with an option for an extra coil casing for an additional Ex-works price of 1 525 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001, bringing the total amount for the supply to 14 105 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July 2001. The total amount of the contract, including transport to the integration site, will not exceed 14 490 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision after 31 July...

  3. Preliminary results of thermal and electrical conductivity measurement at cryogenic temperatures of riveted junctions for the thermal shield of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandria, F

    1998-01-01

    The sections of the thermal shield of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid consist of 4 Al alloy panels joined by Al alloy rivets. The thermal conductivity of these junctions has a strong influence on the efficiency of the thermal shield. Also their electrical resistivity must be taken into account in the design because the magnetic forces due to eddy currents depend on this value. Because of these reasons an apparatus was built in order to measure the thermal and electrical conductivity of these junctions. Measurements are in course using liquid Nitrogen and liquid Helium as heatsink. The description of the apparatus, its calibration and the first results on a sample of 5754 alloy at LN temperature are reported. (1 refs).

  4. ATLAS: Full power for the toroid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 9th of November was a memorable day for ATLAS. Just before midnight, the gigantic Barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas in the coil windings, with an electrical current of 21000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils (as seen on the graph). This achievement was obtained after several weeks of commissioning. The ATLAS Barrel Toroid was first cooled down for about six weeks in July-August to -269°C (4.8 K) and then powered up step-by-step in successive test sessions to 21 kA. This is 0.5 kA above the current required to produce the nominal magnetic field. Afterwards, the current was safely switched off and the stored magnetic energy of 1.1 gigajoules was dissipated in the cold mass, raising its temperature to a safe -218°C (55 K). 'We can now say that the ATLAS Barrel Toroid is ready for physics,' said Herman ten Kate, project leader for the ATLAS magnet system. The ATLAS barrel toroid magnet is the result of a close collaboration between the magnet la...

  5. The design and the manufacturing process of the superconducting toroidal field magnet system for EAST device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenge; Pan Yannian; Chen Zuoming; Wei Jin

    2008-01-01

    The toroidal field (TF) magnet system of EAST (HT-7U), which consists of 16 superconducting coils enclosed in steel cases, has been manufactured to generate the magnetic field of 3.5 T at the plasma center to maintain plasma in a tokamak configuration with a current up to 1 MA. The TF coils have an approximately D-shape geometry of 2.6 m wide and 4.0 m high, and operate at a maximum field of 5.8 T. The conductor used in the TF coil is NbTi/Cu cable-in conduit (CIC) conductor, and its operating current is 14.3 kA. In March 2006, the first cooling down of the EAST device has been carried out successfully. The total of TF magnet system has been cooled down from room temperature to 4.5 K, and the TF system has been energized up to 8.2 kA with 5 A/s ramp rate. In September 2006, full performances of the TF magnet system have been reached, and the device of EAST has delivered its first plasma. In addition, the TF magnet system has been routinely operated with a current maintained constant on a whole day basis, for a preliminary program of more than 500 shots. In this paper, the main parts of the design, developmental tests, and the fabrication and assembly of TF coils are described in detail

  6. Experimental and calculating study on the stressed state of superconducting coils of toroidal field in the T-15 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulina, I.G.; Gusev, S.V.; Sivkova, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    Results of calculational and experimental atudy of stress-deformed state of superconducting coils of the T-15 tokamak toroidal field are presented. The calculations are made using the method of finite elements and refined theory of cores. Experimental studies were carried out using elastic tensometric model of polymer materials. Test results are compared with the calculational results. Divergence between calculational and experimental values of displacement of characteristic points in the unit does not exceed 20 %. Results of model studies confirm the expediency of the calculational model used for designing SOTP unit for the T-15 tokamak

  7. Toroid magnet test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.

  8. Thermal analysis of the forced cooled conductor for the TF [toroidal field] superconducting coils in the TIBER II ETR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J.A.; Slack, D.S.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER) is being designed to provide nuclear testing capabilities for first wall and blanket design concepts. The baseline design for TIBER II is to provide steady-state nuclear burn capabilities. These objectives must be met using reactor relevant components, such as state-of-the-art current drive schemes coupled with superconducting toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) coils. The design is also constrained to be cost effective, which forces the machine to be as small as possible. This last constraint limits the nuclear shielding in TIBER. Therefore, the TF coils will have a high nuclear heat load of up to 4.5 kW per coil. The cooling scheme and the thermal analysis for this design are presented

  9. International team successfully launches world's largest superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The world's largest superconducting magnet was successfully brought online recently as part of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the new particle accelerator scheduled for full scale use in November 2007. The magnet charged and operated successfully on its first attempt. The magnet, called Barrel Toroid, provides the powerful magnetic fiedl for ATLAS, one of the major particle detectors for LHC." (2/3 page)

  10. An important step for the ATLAS toroid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment's prototype toroid coil arrives at CERN from the CEA laboratory in Saclay on 6 October. The world's largest superconducting toroid magnet is under construction for the ATLAS experiment. A nine-metre long fully functional prototype coil was delivered to CERN at the beginning of October and has since been undergoing tests in the West Area. Built mainly by companies in France and Italy under the supervision of engineers from the CEA-Saclay laboratory near Paris and Italy's INFN-LASA, the magnet is a crucial step forward in the construction of the ATLAS superconducting magnet system. Unlike any particle detector that has gone before, the ATLAS detector's magnet system consists of a large toroidal system enclosing a small central solenoid. The barrel part of the toroidal system will use eight toroid coils, each a massive 25 metres in length. These will dwarf the largest toroids in the world when ATLAS was designed, which measure about six metres. So the ATLAS collaboration decided to build a...

  11. Commissioning Test of ATLAS End-Cap Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Foussat, A; Benoit, P; Jeckel, M; Olyunin, A; Kopeykin, N; Stepanov, V; Deront, L; Olesen, G; Ponts, X; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, K; Barth, J; Bremer, J; Delruelle, J; Metselaar, J; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O; Buskop, J; Baynham, D E; Carr, F S; Holtom, E

    2009-01-01

    The system of superconducting toroids in the ATLAS experiment at CERN consists of three magnets. The Barrel Toroid was assembled and successfully tested in 2006. Next, two End-Cap Toroids have been tested on surface at 77 K and installed in the cavern, 100-m underground. The End Cap Toroids are based on Al stabilized Nb-Ti/Cu Rutherford cables, arranged in double pancake coils and conduction cooled at 4.6 K. The nominal current is 20.5 kA at 4.1 T peak field in the windings and the stored energy is 250 MJ per toroid. Prior to final testing of the entire ATLAS Toroidal system, each End Cap Toroid passed a commissioning test up to 21 kA to guarantee a reliable performance in the final assembly. In this paper the test results are described. It includes the stages of test preparation, isolation vacuum pumping and leak testing, cooling down, step-by-step charging to full current, training quenches and quench recovery. By fast discharges the quench detection and protection system was checked to demonstrate a safe e...

  12. Design of superconducting toroidal magnet coils and testing facility in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.; Haubenreich, P.N.; Thompson, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    In the U.S. Large Coil Program, three industrial teams are presently designing test coils to general specifications prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with guidance from USERDA. Each test coil is approximately half the bore size of reactor coils, being oval or D-shaped, with a bore of 2.5 x 3.5 m. The dimensions and operating requirements of the coils are identical for all test coils. The coils are designed to produce a peak field of at least 8 tesla at the winding of a selected coil operated at its design current. This condition is met when the selected coil is operated in a compact toroidal array of 6 coils, with the other five coils being operated at 0.8 of their design current. The six coils are of three different designs. Both pool boiling and forced flow designs are included. The coils are housed in a single large vacuum chamber for economy and testing convenience. Auxiliary coils provide a pulse field over the test coil winding volume. This auxiliary system is designed to produce a pulse field which rises to a peak of 0.14 T in 1 sec. With the exception of material damage due to neutron irradiation, all reactor requirements and environments will be either duplicated, approximated, or simulated. The test facility is being designed to accept coils producing up to 12 tesla in later phases of the program

  13. The complex and unique ATLAS Toroid family

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Big parts for the toroid magnets that will be used in the ATLAS experiment have been continuously arriving at CERN since March. These structures will create the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever.

  14. Barrels XXIX: Barrels go Hollywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mathew H; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2017-03-01

    Barrels XXIX brought together researchers focusing on the rodent barrel cortex and associated systems. The meeting revolved around three themes: thalamocortical interactions in motor control, touch in rodent, monkey, and humans, and the nature of the multisensory computations the brain makes. Over two days these topics were covered as well as many more presentations that focused on the physiology, behavior, and development of the rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex system.

  15. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  16. First ATLAS Barrel Toroid Coil Passes Test

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    First they secured anything magnetic: metal tools, nuts and bolts, tables. Then they cleared the magnet assembly building, as big as an airplane hangar, and locked it tight. Before turning on the magnet for its maiden test, they waited till the dead of night so no one else would be around.

  17. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  18. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  19. Toroidal simulation magnet tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Domm, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of different schemes for testing superconducting coils in a simulated tokamak environment are analyzed for their merits relative to a set of test criteria. Two of the concepts are examined in more detail: the so-called cluster test scheme, which employs two large background field coils, one on either side of the test coil, and the compact torus, a low-aspect ratio toroidal array of a small number of coils in which all of the coils are essentially test coils. Simulation of the pulsed fields of the tokamak is discussed briefly

  20. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  1. Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...

  2. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  3. Barrels XXX meeting report: Barrels in Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Bitzidou, Malamati; Palaguachi, Fernando; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2018-03-01

    The Barrels meeting annually brings together researchers focused on the rodent whisker to cortical barrel system prior to the Society for Neuroscience meeting. The 2017 meeting focused on the classification of cortical interneurons, the role interneurons have in shaping brain dynamics, and finally on the circuitry underlying oral sensations. The meeting highlighted the latest advancements in this rapidly advancing field.

  4. Quench propagation and detection in the superconducting bus-bars of the ATLAS magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H H J; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A; Baynham, D Elwyn; Courthold, M J D; Lesmond, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting magnet system comprising Barrel (BT) and End-Cap Toroids (ECT) and also Central Solenoid (CS) will store more than 1.5 GJ of magnetic energy. The magnet system will have many superconducting busbars, a few meters long each, running from the current leads to Central Solenoid and Toroids as well as between the coils of each Toroid. Quench development in the busbars, i.e., the normal zone propagation process along the busbar superconductors, is slow and exhibits very low voltages. Therefore, its timely and appropriate detection represents a real challenge. The temperature evolution in the busbars under quench is of primary importance. Conservative calculations of the temperature were performed for all the magnets. Also, a simple and effective method to detect a normal zone in a busbar is presented. A thin superconducting wire, whose normal resistance can be easily detected, is placed in a good thermal contact to busbar. Thus, the wire can operate as straightforward and low-noise quench-...

  5. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  6. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  7. Next generation toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shoichi

    1998-10-01

    A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one's view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)

  8. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  9. TRT Barrel milestones passed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ogren, H

    2004-01-01

    The barrel TRT detector passed three significant milestones this spring. The Barrel Support Structure (BSS) was completed and moved to the SR-1 building on February 24th. On March 12th the first module passed the quality assurance testing in Building 154 and was transported to the assembly site in the SR-1 building for barrel assembly. Then on April 21st the final production module that had been scanned at Hampton University was shipped to CERN. TRT Barrel Module Production The production of the full complement of barrel modules (96 plus 9 total spares) is now complete. This has been a five-year effort by Duke University, Hampton University, and Indiana University. Actual construction of the modules in the United States was completed in the first part of 2004. The production crews at each of the sites in the United States have now completed their missions. They are shown in the following pictures. Duke University: Production crew with the final completed module. Indiana University: Module producti...

  10. Toroidal helical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, M.Y.; Caldas, I.L.

    1986-08-01

    Using the conventional toroidal coordinate system Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential due to toroidal helical currents is solved. The potential is written as a sum of an infinite series of functions. Each partial sum represents the potential within some accuracy. The effect of the winding law is analysed in the case of small curvature. (Author) [pt

  11. New Toroid shielding design

    CERN Multimedia

    Hedberg V

    On the 15th of June 2001 the EB approved a new conceptual design for the toroid shield. In the old design, shown in the left part of the figure above, the moderator part of the shielding (JTV) was situated both in the warm and cold areas of the forward toroid. It consisted both of rings of polyethylene and hundreds of blocks of polyethylene (or an epoxy resin) inside the toroid vacuum vessel. In the new design, shown to the right in the figure above, only the rings remain inside the toroid. To compensate for the loss of moderator in the toroid, the copper plug (JTT) has been reduced in radius so that a layer of borated polyethylene can be placed around it (see figure below). The new design gives significant cost-savings and is easier to produce in the tight time schedule of the forward toroid. Since the amount of copper is reduced the weight that has to be carried by the toroid is also reduced. Outgassing into the toroid vacuum was a potential problem in the old design and this is now avoided. The main ...

  12. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  13. Samus Toroid Installation Fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1990-06-27

    The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.

  14. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  15. Barrel Module0 Autopsy

    CERN Document Server

    Cobal, M; Nessi, Marzio; Blanch, O; Zamora, Y

    1999-01-01

    Using the information from the Cs calibration runs, many of the problems affecting the response of the barrel Module0 prototype have been spotted out. These can be bad fibre-tile couplings, light losses from fibres bundling, broken fibres, not transparent tiles etc. After a visual inspection, most of these problems have been repaired.

  16. First Cryogenic Testing of the ATLAS Superconducting Prototype Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Pirotte, O; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroids and the barrel toroid made of eight coils (BT) symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. All these magnets will be individually tested in an experimental area prior to their final installation in the underground cavern of the LHC collider. A dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed and built for this purpose. It mainly consists of a 1'200 W at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit, a cryostat housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps, a distribution valve box and transfer lines. Prior to the start of the series tests of the BT magnets, two model coils are used at this facility. The first one, the so-called B00 of comparatively small size, contains the three different types of superconductors used for the ATLAS magnets which are wound on a cylindrical mandrel. The second magnet, the B0, is a reduced model of basically identical design concept as the...

  17. Heat Load Measurements on a Large Superconducting Magnet An Application of a Void Fraction Meter

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two major experiments of the LHC project at CERN using cryogenics. The superconducting magnet system of ATLAS is composed of the Barrel Toroid (BT), two End Caps Toroids and the Central Solenoid. The BT is formed of 8 race-track superconducting dipoles, each one 25 m long and 5 m wide. A reduced scale prototype (named B0) of one of the 8 dipoles, about one third of the length, has been constructed and tested in a dedicated cryogenic facility at CERN. To simulate the final thermal and hydraulic operating conditions, the B0 was cooled by a forced flow of 4.5 K saturated liquid helium provided by a centrifugal pump of 80 g/s nominal capacity. Both static and dynamic heat loads, generated by the induced currents on the B0 casing during a slow dump or a ramp up, have been measured to verify the expected thermal budget of the entire BT. The instrument used for the heat load measurements was a Void Fraction Meter (VFM) installed on the magnet return line. The instrument constructed at CERN was ca...

  18. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  19. LEAR Crystal Barrel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braune, K.; Keh, S.; Montanet, L.; Zoll, J.; Beckmann, R.; Friedrich, J.; Heinsius, H.; Kiel, T.; Lewendel, B.; Pegel, C.; and others

    1988-11-20

    The features of the Crystal Barrel Detector which is in preparation for LEAR at CERN, are discussed. The physics aims include q-barq- and exotics-spectroscopy and a detailed investigation of yet unknown p-barp-anihilation channels. An eventual later use on the PSI-B-Meson-Factory is discussed. The paper finishes with a description of the present status of the project.

  20. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiening, J.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-03-01

    The PANDA experiment at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) near GSI, Darmstadt, Germany will address fundamental questions of hadron physics. Excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a large range of solid angles and particle momenta will be essential to meet the objectives of the rich physics program. Charged PID for the barrel region of the PANDA target spectrometer will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) detector. The Barrel DIRC will cover the polar angle range of 22o-140o and cleanly separate charged pions from kaons for momenta between 0.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC and the SuperB FDIRC R&D with several important improvements to optimize the performance for PANDA, such as a focusing lens system, fast timing, a compact fused silica prism as expansion region, and lifetime-enhanced Microchannel-Plate PMTs for photon detection. This article describes the technical design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the result of the design validation using a "vertical slice" prototype in hadronic particle beams at the CERN PS.

  1. Search of short circuits in the Superconducting coils of the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acerbi, E; Cartegni, G C; Sorbi, M; Volpini, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The detection of a short circuit inside the superconducting coils of the ATLAS detector after their installation in the casing is mandatory for the mechanical and electrical safety during a fast discharge of the magnet. The detection of a short circuit by means of a capacitor discharge becomes very difficult once the coils are integrated inside the casing, which behaves as a short-circuited turn strongly coupled with the coils. Under these circumstances a preliminary and careful analysis of the electrical parameters of the electrically coupled system and of the discharge behavior is required in order to clearly detect a short circuit. The paper presents and discusses the results of the analysis and the measurements carried out on the 16 double pancakes of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid after their integration inside the casing.

  2. Toroidal nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yutaka; Kasahara, Tatsuo; Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To design a device so as to be formed into a large-size and to arrange ports, through which neutral particles enter, in inclined fashion. Structure: Toroidal coils are wound about vacuum vessels which are divided into plural number. In the outer periphery of the vacuum vessels, ports are disposed inclined in the peripheral direction of the vacuum vessels and communicated with the vacuum vessels, and wall surfaces opposed to the ports of the toroidal coils adjacent at least the inclined sides of the ports are inclined substantially simularly to the port wall surfaces. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Design of the LHC US ATLAS Barrel Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Rehak, M L; Farah, Y; Grandinetti, R; Müller, T; Norton, S; Sondericker, J

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the ATLAS Liquid Argon detector. The Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat is part of the United States contribution to the LHC project and its design is presented here. The device is made up of four concentric cylinders: the smallest and largest of which form a vacuum vessel enclosing a cold vessel cryostat filled with liquid argon. The Cryostat serves as the housing for an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, supports and provides space in vacuum for a solenoid magnet while the toroidal opening furnishes room for a tracker detector. Design requirements are determined by its use in a collider experiment: the construction has to be compact, the material between the interaction region and the calorimeter has to be minimal and made of aluminum to reduce the amount of absorbing material. The design complies with code regulations while being optimized for its use in a physics environment. (2 refs).

  4. Toroidal drift magnetic pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, E.

    1977-01-01

    A set of azimuthal coils which carry properly dephased rf-currents in the KHz frequency range can be used to heat toroidal plasmas by perpendicular Landau damping of subsonic Alfven waves. The heating mechanism and the rf-field structure are discussed in some detail

  5. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  6. Superconducting Magnet with the Minimum Steel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mentink, M.; Da Silva, H. Pais; Rolando, G.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Berriaud, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T in combination with two superconducting dipole and two conventional toroid magnets is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 23.468 m long has seven 3.35 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 22.6 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and the 0.7 m thick nose disk and four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks each side. The maximum outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length is 62.6 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity about \\pm 2.7. The superconducting dipole magnets allow measuring the charged particle momenta in the pseudora...

  7. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  8. Energy dump of the ATLAS superconducting system simulations of electrical and thermal behaviour of magnet system at slow- and fast dump

    CERN Document Server

    van Beek, Martijn; Dudarev, A

    During the slow dump (discharge) of the Barrel Toroidal (superconducting) magnet of the ATLAS detector, the control system gave an alarm that the differences between the voltages over the conductors were too high. The alarm was not due to any danger, because of some sort of phenomenon observed in the first few seconds after start of the discharge. A possible explanation of the differences of the coil voltages is that the changing current through the conductors may cause induced currents in the coil casing around. The goal was to make a simulation of the electrical behaviour of the magnet system during a slow dump. In this way, an explanation can be found for the start phenomenon of the slow dump of the Barrel Toroid. Some extra analyses on the measurements were performed to describe the energy dissipation during a fast dump. This is done by calculating the resistance of the coils during the dump. With the maximum resistance, the maximum temperature can be estimated, which says something about the enthalpy of ...

  9. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof

  10. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhygadlo, R.; Schwarz, C.; Belias, A.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-05-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. Experiments concerning charmonium spectroscopy, the search for hybrids and glueballs and the interaction of hidden and open charm particles with nucleons and nuclei will be performed with antiproton beams impinging on hydrogen or nuclear targets. Cooled beams allow the precision scan of resonances in formation experiments. The momentum range of the antiproton beam between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c tests predictions by perturbation theory and will reveal deviations originating from strong QCD . An excellent hadronic particle identification will be accomplished by DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters. The design for the barrel region is based on the successful BaBar DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. DIRC designs based on different radiator geometries with several focusing options were studied in simulation. The performance of each design was characterized in terms of photon yield and single photon Cherenkov angle resolution. Selected design options were implemented in prototypes and tested with hadronic particle beams at GSI and CERN.

  11. Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.

  12. Fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yanqiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Yemin; Xiang, Nong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows are investigated by solving the modified Grad-Shafranov equation numerically in the cylindrical coordinate system. For normal equilibrium configurations with geometry and profiles similar to usual tokamaks with no flow, it is found that the effect of flow is to lead to an outward shift of the magnetic flux surfaces, together with the profiles of pressure, and mass and current densities. The shifts could become significant when the toroidal flow Mach number exceeds 0.5. For non-conventional current profiles, even for the usual tokamak geometry, novel current reversal equilibrium configurations may result, sometimes with changed topology in the poloidal flux function. This change in the topology of plasma equilibrium can be attributed to the large toroidal flow. The computed results may correspond to situations of intense tangential injection during the low toroidal current phase in expected experimental situations.

  13. Mechanical Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, Fernando

    2014-07-17

    This paper is about the mechanical design of superconducting accelerator magnets. First, we give a brief review of the basic concepts and terms. In the following sections, we describe the particularities of the mechanical design of different types of superconducting accelerator magnets: solenoids, costheta, superferric, and toroids. Special attention is given to the pre-stress principle, which aims to avoid the appearance of tensile stresses in the superconducting coils. A case study on a compact superconducting cyclotron summarizes the main steps and the guidelines that should be followed for a proper mechanical design. Finally, we present some remarks on the measurement techniques.

  14. Quantum mechanics of toroidal anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    We consider a toroidal solenoid with an electric charge attached to it. It turns out that statistical properties of the wave function describing interacting toroidal anions depend on both their relative position and orientation. The influence of the particular gauge choice on the exchange properties of the wave function is studied. 30 refs.; 6 figs

  15. Device for supporting a toroidal coil in a toroidal type nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Hakaru; Sato, Hiroshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To easily manufacture a center block having a strength sufficient to withstand an electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of a toroidal coil and to increase its reliability. Structure: In a device for supporting toroidal coils wherein the electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of a plurality of toroidal coils arranged in toroidal fashion, the contact surface between the toroidal coil and the center block is arranged parallel to the center axis of toroidal so as to receive the electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of the toroidal coil as the component of force in a radial direction. (Taniai, N.)

  16. Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 muon barrel trigger during the Run 2 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00404546; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range |η| < 1.05 for a total surface of more than 4000 m 2 and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates according to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 μs. The measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking are here presented.

  17. The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hanson, G.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

    2008-02-01

    The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm. The TRT barrel covers the central pseudo-rapidity region |η|< 1, and the TRT while endcaps cover the forward and backward eta regions. These TRT systems provide a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This paper describes the recently-completed construction of the TRT Barrel detector, including the quality control procedures used in the fabrication of the detector.

  18. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  19. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0barrels cover the region 0.8<|h|<1.7.

  20. Superconducting magnets for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for fusion reactor applications are being developed in the U.S., Europe, Japan and the USSR. A substantial technological base already exists, but magnets for fusion face special problems and strong incentives for higher performance. In the U.S. high-field magnets for mirrors are being addressed by construction of the superconducting (NbTi) MFTF and by Nb 3 Sn conductor development. Large toroidal field magnets for tokamaks are being developed through the Large Coil Program, which involves design and construction of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn coils by six industrial teams, three in the U.S. and three in other countries

  1. The ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapetti, G; Petrolo, E; Rosati, S; Spila, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, S; Zanello, L; 12th Workshop on Electronics For LHC and Future Experiments

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment uses a system of three concentric Resistive Plate Chambers detectors layers for the level-1 muon trigger in the air-core barrel toroid region. The trigger classifies muons within different programmable transverse momentum ranges, and tags the identified tracks with the corresponding bunch crossing number. The algorithm looks for hit coincidences within different detector layers inside the programmed geometrical road which defines the transverse momentum cut. The on-detector electronics providing the trigger and detector readout functionalities collects input signals coming from the RPC front-end. Because of the different time-of-flights and cables and optical fibres lengths, signals have to be adjusted in time in order to be correctly aligned before being processed. Programmable delay logics are provided in the trigger and readout system to allow for time adjustment, for hit signals as well as for LHC Timing, Trigger and Control signals. The trigger calibration provides the set of numbers...

  2. Equivelar toroids with few flag-orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, José; Montero, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    An $(n+1)$-toroid is a quotient of a tessellation of the $n$-dimensional Euclidean space with a lattice group. Toroids are generalizations of maps in the torus on higher dimensions and also provide examples of abstract polytopes. Equivelar toroids are those that are induced by regular tessellations. In this paper we present a classification of equivelar $(n+1)$-toroids with at most $n$ flag-orbits; in particular, we discuss a classification of $2$-orbit toroids of arbitrary dimension.

  3. Test up to 80 kA of an Al-Stabilized NbTi Cable With the Upgraded Saclay Superconducting Transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Berriaud, C; Donati, A; Gharib, A; Peiro, G; Willering, G

    2014-01-01

    An ATLAS Barrel Toroid conductor was tested in the Saclay High Current Test Facility. The conductor is a Nb-Ti Rutherford cable imbedded in a high purity aluminum stabilizer. The conductor's width was reduced from 57 mm to 30 mm in order to be able to use an existing sample holder. We tried to measure the critical current in background fields of up to 3 T. The field was produced by a 0.8 m long superconducting dipole magnet. The test station was equipped with a superconducting transformer transferring maximum primary and secondary currents of respectively 174 A and 80 kA. The secondary current was measured with flux coils and with a superconducting Direct Control Current Transducer (DCCT), a modified version of the ``Macc+{''} 600 A commercial DCCT from Hitec, which was operated at currents of up to 57 kA. This paper reports on the performance of the test station, on the results of the quench current measurements performed on the stabilized ATLAS conductor and on the difficulties to measure the critical curre...

  4. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November.

  5. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  6. Functional testing of the ATLAS SCT barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT (semiconductor tracker) comprises 2112 barrel modules mounted on four concentric barrels of length 1.6m and up to 1m diameter, and 1976 endcap modules supported by a series of nine wheels at each end of the barrel region, giving a total silicon area of 60m 2 . The assembly of modules onto each of the four barrel structures has recently been completed. In addition to functional tests made during the assembly process, each completed barrel was operated in its entirety. In the case of the largest barrel, with an active silicon area of approximately 10m 2 , this corresponds to more than one million instrumented channels. This paper documents the electrical performance of the four individual SCT barrels. An overview of the readout chain is also given

  7. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  8. Toroidal helical quartz forming machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed

  9. Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)

  10. First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Transporting the coil to the heating table using a special lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia in preparation for the 'bladderisation' operation.

  11. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  12. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, R.J.; Allison, J.; Ashton, P.; Bahan, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Banks, J.N.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Beeston, C.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clowes, S.G.; Davies, O.W.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Hinde, P.S.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Lafferty, G.D.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McGowan, R.F.; Moss, M.W.; Murphy, P.G.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Dowd, A.J.P.; Pawley, S.J.; Phillips, P.D.; Richards, G.E.; Skillman, A.; Stephens, K.; Tresillian, N.J.; Wood, N.C.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989. ((orig.))

  13. Lowering the first ATLAS toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN will consist of eight toroid magnets, the first of which was lowered into the cavern in these images on 26 October 2004. The coils are supported on platforms where they will be attached to form a giant torus. The platforms will hold about 300 tonnes of ATLAS' muon chambers and will envelop the inner detectors.

  14. RF breakdown by toroidal helicons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohy- drodynamic (EMHD) frequency ...

  15. RF breakdown by toroidal helicons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) frequency regime is fed to ...

  16. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)

  17. Collapse analysis of toroidal shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation

  18. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  19. Performances of the Coincidence Matrix ASIC of the ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Pastore, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, S

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Barrel Level-1 muon trigger handles data coming from the Resistive Plate Chamber detectors, structured in three concentric layers inside the air-core barrel toroid. The trigger classifies muons within different programmable transverse momentum thresholds, and tags the identified tracks with the corresponding bunch crossing number. The algorithm looks for hit coincidences within different detector layers inside the programmed geometrical road which defines the transverse momentum cut. The Coincidence Matrix ASIC implements the trigger algorithm and the readout of the RPC detector, processing hit signals coming from up to four detector layers. It finds muon track candidates and generates the output trigger patterns with a latency of a few 25 ns bunch crossing periods, and produces and time tags the readout hit patterns. Due to the different performance needs and limitations in the maximum power dissipation and technology, the CMA input pipeline and trigger logic and the time interpolator run at the wo...

  20. TRT and SCT barrels merge

    CERN Multimedia

    Wells, P S

    2006-01-01

    The SCT barrel was inserted in the TRT on 17 February, just missing Valentine's day. This was a change of emphasis for the two detectors. In the preceeding months there had been a lot of focus on testing their performance. The TRT had been observing cosmic rays through several sectors of the barrel, and all the modules on each of the four layers of the SCT had been characterised prior to integration. In parallel, the engineering teams, lead by Marco Olcese, Andrea Catinaccio, Eric Perrin, Neil Dixon, Iourii Gusakov, Gerard Barbier and Takashi Kohriki, had been preparing for this critical operation. Figure 1: Neil Dixon and Marco Olcese verifying the final alignment The two detectors had to be painstakingly aligned to be concentric to within a millimetre. The SCT was held on a temporary cantilever stand, and the TRT in the ID trolley had to inch over it. Finally the weight of the SCT was transferred to the rails on the inside of the TRT itself. The SCT services actually protruded a little outside the oute...

  1. Renovating a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to renovate a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault with steel diagonals In 1956 two workshops, varying in height and span, were built in Wormerveer, The Netherlands. Both workshops were roofed with a concrete barrel vault with a thickness of 110 mm. The cylindrical vaults

  2. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  3. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  4. Experimental studies of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) device is a plasma device with a Marshall-gun generated, low aspect ratio toroidal plasma. The device is capable of producing spheromak-type discharges and may, with some modification, produce low-aspect ratio tokamak configurations. A unique aspect of this experimenal devie is its large lower hybrid (LH) heating system, which consists of two 450MHz klystron tubes generating 20 megawatts each into a brambilla-type launching structure. Successful operation with one klystron at virtually full power (18 MW) has been accomplished with 110 μs pulse length. A second klystron is currently installed in its socket and magnet but has not been added to the RF drive system. This report describes current activities and accomplishments and describes the anticipated results of next year's activity

  5. Transporting the first ATLAS toroid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The first coil for the ATLAS toroid magnet is transported from its assembly hall at the CERN Meyrin site to the storage hall above the ATLAS cavern. This involves driving the massive transportation vehicle first through the Meyrin site and then across a main road only metres from the France-Swiss border. Eight magnets in total will be transported in this way before being lowered into the experimental cavern where they will be mounted in a huge ring surrounding the detector.

  6. Elastic stability and vibration of toroidal magnets for fusion reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, F.C.; Swanson, C.

    1975-09-01

    The vibration and elastic stability of a set of discrete superconducting toroidal field magnets arranged to form a ''bumpy'' torus is examined. The mutual destabilizing magnetic forces between magnet pairs are calculated using a numerical differential inductance technique. It is shown that the mutual attractive magnetic forces can produce elastic buckling of the entire toroidal set. The vibration modes of the set are also found as functions of the coil current. The response of the set of magnets to an earthquake type motion of the toroidal base is calculated. The calculations have been incorporated in a computer code which accompanies the report. Measurements are made of the lateral stiffness of a flexible, planar, superconducting coil between two rigid coils in series. These tests show a dramatic decrease in the natural bending frequency with subsequent elastic instability or ''buckling'' at a critical value of the current in the coils. These observations support a magnetoelastic analysis which shows that proposed designs, of toroidal field coils for Tokamak fusion reactors, have insufficient lateral support for mechanical stability of the magnets

  7. Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1971-08-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs

  8. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  9. Track reconstruction in BES barrel shower counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haiwen; Wang Taijie; Mao Zepu; Li Jin; Li Weiguo; Yan Wuguang; Chen Guangpei; Liu Jing; Li Peiqin; Rong Gang; Yuan Ye; Liu Hongtao

    1999-01-01

    The track reconstruction of BES barrel shower counter was presented and the shower finding, pattern recognition technique were described. The reconstruction results from experimental data were presented and discussed

  10. Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force will soon have to contend with gun barrel erosion issues arising from the use of new low-vulnerability gun propellants, the acquisition of new ammunition and gun systems...

  11. Work on the ATLAS semiconductor tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Precision work is performed on the semiconductor tracker barrel of the ATLAS experiment. All work on these delicate components must be performed in a clean room so that impurities in the air, such as dust, do not contaminate the detector. The semiconductor tracker will be mounted in the barrel close to the heart of the ATLAS experiment to detect the path of particles produced in proton-proton collisions.

  12. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  13. First SCT Barrel arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R

    Mid-January saw the arrival at CERN of Barrel #3, the first of four SCT barrels. The barrels are formed as low-mass cylinders of carbon fibre skins on a honeycomb carbon core. They are manufactured in industry and then have all the final precision supports added and the final geometric metrology carried out at Geneva University. Barrel #3, complete with its 384 silicon detector modules, arrived by road from Oxford University in England where the modules were mounted using a purpose-built robot. The modules had been selected from the output of all four barrel module building clusters (in Japan, Scandinavia, USA and the UK). Since Barrel #3 will be exposed to high radiation levels within the tracker volume, these modules, representing over half a million readout channels, have been extensively tested at their operational temperature of around -25 degrees Celcius and at voltages of up to 500V. The dangers of shipping such a fragile component of ATLAS were apparent to all and considerable attention was focused...

  14. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  15. Resource Review Board Celebrates the Magnet and Liquid Argon Barrel Tests in Hall 180

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2004-01-01

    Address by the Director-General, R. Aymar, in front of the barrel cryostat. On 25th October 2004 many RRB delegates and guests, ATLAS National Contact Physicists, and colleagues from far and from CERN working on the Liquid Argon calorimeter and the magnet system were gathering in Hall 180 to celebrate the major milestones reached during the past months in this hall: the successful cold tests of the first barrel toroid coil, of the solenoid, and of the barrel Liquid Argon calorimeter. About 250 people spent a relaxing evening after the speeches by the Director-General R. Aymar and by the spokesperson who gave the following address: 'It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here in Hall 180 in the name of the ATLAS Collaboration! With a few words I would like to recall why we are actually here today to share, what I hope, is a relaxed and joyful moment. To concentrate it all in one sentence I could say: To thank cordially all the main actors for the enormous work accomplished here over many years,...

  16. Performances of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon barrel trigger during the Run-II data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Sessa, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range $|\\eta|<1.05$ for a total surface of more than $4000\\ m^2$ and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates with respect to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing number. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 $\\mu s$. The detailed measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and of the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking is here presented.

  17. Commercial tokamak reactors with resistive toroidal field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombery, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Scaling relations and design concepts are developed for commercial tokamak reactors that use watercooled copper toroidal field (TF) magnets. Illustrative parameters are developed for reactors that are scaled up in size from LITE test reactor designs, which use quasi-continuous copper plate magnets. Acceptably low magnet power requirements may be attainable in a moderate beta (β = 0.065) commercial reactor with a major radius of 6.2 m. The shielding thickness and magnet size are substantially reduced relative to values in commercial reactors with superconducting magnets. Operation at high beta (β = 0.14) leads to a reduction in reactor size, magnet-stored energy, and recirculating power. Reactors using resistive TF magnets could provide advantages of physically smaller devices, improved maintenance features, and increased ruggedness and reliability

  18. Interactions of toroidally coupled tearing modes in the KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gnan; Yun, Gunsu S.; Woo, Minho; Park, Hyeon K.; KSTAR team2, the

    2018-03-01

    The evolutions of toroidally coupled radially-distant and radially-adjacent tearing modes are visualized in 2D in detail on the Korea superconducting tokamak for advanced research. The coupled tearing modes are in-phase on the out-board mid-plane and become destabilized or compete with each other depending on their spatial separation. When two coupled tearing modes are far apart, both are increasingly destabilized. On the other hand, when they become close to each other, one becomes stabilized while the other becomes destabilized. In such cases, an additional tearing mode is often formed on outer rational flux surface and the three tearing modes compete. The competitions suggest that spatial overlap (merging) of coupled magnetic islands is difficult.

  19. Manufacturing aspects of toroidal field magnets for tokamak power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The manufacturing aspects of two different toroidal field (TF) coils are discussed briefly. The first of these is the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) TF coil, which is presently in the design phase at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The second coil configuration reflects a reference design for a large experimental power reactor (EPR) which originated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This configuration was used by the Grumman Aerospace Corporation of Bethpage, N.Y. as the basis for an investigation of the manufacturing aspects of a large superconducting TF coil, the results of which are summarized. For each of these coils, the major characteristics of the design are first briefly described and the significant manufacturing aspects are then summarized

  20. Modeling the shape of a noncircular toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Marshall, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    Operating and transient forces acting on toroidal field coils may cause conductors and insulation to slide or break and may lead to quenching of the coil. Therefore, it is essential that each individual turn of the coil be modeled for detailed analysis of the coil structure. For this, a special purpose computer program is needed. As a first step in developing such a computer program, the authors present a finite element analysis of a turn of noncircular coil subjected to electromagnetic loading. A turn of superconducting coil is represented by a thin ring modeled by curved finite elements. Of the several curved beam elements reported in the literature, the strain element with two nodes, six degrees-of-freedom, and constant radius of curvature converges fastest for thin-deep arches whose geometrical characteristics are similar to those of a turn of toroidal field coil. They present an algorithm to model a noncircular ring using the number of strain elements satisfying the continuity of slopes at their nodes. This paper verifies the finite element model of a coil shape subjected to a toroidal magnetic field by solving three problems: circular and elliptic coils with the same inner and outer radii, a D-shaped coil, and a compound coil consisting of C- and D-shaped segments. The first problem shows that the resultant vertical force in the upper half of the coil is independent of coil shape. The remaining two problems calculate stresses that represent the constant tension in the D-shaped coil and in each segment of the compound coil. The results of the three problems compare well with the analytical results

  1. Electrostatics of a Family of Conducting Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2009-01-01

    An exact solution is found for the electrostatic potential of a family of conducting charged toroids. The toroids are characterized by two lengths "a" and "b", with "a" greater than or equal to "2b". They are closed, with no hole in the "doughnut". The results are obtained by considering the potential of two equal charges, displaced from the…

  2. Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round-trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code has been written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have 'D' shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. This paper presents designs for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 t to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils have been divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport. 8 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Superconducting Coset Topological Fluids in Josephson Junction Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M C; Trugenberger, C A; Sodano, Pasquale; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the superconducting ground state of planar Josephson junction arrays is a P- and T-invariant coset topological quantum fluid whose topological order is characterized by the degeneracy 2 on the torus. This new mechanism for planar superconductivity is the P- and T-invariant analogue of Laughlin's quantum Hall fluids. The T=0 insulator-superconductor quantum transition is a quantum critical point characterized by gauge fields and deconfined degrees of freedom. Experiments on toroidal Josephson junction arrays could provide the first direct evidence for topological order and superconducting quantum fluids.

  4. Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.

    1992-09-23

    The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.

  5. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leon, Francisco [New York Univ. (NYU), Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2014-08-01

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of single-phase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014. The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 k

  6. Quasistatic evolution of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgro, A.G.; Spencer, R.L.; Lilliequist, C.

    1981-01-01

    Some results are presented of simulations of the post formation evolution of compact toroids. The simulations were performed with a 1-1/2 D transport code. Such a code makes explicit use of the fact that the shapes of the flux surfaces in the plasma change much more slowly than do the profiles of the physical variables across the flux surfaces. Consequently, assuming that the thermodynamic variables are always equilibrated on a flux surface, one may calculate the time evolution of these profiles as a function of a single variable that labels the flux surfaces. Occasionally, during the calculation these profiles are used to invert the equilibrium equation to update the shapes of the flux surfaces. In turn, these shapes imply certain geometric cofficients, such as A = 2 >, which contain the geometric information required by the 1-D equations

  7. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

  8. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  9. Design study of toroidal magnets for tokamak experimental power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekly, Z.J.J.; Lucas, E.J.

    1976-12-01

    This report contains the results of a six-month study of superconducting toroidal field coils for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to be built in the late 1980s. The designs are for 8 T and 12 T maximum magnetic field at the superconducting winding. At each field level two main concepts were generated; one in which each of the 16 coils comprising the system has an individual vacuum vessel and the other in which all the coils are contained in a single vacuum vessel. The coils have a D shape and have openings of 11.25 m x 7.5 m for the 8 T coils and 10.2 m x 6.8 m for the 12 T coils. All the designs utilize rectangular cabled conductor made from copper stabilized Niobium Titanium composite which operates at 4.2 K for the 8 T design and at 2.5 K for the 12 T design. Manufacturing procedures, processes and schedule estimates are also discussed

  10. The CMS Barrel Muon trigger upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triossi, A.; Sphicas, P.; Bellato, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Ventura, S.; Ruiz, J.M. Cela; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Tobar, A. Navarro; Fernandez, I. Redondo; Ferrero, D. Redondo; Sastre, J.; Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Mallios, S.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase1 will impose tighter constraints for rate reduction in order to maintain high efficiency in the CMS Level1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors: Drift Tubes, Resistive Plate Chambers and Outer Hadron Calorimeter. It arranges the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent in multiple copies to the track finders. Results from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown.

  11. Numerical determination of axisymmetric toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Dalhed, H.E.; Greene, J.M.

    1978-07-01

    Numerical schemes for the determination of stationary axisymmetric toroidal equilibria appropriate for modeling real experimental devices are given. Iterative schemes are used to solve the elliptic nonlinear partial differential equation for the poloidal flux function psi. The principal emphasis is on solving the free boundary (plasma-vacuum interface) equilibrium problem where external current-carrying toroidal coils support the plasma column, but fixed boundary (e.g., conducting shell) cases are also included. The toroidal current distribution is given by specifying the pressure and either the poloidal current or the safety factor profiles as functions of psi. Examples of the application of the codes to tokamak design at PPPL are given

  12. Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations

  13. Rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.

    1995-01-01

    The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three dimensional and plane fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localised below the plane fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension. (author)

  14. Precise mapping of the magnetic field in the CMS barrel yoke using cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2010-03-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  15. Precise Mapping of the Magnetic Field in the CMS Barrel Yoke using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; 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Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; 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Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  16. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  17. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  18. First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Use of the overhead travelling crane to hoist the coil up and then tilt it over, the coil frame's metal feet being used as rotational pivots, supporting half the coil's weight. Once it has been turned over, the coil, now with only half the frame, is transported to the heating table using a special lifting gant...

  19. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  20. Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

  1. LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show that over half the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson-scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced, indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport is needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low-temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given. (author)

  2. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  3. ATLAS barrel hadron calorimeter module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    1995-01-01

    Here we presented the detailed description of the 6-meter module modification design version. The basic idea is to use - for the module assembly - 19 glued 30-cm thick sub modules. The sub module design, 6 m module assembling technology, the auxiliary assembling device are presented; also described: different options of the module's slinging when barrel assembling; modules packing and transporting. 22 figs

  4. Significant genetic differentiation among meroplanktonic barrel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined genetic variation and divergence within the meroplanktonic barrel jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo in the Mediterranean Sea; specific sampling areas were the northern Adriatic, western Mediterranean and Tunisian coast. A total of 19 sampling sites and 68 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ...

  5. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  6. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case

  7. Relationships between solid spherical and toroidal harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Majic, Matt; Ru, Eric C. Le

    2018-01-01

    We derive new relationships expressing solid spherical harmonics as series of toroidal harmonics and vice versa. The expansions include regular and irregular spherical harmonics, ring and axial toroidal harmonics of even and odd parity about the plane of the torus. The expansion coefficients are given in terms of a recurrence relation. As an example application we apply one of the expansions to express the potential of a charged conducting torus on a basis of spherical harmonics.

  8. Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.

    1985-11-01

    In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.

    1985-11-01

    In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs

  10. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.

    1989-12-01

    When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II

  11. Toroidal field coil torque structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A torque structure is disclosed particularly suitable for utilization in a power reactor of the Tokamak-type, and operable therein for purposes of providing support for the toroidal field (TF) coils that comprise one of the major operating components of such a Tokamak power reactor. The subject torque structure takes the form of a frame structure that is operable to enable torque loads acting on the TF coils to be equilibrated as close to the area of force application as feasible. The aforesaid torque structure includes an intercoil structure composed of spacer wedges that are interposed between each adjacent pair of TF coils. The spacer wedges, in turn, consist of bearing plates positioned between the TF coils so as to be in contacting relation therewith and a number of cross plates that are cooperatively associated with the bearing plates so as to form therewith a rigid assembly. The intercoil structure is affixed to a segmented, membrane shell that surrounds, encloses and supports the TF coil frames. Access is had to the interior of the shell through an opening formed for this purpose in a reinforced portion of the shell. Eddy current losses are minimized by insulating the joints formed at the juncture of adjoining segments of the shell

  12. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak experimental power reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended

  13. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV

  14. Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.

    1993-01-01

    Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in TFTR L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities

  15. First half of CMS inner tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the CMS inner tracker barrel is seen in this image consisting of three layers of silicon modules which will be placed at the centre of the CMS experiment at the LHC in CERN. Laying close to the interaction point of the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions, the silicon used here must be able to survive high doses of radiation and a 4 T magnetic field without damage.

  16. Alignment of the MSGC barrel support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kari, Tammi; Miikka, Kotamaki; Tommi, Vanhala; Antti, Onnela

    1999-01-01

    The MSGC barrel is a sub-part of the tracking system of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The mechanical support structure of the MSGC barrel consists of ladder-like support beams carrying the detector modules and of four disks supporting the ladders. The required alignment precision of the modules, a few tens of micrometers, is designed to be obtained by precise part manufacture and by careful measurement of the alignment during the assembly of the structure. In the paper the use of digital photogrammetry for the measurement of the alignment of the disks and for the structural verification is presented. Digital photogrammetry was chosen from a number of potential methods after a careful evaluation. The use of photogrammetry for the structural verification of a prototype is presented. The displacements were measured both of unloaded and loaded disk by using photogrammetry and linear displacement transducers for verification. The displacements obtained from the two measurement methods corresponded well, not only to each other, but also to the results given by finite element analysis. The structural verification will be done and the alignment procedure will be tested with a full-sized prototype of a half of the MSGC barrel. Preparations for the photogrammetry measurements are presented and the design of the required supplementary equipment is shown. (authors)

  17. Superconducting rotating electronic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Hui Yeong

    1989-04-01

    This book is divided into ten chapters, which handles summary of superconducting electronic machine, aspect of using of superconductor, superconducting direct current : Homopolar D. C. Machines, Drum machines, segmented slip-ring principle and carbon fibre brushes, superconducting alternating current turbine generator, design of superconducting alternating current machine, performance of superconducting alternating current machine, superconducting turbo generator by new rotor design, basic design of superconducting current generator, generator and power model, design of rotor and information of material property.

  18. Engineering design of superconducting magnets for a torsatron experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sciver, S.W.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Hilal, M.A.; Miller, C.; Shohet, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The design of superconducting magnets for a torsatron plasma confinement experiment are presented. A torsatron is a variation of a stellarator which requires half the helical windings and no toroidal field coil. Both the toroidal and poloidal fields are produced by a single set of helical winding. Due to the particular distribution of magnetic forces in the helical windings, the design of a torsatron configuration requires special consideration. In this paper, we present the force distribution on the helical coils. For the special case of uniformly distributed winding, magnetic forces and energy are calculated directly from formula for the inductance of toroids and dipoles. Significant reduction in the standard requirement can be achieved if the winding angle can be set at a particular value

  19. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  20. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  1. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  2. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  3. Effects of toroidicity on resistive tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Manickam, J.; Strauss, H.R.; Grimm, R.; McGuire, K.

    1983-03-01

    A reduced set of resistive MHD equations is solved numerically in three dimensions to study the stability of tokamak plasmas. Toroidal effects are included self-consistently to leading and next order in inverse aspect ratio, epsilon. The equations satisfy an energy integral. In addition, the momentum equation yields the Grad-Shafranov equation correct to all orders in epsilon. Low beta plasma are studied using several different q-profiles. In all cases, the linear growth rates are reduced by finite toroidicity. Excellent agreement with resistive PEST is obtianed. In some cases, toroidal effects lead to complete stabilization of the mode. Nonlinear results show smaller saturated island widths for finite aspect ratio compared to the cylindrical limit. If the current channel is wide enough so as to produce steep gradients towards the outside of the plasma, both the finite aspect ratio cases and cylindrical cases disrupt

  4. PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented

  5. Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, S.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt

  6. Toroidal Precession as a Geometric Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Burby and H. Qin

    2012-09-26

    Toroidal precession is commonly understood as the orbit-averaged toroidal drift of guiding centers in axisymmetric and quasisymmetric configurations. We give a new, more natural description of precession as a geometric phase effect. In particular, we show that the precession angle arises as the holonomy of a guiding center's poloidal trajectory relative to a principal connection. The fact that this description is physically appropriate is borne out with new, manifestly coordinate-independent expressions for the precession angle that apply to all types of orbits in tokamaks and quasisymmetric stellarators alike. We then describe how these expressions may be fruitfully employed in numerical calculations of precession.

  7. Comparison between the contribution of ellagitannins of new oak barrels and one-year-used barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro María

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the botanical origin (French oak: Quercus petraea and American oak: Quercus alba, toasting level and if the barrel were new of previously used during one year have been studied. Results indicate that French oak released significant higher amounts of ellagitannins than American oak. Toasting level also exert a great influence. The higher the toasting level the lower the ellagitannin concentration in wines. Finally, the use during one year of the barrels drastically decreases the ellagitannin concentration in wines. Consequently, it can be concluded that the origin of oak, the toasting level and especially the previous use of the barrels have a very significant influence on the final ellagitannin concentration in wine, and probably on its sensory impact.

  8. The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.

  9. New material equations for electromagnetism with toroid polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovik, V.M.; Martsenyuk, M.A.; Saha, B.

    1999-09-01

    With regard to the toroid contributions, a modified system of equations of electrodynamics moving continuous media has been obtained. Alternative formalisms to introduce the toroid moment contributions in the equations of electromagnetism has been worked out. The two four-potential formalism has been developed. Lorentz transformation laws for the toroid polarizations has been given. Covariant form of equations of electrodynamics of continuous media with toroid polarizations has been written. (author)

  10. Study of a multi-hadron facility for 'PEP' based on toroidal field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillantini, P.

    1974-01-01

    A facility based on magnetic fields with toroidal structure is proposed for the study of the e + e/sup /minus// annihilation into multi-hadrons. Evaluations are carried out for a scheme with three toroidal superconducting coils (the 'central' coil and two 'small θ' coils) covering a 96%*4π solid angle. Very forward angles are kept free for the possible addition of two other toroidal coils covering down to /approximately/0.7/degree/. The choice of the geometrical dimensions of the 'central' and 'small θ' coils is discussed. The evaluations are made for two different geometries of the central coil, one 'large' and the other one 'compact'. The weight of the coils is very low (.3--1.5t) while a /approximately/2.5 Tesla maximum field can be obtained (/approximately/3.5 Tesla for the 'compact' central coil). A complete detection apparatus requires for the central coil ('large' version) about 600 drift wires, 1000 proportional wires, 150 photomultipliers, 40 TOF channels; from another proposal the cost of a 'MPWC+ lead glass TAC' γ-detection system can be scaled to $650K or $1100K, depending on the possible inclusion of a high pressure gas cerenkov in the apparatus. Each 'small θ' spectrometer requires /approximately/1/4 of all this. The 'compact' coil reduces the cost for the central spectrometer by a factor of 1.5--2

  11. Toroidal groups line bundles, cohomology and quasi-Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kopfermann, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Toroidal groups are the connecting link between torus groups and any complex Lie groups. Many properties of complex Lie groups such as the pseudoconvexity and cohomology are determined by their maximal toroidal subgroups. Quasi-Abelian varieties are meromorphically separable toroidal groups. They are the natural generalisation of the Abelian varieties. Nevertheless, their behavior can be completely different as the wild groups show.

  12. On the stabilization of toroidal pinches by finite larmor radius effects and toroidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Weiland, J.

    1989-01-01

    The radial eigenvalue problem for internal modes in a large aspect ratio toriodal pinch has been solved. A particularly stable regime for a weak but nonzero toroidal magnetic field has been found. (31 refs.)

  13. Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.

    1989-01-01

    The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  15. Design of the TPX outboard toroidal limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment outboard limiter system incorporates the passive stabilizer plates, the ripple armor, the toroidal break and the support structures. These components are designed to withstand substantial steady state heat loads and high mechanical forces caused by plasma disruptions. The design of these components has been developed to deal with the challenging thermal, structural and remote handling requirements

  16. Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.

    1986-11-01

    The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)

  17. Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Mark; Encinosa, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Electron transport under bias is treated in tight-binding approximation using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Density-of-states D(E), transmissivity T(E), and current ISD are calculated through a (3,3) armchair nanotorus with laterally attached metallic leads and a magnetic field penetrating the toroidal plane. Plateaus in T(E) through the torus are observed as a function of both the relative angle between leads and magnetic flux. Initial computational studies performed with 1800 atoms and attached leads show substantial computational slowdown when increasing the system size by a factor of two. Results are generated by inverting the device Hamiltonian with a standard recursion method extended to account for unit cell toroidal closure. Significant computational speed-up is expected for a parallelized code on a multiprocessor computer cluster. The dependence of electronic features on torus size and torus curvature is tested for three tori with 900, 1800 and 3600 carbon atoms, respectively. References: 1. M. Jack and M. Encinosa, Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes with metallic leads. ArXiv: quant-ph/0709.0760. 2. M. Encinosa and M. Jack, Dipole and solenoidal magnetic moments of electronic surface currents on toroidal nanostructures. J. Comp.-Aided Mat. Design (Springer), 14 (1) (2007) 65 -- 71.

  18. Toroidal 12 cavity klystron : a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, A.B.R.

    2013-01-01

    A toroidal 12 cavity klystron is designed to provide with high energy power with the high frequency microwave RF- plasma generated from it. The cavities are positioned in clock hour positions. The theoretical modeling and designing is done to study the novel approach. (author)

  19. Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino τ v l M using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a v l D , which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2) L x U(1) Y .

  20. New Bridge Temperature Sensor for Superconducting Magnets and other Cryogenic Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudarev, Alexey; Bremer, J.; Mulder, T.; Mentink, M.; ter Harmsel, J.; ten Kate, H. H.J.

    A few hundred temperature sensors are used to monitor the temperature behavior of the gigantic ATLAS toroid superconducting magnet system during cool down and normal operation. In order to guarantee good sensitivity of temperature measurements in the range from liquid helium to room temperature, two

  1. Robotic mounting of ATLAS barrel SCT modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, R.B.; Viehhauser, G.; Wastie, R.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Kohriki, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Hara, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Barbier, G.; Clark, A.G.; Perrin, E.; Carter, A.A.; Mistry, J.; Morris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 2112 silicon detector modules of the barrel part of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) have been mounted on their carbon fibre support structure. Module insertion, placement and fixing were performed by robotic assembly tooling. We report on our experience with this assembly method. Part of the mounting sequence involves a partial survey of elements of the support structure which is needed to align the modules properly during insertion. An analysis of these data is used to estimate the positional accuracy of the robots

  2. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  3. Progress of the EM Barrel Presampler Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a separate detector which will be placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, in the same cryostat. It is made of 32×2 sectors, each of them being 3.1 m long, about 28 cm large and a few cm thick. Three countries are involved in its construction: France (ISN-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Universities: Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started ten years ago and the series production began at the end of the year 2000. Today two-thirds of the sectors are produced and validated. In November 2002, half the detector (i.e. 32 sectors), was inserted on the internal face of the first EM calorimeter wheel (see pictures). Despite the fact that only 0.4 mm was available between sectors, it was possible to insert them all without meeting major difficulties. This operation was led by a team of four people, the sectors being systematically tested after insertion in the wheel. The inserti...

  4. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  5. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  6. Modern aspects of superconductivity theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei; Aono, Shigeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Superconductivity remains one of the most interesting research areas in physics and stood as a major scientific mystery for a large part of this century. This book, written for graduate students and researchers in the field of superconductivity, discusses important aspects of the experiment and theory surrounding superconductivity. New experimental investigations of magnetic and thermodynamic superconducting properties of mesoscopic samples are explored with the help of recent developments in nanotechnologies and measurement techniques, and the results are predicted based upon theoretical mode

  7. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  8. Study of the electromagnetic characteristics of multiple HTSPPT modules based on the configuration of toroidal structure for inductive pulsed power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunshan; Zheng, Xinxin; Li, Haitao; Li, Zhenmei; Zhang, Tao; Jiao, Can

    2018-04-01

    High temperature superconducting pulsed power transformer (HTSPPT) is an important device for pulsed power supplies. It consists of a superconducting primary and a normal conducting secondary, which is used for energy storage and current amplification. The critical current density, the energy storage, and the coupling coefficient are three main performance indexes. They are affected by the geometry parameters of HTSPPT modules, such as the height and the width of the superconducting coils. In addition, the hoop stress of the HTSPPT coils is limited by the maximum tensile strength of high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. In this paper, Bi-2223/Ag HTS tapes are selected as the wire of primary inductor and the toroidal structure model is selected for multiple HTSPPT modules. The relationships between the geometry parameters of HTSPPT modules and the electrical performance are studied.

  9. 27 CFR 25.144 - Rebranding barrels and kegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rebranding barrels and kegs. 25.144 Section 25.144 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.144 Rebranding barrels and...

  10. Construction, assembly and tests of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Colas, Jacques; Delebecque, P; Di Ciaccio, L; El-Kacimi, M; Ghez, P; Girard, C; Gouanère, M; Goujdami, D; Jérémie, A; Jézéquel, S; Lafaye, R; Massol, N; Perrodo, P; Przysiezniak, H; Sauvage, G; Thion, J; Wingerter-Seez, I; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y; Alforque, R; Chen, H; Farrell, J; Gordon, H; Grandinetti, R; Hackenburg, R W; Hoffmann, A; Kierstead, J A; Köhler, J; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Ma, H; Makowiecki, D S; Müller, T; Norton, S; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, M; Rajagopalan, S; Rescia, S; Sexton, K; Sondericker, J; Stumer, I; Takai, H; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Driouichi, C; Hoummada, A; Hakimi, M; Knee, Michael; Stroynowski, R; Wakeland, B; Datskov, V I; Drobin, V; Aleksa, Martin; Bremer, J; Carli, T; Chalifour, M; Chevalley, J L; Djama, F; Ema, L; Fabre, C; Fassnacht, P; Gianotti, F; Gonidec, A; Hansen, J B; Hervás, L; Hott, T; Lacaste, C; Marin, C P; Pailler, P; Pleskatch, A; Sauvagey, D; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vuillemin, V; Wilkens, H; Albrand, S; Belhorma, B; Collot, J; de Saintignon, P; Dzahini, D; Ferrari, A; Fulachier, J; Gallin-Martel, M L; Hostachy, J Y; Laborie, G; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Martin, P; Muraz, J F; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Saboumazrag, S; Viret, S; Othegraven, R; Zeitnitz, C; Banfi, D; Carminati, L; Cavalli, D; Citterio, M; Costa, G; Delmastro, M; Fanti, M; Mandelli, L; Mazzanti, M; Tartarelli, F; Augé, E; Baffioni, S; Bonis, J; Bonivento, W; Bourdarios, C; de La Taille, C; Fayard, L; Fournier, D; Guilhem, G; Imbert, P; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Le Meur, G; Mencik, M; Noppe, J M; Parrour, G; Puzo, P; Rousseau, D; Schaffer, A C; Seguin-Moreau, N; Serin, L; Unal, G; Veillet, J J; Wicek, F; Zerwas, D; Astesan, F; Bertoli, W; Canton, B; Fleuret, F; Imbault, D; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Schwemling, P; Abouelouafa, M; Ben-Mansour, A; Cherkaoui, R; El-Mouahhidi, Y; Ghazlane, H; Idrissi, A; Bazizi, K; England, D; Glebov, V; Haelen, T; Lobkowicz, F; Slattery, P F; Belorgey, J; Besson, N; Boonekamp, M; Durand, D; Ernwein, J; Mansoulié, B; Molinie, F; Meyer, J P; Perrin, P; Schwindling, J; Taguet, J P; Zaccone, Henri; Lund-Jensen, B; Rydström, S; Tayalati, Y; Botchev, B; Finocchiaro, G; Hoffman, J; McCarthy, R L; Rijssenbeek, M; Steffens, J; Zdrazil, M; Braun, H M

    2006-01-01

    The construction and assembly of the two half barrels of the ATLAS central electromagnetic calorimeter and their insertion into the barrel cryostat are described. The results of the qualification tests of the calorimeter before installation in the LHC ATLAS pit are given.

  11. Construction, assembly and tests of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Delebecque, P.; Di Ciaccio, L.; El Kacimi, M.; Ghez, P.; Girard, C.; Gouanère, M.; Goujdami, D.; Jeremie, A.; Jézéquel, S.; Lafaye, R.; Massol, N.; Perrodo, P.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sauvage, G.; Thion, J.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Alforque, R.; Chen, H.; Farrell, J.; Gordon, H.; Grandinetti, R.; Hackenburg, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Kierstead, J.; Koehler, J.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Norton, S.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rehak, M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Sexton, K.; Sondericker, J.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Belymam, A.; Benchekroun, D.; Driouichi, C.; Hoummada, A.; Hakimi, M.; Knee, M.; Stroynowski, R.; Wakeland, B.; Datskov, V.; Drobin, V.; Aleksa, M.; Bremer, J.; Carli, T.; Chalifour, M.; Chevalley, J. L.; Djama, F.; Ema, L.; Fabre, C.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gonidec, A.; Hansen, J. B.; Hervas, L.; Hott, T.; Lacaste, C.; Marin, C. P.; Pailler, P.; Pleskatch, A.; Sauvage, D.; Vandoni, G.; Vuillemin, V.; Wilkens, H.; Albrand, S.; Belhorma, B.; Collot, J.; de Saintignon, P.; Dzahini, D.; Ferrari, A.; Fulachier, J.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Laborie, G.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Martin, P.; Muraz, J. F.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Saboumazrag, S.; Viret, S.; Othegraven, R.; Zeitnitz, C.; Banfi, D.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Citterio, M.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Tartarelli, F.; Augé, E.; Baffioni, S.; Bonis, J.; Bonivento, W.; Bourdarios, C.; De la Taille, C.; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Imbert, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Le Meur, G.; Mencik, M.; Noppe, J.-M.; Parrour, G.; Puzo, P.; Rousseau, D.; Schaffer, A.-C.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Unal, G.; Veillet, J.-J.; Wicek, F.; Zerwas, D.; Astesan, F.; Bertoli, W.; Canton, B.; Fleuret, F.; Imbault, D.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Schwemling, Ph.; Abouelouafa, E. M.; Ben Mansour, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; El Mouahhidi, Y.; Ghazlane, H.; Idrissi, A.; Bazizi, K.; England, D.; Glebov, V.; Haelen, T.; Lobkowicz, F.; Slattery, P.; Belorgey, J.; Besson, N.; Boonekamp, M.; Durand, D.; Ernwein, J.; Mansoulié, B.; Molinié, F.; Meyer, J. P.; Perrin, P.; Schwindling, J.; Taguet, J. P.; Zaccone, H.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Rydström, S.; Tayalati, Y.; Botchev, B.; Finocchiaro, G.; Hoffman, J.; McCarthy, R. L.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Steffens, J.; Zdrazil, M.; Braun, H. M.

    2006-03-01

    The construction and assembly of the two half barrels of the ATLAS central electromagnetic calorimeter and their insertion into the barrel cryostat are described. The results of the qualification tests of the calorimeter before installation in the LHC ATLAS pit are given.

  12. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.; Leeuw, de Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A.J.; Cleary, Daniel F.R.; Voogd, de Nicole J.

    2017-01-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these

  13. Shielding and synchrotron radiation in toroidal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Stupakov

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new approach to the calculation of the synchrotron radiation in a toroidal vacuum chamber. Using a small parameter ϵ=sqrt[a/R], where a is the characteristic size of the cross section of the toroid and R is the bending radius, we simplify Maxwell’s equations assuming that the characteristic frequency of the modes ω∼c/aϵ and neglect terms of higher order in ϵ. For a rectangular cross section of the waveguide, we find an analytical solution of the equations and analyze their asymptotics at very high frequency. We then obtain an equation which gives radiation into each synchronous mode. We demonstrate the flexibility of the new method by calculating the frequencies and the loss factors for the lowest modes in square and round waveguides.

  14. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  15. Toroidal plasma response to external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Toroidal plasmas respond to external driving fields in a way which is determined by the coupling of these fields to the spectrum of the plasma. We have extended the toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamic spectral code, SPECTOR, to include the effects of external fields on tokamak-like plasmas. The code is capable of determining both the stable and unstable modes and also the response to helical applied fields with arbitrary mode structure. Resistivity changes the continuous regions of the ideal MHD spectrum into a set of discrete eigenvalues lying along lines in the complex frequency plane with a spacing which is related to the inverse of the square root of the magnetic Reynolds number. Results are presented which relate the spectral distribution to the plasma response as a function of frequency. (author)

  16. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  17. Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized

  18. Kinetic Damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Berk, H.L.; Pletzer, A.

    2005-01-01

    The damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in JET plasmas is investigated by using a reduced kinetic model. Typically no significant damping is found to occur near the center of the plasma due to mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. In contrast, continuum damping from resonance near the plasma edge may be significant, and when it is, it gives rise to damping rates that are compatible with the experimental observations

  19. Analysis of gun barrel rifling twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Chen, Guangsong; Qian, Linfang; Liu, Taisu

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of gun barrel rifling twist, the constraint relation between rifling and projectile is investigated. The constraint model of rifling and projectile is established and the geometric relation between the twist and the motion of projectile is analyzed. Based on the constraint model, according to the rotating band that is fired, the stress and the motion law of the rotating band in bore are analyzed. The effects to rotating band (double rotating band or wide driving band) caused by different rifling (rib rifling, increasing rifling and combined rifling) are also investigated. The model is demonstrated by several examples. The results of numerical examples and the constraint mode show that the uncertainty factors will be brought in the increasing rifling and combined rifling during the projectile move in the bore. According to the amplitude and the strength of the twist acting on rotating band, the steady property of rotational motion of the projectile, the rib rifling is a better choose.

  20. The 2003 Tracker Inner Barrel Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Carrone, Enzo; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; De Filippis, Nicola; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Drouhin, Frédéric; Dutta, Suchandra; Giammanco, Andrea; Giassi, Alessandro; Giordano, Domenico; Kaminski, A; Macchiolo, Anna; Marchettini, Cristiano; Meschini, Marco; Mirabito, Laurent; My, Salvatore; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Paoletti, Simone; Radicci, Valeria; Ranieri, Riccardo; Segneri, Gabriele; Siegrist, Patrice; Silvestris, Lucia; Tricomi, Alessia; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Before starting the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) mass production, where the quality control tests can only be done on single components, an extensive collection of activities aiming at validating the tracker system functionality has been performed. In this framework, a final component prototype of the Inner Barrel part (TIB) of the SST has been assembled and tested in the INFN laboratories and then moved to CERN to check its behaviour in a 25~ns LHC-like particle beam. A set of preproduction single-sided silicon microstrip modules was mounted on a mechanical structure very similar to a sector of the third layer of the TIB and read out using a system functionally identical to the final one. In this note the system setup configuration is fully described and the results of the test, concerning both detector performance and system characteristics, are presented and discussed.

  1. Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, end losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma features are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong rf heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong rf heating and collisions. 37 refs

  2. ISX toroidal field coil design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussung, R.O.; Lousteau, D.C.; Johnson, N.E.; Weed, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Structural design and analysis aspects of the toroidal field coils for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) tokamak are discussed. The overall mechanical design of ISX is predicated on the ability to remove the upper segment of the toroidal field coils to allow access to the toroidal vacuum vessel. The high current, 120 kA, capability of the new 74 MW power supply, coupled with the modest field requirement of ISX, allows the use of room temperature copper coils. Seventy-two turns, grouped into 18 coils, generate a magnet field of 18 kG at the major radius of 90 cm. Finite element structural analysis codes were utilized to determine the distribution of stresses and deflections around a typical turn. Initial material distribution on a coil was sized using the two-dimensional program FEATS. The resulting coil design was then coupled to the center bucking and out-of-plane restraint systems utilizing the NASTRAN code. The boundary conditions for the analytical models used in the two programs were then iterated, reaching satisfactory agreement as to stress contours and location for the joints

  3. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  4. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  5. Double-barreled wet colostomy: urinary and fecal diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Dragutin M; Pavlov, Maja J; Ceranic, Miljan S; Masulovic, Dragan M; Popov, Ivan P; Micev, Marjan T

    2008-07-01

    Double-barreled wet colostomy represents simultaneous urinary and fecal surgical diversion performed most commonly after pelvic exenteration as a palliative procedure or after actinic damage. We report the structural and functional results of double-barreled wet colostomy with special attention to surgical technique, morbidity and functional results compared to those described in the available literature. We retrospectively followed 38 patients who underwent double-barreled wet colostomy at our institution from April 2003 to November 2007. The parameters were patient age and gender, the indication for double-barreled wet colostomy, postoperative morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay and functional assessment by excreting excretory urography. A total of 38 double-barreled wet colostomies were performed at our institution, including 24 following total pelvic exenteration, 14 without resection, 9 in inoperable tumor cases and 5 in actinic damage cases. The postoperative morbidity rate was 15.7% with no treatment related mortality. Two patients had late postoperative complications, including stenosis of the ureterocolonic anastomosis and conduit necrosis, respectively. In our experience double-barreled wet colostomy has an acceptable morbidity and mortality rate, is performed without technical difficulties and does not require prolonged operative time. Double-barreled wet colostomy represents the procedure of choice in patients who require concurrent urinary and fecal diversion.

  6. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  7. A 'rational' explanation of resonant surfaces in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.C.

    1983-05-01

    Resonant surfaces are of fundamental importance in toroidal plasmas, particularly in relation to stability theory. A simple explanation as to why these surfaces are 'resonant' is given in terms of the propagation of localized torsional Alfven and ion acoustic wave packets. These packets are guided along helical field lines in toroidal plasmas, leading to the formation of unstable standing waves on those field lines which close on themselves after one or more toroidal revolutions

  8. JT-60SA Toroidal Field Coils test cryostat development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamotton, Pierre, E-mail: pjamotton@ulg.ac.be [Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL), Université de Liège Avenue du Pré-Aily, B-4031 Angleur (Belgium); Wanner, Manfred [F4E Broader Fusion Development Dept., Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Massaut, Vincent [SCK/CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Génini, Laurent; Maksoud, Walid Abdel [CEA/DSM/IRFU CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Collin, Bill; Delrez, Christophe [Ateliers de la Meuse (ALM), Rue Ernest Solvay, 107, B-4000 Sclessin (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Large vacuum vessels. ► FEM mechanical design. ► Cryogenic thermal design. ► Full development process: design, manufacturing, assembly, test. -- Abstract: Within the Broader Approach Agreement, Fusion for Energy will deliver to the Japanese Atomic Energy Association, amongst other components, the 18 Toroidal Field Coils (TFCs) for the superconducting Tokamak JT-60SA [1]. These coils will be individually tested at cryogenic temperatures and at the nominal current in a test cryostat. This cryostat is provided as an in-kind contribution by Belgium and is being developed jointly with CEA-Saclay/France. The vessel is large, oval shaped with an overall length of 11 m, a width of 7.2 m and a height of 6.5 m. To reduce the heat load to the coils the cryostat is covered by LN{sub 2} cooled thermal shields. In addition to the cryostat, three test frames for the coils, the valve box vessel and the insulation vacuum system are also provided by Belgium. The Belgian contribution is design, manufacturing, assembly and test of the vacuum chamber, thermal shield and test frames by the Belgian company Ateliers de la Meuse (ALM), with the support of Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL). The TF coil test facility is assembled and the coil tests are performed by CEA/Saclay. The Belgian contribution, namely the design, manufacturing, assembly and test of the vacuum vessel, the thermal shields, and the test frames as well as of the vacuum pumping system are described in the presentation.

  9. Toroidal reactor designs as a function of aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Wesley, J.C.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Cheng, E.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a 'common basis' systems study of superconducting (SC) and normal-conducting (NC) DT-burning fusion power and materials testing reactor designs. Figures-of-merit for power and materials-testing reactors are respectively; projected cost-of-electricity (COE) and direct cost (DC). A common 0-D plasma modeling basis is used and the plasma geometry and engineering aspects of the SC and NC designs are treated in an equivalent manner that is consistent with the limitations of their respective magnet technologies and other design constraints. Aspect ratios A in the range 1.2≤A≤6 and plasma elongations in the range 1≤κ≤3 are explored and a MHD stability (beta limit) physics basis that accurately describes the increase of normalized beta β N and toroidal beta β T with a decreasing A and/or increasing κ is incorporated. With this MHD basis taken into account and with the usual reactor geometry, physics and engineering constraints and costing bases applied, the results of the study show that for power reactors the minimum COE is pointing towards lower A∼2 than generally found in previous studies. The minimum is broader with higher κ. For test reactors with similar fusion power output, the direct cost for NC options is significantly lower than for SC coil options. With the NC category, testing designs that combine intermediate A and higher elongation show promise as a D-T burn next step device that could provide scientific and testing data to support future SC and NC reactors. For example, a NC coil design with A∼2, κ=3 could produce 200 MW fusion power at 1.23MW/m 2 average neutron wall loading at a total direct cost of about $643 M. This NC design with a fissile blanket could also convert ∼1270kg of fission reactor waste per full power year. (author)

  10. A conceptual design of superconducting spherical tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Yoshio; Shinya, Kichiro; Tanaka, Yasutoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fusion reactor concept named 'JUST (Japanese Universities' Super Tokamak reactor)'. From the plasma confinement system to the power generation system is evaluated in this work. JUST design has features as follows: the superconducting magnet, the steady state operation with high bootstrap current fraction, the easy replacement of neutron damaged first wall, the high heat flux in the divertor, and the low cost (or high β). By winding the OH solenoid over the center stack of toroidal field coil, we have the low aspect ratio and the 80cm thick neutron shield to protect the superconducting center stack. JUST is designed by using the 0-D transport code under the assumption that the energy confinement time is 1.8 times of the IPB98(y,2) scaling. Main parameters are as follows: the major radius of 4.5m, the aspect ratio of 1.8, the elongation ratio of 2.5, the toroidal field of 2.36T, the plasma current of 18MA, the toroidal beta of 22%, the central electron and ion temperature of 15keV and the fusion thermal power of 2.4GW. By using the mercury heat exchanger and the steam turbine, the heat efficiency is 33% and the electric power is 0.74GW. (author)

  11. Electrical disruption in toroidal plasma of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.; Silva, C.A.B.; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The initial phase of ionization of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated using zero-dimensional model. The model describes the temporal evolution of plasma by spatial medium of particle density and temperature, on whole plasma volume. The energy and particle (electrons and ions) balance equations are considered. The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss involves ionization, Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating converter gives the initial voltage necessary to disruption. (M.C.K.)

  12. Prototype test for the PANDA barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhygadlo, Roman; Gerhardt, Andreas; Kalicy, Grzegorz; Krebs, Marvin; Lehmann, Dorothe; Schwarz, Carsten; Schwiening, Jochen; Belias, Anastasios; Traxler, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Barrel DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is designed to provide particle identification (PID) for the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt. It is based on the successful BABAR DIRC detector with several key improvements, such as focusing optics, fast timing, and a compact expansion volume. A large prototype was constructed and tested in a hadronic particle beam at CERN during the summer of 2015 to test the PID performance of different design options. The prototype included a fused silica radiator (either a narrow bar or a wide plate), an optional focusing lens, and a prism-shaped fused silica expansion volume. An array of microchannel-plate photomultiplier tubes measured the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons on 960 pixels. Data were collected for two radiator geometries and several types of focusing lenses at different beam momenta and polar angles. Results of the analysis as well as a comparison to the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  13. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Pablos, J.L.; Willmott, C.; Alberdi, J.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  14. Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel (PP 1074)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusch, Lawrence F

    2003-01-01

    ...) PP 1074 Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel. The program's goal was to develop an environmentally friendly process for depositing wear and erosion resistant materials onto gun bores replacing the current hazardous aqueous electro-deposition...

  15. Man-in-the-barrel syndrome: First CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavelle, J.; Lalanne, B.; Megret, M.

    1987-09-01

    A main-in-the-barrel syndrome occurred in a patient who suffered severe anaphylactic reaction after injection of chymopapain during chemonucleolysis. CT showed bilateral frontal watershed infarctions typically associated with this syndrome (Mohr and Sage).

  16. EXTERNAL BARREL TEMPERATURE OF A SMALL BORE OLYMPIC RIFLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Gladyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on changes in a rifle’s barrel temperature during shooting in a rhythm typical for practitioners of Olympic shooting sports are presented. Walther KK300 (cal. 5.6 mm, a typical rifle often used in Olympic competitions, R50 RWS ammunition and a high speed thermographic camera were used in the study. Altair version 5 software was used to process thermal images and a stationary wavelet transform was applied to denoise signals for all the studied points. It was found that the temperature of the rifle barrel does not exceed 0.3°C after one shot whereas the total temperature increase does not exceed 5°C after taking 40 shots and does not affect the position of the hitting point on a target. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the so-called “warming shots” are not done for barrel heating but for cleaning of remnants in the barrel.

  17. Hydraulics of the ITER toroidal field model coil cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollet, S.; Cloez, H.; Duchateau, J.L.; Serries, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The test facility built at CEA-Cadarache OTHELLO (Operating Test facility for HELium LOop) is described, and pressure drop measurements all performed with nitrogen under pressure at room temperature are presented. Tests have been carried out on a 5 meters straight section of the superconducting cable of the Toroidal Field Model Coil. For the bundle region, a fit in form of the general formula proposed by Katheder agrees well with measurements. For the central hole, the friction factor measurements suggest a plateau at practical Reynolds numbers ranging near 10 6 , which could be modelled with the empirical Colebrook formula with an equivalent relative rugosity. This behaviour is quite different from what has been used up to now in the design criteria of ITER. (author)

  18. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation

  19. Compact toroid formation, compression, and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, J.H.; Bell, D.E.; Baca, G.P.; Dearborn, M.E.; Douglas, M.R.; Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Holmes, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Lehr, F.M.; Marklin, G.J.; Mullins, B.W.; Peterkin, R.E.; Price, D.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Ruden, E.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Coffey, S.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Bird, G.

    1992-01-01

    Research on the formation, compression, and acceleration of milligram Compact Toroids (CTs) will be discussed. This includes experiments with 2-stage coaxial gun discharges and calculations including 2D- MHD. The CTs are formed by 110 μf, 70 KV, 2 MA, 3 μs rise time discharges into 2 mg gas puffs in a 90 cm inner diameter, 7.6 cm gap coaxial gun with approximately 0.15 Tesla of radial-axial initial magnetic field. Reconnection at the neck of the toroidal magnetized plasma bubble extracted from the first stage gun forms the CT. Trapping, relaxation to a minimum energy Taylor state is observed with magnetic probe arrays. Low energy (few hundred KJ, 2 MA) acceleration in straight coaxial geometry, and high energy acceleration using a conical compression stage are discussed. The Phillips Laboratory 1,300 μf, 120 KV, 9.4 MJ SHIVA STAR capacitor bank is used for the acceleration discharge. The charging and triggering of the 36-module bank has been modified to permit use of any multiple of three modules. Highlights of fast photography, current, voltage, magnetic probe array, optical spectroscopy, interferometry, VUV, and higher energy radiation data and 2D-MHD calculations will be presented. Considerably more detail is presented in companion papers

  20. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  1. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnack, Dalton D

    2006-05-16

    This document reports the successful completion of the OFES Theory Milestone for FY2005, namely, Perform parametric studies to better understand the edge physics regimes of laboratory experiments. Simulate at increased resolution (up to 20 toroidal modes), with density evolution, late into the nonlinear phase and compare results from different types of edge modes. Simulate a single case including a study of heat deposition on nearby material walls. The linear stability properties and nonlinear evolution of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas are investigated through numerical computation. Data from the DIII-D device at General Atomics (http://fusion.gat.com/diii-d/) is used for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, but edge parameters are varied to reveal important physical effects. The equilibrium with very low magnetic shear produces an unstable spectrum that is somewhat insensitive to dissipation coefficient values. Here, linear growth rates from the non-ideal NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) agree reasonably well with ideal, i.e. non-dissipative, results from the GATO global linear stability code at low toroidal mode number (n) and with ideal results from the ELITE edge linear stability code at moderate to high toroidal mode number. Linear studies with a more realistic sequence of MHD equilibria (based on DIII-D discharge 86166) produce more significant discrepancies between the ideal and non-ideal calculations. The maximum growth rate for the ideal computations occurs at toroidal mode index n=10, whereas growth rates in the non-ideal computations continue to increase with n unless strong anisotropic thermal conduction is included. Recent modeling advances allow drift effects associated with the Hall electric field and gyroviscosity to be considered. A stabilizing effect can be observed in the preliminary results, but while the distortion in mode structure is readily apparent at n=40, the growth rate is only 13% less than the non-ideal MHD

  2. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  3. Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A magnetized, low-β plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and ex- tensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ~1011 cm−3, ~4 × 1010 cm −3 and ~2 × 1010 cm −3 respectively.

  4. Thermal analysis of toroidal field coil in EAST at 3.7 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shi; Wu, Yu; Liu, Bo.; Long, Feng; Hao, Qiang W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this study, the thermal performance of toroidal field (TF) coil is studied at 3.7 K in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak device (EAST) to obtain the higher stability. • The structure and cooling process design of TF coil and case is described and the helium temperature in the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and case is evaluated during the 1.5 MA plasma disruptions. • Then, the experimental results of TF coil cooled at 3.7 K and discharged in 10 kA are shown including the thermal loss evaluation. • Finally, the thermal stability performance of TF coil is analyzed at 1.5 MA plasma current operations. - Abstract: The thermal performance of toroidal field (TF) coil is studied at 3.7 K in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak device (EAST) to obtain the higher stability for the higher plasma parameters operation. It is a good way to lower the operating temperature of TF coil to acquire the higher stability margin. This paper describes the structure and cooling process design of TF coil and case firstly. Based on the thermal load in the case, the thermal performance of the TF coil is performed at the plasma disruption state. The helium temperature in the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and case is evaluated during the 1.5 MA plasma disruptions. Then, the experimental results of TF coil which has been cooled at 3.7 K and discharged in 10 kA are shown including the thermal loss evaluation. Finally, the thermal stability performance of TF coil is analyzed according to the 3.7 K experimental results and the stability prediction is performed at 1.5 MA plasma current operations

  5. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  6. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  7. Formation of a compact toroid for enhanced efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozgovoy, A. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    We report here our results on the formation of a plasma configuration with the generic name of compact toroid (CT). A method of compact toroid formation to confine, heat and compress a plasma is investigated. Formation of a compact torus using an additional toroidal magnetic field helps to increase the plasma current to a maintainable level of the original magnetic field. We design the Compact Toroid Challenge (CTC) experiment in order to improve the magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a compact toroid. The level of the magnetic field immersed in the plasma about 70% of the primary field is achieved. The CTC device and scheme of high level capturing of magnetic flux are presented.

  8. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  9. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  10. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  11. The steady state in toroidal traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments at the JET, TORE SUPRA, TFTR and DIII-D reactors have corroborated calculations showing that an advanced tokamak configuration with an important self-generated current, a large plasma pressure and thus a large thermonuclear power density, could allow for the construction of fusion steady state reactors with reduced size and cost. Stellarators only need external superconductive coils for reaching the steady state, but it is essential to reduce in a large proportion the plasma self-generated current

  12. ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.L.; Baylor, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    Data management for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), a stellarator located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is provided by DMG, a locally developed, VAX-based software system. DMG is a data storage and retrieval software system that provides the user interface to ATF raw and analyzed data. Data are described in terms of data models and data types and are organized as signals into files, which are internally documented. The system was designed with user accessibility, software maintainability, and extensibility as primary goals. Extensibility features include compatibility with ATF as it moves from pulsed to steady-state operation and capability for use of the DMG system with experiments other than ATF. DMG is implemented as a run-time library of routines available as a shareable image. General-purpose and specialized data acquisition and analysis applications have been developed using the DMG system. This paper describes the DMG system and the interfaces to it. 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. The theory of toroidally confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    White, Roscoe B

    2014-01-01

    This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary. This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has ...

  14. Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.

  15. Distance statistics in large toroidal maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitter, E.

    2010-04-01

    We compute a number of distance-dependent universal scaling functions characterizing the distance statistics of large maps of genus one. In particular, we obtain explicitly the probability distribution for the length of the shortest non-contractible loop passing via a random point in the map, and that for the distance between two random points. Our results are derived in the context of bipartite toroidal quadrangulations, using their coding by well-labeled 1-trees, which are maps of genus one with a single face and appropriate integer vertex labels. Within this framework, the distributions above are simply obtained as scaling limits of appropriate generating functions for well-labeled 1-trees, all expressible in terms of a small number of basic scaling functions for well-labeled plane trees.

  16. Advanced toroidal facility vaccuum vessel stress analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammonds, C.J.; Mayhall, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex geometry of the Advance Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel required special analysis techniques in investigating the structural behavior of the design. The response of a large-scale finite element model was found for transportation and operational loading. Several computer codes and systems, including the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center Cray machines, were implemented in accomplishing these analyses. The work combined complex methods that taxed the limits of both the codes and the computer systems involved. Using MSC/NASTRAN cyclic-symmetry solutions permitted using only 1/12 of the vessel geometry to mathematically analyze the entire vessel. This allowed the greater detail and accuracy demanded by the complex geometry of the vessel. Critical buckling-pressure analyses were performed with the same model. The development, results, and problems encountered in performing these analyses are described. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Advanced Toroidal Facility vacuum vessel stress analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammonds, C.J.; Mayhall, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex geometry of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel required special analysis techniques in investigating the structural behavior of the design. The response of a large-scale finite element model was found for transportation and operational loading. Several computer codes and systems, including the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center Cray machines, were implemented in accomplishing these analyses. The work combined complex methods that taxed the limits of both the codes and the computer systems involved. Using MSC/NASTRAN cyclic-symmetry solutions permitted using only 1/12 of the vessel geometry to mathematically analyze the entire vessel. This allowed the greater detail and accuracy demanded by the complex geometry of the vessel. Critical buckling-pressure analyses were performed with the same model. The development, results, and problems encountered in performing these analyses are described

  18. Shear-dependant toroidal vortex flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorasani, Nariman Ashrafi; Haghighi, Habib Karimi [Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Pseudoplastic circular Couette flow in annulus is investigated. The flow viscosity is dependent on the shear rate, which directly affects the conservation equations that are solved in the present study by the spectral method in the present study. The pseudoplastic model adopted here is shown to be a suitable representative of nonlinear fluids. Unlike the previous studies, where only the square of shear rate term in the viscosity expression was considered to ease the numerical manipulations, in the present study takes the term containing the quadratic power into account. The curved streamlines of the circular Couette flow can cause a centrifugal instability leading to toroidal vortices, known as Taylor vortices. It is further found that the critical Taylor number becomes lower as the pseudoplastic effect increases. Comparison with existing measurements on pseudoplastic circular Couette flow results in good agreement.

  19. Nonideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and toroidal magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-05-01

    The marked divergence of experimentally observed plasma instability phenomena from the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics led in the early 1960s to the formulations of finite-resistivity stability theory. Beginning in the 1970s, advanced plasma diagnostics have served to establish a detailed correspondence between the predictions of the finite-resistivity theory and experimental plasma behavior - particularly in the case of the resistive kink mode and the tokamak plasma. Nonlinear resistive-kink phenomena have been found to govern the transport of magnetic flux and plasma energy in the reversed-field pinch. The other predicted finite-resistivity instability modes have been more difficult to identify directly and their implications for toroidal magnetic confinement are still unresolved.

  20. Design considerations for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb 3 Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the U.S. TIBER concept. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils

  1. Toroidal microinstability studies of high temperature tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1989-07-01

    Results from comprehensive kinetic microinstability calculations are presented showing the effects of toroidicity on the ion temperature gradient mode and its relationship to the trapped-electron mode in high-temperature tokamak plasmas. The corresponding particle and energy fluxes have also been computed. It is found that, although drift-type microinstabilities persist over a wide range of values of the ion temperature gradient parameter η i ≡ (dlnT i /dr)/(dlnn i /dr), the characteristic features of the dominant mode are those of the η i -type instability when η i > η ic ∼1.2 to 1.4 and of the trapped-electron mode when η i ic . 16 refs., 7 figs

  2. Compact toroid development, activity plan for spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the spheromak. This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of spheromak program planning. The first was completed in February 1983 and was reported in DOE/ER-0160, Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near-term (1987 to 1990) spheromak technical objectives

  3. ATLAS's superconducting solenoid takes up position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid was moved to its final destination on 16 January. It has taken up position opposite the ATLAS liquid argon barrel cryostat, which will house the electromagnetic calorimeter. All that remains to do now is to slide it into the insulation vacuum, this will be done in the next few weeks. Built by Toshiba, under responsibility of KEK in Japan, the central solenoid is 2.4 metres in diameter, 5.3 metres long and weighs 5.5 tonnes. "It will provide an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla that will deflect particles inside the inner detector," as Roger Ruber, on-site project coordinator, explains. The inner detector, which consists of three sub-detectors, will be installed inside the solenoid later. The solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead travelling crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid argon calorimeter, it will be inserted soon.

  4. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Petascale Parallelization of the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, Stephane; Adams, Mark; Carter, Jonathan; Oliker, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    The Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) is a global, three-dimensional particle-in-cell application developed to study microturbulence in tokamak fusion devices. The global capability of GTC is unique, allowing researchers to systematically analyze important dynamics such as turbulence spreading. In this work we examine a new radial domain decomposition approach to allow scalability onto the latest generation of petascale systems. Extensive performance evaluation is conducted on three high performance computing systems: the IBM BG/P, the Cray XT4, and an Intel Xeon Cluster. Overall results show that the radial decomposition approach dramatically increases scalability, while reducing the memory footprint - allowing for fusion device simulations at an unprecedented scale. After a decade where high-end computing (HEC) was dominated by the rapid pace of improvements to processor frequencies, the performance of next-generation supercomputers is increasingly differentiated by varying interconnect designs and levels of integration. Understanding the tradeoffs of these system designs is a key step towards making effective petascale computing a reality. In this work, we examine a new parallelization scheme for the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) [?] micro-turbulence fusion application. Extensive scalability results and analysis are presented on three HEC systems: the IBM BlueGene/P (BG/P) at Argonne National Laboratory, the Cray XT4 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and an Intel Xeon cluster at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Overall results indicate that the new radial decomposition approach successfully attains unprecedented scalability to 131,072 BG/P cores by overcoming the memory limitations of the previous approach. The new version is well suited to utilize emerging petascale resources to access new regimes of physical phenomena.

  6. Superconducting magnets. A. Some fundamentals and their state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, W.; Karlsruhe Univ.

    1978-01-01

    An introduction to the basis of superconductivity is given. Materials suitable for use in superconducting magnets and their essential properties are presented followed by a discussion on the status of conductor development. A survey of stabilization methods, behavior of the superconductor under normal operating conditions and special requirements of superconductors for fusions magnets are given. Magnet technology and its status is briefly discussed. Existing magnet systems are introduced. Finally some of the most important problems encountered in developing big toroidal magnet systems are mentioned

  7. Structure design of the Westinghouse superconducting magnet for the Large Coil Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domeisen, F.N.; Hackworth, D.T.; Stuebinger, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the on-going development of superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak reactors, the Large Coil Program (LCP) managed by Union Carbide Corporation will include the design, fabrication, and testing of large superconducting coils to determine their feasibility for use in the magnetic fusion energy effort. Structural analysis of the large coil is essential to ensure adequate safety in the test coil design and confidence in the scalability of the design. This paper will discuss the action of tensile and shear loads on the various materials used in the coil. These loads are of magnetic and thermal origin

  8. Fabrication of Nb3Sn cables for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Takaaki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hideo; Ishibashi, Tatsuji; Sato, Go; Chida, Kenji; Suzuki, Rikio; Tanji, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER toroidal field (TF) coils will be operated at 68 kA and 11.8 T. The cable is composed of 1,422 strands with a diameter of 0.82 mm. There were two options for initial procurement. For option 2, the twist pitches at lower stages are longer than in option 1. Trials were performed to assess the feasibility of these options. In the trials for option 1, the nominal outer diameter of sub-cables and reduction schedule of final cables were evaluated and finalized. In the trials for option 2, problems were encountered at the third stage cabling. These problems were resolved through increasing the die size in that stage and improving the tension balance of the second-stage cables to reduce friction between the die and the cable, and also through avoiding loose twisting at both edges of the third cables. Option 2 was finally selected in 2009 based on superconducting performance enhancement of the cable. After the qualification of the fabrication procedure using fabrication of a 760-m dummy cable and a 415-m superconducting cable, mass production of the cables started in March 2010. (author)

  9. Status of European manufacture of Toroidal Field conductor and strand for JT-60SA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Louis; Barabaschi, Pietro; Di Pietro, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, part of the Broader Approach (BA) agreement, EURATOM provides to Japan, the Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system, consisting of 18 superconducting coils. The procurement of the conductor for the TF coils is managed by Fusion for Energy, acting as EU representative in the BA agreement. The TF conductor procurement is split into two contracts, one dedicated to the production of Niobium Titanium (NbTi) and Cu strand and the other to TF conductor production through strand cabling and cable jacketing operations. The TF conductor is a rectangular-shaped cable-in-conduit conductor formed by 486 (0.81 mm diameter) strands (2/3 NbTi–1/3 Cu) wrapped in a stainless steel foil and embedded into a stainless steel jacket. The 18 TF coils require (including spares) 115 ‘Unit Lengths’ (UL) of such conductor, each 240 m long for a total of about 28 km. Correspondingly about 10,000 km for NbTi and 5000 km for Cu strand are produced. The Japanese company Furukawa Electric Co. (FEC) is in charge of TF strand manufacture while the Italian company Italian Consortium for Applied Superconductivity (ICAS) is in charge of cabling and jacketing of TF conductor ULs. In the paper, we provide information on the production stages presently achieved in TF strand and conductor contracts

  10. 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V A; Senichenkov, I Yu

    2010-01-01

    A 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport is derived for a given set of turbulent transport coefficients. The averaging is performed taking account of the poloidal variation of the toroidal fluxes and is based on the ambipolar condition of the zero net radial current through the flux surface. It is demonstrated that taking account of the Pfirsch-Schlueter fluxes leads to a torque in the toroidal direction which is proportional to the gradient of the ion temperature. This effect is new and has not been discussed before. The boundary condition at the separatrix, which is based on the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma, is formulated.

  11. Performance of a Folded-Strip Toroidally Wound Induction Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Jack, Alan G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the measured experimental results from a four-pole toroidally wound induction machine, where the stator is constructed as a pre-wound foldable strip. It shows that if the machine is axially restricted in length, the toroidally wound induction machine can have substantially...... shorter stator end-windings than conventionally wound induction machines, and hence that a toroidally wound induction machine can have lower losses and a higher efficiency. The paper also presents the employed construction method, which emphasizes manufacturability, and highlights the advantages...

  12. Deformation energy of a toroidal nucleus and plane fragmentation barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchard, C.; Royer, G.

    1996-01-01

    The path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes is investigated using a one-parameter shape sequence. The deformation energy is determined within the analytical expressions obtained for the various shape-dependent functions and the generalized rotating liquid drop model taking into account the proximity energy and the temperature. With increasing mass and angular momentum, a potential well appears in the toroidal shape path. For the heaviest systems, the pocket is large and locally favourable with respect to the plane fragmentation barriers which might allow the formation of evanescent toroidal systems which would rapidly decay in several fragments to minimize the surface tension. (orig.)

  13. Progress in gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Shumaker, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    The 3-D nonlinear toroidal gyrokinetic simulation code PG3EQ is used to study toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence - a key cause of the anomalous transport that limits tokamak plasma performance. Systematic studies of the dependence of ion thermal transport on various parameters and effects are presented, including dependence on E-vectorxB-vector and toroidal velocity shear, sensitivity to the force balance in simulations with radial temperature gradient variation, and the dependences on magnetic shear and ion temperature gradient. (author)

  14. Laser-induced production of large carbon-based toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyn, M. Elizabeth; He Jibao; Koplitz, Brent

    2005-01-01

    We report on the production of large carbon-based toroids (CBTs) from fullerenes. The process involves two-step laser irradiation of a mixed fullerene target (76% C 60 , 22% C 70 ). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly identifies toroidal-shaped structures as well as Q-shaped constructs. The typical diameters of the CBTs are ∼0.2-0.3 μm with tubular diameters of ∼50-100 nm, but toroids as wide as 0.5 μm are observed making them nanostructures on the verge of being microstructures

  15. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    CERN Multimedia

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  16. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2005-06-01

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

  17. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  18. A monodisperse transmembrane α-helical peptide barrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Niitsu, Ai; Kong, Lingbing; Thomson, Andrew R.; Sessions, Richard B.; Woolfson, Derek N.; Bayley, Hagan

    2017-05-01

    The fabrication of monodisperse transmembrane barrels formed from short synthetic peptides has not been demonstrated previously. This is in part because of the complexity of the interactions between peptides and lipids within the hydrophobic environment of a membrane. Here we report the formation of a transmembrane pore through the self-assembly of 35 amino acid α-helical peptides. The design of the peptides is based on the C-terminal D4 domain of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide transporter Wza. By using single-channel current recording, we define discrete assembly intermediates and show that the pore is most probably a helix barrel that contains eight D4 peptides arranged in parallel. We also show that the peptide pore is functional and capable of conducting ions and binding blockers. Such α-helix barrels engineered from peptides could find applications in nanopore technologies such as single-molecule sensing and nucleic-acid sequencing.

  19. Gaseous toroid around Saturn. [Saturnian ring system for atomic hydrogen trapping in Titan atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonough, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The trapping of Titan's escaping atmosphere in the Saturnian system by a toroidal ring is discussed. The radius of the toroid is comparable to Titan's orbit, or about ten times larger than the visible rings. Theoretical atmospheric models are formulated that consider Saturn's gravitational attraction and magnetospheric properties in forming this toroid and in protecting toroid particles from direct ionization by solar wind particles.

  20. Superconducting coil design for a tokamak experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Wang, S.T.; Smelser, P.

    1977-01-01

    Superconducting toroidal field (TF) and polodial-field (PF) coils have been designed for the proposed Argonne National Laboratory experimental power reactor (EPR). Features of the design include: (1) Peak field of 8 T at 4.2 K or 10 T at 3.0 K. (2) Constant-tension shape for the TF coils, corrected for the finite number (16) of coils. (3) Analysis of errors in coil alignment. (4) Comparison of safety aspects of series-connected and parallel-connected coils. (5) A 60 kA sheet conductor of NbTi with copper stabilizer and stainless steel for support. (6) Superconducting PF coils outside the TF coils. (7) The TF coils shielded from pulsed fields by high-purity aluminum

  1. A Methodology for Characterizing Gun Barrel Flexure due to Vehicle Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bundy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrel centerline curvature is known to influence the location of projectile shot impacts. Superimposed on the unique manufactured barrel centerline is the flexed barrel shape that can occur prior to firing while the vehicle is on the move. In order to understand and quantify the effects of barrel flexure on gun accuracy, it is necessary to determine what combination of fundamental mode shapes is most likely to occur. A method to accomplish this task is described in this paper. The method is demonstrated by enumerating the 10 most likely flexed barrel shapes that were found to occur in a tank-mounted gun barrel while it traversed a bump course.

  2. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  3. Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.

    2015-01-01

    Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ R /τ V  ≫ 1, where τ R and τ V represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ R /τ V  ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large

  4. Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W., E-mail: zwma@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≫ 1, where τ{sub R} and τ{sub V} represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large.

  5. Toroidal and rotating bubble nuclei and the nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Fauchard, C.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.

    1997-01-01

    The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. Previously, a one-parameter shape sequence has been defined to describe the path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes. New analytical expressions for the shape dependent functions have been obtained. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three-dimensional and plane-fragmentation barriers. Metastable bubble-like minima only appear at very high angular momentum and above the three dimensional fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localized below the plane-fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension

  6. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1984-08-30

    This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.

  7. Effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.

    1985-11-01

    The effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion is examined by treating the wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium as an eigenvalue problem for ω 2 (m,n),m,n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers. Since the frequency regime near ω 2 = ω/sub LH/ 2 is an accumulation point for the eigenvalue spectrum, the degenerate perturbation technique must be applied. The toroidal eigenmodes are constructed by a zeroth order superposition of monochromatic solutions with different poloidal dependence m, thus they generically exhibit a wide spectrum in k/sub parallel/ for given fixed ω 2 even for small inverse aspect ratio epsilon. In case that the average is in the neighborhood of k/sub min/, the minimum wave number for accessibility of the mode conversion regime, it is expected that excitation of toroidal modes rather than geometric optics will determine the wave coupling to the plasma

  8. Toroidal high-spin isomers in the nucleus 304120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Kosior, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: Strongly deformed oblate superheavy nuclei form an intriguing region where the toroidal nuclear structures may bifurcate from the oblate spheroidal shape. The bifurcation may be facilitated when the nucleus is endowed with a large angular moment about the symmetry axis with I =Iz . The toroidal high-K isomeric states at their local energy minima can be theoretically predicted using the cranked self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method. Purpose: We use the cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method to predict the properties of the toroidal high-spin isomers in the superheavy nucleus 120304184. Method: Our method consists of three steps: First, we use the deformation-constrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach to search for the nuclear density distributions with toroidal shapes. Next, using these toroidal distributions as starting configurations, we apply an additional cranking constraint of a large angular momentum I =Iz about the symmetry z axis and search for the energy minima of the system as a function of the deformation. In the last step, if a local energy minimum with I =Iz is found, we perform at this point the cranked symmetry- and deformation-unconstrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations to locate a stable toroidal high-spin isomeric state in free convergence. Results: We have theoretically located two toroidal high-spin isomeric states of 120304184 with an angular momentum I =Iz=81 ℏ (proton 2p-2h, neutron 4p-4h excitation) and I =Iz=208 ℏ (proton 5p-5h, neutron 8p-8h) at the quadrupole moment deformations Q20=-297.7 b and Q20=-300.8 b with energies 79.2 and 101.6 MeV above the spherical ground state, respectively. The nuclear density distributions of the toroidal high-spin isomers 120304184(Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ ) have the maximum density close to the nuclear matter density, 0.16 fm-3, and a torus major to minor radius aspect ratio R /d =3.25 . Conclusions: We demonstrate that aligned angular momenta of Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ arising from

  9. Turbulent and neoclassical toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiteboul, J.

    2012-10-01

    The goal of magnetic confinement devices such as tokamaks is to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions in plasmas at low densities and high temperatures. Experimentally, toroidal flows have been found to significantly improve the energy confinement, and therefore the performance of the machine. As extrinsic momentum sources will be limited in future fusion devices such as ITER, an understanding of the physics of toroidal momentum transport and the generation of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks would be an important step in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Among the mechanisms expected to contribute to the generation of toroidal rotation is the transport of momentum by electrostatic turbulence, which governs heat transport in tokamaks. Due to the low collisionality of the plasma, kinetic modeling is mandatory for the study of tokamak turbulence. In principle, this implies the modeling of a six-dimensional distribution function representing the density of particles in position and velocity phase-space, which can be reduced to five dimensions when considering only frequencies below the particle cyclotron frequency. This approximation, relevant for the study of turbulence in tokamaks, leads to the so-called gyrokinetic model and brings the computational cost of the model within the presently available numerical resources. In this work, we study the transport of toroidal momentum in tokamaks in the framework of the gyrokinetic model. First, we show that this reduced model is indeed capable of accurately modeling momentum transport by deriving a local conservation equation of toroidal momentum, and verifying it numerically with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Secondly, we show how electrostatic turbulence can break the axisymmetry and generate toroidal rotation, while a strong link between turbulent heat and momentum transport is identified, as both exhibit the same large-scale avalanche-like events. The dynamics of turbulent transport are

  10. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  11. Superconductivity and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, António

    2017-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...

  12. Surface and Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.

    2006-07-01

    Experiments reveal the existence of metallic bands at surfaces of metals and insulators. The bands can be doped externally. We review properties of surface superconductivity that may set up in such bands at low temperatures and various means of superconductivity defection. The fundamental difference as compared to the ordinary superconductivity in metals, besides its two-dimensionality lies in the absence of the center of space inversion. This results in mixing between the singlet and triplet channels of the Cooper pairing.

  13. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  14. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  15. Polymer- and salt-induced toroids of hexagonal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J; Odijk, T

    1995-01-01

    A model is proposed for polymer- and salt-induced toroidal condensates of DNA, based on a recent theory of the undulation enhancement of the electrostatic interaction in the bulk hexagonal phase of semiflexible polyions. In a continuum approximation, the thermodynamic potential of a monomolecular toroid may be split up in bulk, surface, and curvature contributions. With the help of an approximate analytical minimization procedure, the optimal torus dimensions are calculated as a function of t...

  16. Transport in the high temperature core of toroidal confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental results on confinement of hot plasmas in toroidal devices, particularly tokamaks, are discussed from general principal points of view and related to predictions from a toroidal drift wave model using a full transport matrix including off diagonal terms. A reactive fluid model corresponding to a two pole approximation of the kinetic response is used. This model has the ability to reproduce both adiabatic and isothermal limits of the perpendicular dynamics. 106 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  17. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  18. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de

  19. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  20. Dynamics of accelerated compact toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, H.S.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.; Molvik, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work on the RACE experiment has demonstrated acceleration and focusing of spheromak-type compact toroids of low mass (10 μg), low density (10 13 cm -3 ), and low magnetic field (2 KG). Computer modeling and measurements give reasonably good accounting of ring mass, momentum, and energy. Present work has been toward increasing the ring magnetic field and utilizing inductive storage by compressing similar plasma rings prior to acceleration. The precompression, followed by acceleration has been performed. Ring density and magnetic field have increased (n e ∼ 10 15 cm -3 , B ∼ 4 KG) in the precompression cone, and magnetic field increases (B ∼ 8--12 KG) after compression and during acceleration, however, trajectory measurements have shown an increase in drag or possibly ring mass above that accounted for by the density measurements in the precompression cone. For the low mass/density/field rings, drag forces did not need to be invoked for agreement between modeling and experiment and mass was consistent with electron density measurements. Drag and/or mass change is now apparently important in this higher mass/density/field regime

  1. Toroidal regularization of the guiding center Lagrangian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, J. W.; Ellison, C. L.

    2017-11-01

    In the Lagrangian theory of guiding center motion, an effective magnetic field B*=B +(m /e )v∥∇× b appears prominently in the equations of motion. Because the parallel component of this field can vanish, there is a range of parallel velocities where the Lagrangian guiding center equations of motion are either ill-defined or very badly behaved. Moreover, the velocity dependence of B* greatly complicates the identification of canonical variables and therefore the formulation of symplectic integrators for guiding center dynamics. This letter introduces a simple coordinate transformation that alleviates both these problems simultaneously. In the new coordinates, the Liouville volume element is equal to the toroidal contravariant component of the magnetic field. Consequently, the large-velocity singularity is completely eliminated. Moreover, passing from the new coordinate system to canonical coordinates is extremely simple, even if the magnetic field is devoid of flux surfaces. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in regularizing the guiding center Lagrangian by presenting a new and stable one-step variational integrator for guiding centers moving in arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic fields.

  2. Compact toroid injection into C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Thomas; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Putvinski, S.; Allfrey, I.; Beall, M.; Cordero, M.; Granstedt, E.; Kinley, J.; Morehouse, M.; Sheftman, D.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    Sustainment of an advanced neutral beam-driven FRC for a period in excess of 5 ms is the primary goal of the C-2U machine at Tri Alpha Energy. In addition, a criteria for long-term global sustainment of any magnetically confined fusion reactor is particle refueling. To this end, a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun has been developed. Compact toroids (CT) are to be injected perpendicular to the axial magnetic field of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test-stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of B ~ 1 kG is established (comparable to the C-2U axial field) and CTs are fired across it. As a minimal requirement, the CT must have energy density greater than that of the magnetic field it is to penetrate, i.e., 1/2 ρv2 >=B2 / 2μ0 . This criteria is easily met and indeed the CTs traverse the test-stand field. A preliminary experiment on C-2U shows the CT also capable of penetrating into FRC plasmas and refueling is observed resulting in a 20 - 30% increase in total particle number per single-pulsed CT injection. Results from test-stand and C-2U experiments will be presented.

  3. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load

  4. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  5. The barrel modules of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdesselam, A.; Akimoto, T.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Šťastný, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 568, - (2006), s. 642-671 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC * barrel Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  6. Experiences developing socially acceptable interactions for a robotic trash barrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Stephen; Mok, Brian Ka Jun; Sirkin, David

    2015-01-01

    strategies that seemed to evoke clear engagement and responses, both positive and negative. Observations and interviews show that a) people most welcome the robot's presence when they need its services and it actively advertises its intent through movement; b) people create mental models of the trash barrel...

  7. Results of 3D photogrammetry on the CMS barrel yoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudard, R.; Humbertclaude, C.; Nummiaro, K. [CERN, Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector of the new LHC will be built till 2005 at CERN in Geneva. The Barrel Yoke survey has been decided to be done mostly by photogrammetry. After this first measurement, it has been proved that a practical simulation and a study of adapted tools and procedures were helpful for measurement on such a large object. Using only conventional surveying methods would have been impossible with such constraints. The most important points were the high required accuracy compared to the size of the object, the connection of the two planes, the time intervention, the restricted factory environment and the impossibility for having any outside network. The photogrammetric method was considered to be the best way to survey the Barrel Yoke ring. Since the required precision has been reached at all levels with the first full Barrel measurements, the procedure is validated for the four remaining Barrels in the factory and afterwards again at CERN. This project was challenging due to the size of the object, the required accuracy and the lack of practical references in the field of digital industrial photogrammetry. This method is a new step for using the three dimensional photogrammetric measurements on large objects. (authors)

  8. barrel temperature emperature emperature effects on the ffects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: barrel temperature,plastic products, injection moulding machine , tensile strength, flexual strength. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. The utilization of process control and process monitoring are rarely fully implemented for the production of injection moulded products. This may be due to a ...

  9. End of the EM Barrel Presampler Construction and Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a thin detector placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, made up of two half barrels also, but with 32 sectors per half barrel instead of 16. Each of these 64 sectors is 3.1 m long, 28 cm large and 2.9 cm thick. Three countries took part in its construction: France (LPSC-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat universities, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started 11 years ago and the series production began at the end of 2000. Cabling, mechanical and electronic tests of the anodes were achieved in Morocco. Forty-one sectors were assembled and validated at the LPSC-Grenoble and 25 at the KTH-Stockholm. In November 2002, the first half was inserted on the inner face of the first EM calorimeter wheel. The insertion of the other 32 sectors in the second EM calorimeter wheel was achieved in July 2003 (see pictures). The production of two additional sectors will allow us to study the p...

  10. LOCALIZATION OF NMDA AND AMPA RECEPTORS IN RAT BARREL FIELD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAARSMA, D; SEBENS, JB; KORF, J

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to asses the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-S-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the barrel field of rat primary somatosensory (SI) cortex using light-microscopic in vitro autoradiography. NMDA receptors were labeled

  11. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  12. Signal feedthroughs for the ATLAS barrel and endcap calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Axen, D A; Hoffman, A; Kane, S; Lissauer, D; Makowiecki, D S; Müller, T; Pate, D; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, M; Rescia, S; Sexton, K; Sondericker, J; Birney, P; Dowling, A W; Fincke-Keeler, M; Hodges, T; Holness, F; Honkanen, N; Keeler, R; Langstaf, R; Lenckowski, M; Lefebvre, M; Poffenberger, P R; Vowles, G

    2005-01-01

    The construction of the signal feedthroughs for the barrel and endcap ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters is described. The feedthroughs provide a high density and radiation hard method to extract signals from the cryogenic environment of the calorimeters using a novel design based on flexible kapton circuit board transmission lines.

  13. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and non-metallic parts using different types of media. As a matter of fact the change in shore hardness (SH) features of fused deposition modelling (FDM)-based master pattern is one of the important considerations ...

  14. Conceptual design for the STAR barrel electromagnetic calorimeter support rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielick, E.; Fornek, T.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    1994-01-01

    The STAR electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be used to measure the energy of photons and electrons from collisions of beams of particles in the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is documented in the EMC Conceptual Design Report, and consists of a cylindrical barrel and two flat endcap calorimeter sections. The barrel EMC will consist of 120 modules, each subtending 6 degrees in azimuthal angle about the beam (φ), and half the barrel length. Each module will be subdivided into ''towers'' of alternating scintillator and lead, which project to the nominal interaction point. There is a strong coupling between the designs for the EMC and for the conventional solenoidal magnet, which will be located immediately outside the barrel EMC. For example, the inner radius of the magnet must be minimized to lower costs and to reduce the STAR detector's outer diameter to fit within constraints of the existing detector building. This condition requires the calorimeter modules to be just thick enough to accomplish physics goals and to support their weight with small deflections. This note describes progress in the design of the EMC support rings. Several ring designs and methods of construction have been considered. In addition, installation and alignment problems for both the rings and the rails have been considered in more depth. Finally, revised stress calculations for the recommended ring designs have been performed. Most of this work has been done in close collaboration with the STAR magnet subgroup

  15. Electro-magneto-structural analysis of toroidal coils using finite element method with application of composite theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Kenzo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Hamada, Taiji; Watanabe, Takayuki; Tagata, Kazunori.

    1985-01-01

    Application of superconducting magnets to magnetic confinement fusion reactors is necessary to generate as strong magnetic field as possible since a huge amount of electrical power is consumed if normal conducting magnets are used. And the strong field from the superconducting magnets generates very large electromagnetic force into structural components. It is thus required to establish a design guideline for the superconducting magnet structures. Development of a computer code to calculate stress-strain state in the complex interior of the magnet could serve the requirements. In this paper mathematical formulations available for the finite element implementation are presented to solve detailed stress and strain in layered components of the magnets. The formulations are based on the composite theory of layered structures. Examples of numerical analysis are presented for electromagnetomechanical analysis of toroidal coils of the R-machine which has been discussed and promoted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University. The numerical results are compared with those obtained from the beam-shell model. Significant differences are found at some portions between them indicating validity of the present code ''MAGCOMP''. Detailed stress distributions are shown for each component, which would be furthermore available to analysis and evaluation of quench phenomena. (author)

  16. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  17. Large superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Pérot, J

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the use of large superconducting magnets in the areas of particle physics, thermonuclear fusion, and magnetohydrodynamics. In addition to considering the physics of the superconducting state, the article considers machines such as BEBC (Big European Bubble Chamber) at CERN, the LINAC at SLAC and possible Tokamak applications. The future application of superconductors to high speed trains is discussed. (0 refs).

  18. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  19. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  20. Qubit compatible superconducting interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxen, B.; Mutus, J. Y.; Lucero, E.; Graff, R.; Megrant, A.; Chen, Yu; Quintana, C.; Burkett, B.; Kelly, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Yang, Yan; Yu, Anthony; Arya, K.; Barends, R.; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Gidney, C.; Giustina, M.; Huang, T.; Klimov, P.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Martinis, John M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a fabrication process for fully superconducting interconnects compatible with superconducting qubit technology. These interconnects allow for the three dimensional integration of quantum circuits without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics. They are composed of indium bumps several microns tall separated from an aluminum base layer by titanium nitride which serves as a diffusion barrier. We measure the whole structure to be superconducting (transition temperature of 1.1 K), limited by the aluminum. These interconnects have an average critical current of 26.8 mA, and mechanical shear and thermal cycle testing indicate that these devices are mechanically robust. Our process provides a method that reliably yields superconducting interconnects suitable for use with superconducting qubits.

  1. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However......, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...

  2. Tore Supra: a tokamak with superconducting coils for the toroidal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is under construction on the site of CEN/Cadarache for the EURATOM-CEA Association. The design has been lead by a group including teams of the DRFC of Fontenay-aux-Roses and Grenoble and the DPh/PE-STI of CEN/Saclay [fr

  3. Study of the Tokamak-15 Superconducting Toroidal Field Coil (STFC) heating under the quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anashkin, I.O.; Kabanovsky, S.V.; Chudnovsky, A.N.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Vertiporokh, A.N.; Ivanov, D.P.; Posadsky, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in Tokamak-15 were performed to study the STFC heating under the quench. The quench was specially caused by current introduction into STFC at the unchanged input helium temperature. The experimental results and simulation data on temperature heating and amount of heat realized in the pancakes under the quench are given. In the experiments was shown that quench occurs in the internal turns of pancakes and estimations of maximal temperature heating corresponds to calculated ones

  4. Optimization of the protective energy removal parameters for tokamak HT7-U superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostenko, P.P.; Chudnovsky, A.N.; Posadsky, I.A. [RRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , Nuclear Fusion Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bi, Y.F.; Cheng, S.M.; He, Y.X. [Academia Sinica, Hefei, Anhui (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    1998-07-01

    The design of the HT-7U superconducting tokamak is in progress now. The design incorporates superconducting magnets of the toroidal field and poloidal field systems. Toroidal field system consists of 16 D-shape coils and poloidal field system consists of 12 coils. All coils will be use NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit conductor cooled with forced-flow supercritical helium at 4.5 K, 4 Bar. Quench in the superconducting magnets is accompanied byconversion of the stored magnetic field energy into a thermal one which is spent on heating of both the coil part which made transition into a normal state and dump resistors. A non-uniform heating of the coil part results in the emergence of thermomechanical stresses which can cause its destruction. The protective removal of a current is realized to prevent the coil destruction at the emergence of the quench. In that case, the faster the current removal occurs, the less the coil heating is. On the other hand, the current removal rate should not be too high in order to avoid an electric breakdown by the excited inductive voltage. Optimization of the protective energy removal parameters both for TF and PF superconducting magnets is presented. (author)

  5. Optimization of the protective energy removal parameters for tokamak HT7-U superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostenko, P.P.; Chudnovsky, A.N.; Posadsky, I.A.; Bi, Y.F.; Cheng, S.M.; He, Y.X.

    1998-01-01

    The design of the HT-7U superconducting tokamak is in progress now. The design incorporates superconducting magnets of the toroidal field and poloidal field systems. Toroidal field system consists of 16 D-shape coils and poloidal field system consists of 12 coils. All coils will be use NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit conductor cooled with forced-flow supercritical helium at 4.5 K, 4 Bar. Quench in the superconducting magnets is accompanied by conversion of the stored magnetic field energy into a thermal one which is spent on heating of both the coil part which made transition into a normal state and dump resistors. A non-uniform heating of the coil part results in the emergence of thermomechanical stresses which can cause its destruction. The protective removal of a current is realized to prevent the coil destruction at the emergence of the quench. In that case, the faster the current removal occurs, the less the coil heating is. On the other hand, the current removal rate should not be too high in order to avoid an electric breakdown by the excited inductive voltage. Optimization of the protective energy removal parameters both for TF and PF superconducting magnets is presented. (author)

  6. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  7. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, H.C.

    1990-08-01

    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles.

  8. Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Zakharov, L.E.; Gorelenkova, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration

  9. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield

  10. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  11. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  12. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  13. The chronicle of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalo, J.M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The chronicle of the superconductivity is shown, since the first observation made of Kamerlingh-Onnes, in the begining of our century about superconductivity effects, by describing several models and theories made by the physicists, by trying to explain the phenomenons referred about supercurrent, up to the modern BCS Theory. Our fundamental purpose rather than to make a historical-philosophical evolution about the superconductivity is only to make a sequence as who made what, when and how, by using the Solla-Price meaning. (Author) [pt

  14. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'', with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described

  15. Superconducting materials and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Superconducting Materials and Magnets was convened by the IAEA and held by invitation of the Japanese government on September 4-6, 1989 in Tokyo. The meeting was hosted by the National Research Institute for Metals. Topics of the conference related to superconducting magnets and technology with particular application to fusion and the superconducting supercollider. Technology using both high and low-temperature superconductors was discussed. This document is a compendium of the papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  17. Barrel silicon vertex tracker for PHENIX at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The barrel silicon vertex tracker has been proposed as an upgrade project of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The prime motivation for this new detector is to provide precision measurements of heavy-quark production (charm and beauty) in A + A, p(d) + A, and polarized p + p collisions. The current design of the silicon vertex tracker comprises a four-layer barrel detector, built from two internal layers of pixel detectors and two external layers of projective 'stripixels' which complement the central spectrometer arms of PHENIX. In this paper, the physics motivation of the silicon vertex tracker upgrade and the concept of the new detector will be discussed. Moreover, the status of the new development and beginning production of the silicon detectors will be presented

  18. Simulgeo and its application for the muon barrel position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, L.

    1999-01-01

    The design process of the Muon Barrel Position Monitor of the CMS (compact muon solenoid) experiment for LHC is at the origin of the need of a software like Simulgeo. The software Silmugeo started to be developed in 1995 in order to allow the study of many systems. The idea of Simulgeo is to automatically make the modelling of a system and automatically construct the design matrix. This paper makes in part 2 an overview of the possibilities of Simulgeo, in part 3 it presents the standard objects. In part 4, it explains the mathematical basis and in part 5 the computing aspect. In part 6, it shows an application to the Muon Barrel Position Monitor Project and, in part 7, it mentions other projects where it has been used

  19. The bar PANDA Barrel-TOF Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, S.; Suzuki, K.; Steinschaden, D.; Chirita, M.; Ahmed, G.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Lehmann, A.; Böhm, M.; Schwarz, K.; Orth, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.

    2017-08-01

    The barrel-Time-of-Flight subdetector is one of the outer layers of the multi-layer design of the \\panda target spectrometer. It is designed with a minimal material budget in mind mainly consisting of 90×30×5 mm3 thin plastic scintillator tiles read out on each end by a serial connection of 4 SiPMs. 120 such tiles are placed on 16 2460 × 180 mm2 PCB boards forming a barrel covering an azimuthal angle from 22.5o to 150o. The detector is designed to achieve a time resolution below σ< 100 ps which allows to distinguish events in the constant stream of hits, as well as particle identification below the Cherenkov threshold via the time-of-flight; simultaneously providing the interaction times of events. The current prototype achieved a time resolution of ~54 ps, well below the design goal.

  20. Structural analysis of TFTR toroidal field coil conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1975-10-01

    The conceptual design evaluation of the V-shaped toroidal field coils on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor has been performed by detailed structural analysis with the finite element method. The innovation provided by this design and verified in this work is the capability to support toroidal field loads while simultaneously performing the function of twist restraint against the device axial torques resulting from the vertical field loads. The evaluations made for the conceptual design provide predictions for coil deflections and stresses. The results are available for the separate effects from toroidal fields, poloidal fields, and the thermal expansion of the coils as well as for the superposition of the primary loads and the primary plus thermal loads

  1. Vlasov tokamak equilibria with sheared toroidal flow and anisotropic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiroukidis, Ap, E-mail: kouirouki@astro.auth.gr [Technological Education Institute of Serres, 62124 Serres (Greece); Throumoulopoulos, G. N., E-mail: gthroum@uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Tasso, H., E-mail: het@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    By choosing appropriate deformed Maxwellian ion and electron distribution functions depending on the two particle constants of motion, i.e., the energy and toroidal angular momentum, we reduce the Vlasov axisymmetric equilibrium problem for quasineutral plasmas to a transcendental Grad-Shafranov-like equation. This equation is then solved numerically under the Dirichlet boundary condition for an analytically prescribed boundary possessing a lower X-point to construct tokamak equilibria with toroidal sheared ion flow and anisotropic pressure. Depending on the deformation of the distribution functions, these steady states can have toroidal current densities either peaked on the magnetic axis or hollow. These two kinds of equilibria may be regarded as a bifurcation in connection with symmetry properties of the distribution functions on the magnetic axis.

  2. Modal analysis of a stiffened toroidal shell sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerreta, R.; Di Pietro, E.; Pizzuto, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the modal analysis of a sector of the toroidal vacuum vessel of a new experimental machine for research in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion (FTU - Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The vacuum vessel, one of the most critical components of the experimental device, consist of 12 stainless steel toroidal sectors, and it is designed to withstand pulsed electromagnetic loads during operation. Results of the modal analysis of the stiffened toroidal shell sector are compared and discussed with regard to the experimental data. Theoretical eigenvalues and eigenvectors have been predicted by means of ABAQUS finite element code. Experimental analysis has been carried out on a full scale model and natural frequencies have been measured. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and theoretical eigenvalues has been found

  3. Toroidal Superheavy Nuclei in Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Within the self-consistent constraint Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS model (SHF+BCS), we found equilibrium toroidal nuclear density distributions in the region of superheavy elements. For nuclei with a sufficient oblate deformation (Q 20 < -200 b), it becomes energetically favorable to change the genus of nuclear surface from 0 to 1, i.e., to switch the shape from a biconcave disc to a torus. The energy of the toroidal (genus=1) SHF+BCS solution relative to the compact (genus=0) ground state energy is strongly dependent both on the atomic number Z and the mass number A. We discuss the region of Z and A where the toroidal SHF+BCS total energy begins to be a global minimum

  4. Device for cementing radioactive of toxic waste into barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.; Waldenmeier, G.; Mathis, P.; Mathis, B.; Mathis, F.

    1987-01-01

    The plant consists of conventional means, such as through mixers and dosing and transport spirals, which are accommodated in a glovebox. The inactive additives cement and sand and the active materials evaporation concentrates and sludges are mixed by them, and are then filled into a waste barrel which is empty or already filled with solid waste. Liquid radioactive wastes are used to concrete over the solid waste. (DG) [de

  5. Signal feedthroughs for the ATLAS barrel and endcap calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, D.; Hackenburg, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Kane, S.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Pate, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rehak, M.; Rescia, S.; Sexton, K.; Sondericker, J.; Birney, P.; Dowling, A. W.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Hodges, T.; Holness, F.; Honkanen, N.; Keeler, R.; Langstaff, R.; Lenckowski, M.; Lefebvre, M.; Poffenberger, P.; Vowles, G.; Oram, C.

    2005-06-01

    The function, design, construction, testing, and installation of the signal feedthroughs for the barrel and endcap ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are described. The feedthroughs provide a high density and radiation hard method to extract over 200 000 signals from the cryogenic environment of the calorimeters using an application of a design based on flexible kapton circuit board transmission lines. A model to describe the frequency dependent behavior of the transmission lines is also presented.

  6. Design and construction of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repond, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical design and construction techniques of the barrel calorimeter for the ZEUS detector are presented. The calorimeter uses alternate layers of depleted uranium and scintillator with one radiation length sampling. The unit cell has e/h = 1 which yields an optimal energy resolution for hadronic jets. We discuss the placing of the structural components and cracks between modules. Details of the construction and assembly effort needed to realize the total calorimeter are reported. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Tridimensional measurements of the Barrel absorbers (Module 0)

    CERN Document Server

    Puzo, P

    2001-01-01

    In this note we describe the principle of the measurements done on the ATLAS absorbers that have been fabricated for the module 0 of the Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter. We explain how the measurements are used to reconstruct the tridimensional geometry of each absorber. We show the results obtained for module 0. The same kind of measurements will be done for the series absorbers

  8. Mechanical structure of the TOPAZ barrel drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, T.; Maruyama, K.; Okuno, H.

    1987-07-01

    A Barrel Drift Chamber (BDC) is constructed for the TOPAZ experiment at TRISTAN, KEK. The BDC has a cylindrical shape with dimensions of 325.2 cm in inner diameter, 347.2 cm in outer diameter and 500 cm long. It consists of 1232 drift tubes made of conductive plastic cathodes, which are staggered in four layers. In this report, a design of the mechanical structure and construction procedures are described in detail. (author)

  9. Non-compensation of the ATLAS barrel combined calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The e / π ratio for the ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Prototype, composed from electromagnetic LArg calorimeter and hadronic Tile calorimeter was investigated. Response of Combined Calorimeter on pions and electrons in the energy region of 20-300 GeV was studied. Found e / h = 1.37 ± 0.01 ± 0.02 is in good agreement with the results from previous Combined Calorimeter tests but has more precisions

  10. Time calibration for barrel TOF system of BESIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shengsen

    2012-01-01

    The time calibration for barrel TOF system of BESIII is studied in this paper. The time resolution for single layer and double layer have been achieved about 97 ps and 78 ps for electrons in Bhabha events respectively. The pulse height correction using electronic scan curve and the predicted time calculated using Kalman filter method are introduced. This paper also describes the analysis of correlation of measured time.

  11. Background neutron in the endcap and barrel regions of resistive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function of the neutron energy in the range of 0.01 eV–1 GeV have been simulated through. RPC set-up. In order to evaluate the response of detector in the LHC background envi- ronment, the neutron spectrum expected in the CMS muon endcap and barrel region were taken into account. A hit rate of about 165.5 Hz cm. −2.

  12. Double Barreled Wet Colostomy: Initial Experience and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Salgado-Cruz; Eloy Espin-Basany; Francesc Vallribera-Valls; Jose Sanchez-Garcia; Luis Miguel Jimenez-Gomez; Marc Marti-Gallostra; Ana Garza-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic exenteration and multivisceral resection in colorectal have been described as a curative and palliative intervention. Urinary tract reconstruction in a pelvic exenteration is achieved in most cases with an ileal conduit of Bricker, although different urinary reservoirs have been described. Methods. A retrospective and observational study of six patients who underwent a pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a double barreled wet colostomy (DBWC) was done,...

  13. Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaun, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1995-03-01

    Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell`s equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models` resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs.

  14. The representation of social facial touch in rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, Evgeny; Wolfe, Jason; Rao, Rajnish P; Brecht, Michael

    2014-01-06

    Controlled presentation of stimuli to anesthetized [1] or awake [2] animals suggested that neurons in sensory cortices respond to elementary features [3, 4], but we know little about neuronal responses evoked by social interactions. Here we investigate processing in the barrel cortex of rats engaging in social facial touch [5, 6]. Sensory stimulation by conspecifics differs from classic whisker stimuli such as deflections, contact poles [7, 8], or textures [9, 10]. A large fraction of barrel cortex neurons responded to facial touch. Social touch responses peaked when animals aligned their faces and contacted each other by multiple whiskers with small, irregular whisker movements. Object touch was associated with larger, more regular whisker movements, and object responses were weaker than social responses. Whisker trimming abolished responses. During social touch, neurons in males increased their firing on average by 44%, while neurons in females increased their firing by only 19%. In females, socially evoked and ongoing firing rates were more than 1.5-fold higher in nonestrus than in estrus. Barrel cortex represented socially different contacts by distinct firing rates, and the variation of activity with sex and sexual status could contribute to the generation of gender-specific neural constructs of conspecifics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  16. On the longitudinal coupling impedance of a toroidal beam tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Tepikian, S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the longitudinal coupling impedance of a smooth toroidal beam tube is derived. By treating the torus as a slow-wave structure, the well-known method of describing the impedance in terms of cavity resonances can be used. A simple analytical expression for the coupling impedance of a toroidal beam tube with square cross section valid in the low-frequency limit is obtained. The results from the present study are compared with previously published solutions and qualitative differences are pointed out. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Tokamak configuration analysis with the method of toroidal multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micozzi, P.; Alladio, F.; Crisanti, F.; Marinucci, M.; Tanga, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the study of tokamak machines able to sustain plasmas of thermonuclear interest (JIT, IGNITOR, NET, CIT, ET), there is a strong quest for engineering optimization of the circuital components close to the plasma. We have developed a semianalytical axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code based on the technique of the poloidal ψ flux function expansion in toroidal harmonic series. This code is able to optimize the necessary currents in the poloidal circuits in order to sustain a plasma of fixed shape (also x-point configuration), toroidal current and poloidal β. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  18. Development and verification of printed circuit board toroidal transformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jens; Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    by comparing calculated parameters with 3D finite element simulations and experimental measurement results. The developed transformer model shows good agreement with the simulated and measured results. The model can be used to predict the parameters of printed circuit board toroidal transformer configurations......An analytical model of an air core printed circuit board embedded toroidal transformer configuration is presented. The transformer has been developed for galvanic isolation of very high frequency switch-mode dc-dc power converter applications. The theoretical model is developed and verified...

  19. Heat removal in INTOR via a toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1981-01-01

    In the present paper the potential of removing about 100 MW of thermal plasma power via a toroidal limiter in INTOR is studied. The heat flux distributions on various limiter configurations are calculated and the thermal response of a graphite tile limiter is estimated on the base of a one-dimensional heat conduction approach. The evaporation rates which have to be expected for the given energy flux densities and radiation cooled graphite tiles are evaluated. According to the present understanding it should be possible to remove 100 MW power from the INTOR plasma via a radiation cooled toroidal limiter. (author)

  20. Neoclassical diffusion in toroidal three-cut magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemov, V.V.; Shishkin, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Quasi-classical diffusion is investigated in the regime of toroidal drift of 'bananas' in a three cut magnetic field. Unlike previous papers, it is supposed that the inhomogeneity of a helical magnetic field epsilonsub(k) is of the same order or less than that of the toroidal inhomogeneity epsilonsub(t). The case is considered when the efficient frequency of particle collisions exceeds that of the 'banana' precession around the magnetic axis. Expressions for diffusion flows and coefficients are obtained that transform into available ones at epsilonsub(h) > > epsilonsub(t) [ru

  1. A direct calculation of current drive in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude and radial profiles of noninductive currents driven by fast magnetosonic waves in tokamaks have been calculated directly from the wave-induced quasilinear flux in a toroidal geometry and a Green's function for the current. An expression for the quasilinear flux has been derived which accounts for coupling between modes in the spectrum of waves launched from the antenna. A Fokker-Planck code for the Green's function and a full wave code for the electric field in the quasilinear flux are used to evaluate the current in a specified toroidal geometry

  2. Current drive by asymmetrical heating in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions. A unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow-wave antenna inside the Texas Tech Tokamak, asymmetrically heated the ions. Measurements of the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column confirmed the current generation indirectly. Current generation, obtained in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, is a phenomenon which had not been predicted previously. Calculations of the dispersion relation for the fast Alfven wave near the fundamental cyclotron resonance in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, using warm plasma theory, support the experimental results

  3. Initial temperature profiles of the PDX inner toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Kugel, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature profiles resulting from plasma operation on the PDX vertical, large area, inner toroidal limiter have been measured during both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges using a scanning infrared camera. An asymmetric double peaked temperature profile is seen after neutral beam heated discharges. Disruptions in ohmically heated discharges are found to be preceded by a single peaked deposition and succeeded by a initially symmetric double peaked deposition. The results were compared with the Schmidt model for scrapeoff at a toroidal limiter and it was found that the measured double peaked temperature profiles yielded scrape-off lengths consistent with previous measurements

  4. Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations have many interesting and possibly useful effects on tokamak and quasi-symmetric stellarator plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, most notably on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma flows, have recently been developed. The 3D field perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (say 1-5) resonant (with field line pitch, q = m/n) and non-resonant fields, medium n (∼20, due to toroidal field ripple) and high n (due to microturbulence). Low n non-resonant fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal rotation throughout the plasma towards an offset rotation in the counter-current direction. Recent tokamak experiments have generally confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n toroidal field ripple produces similar effects plus possible ripple-trapping NTV effects and ion direct losses in the edge. A low n (e.g. n = 1) resonant field is mostly shielded by the toroidally rotating plasma at and inside the resonant (rational) surface. If it is large enough it can stop plasma rotation at the rational surface, facilitate magnetic reconnection there and lead to a growing stationary magnetic island (locked mode), which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components. In the plasma their lowest n (e.g. n = 1) externally resonant components can be amplified by kink-type plasma responses, particularly at high β. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g. resistive wall modes, neoclassical tearing modes) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas. Tearing modes in their nonlinear (Rutherford) regime bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can, if not shielded by plasma rotation effects, cause local magnetic

  5. Electron diamagnetism and toroidal coupling of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    Using a simple model for the layer of the tearing mode, we demonstrate that toroidally coupled tearing modes with two rational surfaces are most unstable when the ω*'s of the electrons at the rational surfaces are equal. The onset of instability may then occur because of the tuning of ω* rather than the passage of Δ'-like quantities through zero. This mechanism for the onset of instability is sharp since the resonance is narrow. The effect of toroidal rotation is also discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  6. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  7. Transient eddy currents on finite plane and toroidal conducting surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Christensen, U.R.

    1979-04-01

    this report applies a previously presented mesh analysis method to calculate transient eddy currents in conducting surfaces. Example calculations are presented for a planar conducting sheet of finite dimensions and also for a toroidal conducting surface which represents the vacuum vessel of the TFTR. For the toroidal sheet, branch inductances are initially calculated by num erically integrating the vector potential function, then the branch matrix is transformed into a mesh matrix. For the flat sheet, an analytic expression is given which enables direct calculation of the mesh inductance matrix. Streamline plots of the eddy current distributions are shown at successive time steps for each example.

  8. The ATLAS barrel level-1 Muon Trigger Sector-Logic/RX off-detector trigger and acquisition board

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodi, G; Petrolo, E; Pastore, F; Salamon, A; Vari, R; Veneziano, S

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment uses a system of three concentric layers of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detector for the Level-1 Muon Trigger in the air-core barrel toroid region. The trigger algorithm looks for hit coincidences within different detector layers inside the programmable geometrical road which defines the transverse momentum cut. The on-detector electronics that provides the trigger and detector readout functionalities collects input signals coming from the RPC front-end. Trigger and readout data are then sent via optical fibres to the off-detector electronics. Six or seven optical fibres from one of the 64 trigger sectors go to one Sector-Logic/RX module, that later elaborates the collected trigger and readout data, and sends data respectively to the Read-Out Driver modules and to the Central Level-1 Trigger. We present the functionality and the implementation of the VME Sector-Logic/RX module, and the configuration of the system for the first cosmic ray data collected using this module.

  9. Superconducting Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Superconducting Technology Assessment (STA) has been conducted by the National Security Agency to address the fundamental question of a potential replacement for silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS...

  10. Superconductivity and its devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Among the more important developments that are discussed are cryotrons, superconducting motors and generators, and high-field magnets. Cryotrons will create faster and more economical computer systems. Superconducting motors and generators will cost much less to build than conventional electric generators and cut fuel consumption. Moreover, high-field magnets are being used to confine plasma in connection with nuclear fusion. Superconductors have a vital role to play in all of these developments. Most importantly, though, are the magnetic properties of superconductivity. Superconducting magnets are an integral part of nuclear fusion. In addition, high-field magnets are necessary in the use of accelerators, which are needed to study the interactions between elementary particles

  11. Superconductivity: Heike's heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, D.; Golden, M.

    2011-01-01

    A century ago, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. And yet, despite the conventional superconductors being understood, the list of unconventional superconductors is growing — for which unconventional theories may be required.

  12. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  13. Industrial applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrie, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the main applications of superconductivity in D.C. in variable current and in A.C. The existing markets are now worth the effort of producing commercial superconductors and of developing applications [fr

  14. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  15. Cryogenic aspects of a demountable toroidal field magnet system for tokamak type fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Powell, J.; Lehner, J.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for superconducting Toroidal Field (TF) magnet construction is presented. It is termed the ''Demountable Externally Anchored Low Stress'' (DEALS) magnet system. In contrast to continuous wound conventional superconducting coils, each magnet coil is made from several straight coil segments to form a polygon which can be joined and disjoined to improve reactor maintenance accessibility or to replace failed coil segments if necessary. A design example is presented of a DEALS magnet system for a UWMAK II size reactor. The overall magnet system is described, followed by a detailed analysis of the major heat loads in order to assess the refrigeration requirements for the concept. Despite the increased heat loads caused by high current power leads (200,000 amps) and the coil warm reinforcement support system, the analysis shows that at most, only about one percent (approximately 20 Mw) of the plant electrical output (approximately 2,000 Mw) is needed to operate the magnet cryogenic system. The advantages and the drawbacks of the DEALS magnet system are also discussed. The advantages include: capability to replace failed coils, increased accessibility to the blanket shield assembly, reduced reliability requirements for the magnet, much lower stress in conductor, easier application of improved high field brittle superconductors like Nb 3 Sn, improved magnet safety features, etc. The drawbacks are the increased refrigeration requirements and the necessity of a movable coil support system. A comparison with a conventional magnet system is made. It is concluded that the benefits of the DEALS approach far outweigh its penalties, and that the DEALS concept is the most practical, economical way to construct TF magnet systems for Tokamak reactors

  16. Effects of Toroidal Rotation Sshear on Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podesta, M; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Heidbrink, W W; Crocker, N A; Kubota, S

    2010-08-19

    The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)]. The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.

  17. Effects of Toroidal Rotation Shear on Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Crocker, N.A.; Kubota, S.; Yuh, H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)). The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.

  18. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries. Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto - via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies. (author)

  19. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario, E-mail: m.coccia@ceris.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto-via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  20. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  1. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  2. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The study entitled, 'Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems,' (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the 'sawtooth' collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to 'monster' or 'giant' sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two

  3. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-09-07

    The study entitled, "Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems," (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the "sawtooth" collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to "monster" or "giant" sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two-fluid effects on interchange dynamics, where

  4. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  5. Electron pairing without superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jeremy

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the first and best known superconducting semiconductor. It exhibits an extremely low carrier density threshold for superconductivity, and possesses a phase diagram similar to that of high-temperature superconductors--two factors that suggest an unconventional pairing mechanism. Despite sustained interest for 50 years, direct experimental insight into the nature of electron pairing in SrTiO3 has remained elusive. Here we perform transport experiments with nanowire-based single-electron transistors at the interface between SrTiO3 and a thin layer of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3. Electrostatic gating reveals a series of two-electron conductance resonances--paired electron states--that bifurcate above a critical pairing field Bp of about 1-4 tesla, an order of magnitude larger than the superconducting critical magnetic field. For magnetic fields below Bp, these resonances are insensitive to the applied magnetic field; for fields in excess of Bp, the resonances exhibit a linear Zeeman-like energy splitting. Electron pairing is stable at temperatures as high as 900 millikelvin, well above the superconducting transition temperature (about 300 millikelvin). These experiments demonstrate the existence of a robust electronic phase in which electrons pair without forming a superconducting state. Key experimental signatures are captured by a model involving an attractive Hubbard interaction that describes real-space electron pairing as a precursor to superconductivity. Support from AFOSR, ONR, ARO, NSF, DOE and NSSEFF is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  7. Design study of superconducting magnets for tokamak experimental fusion reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Design study has been made of superconducting magnets for a Tokamak experimental fusion reactor: toroidal field magnet design, poloidal field magnet design, refrigeration system design, magnet safety analysis, and magnet assembling and disassembling system design. A maximum toroidal field in the coil is 11.0 T, providing 5.5 T at plasma center. Nb 3 Sn superconducting cable is used to attain the toroidal field of 11 T. The coil bore is 7.3 x 11.2 m, and the coil shape is deformed constant-tension D-shape. The magnetomotive force is 185.6 MAT, and the operational current is 25.9 kA. In poloidal field magnet design, the coil is pancake-wound Nb 3 Sn conductor. The conductor is enclosed in Ti-alloy sheath, which serves also as helium containment vessel. The conductor is cooled by forced flow supercritical helium of 7 atm and 4.6 K, and the operational current is 25 -- 27 kA. (author)

  8. Suspension of a field-cooled BiPbSrCaCuO high-T sub c superconductor under a toroidal permanent magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S H; Choe, W; Lee, T S

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic flux measurements of a toroidal magnet revealed a concave-shaped field distribution with a single minimum and a null field along the axis of the torus at the point where the field reversed. The non-linear magnetic field of the toroidal magnet perpendicular to the Ag sub 2 O-doped superconducting disc sample with trapped magnetic flux distorted the field line distribution. As a result, the interaction force between the magnet and the sample exhibited regions of repulsive, null, attractive, null and finally repulsive force. The asymmetrical concave-shaped force pattern along the axis with two null force points indicates that the force exerted on the sample changes direction, the transition from repulsive to attractive at the null force point, and the force becomes repulsive again beyond the second null force point as the distance along the axis increases. The magnetic field simulation using the Poisson numerical code for the toroidal magnet of 46 mm OD, 12 mm ID and 10 mm thickness was in close agreeme...

  9. Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Andrew, Y.; Giroud, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present status of understanding of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in tokamaks is presented in this paper. Similar energy confinement and momentum confinement times, i.e. τE/τφ ≈ 1 have been reported on several tokamaks. It is more important though, to study the local transport both ...

  10. Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Andrew, Y.; Crombe, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the recent studies of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in JET. The ratio of the global energy confinement time to the momentum confinement is found to be close to tau(E)/tau(phi) = 1 except for the low density or low collisionality discharges where the ratio is tau(E...

  11. Toroidal bubbles with circulation in ideal hydrodynamics: A variational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, V.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, unsteady flows with circulation Gamma around a distorted toroidal bubble are considered. A general variational principle that determines the evolution of the bubble shape is formulated. For a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with a constant area A, exact...

  12. Preparing an ATLAS toroid magnet end-cap for lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the two 13-m high toroid magnet end-caps for the ATLAS experiment being transported from the construction hall to the experimental area. The end-cap will be lowered into the ATLAS cavern and attached to an end of the detector.

  13. The problem of evolution of toroidal plasma equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostomarov, D.; Zaitsev, F.; Shishkin, A.

    1999-03-01

    This paper is devoted to an advanced mathematical model for a self-consistent description of the evolution of free boundary toroidal plasmas, with a description of numerical algorithms for the solution of the appropriate non-linear system of integro-differential equations, and discussion of some results from the model. (author)

  14. Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ~1011 cm−3, ~4 × 1010 cm −3 and ~2 × 1010 cm −3 respectively. The experimental investiga- tion of time-averaged plasma parameter reveals that their profiles remain insensitive to ion mass and suggests that ...

  15. Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F.; Bigelow, T.S.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlop, J.L.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Harris, J.H.; Hills, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Neilson, G.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rome, J.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; White, T.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bell, G.L. (Auburn Univ., AL (USA)); Bell, J.D.; Morris, R.N.; Whitson, J.C. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Computing and Telecommunications Div., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Benson, R.D.; Chipley, K.K.; Cole, M.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Nelson, B.E.; Thompson, P.B.; White, J.A. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Div., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Wade, M.R. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design phase.

  16. Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude an...

  17. Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Q.

    2002-01-01

    Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)

  18. Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA

    Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle

  19. Toroidal and poloidal momentum transport studies in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Crombé, K.; Vries, P.C. de

    2007-01-01

    The present status of understanding of toroidal and poloidal momentum transport in tokamaks is presented in this paper. Similar energy confinement and momentum confinement times, i.e. τE/τφ ≈ 1 have been reported on several tokamaks. It is more important though, to study the local transport both ...

  20. Calculation of quasispherical liner compression in a compact toroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, V.V.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Kurtmullaev, R.Kh.; Semenov, V.N.

    This work considers the evolution of a compact toroid as the volume and shape of the cavity changes, all the way up to the values of the degree of compression K which are of practical interest, i.e., K approx. = 1000, at which thermonuclear plasma parameters can be achieved

  1. Superconducting quantum interference monitor of charged particle beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsev, K.F.; Mikheev, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Description and test results of the monitor of charged particle beam current on the base of the high-frequency superconducting quantum interference detector with lead slotted shield are presented. The toroidal superconducting coil, which covers the measured beam has 16 turns wound by the lead belt of 7 mm width with 0.5 mm gaps between the turns. A superconducting low-coupling monitor having two holes and point oxidated niobium contact has been used in the mode of quanta counting of magnetic flux. The lead point shield was 2 mm thick and it had 30 mm aperture. The coefficient of background shielding within 0-200 Hz frequency range constituted more than 10 8 . The threshold current resolution of the monitor had the value less than 01 μA √Hz. The suggested monitor requires helium cooling. The proposed design of the monitor is applicable for mounting on the vacuum chamber when it is surrounded by helium conductor. In other cases mounting of low-powerful autonomic system or cryostat of helium storage up to several weeks is possible [ru

  2. Dynamical conservation of invariants by toroidal trajectories of guiding centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misguich, J.H.

    1992-03-01

    The classical problem of calculating toroidal trajectories is treated here by comparing the results of two different methods in a given magnetic configuration, a standard divergence-free magnetic field model. The present work consists of adapting the analytical criteria of MERCIER et al. for classical toroidal trajectories, and to examine numerically the dynamical conservation of the toroidal invariant. The first method is based on the evolution equations for the guiding centres. These equations are then solved numerically (code TRATORIA) and the trajectories are drawn for different initial conditions. We use a modified standard model for the magnetic field, which insures a manifestly divergence-free field. Moreover we take into account the contribution of the poloidal field to the total strength of the magnetic field. These corrections contribute to the analytical expression of the conserved toroidal momentum. The latter is verified to be conserved by the present numerical simulation with a precision generally of the order of 10 -14 . The second method is based on the analytical treatment of the invariants to yield a semi-analytical (semi graphical) determination of the intersection point of a given trajectory with the equatorial plane. Both methods allows one to recover well-known toroidal trajectories with passing and trapped particles (bananas). The present analysis brings a clear description of some other, less well-known types of trajectories, namely the stagnation orbits, the smallest D-shape banana, some small circulating de-flated bananas, some huge classical bananas (potatoes), and the largest puffed bananas which exhibit only local mirroring, along with several kind of escaping or open trajectories which are of importance for fast ion losses and target damages in the machines

  3. Superconductivity transformers in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; De Nigris, M.; Morandi, A.; Trevisan, L.; Fabbri, M.; Ribani, P.; Negrini, F.

    2008-01-01

    Transformers in superconducting materials at high temperatures offer many advantages in economic, environmental and functional aspects, compared to traditional transformers. Are presented the potentials of superconducting transformers available, aspects of design and the international state of the art [it

  4. Superconducting state mechanisms and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.

  5. Fullerides - Superconductivity at the limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    The successful synthesis of highly crystalline Cs3C60, exhibiting superconductivity up to a record temperature for fullerides of 38 K, demonstrates a powerful synthetic route for investigating the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.

  6. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  7. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Xu, Zheng; Jochum, Johanna K; Volodin, Alexander; Zhou, Shengqiang; May, Paul W; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Steele, Julian A; Li, Jun; Vanacken, Johan; Vacík, Jiri; Szabó, Pavol; Yuan, Haifeng; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Cerbu, Dorin; Samuely, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2017-06-27

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature T Curie > 400 K. In spite of the high T Curie , our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.

  8. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-03

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine.

  9. Achieving a high-Q response in metamaterials by manipulating the toroidal excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuancheng; Zhang, Fuli; Shen, Nian-Hai; Fu, Quanhong; Wei, Zeyong; Li, Hongqiang; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2018-03-01

    The excitation of toroidal multipoles in metamaterials is investigated for a high-Q response at a subwavelength scale. In this paper, we explore the optimization of toroidal excitations in a planar metamaterial comprised of asymmetric split ring resonators (ASRRs). It is found that the scattering power of a toroidal dipole can be remarkably strengthened by adjusting the characteristic parameter of ASRRs: an asymmetric factor. Interestingly, the improvement in toroidal excitation accompanies an increment of the Q factor of the toroidal metamaterial; it is shown that both the scattering power of the toroidal dipole and the Q factor increase more than one order by changing the asymmetric factor of ASRRs. The optimization in the excitation of a toroidal multipole provides an opportunity to further increase the Q factor of the metamaterial and boost light-matter interactions at the subwavelength scale for potential applications in low-power nonlinear processing and sensitive photonic applications.

  10. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  11. Superconductive Signal-Processing Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    September 1991. 13. P. H. Xiao, E. Charbon , A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, T. Van Duzer,and S.W. Whiteley, "INDEX: An inductance extractor for superconducting...APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 3, ,Q I, MARCH 1993 2629 INDEX: An Inductance Extractor for Superconducting Circuits P. H. Xiao, E. Charbon , A

  12. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  13. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Huabing [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  14. Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Energy Efficiency is a worldwide imperative driven by an increasing awareness of the need to conserve valuable natural resources. Superconductivity, the technology which revolutionized non-invasive medical imaging through MRI starting in the 1980’s, is one of the most promising enablers of energy efficiency in the 21st century. From energy efficient supercomputers to power generation, transmission, and storage, the spectrum of applications of superconductivity is broad in its reach and potential. As ASC comes to Charlotte, site of the hall of fame of NASCAR, our theme, “Race to Energy Efficiency,” is intended to inspire the world experts in superconductivity who will converge to Charlotte to present their latest results, exchange information, network, and plan and project the future breakthroughs.

  15. On anyon superconductivity--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-H.; Wilczek, F.; Witten, E.; Halperin, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics of a gas of fractional statistics particles in 2 + 1 dimensions. In the case of statistics very close to Fermi statistics (statistical parameter θ = π(1 - 1/n), for large n), the effect of the statistics is a weak attraction. Building upon earlier RPA calculation for the case n = 2, the authors argue that for large n perturbation theory is reliable and exhibits superfluidity (or superconductivity after coupling to electromagnetism). They describe the order parameter for this superconductng phase in terms of spontaneous breaking of commutativity of translations as opposed to the usual pairing order parameters. The vortices of the superconducting anyon gas are charged, and superconducting order parameters of the usual type vanish. They investigate the characteristic P and T violating phenomenology

  16. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  17. Superconductivity for mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-MS) with super-conducting detectors has two advantages over MS with conventional ion detectors. First, it is coverage for a very wide range of molecule weight over 1,000,000. Secondly, kinetic energies of accelerated molecules can be measured at impact events one by one. These unique features enable an ultimate detection efficiency of 100% for intact ions and a fragmentation analysis that is critical for top-down proteomics. Superconducting MS is expected to play a role in, for example, the detection of antigen-antibody complexes, which are important for medical diagnosis. In this paper, how superconductivity contributes to MS is described. (author)

  18. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  19. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K

    2003-10-15

    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  20. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  1. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  2. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  3. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  4. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  5. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  6. First physics pulses in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter with cosmics

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Serin

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter has been installed in its final position in October 2005. Since then, the calorimeter is being equipped with front-end electronics. Starting in April 2006, electronics calibration runs are taken a few times per week to debug the electronics and to study the performance in the pit (stability, noise). Today, 10 out of the 32 Front End crates are being read out, amounting to about 35000 channels. cool down, few little typos --> After a 6-week cool down, the barrel cryostat was filled with Liquid Argon in May. The presence of a few shorts (~1MΩ) at the edges of the modules was indicating the possibility of conducting dust having entered into the calorimeter with the flowing liquid. In order to try to improve this situation, the calorimeter was emptied and filled again, but this time by condensating the argon instead of flowing it in liquid phase. The new High Voltage tests are not showing any significant improvement but the situation is statisfactory for ATLAS runn...

  7. Recent results from the DELPHI barrel ring imaging Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anassontzis, E.G.; Ioannou, P.; Kalkanis, G.; Katsanevas, S.; Kontaxis, I.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Nounos, S.; Preve, P.; Resvanis, L.K.; Brunet, J.M.; Dolbeau, J.; Guglielmo, L.; Ledroit, F.; Poutot, D.; Tristram, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DELPHI detector, installed at LEP, is equipped with RICH (Ring Imaging Cherenkov) counters. The Barrel part incorporates a liquid (C 6 F 14 ) and a gaseous (C 5 F 12 ) radiator providing particle identification up to 20GeV/c. The Cherenkov protons of both radiators are detected by TPC-like photon detectors. The drift gas (75% CH 4 + 25% C 2 H 6 ) is doped with TMAE, but which the UV Cherenkov photons are converted into single free photo-electrons. These are drifted towards MWPC's at the end of the drift tubes and the space coordinates of the conversion point are determined. One half of the Barrel RICH is now equipped with drift tubes and has provided results from the liquid radiator since spring 1990. The gas radiator has been tested with C 2 F 6 as a preliminary filling since August 1990. The data obtained demonstrate the good particle identification potential. For the liquid radiator the number of detected photons per ring in hadron jets is N=8, whereas for muon pairs (single tracks) N=10 has been obtained. For the gas radiator 2.1 photons per track were observed, which demonstrates the good functioning of the focussing mirrors, as the C 2 F 6 this is close to the expected value

  8. Performance of a Rain Barrel Sharing Network under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Jin Noh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rain barrels can be technically shared through social practices or mutual agreement between individual households. This study proposes the evaluation system for a rain barrel sharing network (RBSN considering three performance criteria of reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability, under plausible climate change scenarios. First, this study shows how the system can be improved in terms of the performance criteria using historical daily rainfall data based on the storage-reliability-yield relationship. This study then examined how the benefits from RBSN are affected by climate change after 100 years. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2 and three global circulation models were used for this purpose. The results showed that the reliability and vulnerability are improved due to sharing and their improvements become larger under climate change conditions. In contrast, the resiliency reduces slightly due to sharing and its reduction is attenuated under climate change conditions. In particular, vulnerability will be reduced significantly under climate change. These results suggest that the sharing of various water resources systems can be an effective climate change adaptation strategy that reduces vulnerability and increases the reliability of the system.

  9. Superconducting poloidal field magnet engineering for the ARIES-ST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Pourrahimi, S.; Schultz, J.H.; Titus, P.; Jardin, S.; Kessel, C.; Reiersen, W.

    2003-01-01

    The critical issues of the poloidal systems for the ARIES-ST design have been presented in this paper. Because of the large plasma current and the need of highly shaped plasmas, the poloidal field (PF) coils should be located inside the toroidal field in order to reduce their current. Even then, the divertor coils carry large currents. The ARIES-ST PF coils are superconducting using the internally cooled cable-in-conduit conductor. The peak self field in the divertor coils is about 15 T and the highest field in the non-divertor coils is about 6 T. The PF magnets have built-in margins that are sufficient to survive disruptions without quenching. The costing study indicates that the specific cost of the PF system is $80/kg. Detailed design and trade-off studies of ARIES-ST are presented and remaining R and D issues are identified

  10. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The s-α diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, ω A =V A /qR. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Shock absorbing properties of toroidal shells under compression, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yuji

    1985-01-01

    The author has previously presented the static load-deflection relations of a toroidal shell subjected to axisymmetric compression between rigid plates and those of its outer half when subjected to lateral compression. In both these cases, the analytical method was based on the incremental Rayleigh-Ritz method. In this paper, the effects of compression angle and strain rate on the load-deflection relations of the toroidal shell are investigated for its use as a shock absorber for the radioactive material shipping cask which must keep its structural integrity even after accidental falls at any angle. Static compression tests have been carried out at four angles of compression, 10 0 , 20 0 , 50 0 , 90 0 and the applications of the preceding analytical method have been discussed. Dynamic compression tests have also been performed using the free-falling drop hammer. The results are compared with those in the static compression tests. (author)

  12. Toroidal coupling in the kinetic response to edge magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; White, R. B.; Schmitz, O.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetic topology of the stochastic edge of a helical reversed-field pinch, with helicity m/n , shows to be deeply influenced by higher harmonics (m +/- 1)/ n , with the same n, due to toroidal coupling. As a consequence, by measuring kinetic quantities in a particular θ, φ location, one can incur in substantial errors or mis-interpretations of the kinetic plasma response: only a full 3D coverage of θ, φ angles can reveal the real topology of the plasma. This can be a caveat for MP application in tokamaks, because it shows that toroidal and poloidal sidebands, though smaller than the base mode by a factor  ∼ \

  13. Compact toroid injection experiment in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2001-01-01

    Compact toroid (CT)injection experiments with H-mode plasmas were carried out for the first time in JFT-2M. The soft x-ray emission profile shows central penetration of CT in H-mode plasma heated by 1.2 MW NBI as well as in OH plasmas, with toroidal magnetic field of 0.8 T. The line-averaged electron density rapidly increased by Δn-bar e ∝0.2x10 19 m -3 at a rate of 4x10 21 m -3 /s in H-mode and the fuelling efficiency was roughly 20%.The asymmetrical radial profile in the soft x-ray emission was produced for ∝ 50 μs by the central penetration of CT. (author)

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymmetric systems with toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, N.L.P.

    1986-01-01

    A model for studying magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymetrically confined plasma with toroidal rotation, extended to the Grad. Shafranov equation is presented. The expression used for the scalar pressure is modifiec, and the influence of toroidal magnetic field is included, The equation for general motion of axisymetrically confined plasma, particularizing for rotation movements is described. Two cases are compared: one supposes the entropy as a function of poloidal magnetic flux and other supposes the temperature as a function of flux. The equations for these two cases obtaining a simplified expression by others approximations are established. The proposed model is compared with Shibata model, which uses density as function of flux, and with the ideal spheromak model. A set of cases taking in account experimental data is studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. A toroidal inductor integrated in a standard CMOS process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca; Andreani, Pietro; Temporiti, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a toroidal inductor integrated in a standard 0.13 um CMOS process. Finite-elements preliminary simulations are provided to prove the validity of the concept. In order to extract fundamental parameters by means of direct calculations, two different and well-known approaches are......H and 1.1 nH up to 20 GHz (physical limit for the measurement equipment) and a quality factor approaching 10 at 15 GHz. No self-resonance is observed within the measurement range.......This paper presents a toroidal inductor integrated in a standard 0.13 um CMOS process. Finite-elements preliminary simulations are provided to prove the validity of the concept. In order to extract fundamental parameters by means of direct calculations, two different and well-known approaches...

  16. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-09-01

    The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)

  17. Kinetic global analysis of Alfven eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.

    2002-01-01

    Systematic study on low to medium n (toroidal mode number) Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in tokamaks and helical systems is presented. Linear stability of AE in the presence of energetic ions was studied using the kinetic full-wave code TASK/WM.We have reproduced the destabilizing effect of toroidal co-rotation on TAE for JT-60U parameters. We have found the existence of reversed-shear-induced Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) which localizes near the q minimum in a reversed magnetic shear configuration. Two kinds of mode structures are identified for energetic particle mode (EPM) below the TAE frequency gap. The coupling to lower-frequency modes such as drift waves and MHD modes as well as the effect of trapped particles are also taken into account. For a helical plasma, the existence of GAE in the central region and TAE in the off-axis region was confirmed. (author)

  18. Generation of DC toroidal current by a travelling wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hirano, K.; Mohri, A.; Fukao, M.; Midzuno, Y.

    1974-01-01

    An rf field travelling along the torus is observed to induce a dc toroidal current in a magnetized plasma. The travelling field is applied to the plasma by employing a delay-line wound around the toroidal glass discharge tube. The phase velocity of the field is approximately equal to the electron thermal velocity. The direction of the current is opposite to that of the wave, indicating that the electrons are trapped in the magnetic mirrors composed of the travelling wave. The density of the trapped electrons reaches 10 percent of the background plasma density at an optimum condition. On the basis of the electron trapping model, the required rf power for current sustaining in a Tokamak fusion reactor is estimated and found to be reasonably small in comparison with the output power of the reactor

  19. Broadening of the lower hybrid kparallel spectrum by toroidal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbato, E.; Romanelli, F.

    1990-01-01

    Toroidal geometry affects the evolution of k parallel (the component of the wave vector parallel to the magnetic field) along the lower hybrid, (LH) wave trajectories. In this paper such variations are investigated both analytically and numerically. The main parameters governing this phenomenon are found and how k parallel upshift can occur within this scheme is elucidated. As a figure of merit a k parallel - upshift factor is defined and discussed in a dimensionless parameter space in which all the LH experiments can be represented. Finally, a discussion of whether and when toroidal effects can fill the gap between the high phase velocity of the injected LH waves and the electron thermal velocity is presented by analyzing different experimental situations

  20. Variation of magnetic properties of toroidal cores with magnetizing frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derebasi, N.; Rygal, R.; Moses, A.J.; Fox, D.

    2000-01-01

    AC magnetic properties of toroidal cores made from six different soft magnetic materials were measured. A solid steel core exhibited the highest remanance, coercivity and core loss as expected whereas a nanocrystalline core had the lowest remanance of the cores tested. Increase in dynamic core loss with frequency in steel particle and iron powder cores was low compared with the other cores but was low in permeability

  1. Force-free field inside a toroidal magnetic cloud

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romashets, E. P.; Vandas, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 20 (2003), s. 2065, /SSC 8-1 - SSC 8-4/ ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1003006; GA ČR GA205/03/0953 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : magnetic clouds * toroid al flux rope * analytical solution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.422, year: 2003

  2. A numerical solution for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, E.; Sudano, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The iterative techniques alternating direction implicit (ADI), sucessive ove-relaxation (SOR) and Gauss-Seidel are applied to a nonlinear elliptical second order differential equation (Grand-Shafranov). This equation was solve with the free boundary conditions plasma-vacuum interface over a rectangular section in cylindrical coordinates R and Z. The current density profile, plasma pressure profile, magnetic and isobaric surfaces are numerically determined for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Theory of the rippling instability in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.

    1985-04-01

    The theory of the rippling instability is developed for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas including ion viscosity and parallel electron heat conduction, but assuming that the growth rate is small compared to the wave angular frequency. Parallel electron heat conduction is stabilizing but ion viscosity broadens the instability domain. Under certain conditions, an important top-bottom asymmetry of the density fluctuation spectrum may arise. (orig./GG)

  4. Goya - an MHD equilibrium code for toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.

    1984-09-01

    A description of the GOYA free-boundary equilibrium code is given. The non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal MHD is solved in a toroidal geometry for plasmas with purely poloidal magnetic fields. The code is based on a field line-tracing procedure, making storage of a large amount of information on a grid unnecessary. Usage of the code is demonstrated by computations of equi/libria for the EXTRAP-T1 device. (Author)

  5. Operating tokamaks with steady-state toroidal current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-04-01

    Continuous operation of a tokamak requires, among other things, a means of continuously providing the toroidal current. Various methods have been proposed to provide this current including methods which utilize radio-frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Here we elaborate on the prospects of incorporating these current-drive techniques in tokamak reactors, concentrating on the theoretical minimization of the power requirements

  6. Modular invariant partition functions for toroidally compactified bosonic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, F.; Arfaei, H.

    1988-06-01

    We systematically find all the modular invariant partition functions for the toroidally compactified closed bosonic string defined on a subset of a simply laced simple Lie algebra lattice, or equivalently for the closed bosonic string moving on a group manifold with the WZW coefficient k=1. We examine the relation between modular invariance of partition function and the possibility of describing it by an even Lorentzian self dual lattice in our context. (author). 23 refs

  7. The control system of the RFX toroidal power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toigo, V.; Piovan, R.; Zanotto, L.; Perna, M.; Coffetti, A.; Freghieri, M.; Povolero, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the control system of the toroidal power supply of the RFX experiment and outlines its specific hardware and software structure, which allowed to cope with the numerous requirements of the application with a compact hardware arrangement. The active fault protection strategies, implemented in the control system, are also discussed; finally, a special part of the control, which greatly simplified the long and complex commissioning of the power section of the system, is described

  8. Miniature anastigmatic spectrometer design with a concave toroidal mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianing; Chen, He; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan

    2016-03-01

    An advanced optical design for a low-cost and astigmatism-corrected spectrometer with a high resolution is presented. The theory and method of astigmatism correction are determined with the use of a concave toroidal mirror. The performances of a modified spectrometer and a traditional spectrometer are compared, and the analysis is verified. Experimentally, the limiting resolution of our spectrometer is 0.1 nm full width at half-maximum, as measured for 579.1 nm.

  9. CPRF/ZTH toroidal conducting shell design and fabrication considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Gomez, T.; Smith, R.L.; Weldon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss design in progress of a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be fabricated and assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 86-92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the front-end ZTH torus. The ZTH consists oof an Inconel 625 vacuum liner supported by an external electrically conducting shell. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shells external surface

  10. Installation of CMS EB (ECAL Barrel) Supermodules 5 and 13 inside HB+ (HCAL Barrel) on 26/27 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Ken Bell, RAL

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the CMS experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. See also the document CMS-PHO-OREACH-2006-019. The first two pictures show the two supermodules in their final position. Fig. 3: the "enfourneur" in position on the HB Cradle. Fig. 4: supermodule n. 5 and extension rails being lifted to the enforneur. Figs. 5-6: supermodule approaching the enforneur. Fig. 7: rotating the Enfourneur to the correct phi direction Figs. 8-9: aligning the extension rails with the rails inside HB and view from inside HB, once the rails are aligned. Figs. 10-12: insertion of supermodule n. 5. Fig. ...

  11. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  12. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  13. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superconductivity, the awe-inspiring word came into existence when KamerIingh Onnes (Box 1) discovered a new phenom- enon in 1911. When he cooled a sample of liquid metal mercury, it lost its electrical resistance at temperatures close to 0 K. Years of careful experimentation at Leiden preceded his success in the.

  14. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  15. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Alternative superconducting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the experiment on 'Development of high temperature superconducting system components' supported by the German Ministry of Research and Technology, investigations were carried out by the Working Party of Prof. von Schnering at the Max Planck Institute for Solids Research, the aim of which is to find characteristic structural features of superconducting substances. Alternative systems are to be looked for with the aid of correlation of superconducting properties with simple electronic and chemical structure models, where very powerful 3D computer graphics are used to visualize them. The theoretical and information technology part of the work was supplemented by experiments. Superconducting phases and related compounds were represented and their structures and physical properties were determined. According to the tasks described above, the report is divided into three sections. Starting with the description of a program system for three-dimensional representation of structures and properties of periodic systems, in the second section a process for calculating node surfaces is explained and the importance of curvature in chemical structures is pointed out. The results of the experiments are collected in the third part. (orig.) [de

  17. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  18. Superconducting electronics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.A.; Guernsey, R.W.; Stasiak, J.W.; Flint, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    An I/O assembly has been designed and constructed to support the operation of superconducting circuitry. A system, previously described for chip testing, has been adapted for use with a Josephson technology system level experiment. The cryoinsert assembly, constructed of non-magnetic parts, provides 80 high frequency I/O lines between room temperature and 4.2 K. (author)

  19. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D.; Meltzer, D.E.; Pines, D.; Schrieffer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  20. Superconductivity : Controlling magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu.

    Manipulation of the magnetic state in spin valve structures by superconductivity has now been achieved, opening a new route for the development of ultra-fast cryogenic memories. Spintronics is a rapidly developing field that allows insight into fundamental spin-dependent physical properties and the

  1. Superconducting magnets 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Superconducting Magnets; SSC Magnet Industrialization; Collider Quadrupole Development; A Record-Setting Magnet; D20: The Push Beyond 10T; Nonaccelerator Applications; APC Materials Development; High-T c at Low Temperature; Cable and Cabling-Machine Development; and Analytical Magnet Design

  2. Superconductors for superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbalestier, David

    2011-03-01

    Even in 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes envisioned the use of superconductors to create powerful magnetic fields well beyond the capability provided by cooling normal metals with liquid helium. Only some ``bad places'' in his Hg and Pb wires seemed to impede his first attempts at this dream, one that he imagined would be resolved in a few weeks of effort. In fact, of course, resolution required another 50 years and development of both a true understanding of the difference between type I and type II superconductors and the discovery of compounds such as Nb 3 Sn that could remain superconducting to fields as high as 30 T. And then indeed, starting in the 1960s, Onnes's dreams were comfortably surpassed. In the last 45 years virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from just two Nb-base materials, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn. Now it seems that a new generation of magnets based on cuprate high temperature superconductors with fields well above 30 T are possible using Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and the RE-Ba-Cu-O compounds. We hope that a first demonstration of this possibility will be an all-superconducting 32 T magnet with RE-Ba-Cu-O insert that we are building for NHMFL users. The magnet application potential of this new generation of superconducting conductors will be discussed.

  3. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  4. MOCVD superconducting oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Toshio; Yamane, Hisanori

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of high- Tc superconducting oxide films by MOCVD, their films structure and superconducting properties are reviewed from the standpoint of "nano-composites" and "fine-composites". Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) films formed on SrTiO 3(100) at 850°C showed a superconducting transition temperature with zero resistivity above 90 K. The maximum critical current density was 2.0×10 6 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K and 0 T, and 6.5×10 4 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K and 27 T. CuO and a-axis oriented YBCO grains were contained in the matrix of c-axis oriented YBCO. A transmission electron microscope observation revealed that inclusions of about 10-30 nm were embedded in the a- b plane of YBCO. MOCVD-YBCO films prepared on MgO(100) were used for superconducting devices. Some studies on the MOCVD films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O are also reviewed.

  5. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  6. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/09/0041-0048 ...

  7. Curvature-induced electrostatic drift modes in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with a number of problems in the theory of linear stability of a hot, fully ionized plasma immersed in a strong magnetic field. The most widely used system to magnetically confine a plasma is the tokamak. This is a toroidal, current carrying device with a strong, externally imposed, magnetic field. The author discusses the linear theory of unstable, low-frequency waves in the gradient region, restricted to electrostatic waves. In that case the resulting radial fluxes of particles and energy are due to electric cross-field drifts. In the presence of magnetic fluctuations and small-scale reconnection phenomena, radial transport could also be predominantly along field lines. At present, it is not clear which of the two mechanisms is the dominant feature of the observed anomalous transport. First, the author introduces the theory of drift waves in toroidal geometry. Next, the electrostratic drift modes in toroidal geometry (weakly collisional regime), the equations for low-frequency waves in the strongly collisional regime and the electrostatic drift modes (strongly collisional regime) are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Plasma confinement of Nagoya high beta toroidal pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Wakatani, M.; Kita, Y.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sato, K.; Aizawa, T.; Osanai, Y.; Noda, N.

    1976-01-01

    Two different types of high β toroidal pinch experiments, STP and CCT, have been done to study the confinement of the plasma produced by theta-pinch. The STP is an axisymmetric toroidal pinch of high β tokamak type, while the CCT is multiply connected periodic toroidal traps. Internal current carrying copper rings are essential to the CCT. Since both apparatuses use the same fast capacitor bank system, they produce not so different plasma temperatures and densities. The observed laser scattering temperature and density is about 50 eV and 4 x 10 15 /cm 3 , respectively, when the filling pressure is 5 m torr. In the experiment of STP, strong correlations are found between the βsub(p) value and the amplitude of m = 2 mode. It has a minimum around the value of βsub(p) of 0.8. The disruptive instability is observed to expand the pinched plasma column without lowering the plasma temperature. Just before the distruption begins, the q value around the magnetic axis becomes far less than 1 and an increase of the amplitude of m = 2 mode is seen. The CCT also shows rapid plasma expansion just before the magnetic field reaches its maximum. Then the trap is filled up with the plasma by this irreversible expansion and the stable plasma confinement is achieved. The energy confinement time of the CCT is found to be about 35 μsec. (orig.) [de

  9. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  10. Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.

    1991-01-01

    A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs

  11. Transport processes and entropy production in toroidally rotating plasmas with electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1996-08-01

    Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidally rotating systems with electrostatic turbulence. A new gyrokinetic equation is derived for rotating plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. Neoclassical and anomalous transport of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum are systematically formulated from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the gyrokinetic equation. As a conjugate pair of the thermodynamic force and the transport flux, the shear of the toroidal flow, which is caused by the radial electric field shear, and the toroidal viscosity enter both the neoclassical and anomalous entropy production. The interaction between the fluctuations and the sheared toroidal flow is self-consistently described by the gyrokinetic equation containing the flow shear as the thermodynamic force and by the toroidal momentum balance equation including the anomalous viscosity. Effects of the toroidal flow shear on the toroidal ion temperature gradient driven modes are investigated. Linear and quasilinear analyses of the modes show that the toroidal flow shear decreases the growth rates and reduces the anomalous toroidal viscosity. (author)

  12. Patchwork-Type Spontaneous Activity in Neonatal Barrel Cortex Layer 4 Transmitted via Thalamocortical Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Mizuno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Establishment of precise neuronal connectivity in the neocortex relies on activity-dependent circuit reorganization during postnatal development; however, the nature of cortical activity during this period remains largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging of the barrel cortex in vivo during the first postnatal week, we reveal that layer 4 (L4 neurons within the same barrel fire synchronously in the absence of peripheral stimulation, creating a “patchwork” pattern of spontaneous activity corresponding to the barrel map. By generating transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6s in thalamocortical axons, we show that thalamocortical axons also demonstrate the spontaneous patchwork activity pattern. Patchwork activity is diminished by peripheral anesthesia but is mostly independent of self-generated whisker movements. The patchwork activity pattern largely disappeared during postnatal week 2, as even L4 neurons within the same barrel tended to fire asynchronously. This spontaneous L4 activity pattern has features suitable for thalamocortical (TC circuit refinement in the neonatal barrel cortex. : By two-photon calcium imaging of layer 4 neurons and thalamocortical axon terminals in neonatal mouse barrel cortex, Mizuno et al. find a patchwork-like spontaneous activity pattern corresponding to the barrel map, which may be important for thalamocortical circuit maturation. Keywords: activity-dependent development, spontaneous activity, synchronized activity, barrel cortex, thalamocortical axons, neonates, in vivo calcium imaging, awake, single-cell labeling, whisker monitoring

  13. Design and development of a work robot to place ATLAS SCT modules onto barrel cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, S; Honma, F; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Sengoku, H; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Ujiie, N; Unno, Y; Yasuda, S

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 silicon modules need to be placed and fastened on the ATLAS SCT barrel tracker. A semi-automatic pick-and-place work robot was designed and developed to cope with the module placement for the SCT barrel assembly. We found that this robot could place modules to a mechanical precision of better than 25 mum.

  14. Intermediate normal metal layers in superconducting circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.F.; Gershenson, M.; Fleming, D.L.; Barta, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting device comprising a first superconducting layer, a junction layer on the first superconducting layer, an insulating layer on the first superconducting layer, at least one superconducting area on the junction layer surrounded by the insulator layer, superconducting connector pad means disposed over the superconducting area, and superconducting wire means electrically connected to the superconducting connector pad means. The improvement comprising a first metal layer is disposed over the insulator layer and intermediate the superconducting area. The connector pad means and a second metal layer are disposed between the connector pad means and the superconductor wire means. The first metal layer covers the superconducting area and the first and second metal layers are sufficiently thin to allow quantum mechanical tunneling between the connector pad means and the superconducting area and the connector pad means and the superconducting wire means, respectively

  15. Shell model in-water frequencies of the core barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, K.; De Santo, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Natural frequencies of a 1/24th-scale core barrel/vessel model in air and in water are measured by determining frequency responses to applied forces. The measured data are analyzed by the use of the one-dimensional fluid-structure computer code, MULTIFLEX, developed to calculate the hydraulic force. The fluid-structure interaction in the downcomer annulus is computed with a one-dimensional network model formed to be equivalent to two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction. The structural model incorporated in MULTIFLEX is substantially simpler than that necessary for structural analyses. Proposed for computation of structural dynamics is the projector method than can deal with the beam mode by modal analysis and the other shell modes by a direct integration method. Computed in-air and in-water frequencies agree fairly well with the experimental data, verifying the above MULTIFLEX technique

  16. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  17. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Alexa, C; Astesan, F; Augé, E; Aulchenko, V M; Ballansat, J; Barreiro, F; Barrillon, P; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Beaugiraud, B; Beck-Hansen, J; Belhorma, B; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Ben-Mansour, A; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bernard, R; Bertoli, W; Boniface, J; Bonivento, W; Bourdarios, C; Bremer, J; Breton, D; Bán, J; Camard, A; Canton, B; Carminati, L; Cartiglia, N; Cavalli, D; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalley, J L; Chollet, F; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, W; Clément, C; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Costa, G; Cros, P; Cunitz, H; de Saintignon, P; Del Peso, J; Delebecque, P; Delmastro, M; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dinkespiler, B; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Driouichi, C; Dumont-Dayot, N; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egdemir, J; El-Kacimi, M; El-Mouahhidi, Y; Engelmann, R; Ernwein, J; Falleau, I; Fanti, M; Farrell, J; Fassnacht, P; Ferrari, A; Fichet, S; Fournier, D; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gara, A; García, G; Gaumer, O; Ghazlane, H; Ghez, P; Gianotti, F; Girard, C; Gordon, H; Gouanère, M; Guilhem, G; Hackenburg, B; Hakimi, M; Hassani, S; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Hinz, L; Hoffman, A; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Hubaut, F; Idrissi, A; Imbault, D; Jacquier, Y; Jérémie, A; Jevaud, M; Jézéquel, S; Kambara, H; Karst, P; Kazanin, V; Kierstead, J A; Kolachev, G M; Kordas, K; de La Taille, C; Labarga, L; Lacour, D; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lanni, F; Le Coroller, A; Le Dortz, O; Le Maner, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Le Flour, T; Leite, M; Leltchouk, M; Lesueur, J; Lissauer, D; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Ma, H; Macé, G; Makowiecki, D S; Malychev, V; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Marin, C P; Martin, D; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A L; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; Megner, L; Merkel, B; Mirea, A; Moneta, L; Monnier, E; Moynot, M; Muraz, J F; Nagy, E; Negroni, S; Neukermans, L; Nicod, D; Nikolic-Audit, I; Noppe, J M; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Olivier, C; Orsini, F; Pailler, P; Parrour, G; Parsons, J A; Pearce, M; Perini, L; Perrodo, P; Perrot, G; Pétroff, P; Poggioli, Luc; Pospelov, G E; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prast, J; Przysiezniak, H; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Rajagopalan, S; Raymond, M; Renardy, J F; Repetti, B; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Riccadona, X; Richer, J P; Rijssenbeek, M; Rodier, S; Rossel, F; Rousseau, D; Rydström, S; Saboumazrag, S; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Schilly, P; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seman, M; Serin, L; Shousharo, A; Simion, S; Sippach, W; Snopkov, R; Steffens, J; Stroynowski, R; Stumer, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Talyshev, A A; Tartarelli, F; Teiger, J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserant, S; Tocut, V; Tóth, J; Veillet, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Vuillemin, V; Wielers, M; Willis, W J; Wingerter-Seez, I; Ye, J; Yip, K; Zerwas, D; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2003-01-01

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11+-0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV^1/2/sqrt{E} (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of Delta_eta x Delta_phi = 1.2 x 0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  18. Performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel module 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Ballansat, J.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Boniface, J.; Chollet, F.; Colas, J.; Delebecque, P.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dumont-Dayot, N.; El Kacimi, M.; Gaumer, O.; Ghez, P.; Girard, C.; Gouanere, M.; Kambara, H.; Jeremie, A.; Jezequel, S.; Lafaye, R.; Leflour, T.; Le Maner, C.; Lesueur, J.; Massol, N.; Moynot, M.; Neukermans, L.; Perrodo, P.; Perrot, G.; Poggioli, L.; Prast, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Riccadona, X.; Sauvage, G.; Thion, J.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Farrell, J.; Gordon, H.; Hackenburg, B.; Hoffman, A.; Kierstead, J.; Lanni, F.; Leite, M.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Yip, K.; Benchekroun, D.; Driouichi, C.; Hoummada, A.; Hakimi, M.; Stroynowski, R.; Ye, J.; Beck Hansen, J.; Belymam, A.; Bremer, J.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Hervas, L.; Marin, C.P.; Pailler, P.; Schilly, P.; Seidl, W.; Vossebeld, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Clark, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Moneta, L.; Belhorma, B.; Collot, J.; Saintignon, P. de; Dzahini, D.; Ferrari, A.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Martin, P.; Muraz, J.F.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Saboumazrag, S.; Ban, J.; Cartiglia, N.; Cunitz, H.; Dodd, J.; Gara, A.; Leltchouk, M.; Negroni, S.; Parsons, J.A.; Seman, M.; Simion, S.; Sippach, W.; Willis, W.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Labarga, L.; Rodier, S.; Peso, J. del; Alexa, C.; Barrillon, P.; Benchouk, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Djama, F.; Duval, P.Y.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hinz, L.; Jevaud, M.; Karst, P.; Le Van Suu, A.; Martin, L.; Martin, O.; Mirea, A.; Monnier, E.; Nagy, E.; Nicod, D.; Olivier, C.; Pralavorio, P.; Repetti, B.; Raymond, M.; Sauvage, D.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Wielers, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bonivento, W.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Resconi, S.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Aulchenko, V.; Kazanin, V.; Kolachev, G.; Malyshev, V.J. [and others

    2003-03-11

    The construction and performance of the barrel pre-series module 0 of the future ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC is described. The signal reconstruction and performance of ATLAS-like electronics has been studied. The signal to noise ratio for muons has been found to be 7.11{+-}0.07. An energy resolution of better than 9.5% GeV{sup 1/2}/{radical}E (sampling term) has been obtained with electron beams of up to 245 GeV. The uniformity of the response to electrons in an area of {delta}{eta}x{delta}phi=1.2x0.075 has been measured to be better than 0.8%.

  19. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti.

  20. A radial map of multi-whisker correlation selectivity in the rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, Luc; Bertherat, Julien; Shulz, Daniel E; Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François

    2016-11-21

    In the barrel cortex, several features of single-whisker stimuli are organized in functional maps. The barrel cortex also encodes spatio-temporal correlation patterns of multi-whisker inputs, but so far the cortical mapping of neurons tuned to such input statistics is unknown. Here we report that layer 2/3 of the rat barrel cortex contains an additional functional map based on neuronal tuning to correlated versus uncorrelated multi-whisker stimuli: neuron responses to uncorrelated multi-whisker stimulation are strongest above barrel centres, whereas neuron responses to correlated and anti-correlated multi-whisker stimulation peak above the barrel-septal borders, forming rings of multi-whisker synchrony-preferring cells.

  1. Recent work on normal and superconducting inductive energy storage switching at the Efremov Institute, Leningrad, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machalek, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Various forms of switches for both normal and superconducting inductive energy storage have been devised and developed at NIIEFA. At the present time, however, a major portion of the efforts of the Institute in these fields is being applied to the design and construction of coils for tokamak ''T-10M.'' The superconducting toroidal field coils (the design of which is still uncertain) will be switched by simple switches made of Nb-Ti ribbon. The normal coils for the poloidal field will be switched by a simple metal contactor breaker. As the ''T-10M'' project proceeds, perhaps some of the innovative inductive storage and switching work can continue and when ''T-10M'' is complete, the basic research can resume at full level

  2. Statistical analysis of the Nb3Sn strand production for the ITER toroidal field coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostner, A.; Jewell, M.; Pong, I.; Sullivan, N.; Devred, A.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Zhou, C.

    2017-04-01

    The ITER toroidal field (TF) strand procurement initiated the largest Nb3Sn superconducting strand production hitherto. The industrial-scale production started in Japan in 2008 and finished in summer 2015. Six ITER partners (so-called Domestic Agencies, or DAs) are in charge of the procurement and involved eight different strand suppliers all over the world, of which four are using the bronze route (BR) process and four the internal-tin (IT) process. In total more than 500 tons have been produced including excess material covering losses during the conductor manufacturing process, in particular the cabling. The procurement is based on a functional specification where the main strand requirements like critical current, hysteresis losses, Cu ratio and residual resistance ratio are specified but not the strand production process or layout. This paper presents the analysis on the data acquired during the quality control (QC) process that was carried out to ensure the same conductor performance requirements are met by the different strand suppliers regardless of strand design. The strand QC is based on 100% billet testing and on applying statistical process control (SPC) limits. Throughout the production, samples adjacent to the strand pieces tested by the suppliers are cross-checked (‘verified’) by their respective DAs reference labs. The level of verification was lowered from 100% at the beginning of the procurement progressively to approximately 25% during the final phase of production. Based on the complete dataset of the TF strand production, an analysis of the SPC limits of the critical strand parameters is made and the related process capability indices are calculated. In view of the large-scale production and costs, key manufacturing parameters such as billet yield, number of breakages and piece-length distribution are also discussed. The results are compared among all the strand suppliers, focusing on the difference between BR and IT processes. Following

  3. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  5. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  6. Metastable superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1978-07-01

    The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized

  7. 2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)

    2017-11-14

    The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.

  8. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  9. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  10. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, G.; Samuely, T.; Xu, Z.; Jochum, J. K.; Volodin, A.; Zhou, S. Q.; May, P. W.; Onufriienko, O.; Kacmarik, J.; Steele, J. A.; Li, J.; Vanacken, J.; Vacík, Jiří; Szabo, P.; Yuan, H. F.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Cerbu, D.; Samuely, P.; Hofkens, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2017), s. 5358-5366 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanodiamond * superconductivity and ferromagnetism * spin fluctuations * giant positive magnetoresistance * anamalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  11. Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenicke, A.F.

    2008-01-25

    After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO{sub 2} as example, and an interface model. (HSI)

  12. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Several significant superconducting beam line magnet systems are being constructed in the U. S. These will demonstrate the practicability of superconductors in beam lines. It is now time to consider some of the more subtle engineering problems associated with these magnets in order to assure a ''next generation'' of highly usable magnets. This paper presents some engineering approaches to better magnets for the future. (U.S.)

  13. Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described

  14. Microscopic Description of Electric and Magnetic Toroidal Multipoles in Hybrid Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    We derive the quantum-mechanical operator expressions of multipoles under the space-time inversion group. We elucidate that electric and magnetic toroidal multipoles, in addition to ordinary non-toroidal ones, are fundamental pieces to express arbitrary electronic degrees of freedom. We show that electric (magnetic) toroidal multipoles higher than the dipole (monopole) can become active in a hybridized-orbital system. We also demonstrate emergent cross-correlated couplings between the electric, magnetic, and elastic degrees of freedom, such as magneto-electric and magneto(electro)-elastic coupling, under toroidal multipole orders.

  15. The comparative analysis of the different mechanisms of toroidal rotation in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabot, R. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    The toroidal plasma rotation appears as one the possible mechanism for suppression of plasma turbulence. Several mechanisms are believed to contribute to the toroidal plasma rotation. The results of numerical simulation of the toroidal rotation on JET are presented, where are taken into consideration the following effects: the neoclassical viscosity due to banana and ripple trapped particles, the anomalous viscosity due to plasma turbulence, the momentum input by NBI (neutron beam injection) and ion momentum loss near the separatrix due to prompt ion losses. The NBI appeared to be the principal source of toroidal plasma rotation. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  17. The origin of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.D., E-mail: jdfan3@cox.net [Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing (China); JD Duz Institute for Superconductivity, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); Malozovsky, Y.M. [Southern University and A and M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); JD Duz Institute for Superconductivity, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States)

    2013-10-15

    We have shown in the other article of ours, published in the same issue as this one and entitled “Superconductivity in a Fermi liquid: The role of electron-phonon interaction,” that the quasiparticle interaction is just the particle interaction with an opposite sign. In other words, the interaction between two quasielectrons in k- or momentum-space is attractive while the interaction between two electrons in real space is repulsive. Since the quasiparticles are responsible for all properties of a Fermi liquid, then investigations of behaviors of quasipartilces will be sufficient for one to understand the relevant properties of the system consisting of those quasiparticles (particles), Moreover, as shown in our earlier work [1,2], pairing of two quasiparticles in a spin singlet state due to the Coulomb interaction is well-reasoned without needing any boson like retarded mediation between them, and a quartet structure among paired four quasiparticles will be further formed, leading to the doubly lower biding energy than that from a single Cooper’s pair. Under a certain condition a superconducting phase transition, corresponding to the resonance of a many-electron system with repulsion in the spin singlet state, may occur naturally. This showcases the physical picture of our earlier assertion [3] that superconductivity takes place naturally due to the Coulombic repulsive interaction.

  18. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  19. Thermospin effects in superconducting heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, I. V.; Bobkov, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, thermally created pure spin currents were predicted for Zeeman-split superconductor/normal-metal heterostructures. Here it is shown that this "thermospin" current can lead to an accumulation of a pure spin imbalance in a system. The thermally induced spin imbalance can reach the value of Zeeman splitting of the superconducting density of states and strongly influences superconductivity in the heterostructure. Depending on the temperature difference between the superconductor and the normal reservoir it can enhance the critical temperature of the superconductor or additionally suppress the zero-temperature superconducting state. The last possibility gives rise to an unusual superconducting state, which starts to develop at finite temperature.

  20. Superconducting Nonlinear Kinetic Inductance Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting quantum interference devices, or SQUIDs, are by far the most sensitive magnetometers available, but two issues limit their commercial potential:...