Sample records for barramundi lates calcarifer

  1. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

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    Flavio F Ribeiro

    Full Text Available This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was 58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  2. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Flavio F; Qin, Jian G


    This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was cannibal body length, but fish could never become a cannibal when prey were >58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  3. Molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer myostatin gene

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    Smith-Keune Carolyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin (MSTN is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that negatively regulates growth of skeletal muscle tissue. The gene encoding for the MSTN peptide is a consolidate candidate for the enhancement of productivity in terrestrial livestock. This gene potentially represents an important target for growth improvement of cultured finfish. Results Here we report molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer MSTN-1 gene. The barramundi MSTN-1 was encoded by three exons 379, 371 and 381 bp in length and translated into a 376-amino acid peptide. Intron 1 and 2 were 412 and 819 bp in length and presented typical GT...AG splicing sites. The upstream region contained cis-regulatory elements such as TATA-box and E-boxes. A first assessment of sequence variability suggested that higher mutation rates are found in the 5' flanking region with several SNP's present in this species. A putative micro RNA target site has also been observed in the 3'UTR (untranslated region and is highly conserved across teleost fish. The deduced amino acid sequence was conserved across vertebrates and exhibited characteristic conserved putative functional residues including a cleavage motif of proteolysis (RXXR, nine cysteines and two glycosilation sites. A qualitative analysis of the barramundi MSTN-1 expression pattern revealed that, in adult fish, transcripts are differentially expressed in various tissues other than skeletal muscles including gill, heart, kidney, intestine, liver, spleen, eye, gonad and brain. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights such as sequence variation and genomic information which will aid the further investigation of the barramundi MSTN-1 gene in association with growth. The finding for the first time in finfish MSTN of a miRNA target site in the 3'UTR provides an opportunity for the identification of regulatory mutations on the

  4. Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Arachidonic Acid and Eicosanoid Metabolism in Juvenile Barramundi Lates calcarifer. (United States)

    Salini, Michael J; Wade, Nicholas M; Araújo, Bruno C; Turchini, Giovanni M; Glencross, Brett D


    A two part experiment was conducted to assess the response of barramundi (Lates calcarifer; initial weight = 10.3 ± 0.03 g; mean ± S.D.) fed one of five diets with varying eicosapentaenoic acid (diets 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg) or one of four diets with varying arachidonic acid (1, 6, 12, 18 g/kg) against a fish oil control diet. After 6 weeks of feeding, the addition of EPA or ARA did not impact on growth performance or feed utilisation. Analysis of the whole body fatty acids showed that these reflected those of the diets. The ARA retention demonstrated an inversely related curvilinear response to either EPA or ARA. The calculated marginal utilisation efficiencies of EPA and ARA were high (62.1 and 91.9 % respectively) and a dietary ARA requirement was defined (0.012 g/kg(0.796)/day). The partial cDNA sequences of genes regulating eicosanoid biosynthesis were identified in barramundi tissues, namely cyclooxygenase 1 (Lc COX1a, Lc COX1b), cyclooxygenase 2 (Lc COX2) and lipoxygenase (Lc ALOX-5). Both Lc COX2 and Lc ALOX-5 expression in the liver tissue were elevated in response to increasing dietary ARA, meanwhile expression levels of Lc COX2 and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Lc CPT1a) were elevated in the kidney. A low level of EPA increased the expression of Lc COX1b in the liver. Consideration should be given to the EPA to ARA balance for juvenile barramundi in light of nutritionally inducible nature of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes.

  5. Effects of atrazine on endocrinology and physiology in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Osborn, Hannah L


    Exposure to certain environmental contaminants such as agricultural pesticides can alter normal endocrine and reproductive parameters in wild fish populations. Recent studies have found widespread pesticide contamination across the rivers that discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Potential impacts on native fish species exposed to known endocrine disrupting chemicals such as atrazine, simazine, and diuron have not been assessed. In the present study, the authors examined the endocrine and physiological effects of short-term, acute exposure of environmentally relevant concentrations of analytical grade atrazine in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Expression of hepatic vitellogenin was not affected, supporting results of previous studies that showed that atrazine does not have a direct estrogenic effect via mediation of estrogen receptors. The lack of effect on brain cytochrome P19B (CYP19B) expression levels, combined with increases in testosterone (T) and 17β estradiol and a stable T:17β estradiol ratio, does not support the hypothesis that atrazine has an indirect estrogenic effect via modulation of aromatase expression. Gill ventilation rate, a measure of oxidative stress, did not change in contrast to other studies finding enhanced osmoregulatory disturbance and gill histopathology after atrazine exposure. To more closely reflect field conditions, the authors recommend that laboratory studies should focus more on examining the effects of commercial pesticide formulations that contain additional ingredients that have been found to be disruptive to endocrine function.

  6. Rotifers enriched with a mixed algal diet promote survival, growth and development of barramundi larvae, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

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    Valentin Thépot


    Full Text Available Fulfilling the nutritional requirements of marine fish larvae, including barramundi (Lates calcarifer, remains a bottleneck for optimal commercial hatchery production. This study investigated the effect of mixed algal diets for the enrichment of rotifers on the survival, growth, development and stress resistance of barramundi larvae. Four groups of 2–13 days-post-hatch (dph barramundi larvae were fed rotifers enriched with either Nannochloropsis oculata, Chlorella vulgaris, or a blend of 50:50 or 75:25 of N. oculata to C. vulgaris (based on dry weight, DW, respectively. The highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA were used as qualitative proxies of the feed. The barramundi larvae fed with the 50:50 diet outperformed all other treatments, with significantly greater larval length (P < 0.05, eye diameter (P < 0.05 and body depth (P < 0.05 at 10 dph, a trend conserved over the whole growth period. The barramundi larvae fed the 50:50 diet also achieved the highest flexion percentage at 10 dph (P < 0.05 and scored the highest survival past the stress test (85%; P < 0.05. The best performing treatment had the second highest level of DHA which suggests that while DHA is an important fatty acid for barramundi larvae it is likely its interaction with other EFA and monounsaturated fatty acid also plays a critical role in their development. Overall, blending microalgae species can enhance the balance of dietary fatty acid for barramundi larvae which in turn can lead to better growth, faster development and higher stress resistance when compared to monospecific microalgal diets.

  7. Next-generation transcriptome profiling reveals insights into genetic factors contributing to growth differences and temperature adaptation in Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer). (United States)

    Newton, James R; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R


    Identification of genetically-regulated adaptation in fish is a precursor to understanding how populations will respond to future climate induced stressors like temperature. Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) show strong evidence of local adaptation to temperature. However, the phenotypic consequences of this adaptation are unknown and the genetic mechanisms underlying this response are poorly understood. In the current study, two populations of barramundi from temperature extremes of the species Australian distribution were communally reared at cool (22°C), control (28°C) and hot (36°C) water temperatures for 3.5months. Southern populations of barramundi originating from a cooler environment grew significantly faster at 22°C than northern populations of warm adapted barramundi. However, no difference in population growth was present at either 28°C or 36°C. The underlying transcriptome profile of barramundi was examined via Illumina mRNA deep sequencing to determine the major contributing gene categories giving rise to phenotypic differences in barramundi population growth. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed enrichment in categories relating to the regulation of peptidase activity as well as microtubule, cytoplasmic and cellular metabolic based processes. Further analysis of the GO category "microtubule based process" with associated genes from the "response to stress" category revealed an apparent re-organization of cytoskeletal elements in response to an induced cold stress in northern barramundi reared at 22°C, when compared with northern barramundi reared at 36°C. Between southern barramundi and northern barramundi reared at 36°C, an analysis of the "endopeptidase inhibitor activity" GO category in conjunction with stress genes indicated a suppression of the complement system in southern barramundi along with an increase in the cellular stress response. The results of the present study show that southern populations of barramundi

  8. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish. (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M


    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  9. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species. (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne


    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia.

  10. Identification of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) DC-SCRIPT, a Specific Molecular Marker for Dendritic Cells in Fish. (United States)

    Zoccola, Emmanuelle; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jérôme; Barnes, Andrew C


    Antigen presentation is a critical step bridging innate immune recognition and specific immune memory. In mammals, the process is orchestrated by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lymphatic system, which initiate clonal proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. However, fish lack a classical lymphatic system and there are currently no cellular markers for DCs in fish, thus antigen-presentation in fish is poorly understood. Recently, antigen-presenting cells similar in structure and function to mammalian DCs were identified in various fish, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The present study aimed to identify a potential molecular marker for DCs in fish and therefore targeted DC-SCRIPT, a well-conserved zinc finger protein that is preferentially expressed in all sub-types of human DCs. Putative dendritic cells were obtained in culture by maturation of spleen and pronephros-derived monocytes. DC-SCRIPT was identified in barramundi by homology using RACE PCR and genome walking. Specific expression of DC-SCRIPT was detected in barramundi cells by Stellaris mRNA FISH, in combination with MHCII expression when exposed to bacterial derived peptidoglycan, suggesting the presence of DCs in L. calcarifer. Moreover, morphological identification was achieved by light microscopy of cytospins prepared from these cultures. The cultured cells were morphologically similar to mammalian and trout DCs. Migration assays determined that these cells have the ability to move towards pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns, with a preference for peptidoglycans over lipopolysaccharides. The cells were also strongly phagocytic, engulfing bacteria and rapidly breaking them down. Barramundi DCs induced significant proliferation of responder populations of T-lymphocytes, supporting their role as antigen presenting cells. DC-SCRIPT expression in head kidney was higher 6 and 24 h following intraperitoneal challenge with peptidoglycan and

  11. Effects of hirami lemon, Citrus depressa Hayata, leaf meal in diets on the immune response and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila. (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Lin, Hsueh-Li; Chi, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Hung


    The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of leaf meal from Citrus depressa Hayata on the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 1% (C1), 3% (C3), and 5% (C5) leaf meal, respectively. During a 56 d feeding trial, fish survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all groups. For immune response, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase and lysozyme activities were not significantly different among all groups. However, fish fed the C5 diet for 56 d had significantly higher phagocytic activity. Also, fish fed C3 and C5 diets had significantly higher Mx gene expressions in spleens and head kidneys with nerve necrosis virus injections after 24 h. Disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was increased by the C5 diet. In this study, barramundi fed on a diet containing 5% C. depressa Hayata leaf meal had significantly better innate immune response and disease resistance against A. hydrophila.

  12. Effect of Different Temperatures on the Free Amino Acids, Physico-Chemical and Microbial Changes during Storage of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Fillets

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    Ali Yassoralipour


    Full Text Available The effects of storage days and temperature on free amino acids, TVB-N, pH and microbial changes in Barramundi (Lates calcarifer fillets kept at 0°C and 8°C were investigated for 20 days. At the end of the storage, significant differences were observed (p0.05 between two temperatures during the storage period were observed. Among two temperatures, the psychrophiles were initially 4.07 log CFU/g and exceeded the acceptable limit of 7 log CFU/g on the 12th and 8th day at 0°C and 8°C, respectively. Although, Total Plate Count (TPC were initially 3.7 log CFU/g and exceeded the acceptable limit of 6 log CFU/g on the 12th day in the both storage temperatures. Histamine Forming Bacteria (HFB was significantly (p<0.05 lower in Barramundi fillets storage at 0°C compared to the 8°C. Significant differences (p<0.05 between the concentrations of Total Volatile Base-Nitrogen (TVB-N in fillets kept at 0°C and 8°C were observed.

  13. "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola", a novel Chlamydia-like agent of epitheliocystis in seven consecutive cohorts of farmed Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch.

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    Megan C Stride

    Full Text Available Six consecutively hatched cohorts and one cohort of pre-hatch eggs of farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer from south Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To identify and characterise the bacteria, 59 gill samples and three pre-hatch egg samples were processed for histology, in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Cases of epitheliocystis were observed microscopically and characterised by membrane-enclosed basophilic cysts filled with a granular material that caused hypertrophy of the epithelial cells. In situ hybridisation with a Chlamydiales-specific probe lead to specific labelling of the epitheliocystis inclusions within the gill epithelium. Two distinct but closely related 16S rRNA chlamydial sequences were amplified from gill DNA across the seven cohorts, including from pre-hatch eggs. These genotype sequences were found to be novel, sharing 97.1 - 97.5% similarity to the next closest 16S rRNA sequence, Ca. Similichlamydia latridicola, from Australian striped trumpeter. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these genotype sequences against representative members of the Chlamydiales order and against other epitheliocystis agents revealed these Chlamydia-like organisms to be novel and taxonomically placed them within the recently proposed genus Ca. Similichlamydia. Following Fredricks and Relman's molecular postulates and based on these observations, we propose the epitheliocystis agents of barramundi to be known as "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola" (sp. nov..

  14. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C. (United States)

    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet


    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability.

  15. Streptococcosis in seabass (Lates calcarifer

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    Wanman, C.


    Full Text Available Streptococcus sp. isolated from infected seabass (Lates calcarifer can grow on medium at pH 9.6 and salinity 0 ppt. The lethal dose where the mortality is 50 percent (LD50 was 1.937×103 CFU/ml after 14 days. Diseased fish showed dark body coloration, erratic swimming, exophthalmia, dropsy, pale liver, splenomegaly and hemorrhage in the brain. Blood parameters i.e. haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and red blood cell of infected fish were decreased, while white blood cells were increased. Histopathological changes in diseased seabass were necrosis, vacuolization and granuloma of the liver, increased number of melanomacrophage in liver and spleen, shrinkage of glomerulus in kidneys, inflammation and necrosis of the spleen and heart, hyperplasia and telangiectasis of the gill, while vacuolization and capsulation of the exophthalmic eyes were observed.

  16. Sesamin modulation of lipid class and fatty acid profile in early juvenile teleost, Lates calcarifer, fed different dietary oils. (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Carter, Chris G; Nichols, Peter D


    Sesamin, a major sesame seed lignan, has diverse biological functions including the modulation of molecular actions in lipid metabolic pathways and reducing cholesterol levels. Vertebrates have different capacities to biosynthesize long-chain PUFA from dietary precursors and sesamin can enhance the biosynthesis of ALA to EPA and DHA in marine teleost. Early juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer, were fed for two weeks on diets rich in ALA or SDA derived from linseed or Echium plantagineum, respectively. Both diets contained phytosterols and less cholesterol compared with a standard fish oil-based diet. The growth rates were reduced in the animals receiving sesamin regardless of the dietary oil. However, the relative levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in total lipid, but not the phospholipid, increased in the whole body by up to 25% in animals fed on sesamin with ALA or SDA. Sesamin reduced the relative levels of triacylglycerols and increased polar lipid, and did not affect the relative composition of phospholipid subclasses or sterols. Sesamin is a potent modulator for LC-PUFA biosynthesis in animals, but probably will have more effective impact at advanced ages. By modulating certain lipid metabolic pathways, sesamin has probably disrupted the body growth and development of organs and tissues in early juvenile barramundi.

  17. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

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    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan


    Objective:To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs) of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Methods:The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India). Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results:A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm) were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions:Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  18. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

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    Ad de Groof


    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  19. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

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    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S


    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  20. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

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    Monika Manthey-Karl


    Full Text Available To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus and barramundi (Lates calcarifer and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1 were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  1. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi. (United States)

    Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Schröder, Ute


    To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg(-1)) were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  2. Screening of vibriosis in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay

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    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to standardize a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the detection of Vibrio harveyi,the causative agent of vibriosis in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. The dnaJ gene of the bacterial pathogen was used as the target gene for theLAMP assay. It was optimized at an incubation time of 1 h at 630C. The assay was highly specific for V. harveyiand did not cross-react withother bacterial pathogens of fish. However, the assay was able to detect V. harveyithat was isolated from infected shrimps. The limit of detectionof the LAMP assay was 40 pg of DNA mL-1 or 40 fg of the genomic DNA per LAMP reaction and was 10 times more sensitive than conventionalPCR in detecting the bacterial pathogen from infected samples. The LAMP products can be quantified spectrophotometrically usinghydroxynaphthol blue (HNB dye and showed positive correlation with the amount of the pathogen. These results demonstrated that LAMP isa simple and sensitive detection technique that has potential application for routine diagnosis of vibrosis caused by V. harveyiin Asian seabassand other aquatic species.

  3. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

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    Phromkunthong, W.


    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  4. Seaweed extracts as a natural control against the monogenean ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp., infecting farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer). (United States)

    Hutson, Kate S; Mata, Leonardo; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky


    Aqueous extracts from common tropical seaweeds were evaluated for their effect on the life cycle of the commercially important ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea), through the survival of attached adult parasites, period of embryonic development, hatching success and oncomiracidia (larvae) infection success. There was no significant effect of any extract on the survival of adult parasites attached to fish hosts or infection success by oncomiracidia. However, the extracts of two seaweeds, Ulva sp. and Asparagopsis taxiformis, delayed embryonic development and inhibited egg hatching. The extract of A. taxiformis was most effective, inhibiting embryonic development of Neobenedenia sp. and reducing hatching success to 3% compared with 99% for the seawater control. Furthermore, of the 3% of eggs that hatched, time to first and last hatch was delayed (days 14 and 18) compared with the seawater control (days 5 and 7). Asparagopsis taxiformis shows the most potential for development as a natural treatment to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the embryo stage.

  5. Identification and analysis of immune-related transcriptome in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer

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    Yue Gen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish diseases caused by pathogens are limiting their production and trade, affecting the economy generated by aquaculture. Innate immunity system is the first line of host defense in opposing pathogenic organisms or any other foreign material. For identification of immune-related genes in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer, an important marine foodfish species, we injected bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a commonly used elicitor of innate immune responses to eight individuals at the age of 35 days post-hatch and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH technique to selectively amplify spleen cDNA of differentially expressed genes. Results Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of 3351 ESTs from two SSH libraries yielded 1692 unique transcripts. Of which, 618 transcripts were unknown/novel genes and the remaining 1074 were similar to 743 known genes and 105 unannotated mRNA sequences available in public databases. A total of 161 transcripts were classified to the category "response to stimulus" and 115 to "immune system process". We identified 25 significantly up-regulated genes (including 2 unknown transcripts and 4 down-regulated genes associated with immune-related processes upon challenge with LPS. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of these genes after LPS challenge. Conclusions The present study identified 1692 unique transcripts upon LPS challenge for the first time in Asian seabass by using SSH, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Some of the identified transcripts are vertebrate homologues and others are hitherto unreported putative defence proteins. The obtained immune-related genes may allow for a better understanding of immunity in Asian seabass, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in Asian seabass.

  6. Effect of rearing water temperature on protandrous sex inversion in cultured Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer). (United States)

    Athauda, Saman; Anderson, Trevor; de Nys, Rocky


    Asian Seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790), is a protandrous species cultured for Aquaculture. The cultured Asian Seabass in Australia exhibits precocious sex inversion before 2years of age. This phenomenon highly affects on maintaining a proper broodstock in a hatchery. The effect of temperature on sex inversion inducement in Asian Seabass was thus investigated at five different temperature regimes experienced in Australia. Asian Seabass (14months) grown in fresh water under natural temperature in a commercial farm in Queensland were transported to the research facility at James Cook University, Australia and held in fresh water at 28°C until acclimatized to the experimental conditions. Fish were acclimated to the experimental conditions (30ppt salinity) over the first and final week (22°C, 25°C, 28°C, 31°C and 34°C) of one month acclimatizing period. Fish were fed daily with a commercial pellet (50% protein, 18MJkg(-1)) to satiety. Blood, brain and gonad collected before transfer to the experimental temperature regime in the final week of acclimatization and at the end of the experiment were analysed. Plasma sex steroids level and aromatase activity of brain and gonad were also measured. There was an increase in plasma estradiol levels with increasing temperature from 25°C while no significant difference was observed among all treatment temperatures except at 25°C. However, fish held at 22°C showed higher estradiol level than at 25°C and 28°C. Significantly higher (pplasma testosterone levels were detected in fish held at 31°C and 34°C while a reducing trend was observed towards lower temperature regimes. Fish held at 22°C had significantly lower plasma testosterone than all others as well those sampled at the beginning. The plasma 11-ketoTestosterone was at non-detectable levels in all experimental temperatures as shown at the beginning. The average aromatase activity in brain was highest at 28°C among all temperatures, but no significant

  7. Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus

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    Richard C. Edmunds, Lynne van Herwerden, Carolyn Smith-Keune, Dean R. Jerry


    Full Text Available The characterization of candidate loci is a critical step in obtaining insight into adaptation and acclimation of organisms. In this study of two non-model tropical (to sub-tropical congeneric perciformes (Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus we characterized both coding and non-coding regions of lactate dehydrogenase-B (ldh-b, a locus which exhibits temperature-adaptive differences among temperate and sub-tropical populations of the North American killifish Fundulus heteroclitus. Ldh-b was 5,004 and 3,527 bp in length in L. calcarifer and L. niloticus, respectively, with coding regions comprising 1,005 bp in both species. A high level of sequence homology existed between species for both coding and non-coding regions of ldh-b (> 97% homology, corresponding to a 98.5% amino acid sequence homology. All six known functional sites within the encoded protein sequence (LDH-B were conserved between the two Lates species. Ten simple sequence repeat (SSR motifs (mono-, di-, tri- and tetranucleotide and thirty putative microRNA elements (miRNAs were identified within introns 1, 2, 5 and 6 of both Lates species. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were also identified within miRNA containing intron regions. Such SNPs are implicated in several complex human conditions and/or diseases (as demonstrated by extensive genome-wide association studies. This novel characterization serves as a platform to further examine how non-model species may respond to changes in their native temperatures, which are expected to increase by up to 6°C over the next century.

  8. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi. (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd


    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection.

  9. Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer). (United States)

    Harpaz, S; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A


    Sensory and microbiological characteristics of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fish raised in a freshwater pond were evaluated during cold storage for 33 days. Whole fish (averaging 400 g each) were stored in a cold storage room at 0 to 2 degrees C. Essential oils of herbs--thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare)--added at 0.05% (vol/vol) were used as preservatives. On the basis of the sensory test results as well as the bacteriological tests, the addition of oregano and thyme essential oils can considerably slow the process of spoilage. The fish treated with these oils were still fit for human consumption after 33 days of storage. The results obtained through sensory tests are corroborated to a great extent by the chemical (hypoxanthine) tests and to a lesser extent by the physical (Cosmos units) tests. The initial total bacteriological counts were 1.7 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and fish flesh, and in the control treatment (without preservatives), these counts rose continuously, reaching around 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and 10(3) CFU/g in the flesh after 33 days of storage at 0 to 2 degrees C. The use of herbal essential oils as preservatives, on the other hand, resulted in a maximal count of 10(5) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface, while the bacterial count in the flesh remained <10(2) CFU/g by the end of the 33-day storage period at 0 to 2 degrees C.

  10. Identification of Nod like receptor C3 (NLRC3) in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer: Characterisation, ontogeny and expression analysis after experimental infection and ligand stimulation. (United States)

    Paria, Anutosh; Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Purushothaman, C S; Thirunavukkarasu, A R; Rajendran, K V


    Nod like receptors (NLRs) are a large group of cytoplasmic PRRs believed to play an important role in bacterial recognition in higher vertebrates. In this study, a novel Nod like receptor C3 (AsNLRC3) has been identified, cloned and characterised from Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. The full-length AsNLRC3 transcript composed of a 4142 bp nucleic acid sequence encode for a protein of 1134 deduced amino acids. Three signature domains identified are conserved NACHT-domain, C-terminal LLR domain and N-terminal CARD effector domain. From the domain architecture and phylogenetic analysis, it was quite evident that AsNLRC3 is different from the NLR subfamily C of other teleosts. AsNLRC3 expressed in all the 11 tissues tested but highly expressed in tissues facing external environment such as gill, hindgut and midgut. The ontogenic expression profile of this receptor showed constitutive expression throughout the embryonic and larval developmental stages, which could be an innate immune strategy against different marine pathogens for larval survival. Infection with Vibrio alginolyticus and poly I:C induction showed an alteration of expression pattern in different tissues but did not show significant alteration in expression with Staphylococcus aureus infection. In vitro study in Asian seabass kidney cell line (SISK) stimulated with different ligands such as LPS, PGN and poly I:C showed considerable up-regulation at some of the time-points tested. These results suggest that AsNLRC3 can be a pivotal cytosolic innate immune receptor for recognizing wide array of pathogens in a euryhaline teleost model like Asian seabass in diverse environmental conditions.

  11. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in an F1 family of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer

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    Yue Gen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight and length are economically important traits in foodfish species influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL and environmental factors. It is usually difficult to dissect the genetic and environmental effects. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer is an important marine foodfish species with a compact genome (~700 Mb. The recent construction of a first generation linkage map of Asian seabass with 240 microsatellites provides a good opportunity to determine the number and position of QTL, and the magnitude of QTL effects with a genome scan. Results We conducted a genome scan for QTL affecting body weight, standard length and condition factors in an F1 family containing 380 full-sib individuals from a breeding stock by using 97 microsatellites evenly covering 24 chromosomes. Interval mapping and multiple QTL model mapping detected five significant and 27 suggestive QTL on ten linkage groups (LGs. Among the five significant QTL detected, three (qBW2-a, qTL2-a and qSL2-a controlling body weight, total and standard length respectively, were mapped on the same region near Lca287 on LG2, and explained 28.8, 58.9 and 59.7% of the phenotypic variance. The other two QTL affecting body weight, qBW2-b and qBW3, were located on LG2 and 3, and accounted for 6.4 and 8.8% of the phenotypic variance. Suggestive QTL associated with condition factors are located on six different LGs. Conclusion This study presents the first example of QTL detection for growth-related traits in an F1 family of a marine foodfish species. The results presented here will enable further fine-mapping of these QTL for marker-assisted selection of the Asian seabass, eventually identifying individual genes responsible for growth-related traits.

  12. Screening probiotic candidates for a mixture of probiotics to enhance the growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila. (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Li; Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Chiu-Shia; Huang, Shih-Ling; Liu, Chun-Hung


    Six bacteria, including, Lactobacillus casei M15, Lac. plantarum D8, Lac. pentosus BD6, Lac. fermentum LW2, Enterococcus faecium 10-10, and Bacillus subtilis E20, and one yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P13 were selected as probiotics for Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, by tracking the growth performance and disease resistance of fish against Aeromonas hydrophila in the first trial. The probiotic efficiency screening results showed that B. subtilis E20 and Lac. pentosus BD6, and S. cerevisiae P13 and Lac. fermentum LW2 respectively improved either the growth performance or disease resistance. Therefore, these four probiotics were then selected to prepare a probiotics mixture, and this was incorporated in equal proportions into diets for Asian seabass at levels of 0 (control), and 10(6) (MD6), 10(7) (MD7), 10(8) (MD8), and 10(9) (MD9) colony-forming units (cfu) (kg diet)(-1). A synergistic effect of the combined probiotics was investigated in this study, and the probiotics mixture was able to improve both the growth performance and health status of fish. After 56 days of feeding, fish fed the MD9 diet had a higher final weight and percentage of weight gain. In addition, protein contents in the dorsal muscle of fish fed the MD8 and MD9 diets were significantly higher compared to the control. For the pathogen challenge test, fish fed the MD7, MD8, and MD9 diets had significantly lower cumulative mortalities after A. hydrophila infection compared to those of fish fed the control and MD6 diets, which might have been due to increased respiratory bursts, decreased superoxide dismutase activity in leucocytes, and increased phagocytic activity. Therefore, we considered that the probiotics mixture could adequately provide probiotic efficiency for Asian seabass, and the diet containing 10(9) cfu (kg diet)(-1) probiotic mixture is recommended to improve the growth and health status of Asian seabass.

  13. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity


    Alejandro Trujillo-González; Constantinoiu, Constantin C.; Richard Rowe; Hutson, Kate S.


    The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Latidae), by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia) with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 m...

  14. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer.

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    Si Yan Ngoh

    Full Text Available As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1 to evaluate the effects of different pelleted feeds based on overall physiological changes and nutritional quality of fillets; 2 improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms with transcriptomic analysis; 3 if possible, identify the feed type that supports the growth of these fishes without substantially reducing the nutritional quality of fillet. The growth performance, fatty acid composition of fillet, hepatic histology and transcriptome of the fishes (Groups A-D were analyzed. The majority of fatty acids of the fillets, except γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n6, correlated significantly with the respective diets. Asian seabass fed Feed C showed highest specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion efficiency (FCE with closest histology and transcriptomic profile to control, but their fillet contained the highest n6/n3 ratio. When the liver-based transcriptomes were analyzed, a complex set of differentially expressed genes were detected between groups fed pelleted feeds and controls as well as among the pellet-fed groups themselves. Significant enrichment of genes with growth-related function tallied with the morphological data measured. When compared with control (Group A, 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids' and 'Steroid biosynthesis' pathways were significantly enriched in pellet-fed groups. Reduced goblet cell numbers were observed in the gut of pellet-fed fish compared to controls and fads6 was found to be a suitable candidate gene to separate wild-caught Asian seabass, from pellet-fed ones. These results provide insights for researchers on the various effects of feeds on the biochemistry and global gene expression of the fish and potentially for seabass farms to make more informed feed choices.

  15. Altered transcription levels of endocrine associated genes in two fisheries species collected from the Great Barrier Reef catchment and lagoon. (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Henderson, Brent; Smith, Rachael; Warne, Michael St J; Turner, Ryan D; McKeown, Adam; Westcott, David A


    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is chronically exposed to agricultural run-off containing pesticides, many of which are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here, we measure mRNA transcript abundance of two EDC biomarkers in wild populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus). Transcription levels of liver vitellogenin (vtg) differed significantly in both species amongst sites with different exposures to agricultural run-off; brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) revealed some differences for barramundi only. Exposure to run-off from sugarcane that contains pesticides is a likely pathway given (i) significant associations between barramundi vtg transcription levels, catchment sugarcane land use, and river pesticide concentrations, and (ii) consistency between patterns of coral trout vtg transcription levels and pesticide distribution in the GBR lagoon. Given the potential consequences of such exposure for reproductive fitness and population dynamics, these results are cause for concern for the sustainability of fisheries resources downstream from agricultural land uses.

  16. Monophyly and interrelationships of Snook and Barramundi (Centropomidae sensu Greenwood) and five new markers for fish phylogenetics. (United States)

    Li, Chenhong; Ricardo, Betancur-R; Smith, Wm Leo; Ortí, Guillermo


    Centropomidae as defined by Greenwood (1976) is composed of three genera: Centropomus, Lates, and Psammoperca. But composition and monophyly of this family have been challenged in subsequent morphological studies. In some classifications, Ambassis, Siniperca and Glaucosoma were added to the Centropomidae. In other studies, Lates+Psammoperca were excluded, restricting the family to Centropomus. Recent analyses of DNA sequences did not solve the controversy, mainly due to limited taxonomic or character sampling. The present study is based on DNA sequence data from thirteen genes (one mitochondrial and twelve nuclear markers) for 57 taxa, representative of all relevant species. Five of the nuclear markers are new for fish phylogenetic studies. The monophyly of Centropomidae sensu Greenwood was supported by both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a concatenated data set (12,888 bp aligned). No support was found for previous morphological hypotheses suggesting that ambassids are closely allied to the Centropomidae. Putative affinities between centropomids and Glaucosoma, Niphon, or Siniperca were strongly rejected by topology tests. In agreement with previous molecular hypotheses, our results place Centropomidae within a group of fishes that includes carangoids (e.g., jacks, remoras, dolphinfish, roosterfish, and cobia), flatfishes, barracudas, archerfishes, billfishes, moonfish, and threadfins. The phylogeny for the extant Centropomidae is ((Lates, Psammoperca), Centropomus).

  17. Chronic stress due to high stocking density in open sea cage farming induces variation in biochemical and immunological functions in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, Bloch). (United States)

    Sadhu, Narasimhulu; Sharma, S R Krupesha; Joseph, Shoji; Dube, Praveen; Philipose, K K


    Stocking density is an important factor in cage aquaculture of finfish. Effects of high stocking density (35 fish cubic m(-1)) on a range of biochemical and immunological parameters in Asian seabass reared in open sea floating net cages were compared to fish held in relatively low density (15 fish cubic m(-1)). The results revealed that chronic stress due to high stocking density induced variations in most of the parameters studied as evidenced by increased cortisol and glucose levels and decreased activity of lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and complement. Production of reactive oxygen species, total leucocyte count and total serum protein were also decreased, whereas anti-protease, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities were increased in high stocking-density group when compared to low stocking-density group. Effects of chronic stress due to high stocking density were discussed in relation to variations in these parameters.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of betanodavirus-sequence analysis strategies and quasispecies influence outbreak source attribution. (United States)

    Hick, Paul; Gore, Kylie; Whittington, Richard


    The quasispecies structure of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) was determined to investigate an outbreak of viral nervous necrosis disease at a barramundi (Lates calcarifer) hatchery. A traditional epidemiological investigation indicated horizontal transmission of infection between two cohorts of fish. However, variation in the viral capsid protein gene sequence from cell culture-derived viral populations and from individual fish suggested that each cohort was infected with a different virus. Molecular support for the correct epidemiological conclusion was provided by determining the consensus NNV sequence directly from multiple fish, to show that each cohort was infected with the same quasispecies. Variation in the capsid gene of isolates obtained from this quasispecies was up to 3.3% compared with sequences determined directly from fish tissue, and ≤1.7% between individual fish within each cohort. Determination of the NNV quasispecies structure supported implementation of biosecurity measures to protect fish in the hatchery from environmental sources of infection.

  19. Fish mediate high food web connectivity in the lower reaches of a tropical floodplain river. (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Pusey, Bradley J; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pettit, Neil E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M; Sinnamon, Vivian; Halliday, Ian A; Bunn, Stuart E


    High levels of hydrological connectivity during seasonal flooding provide significant opportunities for movements of fish between rivers and their floodplains, estuaries and the sea, possibly mediating food web subsidies among habitats. To determine the degree of utilisation of food sources from different habitats in a tropical river with a short floodplain inundation duration (~2 months), stable isotope ratios in fishes and their available food were measured from three habitats (inundated floodplain, dry season freshwater, coastal marine) in the lower reaches of the Mitchell River, Queensland (Australia). Floodplain food sources constituted the majority of the diet of large-bodied fishes (barramundi Lates calcarifer, catfish Neoarius graeffei) captured on the floodplain in the wet season and for gonadal tissues of a common herbivorous fish (gizzard shad Nematalosa come), the latter suggesting that critical reproductive phases are fuelled by floodplain production. Floodplain food sources also subsidised barramundi from the recreational fishery in adjacent coastal and estuarine areas, and the broader fish community from a freshwater lagoon. These findings highlight the importance of the floodplain in supporting the production of large fishes in spite of the episodic nature and relatively short duration of inundation compared to large river floodplains of humid tropical regions. They also illustrate the high degree of food web connectivity mediated by mobile fish in this system in the absence of human modification, and point to the potential consequences of water resource development that may reduce or eliminate hydrological connectivity between the river and its floodplain.

  20. Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) extract applied as a therapeutic immersion treatment for Neobenedenia sp. management in aquaculture. (United States)

    Militz, T A; Southgate, P C; Carton, A G; Hutson, K S


    Garlic, Allium sativum L., extract administered as a therapeutic bath was shown to have antiparasitic properties towards Neobenedenia sp. (MacCallum) (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). The effect of garlic extract (active component allicin) immersion on Neobenedenia sp. egg development, hatching success, oncomiracidia (larvae) longevity, infection success and juvenile Neobenedenia survival was examined and compared with freshwater and formalin immersion. Garlic extract was found to significantly impede hatching success (5% ± 5%) and oncomiracidia longevity (95% hatching success and mean oncomiracidia longevity of 37 ± 3 h. At much lower allicin concentrations (0.76 and 1.52 μL L(-1)), garlic extract also significantly reduced Neobenedenia infection success of L. calcarifer to 25% ± 4% and 11% ± 4%, respectively, compared with 55% ± 7% in the seawater control. Juvenile Neobenedenia attached to host fish proved to be highly resistant to allicin with 96% surviving 1-h immersion in 10 mL L(-1) (15.2 μL L(-1) allicin) of garlic extract. Allicin-containing garlic extracts show potential for development as a therapy to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the egg and larval stages.

  1. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

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    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Halliday, Ian A. [Sustainable Fisheries Unit, Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 46, Brisbane QLD, 4001 (Australia); Howley, Christina [Howley Environmental Consulting and CYMAG Environmental, Cooktown, QLD (Australia); Sinnamon, Vivian [Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resource Management Office, Kowanyama, QLD (Australia); Bunn, Stuart E. [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)


    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. {delta}{sup 15}N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  2. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  3. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  4. Effect of rainfall as a component of climate change on estuarine fish production in Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Lee, Shing Yip; Duke, Norman C.; Warnken, Jan


    The speculation that climate change may impact on sustainable fish production suggests a need to understand how these effects influence fish catch on a broad scale. With a gross annual value of A$ 2.2 billion, the fishing industry is a significant primary industry in Australia. Many commercially important fish species use estuarine habitats such as mangroves, tidal flats and seagrass beds as nurseries or breeding grounds and have lifecycles correlated to rainfall and temperature patterns. Correlation of catches of mullet (e.g. Mugil cephalus) and barramundi ( Lates calcarifer) with rainfall suggests that fisheries may be sensitive to effects of climate change. This work reviews key commercial fish and crustacean species and their link to estuaries and climate parameters. A conceptual model demonstrates ecological and biophysical links of estuarine habitats that influences capture fisheries production. The difficulty involved in explaining the effect of climate change on fisheries arising from the lack of ecological knowledge may be overcome by relating climate parameters with long-term fish catch data. Catch per unit effort (CPUE), rainfall, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and catch time series for specific combinations of climate seasons and regions have been explored and surplus production models applied to Queensland's commercial fish catch data with the program CLIMPROD. Results indicate that up to 30% of Queensland's total fish catch and up to 80% of the barramundi catch variation for specific regions can be explained by rainfall often with a lagged response to rainfall events. Our approach allows an evaluation of the economic consequences of climate parameters on estuarine fisheries, thus highlighting the need to develop forecast models and manage estuaries for future climate change impact by adjusting the quota for climate change sensitive species. Different modelling approaches are discussed with respect to their forecast ability.

  5. Immunological cross-reactivity between four distant parvalbumins-Impact on allergen detection and diagnostics. (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Stephen, Juan N; Kraft, Lukas; Weiss, Thomas; Kamath, Sandip D; Lopata, Andreas L


    Fish are the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates. Fish are also a part of the eight food groups that cause the majority of IgE mediated food reactions. Detection tools for fish allergens are however limited due to the great diversity of fish species, despite fish allergy and its major allergen parvalbumin being well documented. The most commonly studied fish are frequently consumed in North America and Europe. However, much less is known about fish allergens in the Australasian region although fish is widely consumed in this region. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was performed of known parvalbumin amino acid sequences to determine possible candidate antigens for new cross-reactive antibodies to be used to detect most fish parvalbumins. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were raised against parvalbumins from frequently consumed barramundi (Lates calcarifer), basa (Pangasius bocourti), pilchard (Sardinops sagax) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). These were evaluated for cross-reactivity against a panel of 45 fish extracts (raw, heated and canned fish). Anti-barramundi parvalbumin proved to be the most cross-reactive antibody, detecting 87.5% of the 40 species analyzed, followed by anti-pilchard and anti-basa antibody. In contrast the anti-salmon antibody was very specific and only reacted to salmonidae and a few other fish. All analyzed fish species, except mahi mahi, swordfish, yellowfin tuna and all 5 canned fish had parvalbumin detected in raw extracts. However antibody reactivity to many fish was heat liable or susceptible to denaturation, demonstrating that some parvalbumins have most likely conformational epitopes, which lose antibody reactivity after heat treatment. We have demonstrated the generation of highly cross-reactive anti-parvalbumin antibodies that could be used for the detection of allergenic fish parvalbumin in contaminated food products. This cross-reactivity study thus shows processing of fish, especially canning, can have on impact

  6. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to motivate a program of research on late globalization, a program that could eventually lead to one or more significant theories of late globalization. The paper explores the phenomenon of late globalization as well as the idea of “late” by drawing on sparse...... literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...... the range of constructs around the core idea of late globalization, generating questions for future work in a late globalization research program....

  7. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Trujillo-González


    Full Text Available The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch (Latidae, by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 min, 24, 48 h, four, eight, 12, and 16 days. Fluorescent labelling revealed that parasites attached underneath and on the surface of the scales of host fish. Parasite infection success was 20% within 15 min, and peaked at 93% two days post-exposure, before gradually declining between four and sixteen days. Differences in parasite distribution on L. calcarifer over time provided strong evidence that Neobenedenia sp. larvae settled opportunistically and then migrated to specific microhabitats. Parasites initially attached (<24 h in greater mean numbers on the body surface (13 ± 1.5 compared to the fins (4 ± 0.42 and head region (2 ± 0.41. Once larvae recruitment had ceased (48 h, there were significantly higher mean post-larvae counts on the head (5 ± 3.4 and fins (12 ± 3 compared to previous time intervals. Neobenedenia sp. aggregated on the eyes, fins, and dorsal and ventral extremities on the main body. As parasites neared sexual maturity, there was a marked aggregation on the fins (22 ± 2.35 compared to the head (4 ± 0.97 and body (9 ± 1.33, indicating that Neobenedenia sp. may form mating aggregations.

  8. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming. (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti


    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  9. Late Accretion and the Late Veneer

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro


    The concept of Late Veneer has been introduced by the geochemical community to explain the abundance of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle and their chondritic proportions relative to each other. However, in the complex scenario of Earth accretion, involving both planetesimal bombardment and giant impacts from chondritic and differentiated projectiles, it is not obvious what the "Late Veneer" actually corresponds to. In fact, the process of differentiation of the Earth was probably intermittent and there was presumably no well-defined transition between an earlier phase where all metal sunk into the core and a later phase in which the core was a closed entity separated from the mantle. In addition, the modellers of Earth accretion have introduced the concept of "Late Accretion", which refers to the material accreted by our planet after the Moon-forming event. Characterising Late Veneer, Late Accretion and the relationship between the two is the major goal of this chapter.

  10. Development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for fish insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the effect of aquaculture related stressors on circulating IGF-I levels. (United States)

    Dyer, Anthony R; Upton, Zee; Stone, David; Thomas, Philip M; Soole, Kathleen L; Higgs, Naomi; Quinn, Kirsty; Carragher, John F


    This paper describes the development and validation of a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of fish insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The assay was developed using recombinant barramundi IGF-I as antigen and recombinant tuna IGF-I as radiolabelled tracer and standard. Assay sensitivity was 0.15 ng/ml, inter-assay variation was 16% (n = 9) and intra-assay variation was 3% (n = 10). Cross reactivity of less than 0.01% was found with salmon insulin, salmon IGF-II and barramundi IGF-II, less than 0.5% with human IGF-I and less than 1% with human IGF-II. Parallel dose-response inhibition curves were shown for barramundi (Lates calcarifer), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), and seabream (Pagrus auratus) IGF-I. The assay was then used to measure stress related changes in different aquacultured fish species. Salt water acclimated Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar) bathed for 2 h in fresh water showed significantly lower IGF-I concentrations than control smolts two days after the bath (53.1 compared to 32.1 ng/ml), with levels of IGF-I also lower in smolts exhibiting stunted growth (stunts). Capture and confinement of wild tuna in sea-cages resulted in a significant decrease in IGF-I levels (28 ng/ml) when compared to tuna captured and sampled immediately (48 ng/ml), but had recovered to starting levels after 3 weeks (43 ng/ml). Handling and isolation in silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) led to a gradual decline in IGF-I over a 12 h period (36-19 ng/ml) but showed signs of recovery by 24 h (24 ng/ml) and had recovered fully 72 h after treatment (40 ng/ml). A similar trial in black bream (Acanthopagrus butcherii) showed comparable results with IGF-I levels gradually decreasing (40-26 ng/ml) over 24 h, results that were mirrored by cortisol concentrations which increased during this time (1-26 ng/ml). In the studies presented here changes in IGF-I levels were not

  11. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA Blending and Gamma Irradiation on Compressive Strength of FHAp/FGel Composite as Candidate of Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi


    Full Text Available Composite as candidate of scaffold have been synthesized from fish hydroxyapatite (FHAp and fish gelatin (FGel of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Bloch scale that aqua-cultured in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA blending was investigated for improvement of compressive strength of composites. Composites were synthesized by wet method at FGel/PVA percent mass ratio of 10/0, 7.5/2.5, 5.0/5.0, and 7.5/2.5 (w/w, respectively. Sodium citrate was used as dispersant to forming a paste-like suspension condition. Porous composites were obtained after freeze-drying of suspensions. Compressive strength and Young’s modulus of scaffold were increased as increasing PVA content. FTIR spectra confirmed the molecular interaction among components of composite. SEM micrograph showed fibrous and ribbon structure over surface of FHAp/FGel composite that blended with PVA. Gamma irradiation lead to formation of micro- and mesopores in the wall surface of composite.

  12. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha eVij


    Full Text Available Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing the Western and Eastern Coastline of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh and Australia. Samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore were collected as part of a previous study. DNA sequence variations, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI, 16S rDNA and the highly variable D-loop (or control region, were examined to establish species delineation. Data from all the sequences analyzed concordantly point to the existence of at least two distinct species - one representing the Indian subcontinent plus Myanmar, and a second, representing Southeast Asia (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia plus Northern Australia. These data are useful for conservation ecology, aquaculture management, for establishing the extent of genetic diversity in the Asian seabass and implementing selective breeding programs for members of this species complex.

  13. Movements of diadromous fish in large unregulated tropical rivers inferred from geochemical tracers. (United States)

    Walther, Benjamin D; Dempster, Tim; Letnic, Mike; McCulloch, Malcolm T


    Patterns of migration and habitat use in diadromous fishes can be highly variable among individuals. Most investigations into diadromous movement patterns have been restricted to populations in regulated rivers, and little information exists for those in unregulated catchments. We quantified movements of migratory barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in two large unregulated rivers in northern Australia using both elemental (Sr/Ba) and isotope ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) ratios in aragonitic ear stones, or otoliths. Chemical life history profiles indicated significant individual variation in habitat use, particularly among chemically distinct freshwater habitats within a catchment. A global zoning algorithm was used to quantify distinct changes in chemical signatures across profiles. This algorithm identified between 2 and 6 distinct chemical habitats in individual profiles, indicating variable movement among habitats. Profiles of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios were notably distinct among individuals, with highly radiogenic values recorded in some otoliths. This variation suggested that fish made full use of habitats across the entire catchment basin. Our results show that unrestricted movement among freshwater habitats is an important component of diadromous life histories for populations in unregulated systems.

  14. Late-Stage Caregiving (United States)

    ... resources, care and ways to engage in meaningful connections. During the late stages, your role as a ... drinks. This will help you track the person's natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule. ...

  15. Late Sovereign Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca


    the promotion of national interests with those of the Union. In this late sovereign phase of diplomacy, political and legal authorities overlap, territorial exclusivity is replaced with functional boundaries, and states begin to speak with one voice. The article explores three interlinked aspects of late...... sovereign diplomacy: the teleological interpretation of the EC and EU treaties; the intense socialization of state representatives; and the negotiation process, which promotes national positions as part of a European cause, thereby delocalizing the national interest. While the EU has not rendered national...... diplomacy obsolete, it has profoundly changed its meaning and consequences....

  16. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette


    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  17. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S


    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  18. Never Too Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A historical issue is being raised on Capitol Hill.In late May,members of the U.S.Congress introduced bipartisan resolutions in both chambers,calling on the federal legislature to acknowledge formally and express regret for discriminatory legislation and how the country accordingly treated Chinese immigrants more than a century ago.

  19. Was I Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶历来; 罗琪芳


    “Get up, Jane!” “Oh... Mom, let me sleep five more minutes. I'm so Ured ( 困的 ).” “It's 7:50. It's too late. ” “OK, three minutes then... Wait! What did you say? What time is it? It's 7:50.”

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.


    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a bro

  1. Late Babylonian Astrology (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  2. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer


    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  3. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration. (United States)

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D


    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  4. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer


    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  5. Never too late. (United States)


    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of cathepsin D gene from turbot Scophthalmus maximus. (United States)

    Jia, Airong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua


    Cathepsin D is a lysosomal endoproteolytic aspartic proteinase which also has been found in endosomes of macrophage. It is thought to play key roles in the developmental and physiological process of animals. The EST sequence of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) cathepsin D was obtained from a subtractive cDNA library. In the present study, 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out to obtain the complete cDNA sequence of turbot cathepsin D, which contained a 91 bp 5'-UTR, a 1191 bp open reading frame encoding 396 amino acids, and a 329 bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cathepsin D consisted of a signal peptide of 18 aa, a leader peptide extending 43 aa, and a mature peptide of 335 aa. BLAST analysis revealed that turbot cathepsin D shared high similarity with other known cathepsin D, and it showed significant homology with that of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer B., 89% aa similarity). Quantitative real-time PCR (q PCR) demonstrated that the highest expression level of the turbot cathepsin D was in liver. After turbot were challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the lowest expression levels of cathepsin D in liver, spleen and head kidney were detected at 8 h. This result was different from the expression of MHCII of which the expression lever was increased upon challenge. The expression levels of cathepsin D in liver and head kidney increased gradually after 8 h and exceeded the background level after 24 h. In spleen, the expression level was reinforced after 8 h and kept at level that was higher than the original level after 12 h. The results suggested that cathepsin D might process antigens for presentation to the immune system and have synergetic effect with apoptosis pathway until 12 h after injection.

  7. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments. (United States)

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark


    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  8. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e.g., wi...

  9. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e...

  10. Late-life attachment. (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan


    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  11. Late and chronic Lyme disease. (United States)

    Donta, Sam T


    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.


    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  13. Late effects from hadron therapy. (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A; Chang, Polly Y


    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  14. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior


    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  15. [Late-onset dysthymic states]. (United States)

    Siranchiev, M A


    Sixty patients with dysthymic states which had emerged in later age of 60-80 years were examined. Two clinical types of dysthymic states were described: anergic (20 patients) and hypothymic (40 patients). Different comorbid mental disorders--obsessive-phobic (14 cases), somatoform (10), personality deviations (20) and psycho-organic (7)--were found to be characteristic of late-onset dysthymic states. According to developmental features, late dysthymia was primary (first manifested in the elderly) and secondary (develops after several depressive episodes). In diagnostic terms, the former is considered as "dysthymia" (F34.1 ICD-10) and the latter--as "recurrent depressive disorder" (F33).


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive patient

  17. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy. (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W


    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  18. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A


    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  19. Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob


    This volume results from the international research project ‘The Migration of Faith: Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity (325‒c.600)’. The project is a collaboration between the Department of History at the University of Sheffield, the Seminar für Kirchengeschichte at the University of Halle, and th...

  20. Late detection of cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanny, K H; de Vries, I A C; Haverkamp, S J; Oomen, K P Q; Penris, W M; Eijkemans, M J C; Kon, M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Breugem, C C


    Cleft palate only (CPO) is a common congenital malformation, and most patients are diagnosed within the first weeks after birth. Late diagnosis of the cleft palate (CP) could initially result in feeding and growth impairment, and subsequently speech and hearing problems later in life. The purpose of

  1. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan


    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  2. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression. (United States)

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J


    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  3. Late colonization of Easter Island. (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P


    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  4. Information about the Late Effects of Polio (United States)

    ... not included. Contact Remember POLIO? Polio (poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis) triggers memories of ... Have you heard about the LATE EFFECTS OF POLIO? In the late 1970s, survivors of polio reported ...

  5. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    Introduction One subgroup among elderly with AUD is the “late-onset” abusers. Late-onset (60+ years) AUD seems to be a milder, more narrowly defined psychiatric problem, than early or midlife onset AUD. This review seeks to expand the description and understanding of late-onset AUD by reviewing...

  6. Late evolution of planetary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, A [CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, B P 4299, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Levison, H F [SWRI, 1050 Walnut St, Suite 300 Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    This chapter discusses some of the main effects of the interaction of planets with remnant planetesimal disks, after the disappearance of the gas. It focuses on planet migration and its possible outcomes. In particular, we discuss the possibility that the migration of the planets leads them into an unstable configuration which changes drastically the structure of the system. The late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the terrestrial planets, occurring 650 Myr after planet formation, is a strong indication that this kind of evolution occurred in our solar system. Other stars show evidence of intense comet showers, which may indicate that LHB-analogs are ongoing in those systems at the current time.

  7. [Left pulmonary agenesis diagnosed late]. (United States)

    Deleanu, Oana; Pătraşcu, Natalia; Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Vintilă, V; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, F D


    We present the case of a 51 years old female-patient, with severe dextroscoliosis, having like unique symptom progressive dyspnea. The blood samples reveals polycythemia, the radiological exam shows the opacification of 2/3 of the left thorax, the absence of the lung structure in the other 1/3, the deviation of the mediastinum, and dextroscoliosis; the computed tomography reveals the absence of the left lung artery and the left airways, compensatory hyperinflation of the right lung and dilatation of the trunk and right pulmonary artery; the bronchoscopy does not visualize the carina or the left main bronchus, typical for pulmonary agenesis. Echocardiography confirmed the absence of left pulmonary artery and shows mild pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 33 mmHg) with dilatation of the right cavities, but good cinetics. We face a case of pulmonary agenesis lately diagnosed, with modest functional cardiologic implications, limited therapeutic options and good survival, justified by the late appearance of the pulmonary hypertension of low severity and without worsening in time.

  8. Processing of Baculovirus Late and Very Late mRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda A. Guarino


    Baculoviruses encode a DNA-directed RNA polymerase that is evolutionarily divergent from cellular polymerases. This RNA polymerase is a multifunctional complex that has the ability to recognize late promoters, transcribe linked genes, and process transcripts at both the 5' and 3' ends. The LEF-4 subunit of the viral RNA polymerase is the mRNA capping enzyme, with both RNA triphosphatase and guanylyltransferase activities. Conversion to cap 1 structures is mediated by the viral enzyme MTase1 and another as yet unidentified methyltransferase. Termination is an intrinsic property of the viral RNA polymerase and occurs at oligoU rich sequences. Polyadenylation of the released transcripts is also a function of the viral RNA polymerase. Thus, although viral mRNAs resemble host messages with respect to their 5' and 3' end structures, the processing is mediated by viral enzymes and, in the case of the 3' ends, by mechanisms that differ from the host cell.

  9. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.


    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  10. Late hemorrhagic disease of newborn. (United States)

    D'Souza, I E; Rao, S D Subba


    The clinical features of 14 infants diagnosed with late hemorrhagic disease of newborn (LHDN), of which 10 did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis, are presented. All infants were exclusively breast-fed and 12 did not have any underlying illness to explain the abnormal coagulation profile. The common presenting symptoms were seizures (71%), vomiting (57%), poor feeding (50%) and altered sensorium (36%). Physical examination shared pallor in all infants and a bulging anterior fontanel in 64%. Intracranial bleed was the predominant manifestation (93%), with CT scan showing intracranial bleed in 78%. Eight infants (57%) succumbed to their illness, while 36%had neurological sequelae. Since LHDN leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it should be prevented by providing vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns.

  11. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Brasser, R; Werner, S C; Matsumura, S; Ida, S


    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal (`rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is th...

  12. Late complications of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Norie [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)


    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  13. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an extension of credit to a consumer in or...

  14. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.


    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  15. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments. (United States)


    ... payment charge of 5 percent on the unpaid balance on any handler whose assessment has not been received in... rate of 11/2 percent per month shall be applied to the unpaid balance and late payment charge for the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141...

  16. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace (United States)

    O'Banion, Terry


    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  17. Are we ready to predict late effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salz, Talya; Baxi, Shrujal S; Raghunathan, Nirupa;


    BACKGROUND: After completing treatment for cancer, survivors may experience late effects: consequences of treatment that persist or arise after a latent period. PURPOSE: To identify and describe all models that predict the risk of late effects and could be used in clinical practice. DATA SOURCES:...

  18. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L


    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  19. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.


    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  20. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline. (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter


    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  1. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  2. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.


    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Hocaköy section measured from the Alakirçay Nappe (middle nappe of the Antalya Nappes contain rich radiolarian fauna ranging from late Norian (Late Triassic to middle-late Cenomanian (mid Cretaceous. At the basal part of the section, the Late Triassic (late Norian-Rhaetian Gökdere Formation is characterized by gray to beige cherty limestone at the base and pinkish red chert- gray to beige limestone alternation at the top, with moderately to well-preserved radiolarians in the red chert beds. The overlying Jurassic - Middle Cretaceous Hocaköy Radiolarite is mainly represented by chert-mudstone alternations with some limestone interlayers. Radiolarians of the Gökdere Formation can be well correlated with that of the fauna from the Mino Terrane, central Japan and the fauna from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Four radiolarian zones from central Japan are recognized in the fauna obtained from Gökdere Formation such as “Praemesosaturnalis multidentatus Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8A” (late Norian, “Praemesosaturnalis pseudokahleri Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8B” (late Norian, ? “ Skirt F lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8C” (late Norian-Rhaetian and partly “Haeckelicyrtium breviora Taxon Range Zone (TR8D” (Rhaetian. In comparison with the Queen Charlotte fauna, the two zones “Betraccium deweveri Zone” (late Norian and “Proparvicingula moniliformis Zone” (early Rhaetian are also encountered in the Gökdere Formation. Radiolarians of the uppermost part of the Gökdere Formation indicate that “Globolaxtorum tozeri Zone” defined in Queen Charlotte Islands corresponding to the late Rhaetian, is not present in the section. Five new taxa, Capnuchosphaera okayi, Bistarkum rhaeticum, Praemesosaturnalis heilongjiangensis aksekiensis, P. nobleae, Veghicyclia sanfilippoae were determined within the late Norian-Rhaetian radiolarian fauna of the Gökdere Formation in Hocaköy section.   

  4. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence (United States)

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.


    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  5. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K


    males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......, qualitatively, the relative proportion of type IIX muscle fibers decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that while increased MVC positively influenced both early and late RFD, decreased-type IIX negatively influenced early RFD only. In conclusion, early and late RFD responded differently to high...

  6. Late effects of thoracic irradiation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, T.; Koenemann, S.; Ernst, I.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital of Muenster (Germany)


    Purpose: to summarize the literature regarding the late effects of radiotherapy to the thorax in childhood and adolescence with special emphasis on cardiac and pulmonary impairment. Material und methods: the literature was critically reviewed using the PubMed {sup registered} database with the key words 'late effects', 'late sequelae', 'child', 'childhood', 'adolescence', 'radiation', 'radiotherapy', 'thorax', 'lung', 'heart', and 'pulmonary'. Results: 17 publications dealing with radiation-induced pulmonary and cardiac late sequelae in children could be identified and were analyzed in detail. 29 further publications with additional information were also included in the analysis. Pulmonary function impairment after mediastinal irradiation arose in one third of all pediatric patients, even when treatment was performed with normofractionated lower doses (15-25 Gy). Whole lung irradiation was regularly followed by pulmonary function impairment with differing rates in several reports. However, clinically symptomatic function impairment like dyspnea was less frequent. Irradiation of up to 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2 Gy) to the heart showed little or no cardiac toxicity in analyses of irradiated children (median follow-up 1.3-14.3 years). Doses of > 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2-3.3 Gy) led to several cardiac dysfunctions. However, new data from adults with longer follow-up may indicate threshold doses as low as 1 Gy. Impairment of skeletal growth, breast hypoplasia, and secondary malignancy were further potential late sequelae. Conclusion: several retrospective reports described radiation-associated late sequelae in children. However, there is still a lack of sufficient data regarding the characterization of dose-volume effects. (orig.)

  7. Infrared Observations of Late Type Stars (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.


    Substantive mass loss resulting in appreciable circumstellar dust envelopes is common in late-type stars. The evolutionary history and physical state of a cool star determine the chemistry within the outer stellar atmosphere mirrored by the molecular and particulate material present in the envelope. The observational consequences of this debris determined by moderate spectral resolution infrared spectrophotometry are reviewed. Significant information is provided by observations of the emergent energy flux of both the cool stellar photosphere and of the circumstellar dust envelope. The observation suggests that mass-loss occurs to some degree throughout late stellar evolutionary phases and that occasional periods of high mass loss are not uncommon.

  8. Late Cretaceous vicariance in Gondwanan amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Van Bocxlaer

    Full Text Available Overseas dispersals are often invoked when Southern Hemisphere terrestrial and freshwater organism phylogenies do not fit the sequence or timing of Gondwana fragmentation. We used dispersal-vicariance analyses and molecular timetrees to show that two species-rich frog groups, Microhylidae and Natatanura, display congruent patterns of spatial and temporal diversification among Gondwanan plates in the Late Cretaceous, long after the presumed major tectonic break-up events. Because amphibians are notoriously salt-intolerant, these analogies are best explained by simultaneous vicariance, rather than by oceanic dispersal. Hence our results imply Late Cretaceous connections between most adjacent Gondwanan landmasses, an essential concept for biogeographic and palaeomap reconstructions.

  9. Climate predictors of late quaternary extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Batra, Persaram


    Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary...... extinctions, but global quantitative evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. We test the potential role of global climate change on the extinction of mammals during the Late Quaternary. Our results suggest that continents with the highest climate footprint values, in other words, with climate changes...

  10. Mobile ICT Acceptance in Late Adopter Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina


    Despite the rapid global diffusion of the smartphone, some countries have experienced much slower uptake of the technology. The low smartphone penetration within Slovakia provides the opportunity to explore what drives smartphone use in late majority countries. Slovakia is a central European nati...

  11. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.


    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  12. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2010


    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  13. Toetsing van late zwangerschapsafbreking, 2004-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G G; Lind, J; Verhagen, Eduard; van de Vathorst, S; Wildschut, H I J; Wolf, H


    OBJECTIVE: To provide an inventory of the reported late terminations of pregnancy because ofa severe anomaly of the unborn child, i.e. termination after 24 weeks of pregnancy, in The Netherlands for the period 2004-2007. DESIGN: Inventory and descriptive. METHOD: A description is given of the variou

  14. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals (United States)

    Festman, Julia


    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  15. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers (United States)

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones


    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  16. Tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.


    A survey on the tomato late blight situation and current practices for disease management was carried out in Uganda using an informal structured questionnaire approach. Ten districts from different agroclimatic zones were selected for the survey. Phytophthora infestans isolates from tomatoes were ob

  17. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.


    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  18. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: late skin manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Marckmann, Peter; Rossen, Kristian


    BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists and nephr......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists...... confluent dermal plaques with thickening and hardening. In contrast, 3 patients presented with wrinkled, redundant skin as seen in cutis laxa. Patients with NSF had significantly poorer scores than control patients on the Daily Life Quality Index (mean [SD], 11. 4 [7.4] vs 1.5 [2. 3]; P ...: This descriptive case series of patients with NSF gives a detailed clinical picture of the skin manifestations late in the disease. It demonstrates that the clinical picture in the late stage has a varied presentation and that NSF has a significant effect on the quality of life....

  19. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.; Marck, M.A. van der; Elsen, G. van den; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.


    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicin

  20. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  1. Educating Citizens in Late Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget


    . The model is based on the fundamental belief that the overall aim of civic education in democratic, late modern and global societies is empowerment of the citizen in order to establish a self governing citizen who simultaneous is capable of managing and keeping together partly contradictory citizens tasks...

  2. Shedding further light on late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary contex...

  3. The late maintenance of hippocampal LTP: requirements, phases, 'synaptic tagging', 'late-associativity' and implications. (United States)

    Reymann, Klaus G; Frey, Julietta U


    Our review focuses on the mechanisms which enable the late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP; >3h), a phenomenon which is thought to underlie prolonged memory. About 20 years ago we showed for the first time that the maintenance of LTP - like memory storage--depends on intact protein synthesis and thus, consists of at least two temporal phases. Here we concentrate on mechanisms required for the induction of the transient early-LTP and of the protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP. Our group has shown that the induction of late-LTP requires the associative activation of heterosynaptic inputs, i.e. the synergistic activation of glutamatergic and modulatory, reinforcing inputs within specific, effective time windows. The induction of late-LTP is characterized by novel, late-associative properties such as 'synaptic tagging' and 'late-associative reinforcement'. Both phenomena require the associative setting of synaptic tags as well as the availability of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) and they are restricted to functional dendritic compartments, in general. 'Synaptic tagging' guarantees input specificity and thus the specific processing of afferent signals for the establishment of late-LTP. 'Late-associative reinforcement' describes a process where early-LTP by the co-activation of modulatory inputs can be transformed into late-LTP in activated synapses where a tag is set. Recent evidence from behavioral experiments, which studied processes of emotional and cognitive reinforcement of LTP, point to the physiological relevance of the above mechanisms during cellular and system's memory formation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich


    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  5. An emerging antiarrhythmic target: late sodium current. (United States)

    Banyasz, T; Szentandrássy, N; Magyar, J; Szabo, Z; Nánási, P P; Chen-Izu, Y; Izu, L T


    The cardiac late sodium current (INa,L) has been in the focus of research in the recent decade. The first reports on the sustained component of voltage activated sodium current date back to the seventies, but early studies interpreted this tiny current as a product of a few channels that fail to inactivate, having neither physiologic nor pathologic implications. Recently, the cardiac INa,L has emerged as a potentially major arrhythmogenic mechanism in various heart diseases, attracting the attention of clinicians and researchers. Research activity on INa,L has exponentially increased since Ranolazine, an FDA-approved antianginal drug was shown to successfully suppress cardiac arrhythmias by inhibiting INa,L. This review aims to summarize and discuss a series of papers focusing on the cardiac late sodium current and its regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. We will discuss critical evidences implicating INa,L as a potential target for treating myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias.

  6. Ribbed vaults of late Gothic in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Casu


    Full Text Available The late Gothic construction practice, settled in the Spanish Mediterranean area, is based on predetermined geometric rules and is shown in religious buildings with ribbed vaults. The proportion between the sides of the area to cover, tracing plan of the ribs as a succession of corner bisectors, stereotomy problems and volumetric aspects, are just some of the elements that can describe the complex construction of a ribbed vault. The aim of this paper is to analyze the dimensional information of the late gothic ribbed vaults of Sardinia, in order to define the geometric and proportional rules for a correct drawing, establishing a standard procedure for the collection of measures and the construction of the 3D model of vaults.

  7. Youth Indicators of Late-M Dwarfs (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel; Cruz, K.; Lépine, S.; Alpert, N.


    We present a study in which we searched for a correlation between weak Na absorption doublet (8183Å, 8194Å) and strong H-Alpha emission (6563Å) in late-M dwarf stars (M6-M9), as both are indicative of youth. Our sample consists of late-M Dwarfs from the LSPM Survey (Lépine and Shara, 2005), which contain stars with measured proper motions of mu > 40 mas/yr. Measurements for emission and absorption strength were made using spectral indices. Our preliminary results are presented; future work will include a similar analysis of early type M Dwarfs, as well as kinematics. This work was funded by the CUNY Summer Undergraduate Research Program, as well as the CUNY Macaulay Honors College, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  8. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis (United States)

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard


    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  9. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report]. (United States)

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández


    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  10. Very late photometry of SN 2011fe

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzendorf, W E; Seitenzahl, I R; Ruiter, A J


    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (> 900 d) of thermonuclear supernovae. These late stages allow for a direct measurement of the decay processes of nuclei synthesized in the core of the explosion. In this paper, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedentedly late epoch of ~ 930 d with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g=23.37+/- 0.25, r=24.03 +/- 0.09, i=23.90 +/- 0.15, and z=23.74 +/- 0.16) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of 56Co. This is in spite of several theoretical predictions that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes wh...

  11. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))


    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Pyomyositis of Obturator Muscles: Unusual Late Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Channappa Soraganvi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. Keywords: Pyomyositis, septic arthritis, infection, obturator muscle.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerzendorf, W. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  14. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic


    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  15. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ) (United States)

    ... survivors may have late effects that affect pregnancy. Late effects on pregnancy include increased risk of the following: High blood pressure . Miscarriage or stillbirth. Low birth-weight babies. Early labor and/or delivery. Delivery ...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Giant Sea Perch Iridovirus in Kaohsiung, Taiwan (United States)

    Hong, Jiann-Ruey


    We report here the complete genome sequence of a megalocytivirus strain, GSIV-K1, isolated from a farmed giant sea perch (Lates calcarifer) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. GSIV-K1 causes mortality in farmed marine fish, including giant sea perch and groupers. The genome sequence is nearly identical to the genome of the orange-spotted grouper iridovirus. PMID:27125488

  17. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease



    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver dis...

  18. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State


    Laura Saganic; Jason Carr; Rosa Solorio; Maria Courogen; Tom Jaenicke; Ann Duerr


    As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also con...

  19. Late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raashid Hamid


    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to highlight the clinical profile, misdiagnosis, surgical treatment,and prognosis of late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH cases in a tertiary level hospital. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included all the babies and children >1 month of age with CDH who were admitted in our Hospital (Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, India during the period between January 2008 and December 2013. Babies with age <1 month were excluded from the study. Data regarding clinical profile, operative records, and follow-up was reviewed and analysed statistically. Results: A total of 20 patients were included in this study. The clinical picture ranged from respiratory distress (13 patients to non-specific gastrointestinal complaints (5 patients. In two patients, CDH was misdiagnosed as pneumothorax and had got chest tube inserted in other hospitals before referral to this tertiary care centre. In 14 patients chest, X-ray revealed the diagnosis of CDH and in remaining five patients (including the two patients with misdiagnosis further investigations were undertaken to establish the diagnosis. Age ranged from 45 days to 17 years with an average age of 58.9 months. There were 12 male and 8 female patients. In all the 20 patients, surgical procedures were undertaken with the retrieval of herniated contents from the thoracic cavity and repair of the diaphragmatic defect. There was no mortality in our series. All the 20 patients were followed-up for a period ranging from 6 months to 5 years (median 3.1 years. Conclusions: Late-presenting CDH can have diverse clinical presentation. Late diagnosis and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity and potential mortality if these cases are not managed properly at an appropriate stage. Outcome is favourable if these patients are expeditiously identified and surgically repaired.

  20. Assessing Fatigue in Late-Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieo, Robert A; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lund, Rikke


    late-midlife subjects. Five subdimensions of perceived fatigue were examined in n = 7,233 subjects: general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. Fatigue burden was compared across age groups (aged 48-52 vs. 57-63) and gender. Mokken item response theory...... was used to investigate dimensionality, monotonicity, and invariant item ordering (IIO). In both age groups, as well as by gender, the Motivation domain presented with weak scalability, suggesting that caution be exercised when interpreting sum scores. For all groupings, the strongest scaling properties...

  1. Late-stage sinking of plutons (United States)

    Glazner, A.F.; Miller, D.M.


    Many granodiorite to diorite plutons in the Great Basin of western North America are surrounded by rim monoclines or anticlines that suggest relative downward movement of the plutons while wall rocks were hot and ductile. We propose that such plutons rise to a level of approximately neutral buoyancy and then founder as their densities increase ??? 40% during crystallization. Late-stage sinking of intermediate to mafic plutons should be common when wall rocks are rich in weak, low-density minerals such as quartz and calcite. Structures related to sinking will overprint those related to initial pluton emplacement and may be mistaken for regional tectonic structures.

  2. Public Schools in Australia from the Late 1970s to the Late 1980s: The Seeds of Change (United States)

    Barcan, Alan


    The period from the late 1970s to the late 1980s were transition years for most public(government) school systems in Australia. A reaction was developing against the neo-progressive and radical (neo-Marxist) innovations of the late 1960s and 1970s such as school-based curricula, activity methods, and "open education". By the early 1980s the…

  3. Why does schizophrenia develop at late adolescence? (United States)

    Harrop, C; Trower, P


    Schizophrenia is one of the most researched, yet still one of the least understood, of the mental disorders. One key area that remains comparatively neglected is the fact that schizophrenia typically develops at late adolescence. In common with people with psychotic disorders, around 25% of normal teenagers also report finding adolescence very distressing, and a substantial empirical literature shows that certain characteristics typical of adolescence such as conflicted family relationships, grandiosity, egocentrism, and magical ideation bear a distinct resemblance to phenomena seen in psychotic disorders. Indeed, such phenomena, as might be judged prodromal or symptomatic in first-onset schizophrenia, have been shown to be remarkably common in normal adolescents, generally in about 50% of samples. Furthermore, prodromal-like signs in normal adolescents appear to be functionally linked to psychological development. For most adolescents, such phenomena pass with successful psychological development. It is proposed that psychosis in late adolescence is a consequence of severe disruption in this normally difficult psychological maturational process in vulnerable individuals, and explanations are offered as to why and how this comes about. It is suggested that problems either in reaching psychological maturity with regard to parents or in bonding to peers or both, may lead to crucial self-construction difficulties, and that psychosis emerges out of such "blocked adolescence." This approach proposes therapeutic interventions that enable professional services to side with both parents and clients simultaneously, and is normalizing and stigma-free.

  4. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity. (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger


    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  5. Late Paravalvular Aortic Regurgitation: Migration of the Valve or Late Recoil? (United States)

    Karimi, Ashkan; Pourafshar, Negiin; Park, Ki E; Choi, Calvin Y; Mogali, Kiran; Stinson, Wade W; Manning, Eddie W; Bavry, Anthony A


    A 79-year-old man underwent trans-catheter aortic valve replacement for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis with a 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve. Immediately after valve deployment there was moderate amount of paravalvular leak. Post-dilation was performed with an additional 2 cc of volume, and the paravalvular leak was reduced to trace. Nine months later, trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed moderate to severe paravalvular leak and possible aortic migration of the valve. The patient was brought back for the treatment of the paravalvular leak which was suspected to be due to valve migration. However, fluoroscopy and trans-esophageal echocardiography showed good valve position. Measurement of late valve recoil in the Coplanar view using cine-angiographic analysis software showed that the lower third of the valve had the greatest late recoil (-1.74 mm, 6.55%), which presumably accounted for the progression of the paravalvular leak. Valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve replacement was performed with a 26-mm SAPIEN 3 valve and the paravalvular leak was reduced to trace. This case displays late recoil as a likely mechanism for development of paravalvular leak after SAPIEN XT valve implantation. Our case illustrates that late recoil needs to be systematically evaluated in future studies, especially when trans-catheter aortic valve replacement is being expanded to lower risk and younger patients for whom the longevity and long-term performance of these valves is of critical importance.

  6. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill : A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H A; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P M; Middelkoop, H.


    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a

  7. Late removal of retrievable caval filters. (United States)

    von Segesser, Ludwig K; Ferrari, Enrico; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Abdel-Sayed, Saad; Berdajs, Denis


    The advent of retrievable caval filters was a game changer in the sense, that the previously irreversible act of implanting a medical device into the main venous blood stream of the body requiring careful evaluation of the pros and cons prior to execution suddenly became a "reversible" procedure where potential hazards in the late future of the patient lost most of their weight at the time of decision making. This review was designed to assess the rate of success with late retrieval of so called retrievable caval filters in order to get some indication about reasonable implant duration with respect to relatively "easy" implant removal with conventional means, i.e., catheters, hooks and lassos. A PubMed search ( was performed with the search term "cava filter retrieval after 30 days clinical", and 20 reports between 1994 and 2013 dealing with late retrieval of caval filters were identified, covering approximately 7,000 devices with 600 removed filters. The maximal duration of implant reported is 2,599 days and the maximal implant duration of removed filters is also 2,599 days. The maximal duration reported with standard retrieval techniques, i.e., catheter, hook and/or lasso, is 475 days, whereas for the retrievals after this period more sophisticated techniques including lasers, etc. were required. The maximal implant duration for series with 100% retrieval accounts for 84 days, which is equivalent to 12 weeks or almost 3 months. We conclude that retrievable caval filters often become permanent despite the initial decision of temporary use. However, such "forgotten" retrievable devices can still be removed with a great chance of success up to three months after implantation. Conventional percutaneous removal techniques may be sufficient up to sixteen months after implantation whereas more sophisticated catheter techniques have been shown to be successful up to 83 months or more than seven years of implant duration. Tilting, migrating, or misplaced

  8. New Modernist Studies and Late Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Kącka


    Full Text Available studies into late modernism—of the issues which are worth researchingor the problems which should be signalled. The article starts witha recognition of a poor presence of the category of modernism in thinkingabout the literature of the 20th and 21st centuries and submits severalproposals. At the beginning, a proposal of confronting a modernistparadigm with a paradigm of Romantic revision. This proposal was presentedwith an awareness of the fuzziness of the notion of modernism aswell as the notion of Romantic revision in Polish academic environment.The following research postulates that would be formulated are: deeperreflection on the language (in connection with tradition, heritage andtheir problematization and on the practices of reading. Later, the textposes a question about the way of studying the permeation of discoursesin the writing of specific representatives of modernism and demandsgreater recognition for the Central European perspective in research.

  9. Late evening artificial insemination of turkey hens. (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Renner, P A


    Turkey hens were artificially inseminated at three times (0800, 1100, or 2200 hr) under conditions where high or low fertility would be expected. Four trials were conducted and the same two persons collected semen and inseminated the hens in all trials. Each hen was inseminated with .025 cc undiluted semen. There was no significant difference in fertility when hens were inseminated at different times of the day in the first three trials. In a fourth trial, where high fertility was expected, hens inseminated at 0800 hr had lower fertility than those inseminated at 2200 hr. There was no significant difference between inseminating at 0800 or 1100 hr and 1100 or 2200 hr. The results of this study indicate that late evening insemination is not necessary for high fertility.

  10. Electronic entanglement in late transition metal oxides. (United States)

    Thunström, Patrik; Di Marco, Igor; Eriksson, Olle


    We present a study of the entanglement in the electronic structure of the late transition metal monoxides--MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO--obtained by means of density-functional theory in the local density approximation combined with dynamical mean-field theory. The impurity problem is solved through exact diagonalization, which grants full access to the thermally mixed many-body ground state density operator. The quality of the electronic structure is affirmed through a direct comparison between the calculated electronic excitation spectrum and photoemission experiments. Our treatment allows for a quantitative investigation of the entanglement in the electronic structure. Two main sources of entanglement are explicitly resolved through the use of a fidelity based geometrical entanglement measure, and additional information is gained from a complementary entropic entanglement measure. We show that the interplay of crystal field effects and Coulomb interaction causes the entanglement in CoO to take a particularly intricate form.

  11. Late presentation for HIV care across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Antinori, Andrea


    Late presentation (LP) for HIV care across Europe remains a significant issue. We provide a cross-European update from 34 countries on the prevalence and risk factors of LP for 2010-2013. People aged ≥ 16 presenting for HIV care (earliest of HIV-diagnosis, first clinic visit or cohort enrollment......) after 1 January 2010 with available CD4 count within six months of presentation were included. LP was defined as presentation with a CD4 count HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression investigated changes in LP over time. A total.......02-1.32), and a significant decline in LP in northern Europe (aOR/year later 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94). Further improvements in effective HIV testing strategies, with a focus on vulnerable groups, are required across the European continent....

  12. Possible impact event in the Late Cambrian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The repeated investigation of the Batyrbay section has been done by the authors. Today we see increasing of interest to revising of volumes and boundaries of Stages and Series in the Cambrian and Ordovician,as well as to the events of this time. In this work the description of iron spherules and particles, found in the deep-water limestone layer of the conodont Cordylodus primitivus Zone in the middle Upper Cambrian of the Batyrbay section, Malyi Karatau of South Kazakhstan, and formed during the time of global sea-level changes known as a world-wide Lange Ranch Eustatic event, have been done. From our point of view, finds of iron spherules and particles may evidence about new unknown yet Event of cosmic origin, i.e. falling of a meteorite on Earth in the middle Late Cambrian.

  13. Spectroscopy of late type giant stars (United States)

    Spaenhauer, A.; Thevenin, F.


    An attempt to calibrate broadband RGU colors of late type giant stars in terms of the physical parameters of the objects is reported. The parameters comprise the effective temperature, surface gravity and global metal abundance with respect to the sun. A selection of 21 giant star candidates in the Basel fields Plaut 1, Centaurus III and near HD 95540 were examined to obtain a two color plot. Attention is focused on the G-R color range 1.5-2.15 mag, i.e., spectral types K0-K5. A relationship between R and the metallicity is quantified and shown to have a correlation coefficient of 0.93. No correlation is found between metallicity and gravity or R and the effective temperature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Carboniferous rocks from North Karakorum display sharp lateral variations in lithology and thickness suggesting accumulation in half-grabens during continental rifting between the Karakorum block and northern Gondwana. Different Carboniferous successions, belonging to distinct tectonic units, have been detected. Thin, poorly fossiliferous successions of arenites and crinoidal limestones contrast with very thick terrigenous-carbonate successions comprising two distinct fossiliferous horizons. The lower fossiliferous horizon yielded brachiopods (Pustula sp., Rhipidomella sp., Choristites sp., Martiniopsis sp., Afghanospirifer sp., Gypospirifer sp., Composita sp. of Bashkirian age. The upper fossiliferous horizon, lying about 90 m above the former, contains corals, crinoids and brachiopods (Densepustula cf. losarensis, Dowhatania sulcata n. sp., Brachythyris sp., Rhipidomella sp., Septacamera dowhatensis, Alispirifer middlemissi of Moscovian to Kasimovian age. The Carboniferous brachiopods of North Karakorum are similar to those collected in the Late Carboniferous of Central Afghanistan, Himalaya (Manang, Spiti, Tibet, and Lhasa Block (Xainza area. 

  15. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda

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    A Sravanthi


    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda, which is an infrequently reported rare variant.

  16. Late ulnar paralysis. Study of seventeen cases. (United States)

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F


    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralysis are emphasized. A very prolonged symptom free interval, a rapid onset and a severe involvement. The ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are notable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal procedure of the neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury.

  17. Systematic ranging and late warning asteroid impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Farnocchia, D; Micheli, M


    We describe systematic ranging, an orbit determination technique especially suitable to assess the near-term Earth impact hazard posed by newly discovered asteroids. For these late warning cases, the time interval covered by the observations is generally short, perhaps a few hours or even less, which leads to severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. The systematic ranging approach gets around these degeneracies by performing a raster scan in the poorly-constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane of sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to identify regions corresponding to collision solutions, as well as potential impact times and locations. From the probability distribution of the observation errors, we obtain a probability distribution in the orbital space and then estimate the probability of an Earth impact. We show how this technique is effective for a number of examples, including 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, the only tw...

  18. Phylogenetic paleobiogeography of Late Ordovician Laurentian brachiopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bauer


    Full Text Available Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis of four brachiopod genera was used to uncover large-scale geologic drivers of Late Ordovician biogeographic differentiation in Laurentia. Previously generated phylogenetic hypotheses were converted into area cladograms, ancestral geographic ranges were optimized and speciation events characterized as via dispersal or vicariance, when possible. Area relationships were reconstructed using Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis. The resulting area cladograms indicate tectonic and oceanographic changes were the primary geologic drivers of biogeographic patterns within the focal taxa. The Taconic tectophase contributed to the separation of the Appalachian and Central basins as well as the two midcontinent basins, whereas sea level rise following the Boda Event promoted interbasinal dispersal. Three migration pathways into the Cincinnati Basin were recognized, which supports the multiple pathway hypothesis for the Richmondian Invasion.

  19. Teaching surgery in late Byzantine Alexandria. (United States)

    Scarborough, John


    When one examines Alexandrian commentaries on works of Galen and Hippocrates, disclosed are essential guides to the Art of Medicine as practiced in the late fifth, sixth, and early seventh centuries. These are outlines and contents of a 'medical curriculum' in late Byzantine Alexandria, as well as Ravenna, and thanks to the patient and skilled labors of Dickson,' Duffy,2 Irmer, Palmieri, Pritchet, Westerink, and others, following and building on the pioneering studies of Bräutigam, Meyerhoff, and Temkin, medical historians can now peruse carefully edited Greek and Latin texts and generally reliable translations of some commentaries by Agnellus of Ravenna, John of Alexandria, Palladius, and Stephanus of Athens. Deeply experienced medical practitioners became teachers of would-be medical students in Alexandria and Ravenna. Alexandria had long functioned as a city reputed to be the home of medical instruction, and by ca. 550 or slightly later, teachers began to produce commentaries on the classic texts of Greek and Roman medicine, with Galen and Hippocrates as major authorities. Underpinning what the medical professors set down in their commentaries were extended lives spent in the actual practice of medicine, sometimes as military physicians (as may have been the case of Paul of Aegina in the early seventh century), sometimes as doctors who had gained lengthy experience in Alexandria itself, and sometimes as medical professionals who had emigrated to Egypt after successful careers in another part of the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire. Reflecting time as a medical student and later career in Constantinople, Aetius of Amida's Tetrabiblon foreshadows editorial mechanics and techniques of textual exegesis as they emerge more clearly with the medical commentators after 550. It may well be that Stephanus, 'the Philosopher and Physician', was originally from Athens, but whether he was or not, the attribution of an Athenian background suggests that non

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

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    Gro Strømnes Dybedal


    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  1. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

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    Mathew Domeier


    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  2. Late-glacial of southern South America (United States)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  3. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathew Domeier; Trond H. Torsvik


    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonicsdand its influence on the deep Earth and climatedit is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma w60% of the lithosphere is missing and re-constructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles;in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ re-constructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geo-dynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410e250 Ma) together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  4. Late Termination of Pregnancy. Professional Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel


    Full Text Available Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester.This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional.In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality.Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women.Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus.

  5. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria) (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.


    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (squirrels, gymnures and shrews are concentrated, perhaps demonstrating feeding places of carnivores or more probably of birds of prey. Nonetheless, from geologic point of view, this paleosol represents an event horizon, which accumulated rapidly maybe within tens or hundreds of years. The vertebrate fauna comprises of scattered fishes (e.g. cyprinids, gobiids, ?channids), amphibians (e.g. salamandrids, ranids, discoglossids, bufonids, pelobatids,), reptiles (scincids, lacertids, gekkonids, anguids, varanids, colubrids, testudinids, emydids), birds (coliiformes), rodents and lagomorphs (cricetids, glirids, eomyids, sciurids, castorids), insectivores and chiropterans (erinaceids, soricids, talpids), and large mammals (suids, tragulids, moschids, cervids, ?palaeomerycids, equids, chalicotheriids, rhinos, proboscidians, carnivors). Litho- and biostratigraphy (terrestrial gastropods) as well as magnetostratigraphic data and the sequence stratigraphic and geodynamic frame indicate an age of 12-12.2 Ma (early Late Sarmatian s.str., chron 5An.1n) for the locality. Therefore, Gratkorn is one of richest and most complete fauna of the late Middle Miocene of Central Europe and will be confidentially one of the key faunas for a high-resolution continental biostratigraphy and the comprehension of the faunal succession and interchanges near the Middle/Late Miocene transition. Acknowledgements This is a preliminary overview of the Gratkorn vertebrate fauna. Several taxa are still under investigation. We are

  6. The fallacy of late-life divorce in Japan. (United States)

    Kumagai, Fumie


    Late-life divorces in Japan, that is, divorces by couples with more than 20 years' duration of marriage at the time of divorce, have become increasingly conspicuous since in the mid-1990s. However, an increase in the number of late-life divorces is not the same as an increase in the divorce rate. That is, the conspicuous phenomenon of late-life divorces may not reflect the true nature of the institution of divorce. It may be a fallacy of late-life divorce in Japan today. This is the starting point of the present study. Five major findings have emerged. First, late-life divorces did increase dramatically over the recent past. Second, late-life divorces will continue to increase after 2007, when the new old-age pension division scheme for couples who pursue divorce will be in effect. Third, the increment in late-life divorce cases is due primarily to the baby-boomers born between 1947 and 1949 who are pursuing such late-life divorces. Fourth, as the duration of marriage increases, Japanese married couples are less inclined to pursue divorce. Fifth, the reasons for late-life divorces differ from those expressed for divorces in general. It is hoped that these findings will provide valuable insights for Japanese couples married for many years who may wish to reconsider and to reconstruct their marital relationship for the better.

  7. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bambach, R. K.; Canfield, D. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.


    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction.

  8. Late style as exile: De/colonising the life course. (United States)

    Hartung, Heike


    In the collection of essays On Late Style, Edward Said reflects on the new idiom achieved by great artists in their work near the end of their lives as "late style." Drawing on Adorno's essay on Beethoven's late style, Said also focuses on the aesthetic aspects of lateness. Defining the late works of artists as "a form of exile," however, Said moves beyond Adorno's aesthetic conception of late style. Highlighting the artist's abandonment of communication with the established social order, who achieves a contradictory, alienated relationship with it instead, Said compares artistic lateness with the experience of the subject in exile. Drawing on the analogy provided by Said, this article argues that the relationship between "self" and "other" in the different theoretical contexts of Postcolonial Studies and Age Studies can be usefully combined in the composite concept of "late style as exile." In order to explore how the concept of lateness correlates with that of exile, this contribution turns to theoretical and autobiographical texts by Edward Said.

  9. Never too late? An advantage on tests of auditory attention extends to late bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hieronymus Bak


    Full Text Available Recent studies, using predominantly visual tasks, indicate that early bilinguals outperform monolinguals on attention tests. It remains less clear whether such advantages extend to those bilinguals who have acquired their second language later in life.We examined this question in 38 monolingual and 60 bilingual university students. The bilingual group was further subdivided into early childhood, late childhood and early adulthood bilinguals. The assessment consisted of five subtests from the clinically validated Test of Everyday Attention (TEA. Overall, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on auditory attention tests, but not on visual search tasks. The latter observation suggests that the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals are specific and not due to a generally higher cognitive performance in bilinguals.Within the bilingual group, early childhood bilinguals showed a larger advantage on attention switching, late childhood/early adulthood bilinguals on selective attention. We conclude that the bilingual advantage extends into the auditory domain and is not confined to childhood bilinguals, although its scope might be slightly different in early and late bilinguals.

  10. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic (United States)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei


    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  11. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök


    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  12. The late Precambrian greening of the Earth. (United States)

    Knauth, L Paul; Kennedy, Martin J


    Many aspects of the carbon cycle can be assessed from temporal changes in the (13)C/(12)C ratio of oceanic bicarbonate. (13)C/(12)C can temporarily rise when large amounts of (13)C-depleted photosynthetic organic matter are buried at enhanced rates, and can decrease if phytomass is rapidly oxidized or if low (13)C is rapidly released from methane clathrates. Assuming that variations of the marine (13)C/(12)C ratio are directly recorded in carbonate rocks, thousands of carbon isotope analyses of late Precambrian examples have been published to correlate these otherwise undatable strata and to document perturbations to the carbon cycle just before the great expansion of metazoan life. Low (13)C/(12)C in some Neoproterozoic carbonates is considered evidence of carbon cycle perturbations unique to the Precambrian. These include complete oxidation of all organic matter in the ocean and complete productivity collapse such that low-(13)C/(12)C hydrothermal CO(2) becomes the main input of carbon. Here we compile all published oxygen and carbon isotope data for Neoproterozoic marine carbonates, and consider them in terms of processes known to alter the isotopic composition during transformation of the initial precipitate into limestone/dolostone. We show that the combined oxygen and carbon isotope systematics are identical to those of well-understood Phanerozoic examples that lithified in coastal pore fluids, receiving a large groundwater influx of photosynthetic carbon from terrestrial phytomass. Rather than being perturbations to the carbon cycle, widely reported decreases in (13)C/(12)C in Neoproterozoic carbonates are more easily interpreted in the same way as is done for Phanerozoic examples. This influx of terrestrial carbon is not apparent in carbonates older than approximately 850 Myr, so we infer an explosion of photosynthesizing communities on late Precambrian land surfaces. As a result, biotically enhanced weathering generated carbon-bearing soils on a large

  13. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  14. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBattaglia


    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirms the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions.

  15. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer


    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  16. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  17. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth


    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  18. Queer theory, late capitalism, and internalized homophobia. (United States)

    Kirsch, Max


    The emergence of queer theory represents a transformation in the approach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered peoples. It has claimed new ground for treating sexuality and gender as worthy subjects in their own rights, rather than offshoots of gay and lesbian studies or of general cultural theory. The author contends, however, that it is doubtful that this approach can lead to social change. Queer theory has dismissed the usefulness of the disciplines that were the foundation of the social movements that initiated gay and lesbian studies, such as political economy, and in doing so, it has surreptitiously mirrored the social relations of reproduction that constitute late capitalism. This mirroring has had unseen consequences for the individual in society, and with queer theory's insistence on the relativity of experience and the dismissal of identity, has set the stage for a benign reinforcement of internalized homophobia. The author argues that this approach can be mediated by recognizing that identity is fluid, and that by focusing on identifying with social movements rather than centering analyses on the problems associated with identifying as a particular category of status and being, we can refocus our energies on the building and maintenance of mutual support and collective recognition that can lead to resolving the stagnation now dominating attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter.

  19. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em


    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  20. Late neuropsychologic status after childhood head trauma. (United States)

    Costeff, H; Abraham, E; Brenner, T; Horowitz, I; Apter, N; Sadan, N; Najenson, T


    A neurologic and neuropsychologic test battery was administered to a sample of 35 children drawn from all those in a defined geographic area who had been hospitalized for head trauma before age 7 during the years 1970-1976. Examination was performed 3 1/2 to 10 years after injury, at age 6-15. Twelve subjects had been diagnosed at the time of injury as suffering moderate insult and had been referred to the metropolitan neurosurgical center, while twenty-three with only mild injury had been retained for observation in a local pediatric ward. The twelve with more severe insult were significantly inferior to the other subjects on the Block Design and Coding subtests of the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Koppitz score of the Bender Test, the WISC-R scatter, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the GATB Motor Speed Test and the Bourdon-Wiersma Vigilance Test showed less diagnostic power and failed to distinguish between the group with more severe injury and that with less. A detailed and carefully scored neurologic examination also failed to distinguish between the two groups. The findings suggest that relatively common traumatic injury may be associated with detectable late cognitive deficit, and that some WISC-R subtests may be among the best measures for detecting such deficit.

  1. Post-Traumatic Late Onset Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genc


    Full Text Available Artery-to-artery emboli or occlusion of craniocervical arteries mostly due to dissection are the most common causes of ischemia after trauma. A 29 year-old male had been admitted to another hospital with loss of consciousness lasting for about 45 minutes after a hard parachute landing without head trauma three days ago. As his neurological examination and brain CT were normal, he had been discharged after 24 hours of observation. Two days after his discharge, he was admitted to our department with epileptic seizure. His neurological examination revealed left hemianopia. After observing occipital subacute ischemia at right side in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we performed cerebral angiography and no dissection was observed. Excluding the rheumatologic, cardiologic and vascular events, our final diagnosis was late onset cerebral ischemia. Anti-edema and antiepileptic treatment was initiated. He was discharged with left hemianopia and mild cognitive deficit. We suggest that it will be wise to hospitalize patients for at least 72 hours who has a history of unconsciousness following trauma.

  2. History of Late-Notice HIEs (United States)

    Frakes, P.


    Question was raised: are we seeing more late-notice events in recent months? Two definitions oflate-notice used to compare data: Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 days where the Pcwas below 1E-7, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data point between TCA-2days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 dayswhere the Pc was below 1E-5, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data pointbetween TCA-2 days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4. The case studies that were examined all fall within criteriafor both definitions Terra vs 38192; TCA 24 JUN 2015Aura vs 89477; TCA 29 AUG 2015Terra vs 37131; TCA 19 DEC2015GPM vs 28685; TCA 5 SEP 2015.

  3. Was there a late Archean biospheric explosion? (United States)

    Lindsay, John F


    There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that the evolution of the planet drives the evolution of the biosphere. There have been 2 significant stages in Earth history when atmospheric oxygen levels rose rapidly, and both appear to be associated with supercontinent cycles. The earlier biospheric event, which extends across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary (ca. 3.0-2.2 Ga), has received little attention and is the focus of this study. Recent work on the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia has shown that concretion formed by microbial activity during the diagenesis of these sediments are absent from early Archean sediments but abundant in late Archean and early Paleoproterozoic successions of the Hamersley Basin, appearing abruptly in sedimentary rocks younger than 2.7 Ga. This study suggests that their internal architecture may have been defined by the diffusion of humic acids and the formation of polymer gels during diagenesis. The data imply that the biosphere expanded suddenly shortly after 3.0 Ga and may have begun to raise the oxygen levels of the oceanic water column earlier than thought-possibly as much as 300 my earlier.

  4. Potato late blight epidemics and population structure of Phytophthora infestans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwankhuizen, M.J.


    Potato late blight is caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans . To study the relative importance of oospores in the epidemiology, and to estimate the relative impact of various infection sources, late blight epidemics in Southern Flevoland (The Netherlands) were studied using epidemiological and

  5. Late Globalization and Evolution and Metamorphoses of Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh


    In this paper we explore the effect of late globalization on evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the impact of late globalization on the evolution and metamorphoses of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI). Using historical data, we survey the development of DTFI between 194...

  6. Differential Parenting between Mothers and Fathers: Implications for Late Adolescents (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly


    Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…

  7. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5 (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.


    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  8. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.


    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  9. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar; Solem, Per Erik; Lange, Annet de; Syse, Astri; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Ilmarinen, Juhani


    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process o

  10. 7 CFR 927.123 - Interest and late payment charges. (United States)


    ... applied to the total unpaid balance, including the late payment charge and any accumulated interest. Any... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest and late payment charges. 927.123 Section 927... payment charges. Payments received more than 45 days after the date on which they are due shall...

  11. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures (United States)

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan


    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  12. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.


    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  13. Attention and Word Learning in Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel…

  14. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births. (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon


    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth.

  15. Late time tail of wave propagation on curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, E S C; Suen, W M; Young, K; Ching, E S C; Leung, P T; Suen, W M; Young, K


    The late time behavior of waves propagating on a general curved spacetime is studied. The late time tail is not necessarily an inverse power of time. Our work extends, places in context, and provides understanding for the known results for the Schwarzschild spacetime. Analytic and numerical results are in excellent agreement.

  16. Late Entrants Leave School Earlier: Evidence from Mozambique (United States)

    Wils, Annababette


    Late school entry prevails in many developing countries, and a brief international comparison suggests it has a general negative impact on school retention rates. Yet this widespread phenomenon has received little attention. This essay investigates late school entry in one of the larger countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique, for which data…

  17. SPECT and PET in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, Tiago S; Oude Voshaar, Richard; De Deyn, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A


    Late-life late onset depression (i.e., depression with an age of onset above 60 yrs) appears to differ from depression with early onset in its association with cerebral small vessel disease, beta-amyloid and tau deposition, and neurodegenerative processes. Multimodality imaging (SPECT, PET, MRI) sup

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis. (United States)

    Dai, Se-Ying; Liu, Jin-Ji; Fan, Yin-Guang; Shan, Gui-Su; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing


    While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they could not acquire HIV from their regular heterosexual partners, those who never considered getting tested for HIV, and patients with unexplained weight loss, angular cheilitis, or prolonged fever prior to HIV diagnosis. On the other hand, those participants who were diagnosed via testing at compulsory rehabilitation centers and those whose annual household income was greater than 30,000 Yuan were less likely to be diagnosed late. These results suggested that late HIV diagnosis is common in Liuzhou city, and it is essential to promote appropriate strategies to detect HIV infections earlier. Strategies that require HIV/AIDS patients to notify their spouse/sexual-partners about their HIV-positive results within one month and start provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in medical facilities are beneficial to earlier HIV diagnosis.

  19. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing..., late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual. Payments may not be based on false or misleading....S.C. chapter 33 in the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false...

  20. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran....C. chapter 30 in the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false or...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false or misleading claims for...

  2. Late post-operative hypoxaemia and organ dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J


    an adverse effect of tissue hypoxia on wound healing and on resistance to bacterial wound infections. Finally, mental confusion and surgical delirium may be related to inadequate arterial oxygenation during the late post-operative period. Late post-operative constant and episodic hypoxaemia may therefore...

  3. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D;


    of what is meant by a 'late-presenting' patient. Results Two definitions were agreed upon, as follows. Late presentation: persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Presentation with advanced HIV disease...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition......: persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 200 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Conclusion The European Late Presenter Consensus working group believe it would be beneficial if all national health agencies, institutions, and researchers were...

  4. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating. (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol


    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  5. Three comments on late antiquity history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Milena L.


    Full Text Available The author suggests corrections in reading the inscription CIL III 4002 lines 3-7 (see pp. 1-2. The formula q(ui vixit ann(os, lines 3-4, was common in Late Antiquity, unlike the previous reading...ann(orum, which was typical for the Early Empire. L.5 memoria frequently appeared in funerary monuments in Late Antiquity. L. 6 Instead of unlikely collegae, the complement colloc(avit or –erunt has been suggested, according to analogies sedem conlocasse (Siscia, CIL 3996 sepulcrum (! collocavit, with the Christogram ( Siscia,CIL 3996a. The inscription can be more precisely dated with regard to the Christogram. In nearby Sirmium, this symbol repeatedly appears in epitaphs, whether unaccompanied, or between the letters a and w. According to a dated inscription with a Christogram from Constantius times the entire group of inscriptions bearing this symbol may be supposed to have originated from mid-, or, at the latest, second half of 4th century (notes 2-4. Durostoranus (Amm. Marc. XXXI 15, 6 In the paragraph referred to above: Verum introire non ausus, qui missus est, per Christianum quendam portatis scriptis et recitatis, utque decebat, contemptatis parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta (ed. W.Seyfarth, Leipzig 1978, the author instead of the reading to date, christianum, suggests the restitution of the Codex lection Vat. lat. 1873 diristanum, which would be the adjective derived from the toponym D(iristra, a variant of Durostorus, cf. Zonara (XVI 12 e/n Dorosto$lw...toy#to d h% Dri$stra e/sti. Further on, (...scriptis et recitatis, utque dicebat, contemptatis, parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta, two differently noted or emendated points are present. The one is ut dicebat, in a later manuscript, and in Seyfarth's critical edition changed into ut decebat. This emendation is not necessary: the emissary said that he had taken the letter and given the message that was ignored by the inhabitants, and not "given the message as was

  6. Eszopiclone for late-life insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S McCrae


    Full Text Available Christina S McCrae1, Amanda Ross1, Ashley Stripling2, Natalie D Dautovich21Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, 2Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Insomnia, the most common sleep disturbance in later life, affects 20%–50% of older adults. Eszopiclone, a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent developed for the treatment of insomnia, has been available in Europe since 1992 and in the US since 2005. Although not yet evaluated for transient insomnia in older adults, eszopiclone has been shown to be safe and efficacious for short-term treatment (2 weeks of chronic, primary insomnia in older adults (64–91 years. Clinical studies in younger adults (mean = 44 years have shown eszopiclone can be used for 6–12 months without evidence of problems. Because the oldest participant in these longer-term trials was 69, it not known whether eszopiclone is effective for older adults [particularly the old old (75–84 years and oldest old (85+] when used over longer periods. This is unfortunate, because older individuals frequently suffer from chronic insomnia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, which effectively targets the behavioral factors that maintain chronic insomnia, represents an attractive treatment alternative or adjuvant to eszopiclone for older adults. To date, no studies have compared eszopiclone to other hypnotic medications or to nonpharmacological interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, in older adults. All of the clinical trials reported herein were funded by Sepracor. This paper provides an overview of the literature on eszopiclone with special emphasis on its use for the treatment of late-life insomnia. Specific topics covered include pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trial data, adverse events, drug interactions, tolerance/dependence, and economics/cost considerations for older adults. Keywords: aging, eszopiclone

  7. Late-onset hypogonadism: beyond testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta


    Full Text Available Late-onset hypogonadism is defined as a combination of low testosterone (T levels and typical symptoms and signs. A major area of uncertainty is whether T concentrations are always really sufficient to fully reflect Leydig cell (dysfunction. Mild testicular alteration could be diagnosed only by additional biochemical markers, such as luteinizing hormone (LH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These markers help in identifying the so-called "subclinical" hypogonadism (normal T, high LH levels. Patients with hypogonadism have frequently low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D due to impairment of the hydroxylating enzyme CYP2R1 in the testis. However, no data have been published dealing with the best treatment option (cholecalciferol - the Vitamin D precursor, or calcidiol - 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D in these patients. We studied 66 patients with classic hypogonadism (total T [TT] <12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 26 and subclinical hypogonadism (TT ≥ 12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 40 and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<50 nmol l−1 . Subjects received cholecalciferol (5000 IU per week (n = 20 or calcidiol (4000 IU per week (n = 46, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH were evaluated after 3 months of therapy. Supplementation with calcidiol significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and significantly decreased PTH levels in both groups of men with hypogonadism (primary, n = 16 and subclinical, n = 30, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol did not modify their levels. This study shows for the first time that the administration of the 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D (calcidiol, and not the administration of the precursor cholecalciferol, restores 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with hypogonadism.

  8. Suicide and euthanasia in late life. (United States)

    De Leo, Diego; Spathonis, Kym


    Epidemiological studies of suicide in the elderly indicate that, in the last few decades, there has been a relevant increase in suicide rates in old age in a number of Asian and Latin nations, with an almost parallel decrease in Anglo-Saxon counties. Mental disorders, particularly depression, physical illness, personality traits such as hostility, hopelessness, the inability to verbally express psychological pain and dependency on others, recent life events and losses are all factors that may contribute to suicide in later life. Compared with suicide in other age groups, mors voluntaris in late life is associated with the use of highly lethal methods, less ambivalence and impulsivity, and more determination and intent to die. Accordingly, elderly suicidal individuals are more likely than younger subjects to complete rather than attempt suicide. Some evidence suggests also that the characteristics of elderly individuals who attempt suicide may not overlap with those who complete suicide. Death thoughts and suicidal ideations are relatively rare among mentally healthy elderly adults, and are less predominant in this age bracket. However, whether elderly suicidal behaviour exists along a continuum, progressing in severity from death thoughts and suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, remains unclear. Assisted suicide and euthanasia in the elderly have been associated with the desire to escape chronic physical pain and suffering caused by terminal illness, and to relieve mental anguish and feelings of hopelessness, depression and extreme "tiredness of life." The role of the family and those treating chronically ill members is crucial in the final stages of life, particularly when autonomy and the ability of the elderly individual to make end-of-life decisions are compromised. The main aspects associated with these controversial phenomena, particularly from a transcultural perspective, are reviewed in this article.

  9. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.


    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  10. Sirtinol abrogates late phase of cardiac ischemia preconditioning in rats. (United States)

    Safari, Fereshteh; Shekarforoosh, Shahnaz; Hashemi, Tahmineh; Namvar Aghdash, Simin; Fekri, Asefeh; Safari, Fatemeh


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR. In early and late IPC groups, IS and the number of arrhythmia were significantly decreased (P IPC, incidences of arrhythmia and IS were not different compared with the early IPC group. However, in S + late IPC the IS was different from the late IPC group (P IPC but not early IPC, transcription levels of catalase (P IPC group. Our results are consistent with the notion that different mechanisms are responsible for early and late IPC. In addition, sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases may be implicated in late IPC-induced cardioprotection.

  11. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.


    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  12. Late Miocene Tidal Deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin (United States)

    Rasanen, Matti E.; Linna, Ari M.; Santos, Jose C. R.; Negri, Francisco R.


    Late Miocene tidal sediments of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia, were deposited in an embayment or interior seaway located in the sub-Andean zone. This late Tertiary embayment system may once have connected the Caribbean with the South Atlantic. The tidal coasts of the embayment-seaway have provided an avenue for the earliest waif (over water) dispersal phases of the great American biotic interchange in the late Miocene. The subsequent change from semimarine to terrestrial environments is of value in assessing the importance of earlier hypotheses on the evolution of the western Amazonian landscape and gives insight into the formation of several observed biogeographic patterns, especially of aquatic biota.

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage due to late hemorrhagic disease in two siblings. (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kumandaş, Sefer; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Gümüş, Hakan; Karakukcu, Musa


    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized by intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency, occurring particularly in exclusively breastfed infants. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. In this study, we report on two siblings with intracranial bleeding who were fully breastfed without a routine supplementation of vitamin K. Vitamin K should be given to all newborns as a single, intramuscular dose of 1 mg.

  14. An unusual case of late ocular changes after lightning injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Himadri


    Full Text Available We describe a case of late ocular changes after lightning injury. One year after the injury, complete ankyloblepharon, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, healed iritis and mature cataracts were noted in both eyes of the patient.

  15. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease. (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Arslan, Duran; Gümüş, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kumandaş, Sefer


    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver disease are at risk for developing secondary vitamin K deficiency because of fat malabsorbtion and inadequate dietary intake. In this study, we described 11 infants with cholestatic liver disease with different etiologies exhibiting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Six patients underwent surgical evacuation of ICH, following the administration of vitamin K and/or fresh frozen plasma. The possibility of cholestatic liver disease should be considered in the treatment of ICH due to vitamin K deficiency.

  16. NIH Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Consensus Conference (United States)

    This day and a half symposium will bring together experts in blood and marrow transplantation, late effects, and health care delivery to discuss current evidence and knowledge gaps, develop consensus guidelines, and inform future research in the BMT survivor population.

  17. Zika Virus Can Damage Fetal Brain Late in Pregnancy: Study (United States)

    ... Zika Virus Can Damage Fetal Brain Late in Pregnancy: Study ... WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may harm a baby's brain even if the ...

  18. Late Archean Surface Ocean Oxygenation (Invited) (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Anbar, A. D.


    Oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by 2.45-2.32 Ga, when atmospheric oxygen abundances first rose above 0.001% present atmospheric level (Great Oxidation Event; GOE). Biomarker evidence for a time lag between the evolution of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis and the GOE continues to be debated. Geochemical signatures from sedimentary rocks (redox-sensitive trace metal abundances, sedimentary Fe geochemistry, and S isotopes) represent an alternative tool for tracing the history of Earth surface oxygenation. Integrated high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles through the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) suggest a ‘whiff’ of oxygen in the surface environment at least 50 M.y. prior to the GOE. However, the geochemical data from the Mt. McRae Shale does not uniquely constrain the presence or extent of Late Archean ocean oxygenation. Here, we present high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles from 2.6-2.5 Ga black shales (upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa) that provide the earliest direct evidence for an oxygenated ocean water column. On the slope beneath the Campbellrand - Malmani carbonate platform (Nauga Formation), a mildly oxygenated water column (highly reactive iron to total iron ratios [FeHR/FeT] ≤ 0.4) was underlain by oxidizing sediments (low Re and Mo abundances) or mildly reducing sediments (high Re but low Mo abundances). After drowning of the carbonate platform (Klein Naute Formation), the local bottom waters became anoxic (FeHR/FeT > 0.4) and intermittently sulphidic (pyrite iron to highly reactive iron ratios [FePY/FeHR] > 0.8), conducive to enrichment of both Re and Mo in sediments, followed by anoxic and Fe2+-rich (ferruginous) conditions (high FeT, FePY/FeHR near 0). Widespread surface ocean oxygenation is suggested by Re enrichment in the broadly correlative Klein Naute Formation and Mt. McRae Shale, deposited ~1000 km apart in the Griqualand West and Hamersley basins

  19. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica


    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  20. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bdour Muawyah


    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  1. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy


    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  2. Late onset seroma post-thymectomy presenting as cardiac tamponade


    Poudel, Dilli Ram; Giri, Smith; Pathak, Ranjan; Morsey, Mohamed; Alsafwah, Shadwan


    Late onset seroma is a rare post-operative complication occurring after various surgeries including thymectomy. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, seromas occurring in the mediastinal cavity may cause compression symptoms including airway compression or cardiac tamponade. We present a 62-year-old male with a history of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis who presented with cardiac tamponade several years ago. Further evaluation revealed a late onset seroma anteriorly compressing the cardiac c...

  3. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  4. Late-time spectroscopy of Type Iax Supernovae (United States)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Zheng, Wei Kang; Bildsten, Lars; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kasen, Daniel


    We examine the late-time (t ≳ 200 d after peak brightness) spectra of Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax), a low-luminosity, low-energy class of thermonuclear stellar explosions observationally similar to, but distinct from, Type Ia supernovae. We present new spectra of SN 2014dt, resulting in the most complete late-time spectral sequence of an SN Iax. At late times, SNe Iax have generally similar spectra, all with a similar continuum shape and strong forbidden-line emission. However, there is also significant diversity where some SN Iax spectra display narrow P-Cygni features from permitted lines and a continuum indicative of a photosphere at late times in addition to strong narrow (FWHM 6000 km s-1) forbidden lines, and weak narrow forbidden lines, and some SNe Iax have spectra intermediate to these two varieties. We find that SNe Iax with strong broad forbidden lines are more luminous and have higher velocity ejecta at peak brightness. We estimate blackbody and kinematic radii of the late-time photosphere, finding the latter significantly larger than the former. We propose a two-component model that solves this discrepancy and explains the diversity of the late-time spectra of SNe Iax. In this model, the broad forbidden lines originate from the SN ejecta, while the photosphere, P-Cygni lines, and narrow forbidden lines originate from a wind launched from the remnant of the progenitor white dwarf and is driven by the radioactive decay of newly synthesized material left in the remnant. The relative strength of the two components accounts for the diversity of late-time SN Iax spectra. This model also solves the puzzle of a long-lived photosphere and the slow late-time decline of SNe Iax.

  5. Prognostic value of late heart rate recovery after treadmill exercise. (United States)

    Johnson, Nils P; Goldberger, Jeffrey J


    Recovery from exercise can be divided into an early, rapid period and a late, slower period. Although early heart rate (HR) recovery 1 minute after treadmill exercise independently predicts survival, the prognostic value of late HR recovery has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic value of late HR recovery for all-cause mortality. A total of 2,082 patients referred to the nuclear cardiology laboratory of an urban academic medical center for treadmill exercise with imaging from August 1998 to December 2003 were followed for all-cause mortality. During 9.9 ± 1.5 years of follow-up, 196 deaths (9%) occurred. To avoid overlap with early HR recovery or the baseline HR, late HR recovery was defined as the percentage of the cycle length change between rest and peak exercise that had been recovered after 5 minutes. Lower values represent impaired recovery, by analogy with 1-minute HR recovery. Impaired late HR recovery was a significant univariate predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.28 per percentage, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.46, p recovery, with independent prognostic value (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.84, p = 0.004). In conclusion, late HR recovery after treadmill exercise stress adds prognostic value for all-cause mortality to a multivariate model including early, 1-minute HR recovery.

  6. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot


    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  7. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk


    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  8. Late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia and the risk of dementia--a nationwide register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Lauritzen, Lise;


    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia carry a risk for later development of dementia. METHODS: By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nation-wide registers of all out- and in-patients with hospital contact in Denmark, we identified all patients...... with first ever contact during the period from January 1994 to December 2001 with one of the index main diagnoses: late (age >or=40) and very-late first-contact (age >or=60) schizophrenia. First contact osteoarthritis patients as well as data on the general population were used as controls. The first...... diagnosis of dementia for each individual at discharge or at out-patient contact was established. The probability of getting a dementia diagnosis is estimated using Poisson regression models with dementia as the outcome of interest. RESULTS: Twelve thousand six hundred and sixteen and 7,712 individuals were...

  9. Late Effects Following Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma During Childhood and Adolescence. Results of the Hodgkin Lymphoma Late Effects Research Project. (United States)

    Dörffel, W; Riepenhausen, M; Lüders, H; Brämswig, J


    Survival rates have been excellent in patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) during childhood and adolescence. Unfortunately, severe treatment related late effects have been observed. It was therefore an important aim of the cooperative pediatric HL therapy studies in Germany to reduce the number of late effects without jeopardizing the excellent treatment results. Progress and relapses of HL were analyzed to obtain important information for the future salvage therapy. All late effects were documented and their etiologies analyzed. Information obtained from bacterial infections and late deaths following splenectomy were used to inform patients at risk and their local physicians about necessary preventive measurements. Procarbazine was recognized as major gonadotoxic agent in boys and eliminated successively from the treatment regimens. Parenthood was normal in female patients when compared to the German female population documenting normal ovarian function except in patients with pelvic radiation. Radiation was the most important risk factor for thyroid diseases, cardiac late effects and subsequent malignant neoplasms, especially thyroid and breast cancer. A special screening program was initiated for women with chest radiotherapy, since they had a high risk of breast cancer already at a young age. The results of the HL Late Effects Research Project are important for the aftercare of patients and for the design of future HL treatment regimens.

  10. [Chronic hallucinatory psychosis and late onset schizophrenia: the same entity?]. (United States)

    Dubertret, C; Gorwood, P; Adès, J


    The distinction between schizophrenia and chronic delusion syndromes (such as paraphrenia, late-paraphrenia and "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique") is currently used in France, although there is no international criteria (ICD 10 or DSM IV) for chronic delusion syndromes. It is thus worth analysing the literature in order to compare the differences between late-onset schizophrenia and "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique", and the similarities between young-onset schizophrenia and chronic delusion syndromes. Clinical investigations clearly differentiate "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique" and late-onset-schizophrenia from young-onset schizophrenia because they have more delusion and hallucinatory symptoms, less negative symptoms, better evolution, and better sensitivity to antipsychotic drugs. Epidemiological data show that "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique" and late-onset schizophrenia have both a different sex-ratio (around 7 women for 1 man) than young-onset schizophrenia (nearly 1 woman for 1 man), and that in "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique" and in late-onset schizophrenia, social withdrawal is frequently observed before onset of the disorder. Lastly, putative risk factors may be shared by "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique" and late-onset schizophrenia, and may isolate them from young-onset schizophrenia, for example regarding the oestradiol hypothesis (oestradiol enhance dopamine efficacy and delay the onset of delusion disorders), the impact of sensory handicaps (which may be clinically and experimentally associated with hallucinations), or the role of genetic and familial factors (with a familial concentration intermediate between the familial concentration of schizophrenia of schizophrenic proband, and the familial concentration of schizophrenia of control probands). In accordance with this review of the literature, the authors conclude that the absence of specific criteria for late-onset schizophrenia and/or "Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique" In

  11. Arctic Late Cretaceous and Paleocene Plant Community Succession (United States)

    Herman, Alexei; Spicer, Robert; Daly, Robert; Jolley, David; Ahlberg, Anders; Moiseeva, Maria


    The Arctic abounds with Late Cretaceous and Paleocene plant fossils attesting to a thriving, diverse, but now extinct polar ecosystem that sequestered vast amounts of carbon. Through detailed examination of plant remains and their distributions in time and space with respect to their entombing sedimentary facies, it has been possible to reconstruct changes in Arctic vegetation composition and dynamics through the Late Cretaceous and into the Paleocene. Based on over 10,000 leaf remains, fossil wood and palynomorph assemblages from northeastern Russia and northern Alaska and palynological data from elsewhere in the Arctic we identify a number of successional plant communities (SPCs) representing seral development from early (pioneer), through middle to late SPCs and climax vegetation. We recognise that (1) Equisetites and some ferns (typically Birisia, but after the beginning of the Maastrichtian, Onoclea) were obligatory components of the early SPCs; (2) first rare angiosperms (e.g. the dicot Vitiphyllum multifidum) appeared in the middle SPCs of the Arctic in the Early - Middle Albian; (3) from late Albian times onwards angiosperms became abundant in the middle SPCs of the Arctic, but were still rare in the earlier and later SPCs; (4) monocots appeared in the Maastrichtian early SPCs; (5) all Arctic Cretaceous late SPCs (and climax vegetation) were dominated by conifers; (6) Arctic SPCs were more numerous and diverse under warm climates than cold; (7) during the Albian and late Cretaceous, advanced (Cenophytic, angiosperm-dominated) plant communities coexisted with those of a more relictual (Mesophytic, dominated by ferns and gymnosperms) aspect, and plants composing these communities did not mix; (8) coal-forming environments (mires) remained conifer, fern and bryophyte dominated throughout the late Cretaceous and Paleocene with little penetration of woody angiosperm components and thus are conservative and predominantly Mesophytic in character; (9) bryophytes

  12. Late Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease Among US Infants (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Ailes, Elizabeth; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Oster, Matthew E.; Olney, Richard S.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Fixler, David E.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.


    IMPORTANCE Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for Newborns in the United States in 2011. Many states have recently adopted or are considering requirements for universal CCHD screening through pulse oximetry in birth hospitals. Limited previous research is directly applicable to the question of how many US infants with CCHD might be identified through screening. OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of US infants with late detection of CCHD (>3 days after birth) based on existing clinical practice and to investigate factors associated with late detection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive and multivariable analysis. Data were obtained from a multisite population-based study of birth defects in the United States, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). We included all live-born infants with estimated dates of delivery from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2007, and nonsyndromic, clinically verified CCHD conditions potentially detectable through screening via pulse oximetry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was the proportion of infants with late detection of CCHD through echocardiography or at autopsy under the assumption that universal screening at birth hospitals might reduce the number of such late diagnoses. Secondary outcome measures included prevalence ratios for associations between selected demographic and clinical factors and late detection of CCHD. RESULTS Of 3746 live-born infants with nonsyndromic CCHD, late detection occurred in 1106 (29.5% [95%CI, 28.1%–31.0%]), including 6 (0.2%) (0.1% –0.4%) first receiving a diagnosis at autopsy more than 3 days after birth. Late detection varied by CCHD type from 9 of 120 infants (7.5%[95%CI, 3.5%–13.8%]) with pulmonary atresia to 497 of 801 (62.0% [58.7%–65.4%]) with coarctation of the aorta. In multivariable analysis, late detection varied significantly by CCHD type and study site, and infants with

  13. Clinical characteristics of early- and late-onset gout (United States)

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fang, Weigang; Zeng, Xuejun; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Ya; Sheng, Feng; Zhang, Xinlei


    Abstract A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from an outpatient clinic in China was conducted to investigate the clinical features of early-onset gout patients. All patients diagnosed with gout were asked about clinical characteristics of their gout and comorbid diseases. Patients presenting with acute flares were asked about common triggers before the flare. “Early-onset” gout was defined as onset of gout before 40 years and “late-onset” as onset ≥40 years. Major joint involvement, flare frequency before presentation, the cumulative number of involved joints, proportions of tophi complications at presentation, flare triggers, as well as any metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal comorbidities, were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 778 gout patients were enrolled in this study, including 449 (57.7%) in the early-onset group and 329 (42.3%) in the late-onset group. Compared with the late-onset gout patients, the early-onset gout patients had a higher proportion of ankle/mid-foot involvement (62.8% vs 48.2%, P gout patients had fewer metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or renal complications. Early- and late-onset gout patients had different clinical features. Early-onset seems to be influenced more by lifestyle, while late-onset patients have more complications because of comorbidities. PMID:27893683

  14. 2D CFT Partition Functions at Late Times

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, Ethan


    We consider the late time behavior of the analytically continued partition function $Z(\\beta + it) Z(\\beta - it)$ in holographic $2d$ CFTs. This is a probe of information loss in such theories and in their holographic duals. We show that each Virasoro character decays in time, and so information is not restored at the level of individual characters. We identify a universal decaying contribution at late times, and conjecture that it describes the behavior of generic chaotic $2d$ CFTs out to times that are exponentially large in the central charge. It was recently suggested that at sufficiently late times one expects a crossover to random matrix behavior. We estimate an upper bound on the crossover time, which suggests that the decay is followed by a parametrically long period of late time growth. Finally, we discuss integrable theories and show how information is restored at late times by a series of characters. This hints at a possible bulk mechanism, where information is restored by an infinite sum over non-...

  15. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel


    Full Text Available Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both White (Corchorus capsularis CVL-1 and Tossa (two popular cultivars, eg., Corchorus olitorius L. cv. O-9897, and cv. O-72 varieties were used for to evaluate the late jute seed production in cropland agroforestry in 2011- 2013. It was observed that 600 kg ha-1 to 725 kg ha-1 of jute seed was produced in different types of orchard plantation. Seeds from Litchi orchard showed the higher fiber yield (1051.11, 2511.11 and 3555.56 kg ha-1 at Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur, respectively than the mango orchard. Nutrient contents of soil in three sits were improved significantly due to the cultivation of late jute seed production. Moreover, late jute seed production in early stages of orchard plantation was more profitable and late jute can be produced economically for five to seven years depending on the plantations type and age.

  16. Continental emergence in the Late Archean reconciles early and late continental growth models (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Coltice, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice


    The analysis of ancient sediments (Rare Earth Element composition of black shales, isotopic strontium composition of marine carbonates, isotopic oxygen composition of zircons) suggests that continental growth culminated around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. In stark contrast, the geochemical analysis of ancient basalts suggests that depletion of the mantle occurred in the Hadean and Eoarchean. This paradox may be solved if continents were extracted from the mantle early in Earth's history, but remained mostly below sea level throughout the Archean. We present a model to estimate the area of emerged land and associated isotopic strontium composition of the mantle and oceans as a function of the coupled evolution of mantle temperature, continental growth and distribution of surface elevations (hypsometry). For constant continental hypsometry and four distinct continental growth models, we show that sea level was between 500 and 2000 m higher in the Archean than at present, resulting in isotopic composition of the mantle and oceans, we show that a reduced area of emerged continental crust can explain why the geochemical fingerprint of continents extracted early in Earth's history was not recorded at the surface of the Earth until the late Archean.

  17. Intracranial hemorrhage in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (United States)

    Pooni, Puneet A; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Harmesh; Jain, B K


    This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) with particular reference to intracranial hemorrhage. Infants (n = 42) presenting with late HDN from January 1998 to December 2001 were studied. Majority (76%) were in the age group of 1-3 months. All were term babies on exclusive breast-feeding and none received vitamin K at birth. 71% patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, commonest site being intracerebral and multiple ICH. Visible external bleeding was noted in 1/3rd of patients only. Three patients expired. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Isolated intracranial hemorrhage is a common mode of presentation.

  18. Screening for late-onset Pompe disease in Finland. (United States)

    Palmio, Johanna; Auranen, Mari; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Löfberg, Mervi; Bodamer, Olaf; Udd, Bjarne


    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in GAA gene. The estimated frequency of late-onset Pompe disease is around 1:60,000. However, only two infantile and one late-onset Pompe patients have been reported in Finland with a population of 5 million. We screened for late-onset Pompe disease in a cohort of undetermined myopathy patients with proximal muscle weakness and/or elevated serum creatine kinase values. Acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity in dried blood spots was measured and clinical data collected in 108 patients. Four patients had low normal GAA activity; all the others had activities well within the normal range. Re-analyses of these patients did not reveal new Pompe patients. Our findings suggest that Pompe disease is extremely rare in Finland. Finland is an example of an isolated population with enrichment of certain mutations for genetic disorders and low occurrence of some autosomal recessive diseases.

  19. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion. (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C


    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  20. Tectonic model for the Late Paleozoic of southeastern New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Sutter, J.F.


    Hornblende and biotite /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra from rocks in south-central Connecticut help define a Permian-Triassic cooling curve for the area. Together with petrologic and structural information, a time-temperature-pressure-strain path is established. Similar data for the Narragansett basin in Rhode Island and Massachusetts allow correlation of the late Paleozoic histories of the two areas. Together, these data suggest that in the late Paleozoic, south-central New England was part of a fold-thrust belt, and the Narragansett basin was a retroarc foreland basin. NW-SE compression during the final assembly of Pangaea resulted in SE directed thrusting, causing the development of clastic wedges in adjacent Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. A clockwise rotation of this deformation from NW to NNE led to northward underthrusting and concomitant uplift of both eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island in the Permian and Triassic.

  1. Clinical interventions for late-life anxious depression. (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Goethe, John


    Anxiety symptoms are frequently present in patients with late-life depression. The designation "anxious depression" has been used to describe major depressive disorder (MDD) accompanied by clinically significant but subsyndromal anxiety symptoms. MDD may also present comorbid with diagnosable anxiety disorders, although this presentation is less common in late life. Diagnosis of anxious depression in the elderly is complicated by several factors (eg, their tendency to experience and report psychiatric symptoms as somatic illness) and is associated with a more severe clinical presentation, increased risk for suicidal ideation, increased disability, and poorer prognosis. Standard pharmacotherapy for depression may be sufficient but for many patients must be modified or augmented. Psychosocial interventions may also be an important component in the treatment of these patients, although no specific psychosocial treatments have been developed for late-life anxious depression.

  2. Influence of social factors on patient-reported late symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Andersen, Elo;


    BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer and morbidity and mortality after treatment are associated with social factors. Whether social factors also play a role in the prevalence of late-onset symptoms after treatment for head and neck cancer is not clear. METHODS: Three hundred sixty...... ratio [OR] = 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-8.63). For survivors who lived alone, the adjusted ORs were significantly increased for physical functioning (2.17; 95% CI = 1.01-4.68) and trouble with social eating (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.14-4.47). CONCLUSION: Self-reported severe late symptoms...... were more prevalent in survivors with short education and in those living alone, suggesting differences in perception of late symptoms between social groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015....

  3. Diagnosis and management of late hepatic allograft dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Jian-min; YU Cong-hui


    Late hepatic allograft dysfunction (LHAD) is common after liver transplantation (LT) and can cause graft failure,retransplantation,or even death.A variety of etiologies including rejection,vascular complications,bile duct complications,recurrent diseases,infections,de novo diseases,neoplasms and drug toxicity can result in LHAD.The recurrent diseases have the potential to become the most serious problems facing LT in the future.It is difficult to differentiate late acute rejection from recurrent viral or autoimmune hepatitis.Accurate diagnosis of the cause of LHAD has therapeutic importance.

  4. Trachyteuthis covacevichi n. sp., a Late Jurassic Palaeopacific coleoid cephalopod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fuchs


    Full Text Available A new early Oxfordian coleoid cephalopod, Trachyteuthis covacevichi n. sp., is described from northern Chile. It represents the first Late Jurassic Palaeopacific vampyropod and thus considerably extends the palaeogeographic distribution of trachyteuthids. In general, Tr. covacevichi n. sp. possesses a gladius typical for the genus, but wider than in other species. Similarities between Tr. covacevichi n. sp., Tr. palmeri from the Oxfordian of Cuba and Tr. sp. from the Kimmeridgian of Europe confirm a Caribbean Seaway between the Tethys and the Palaeopacific during Late Jurassic times. Morphologically, the wide gladius of Tr. covacevichi n. sp. supports a close phylogenetic relationship between Teudopsis and Trachyteuthis. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700012

  5. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes. (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol


    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.

  6. [Prevalence of early and late dumping after gastric bypass]. (United States)

    Héraïef, R; Giusti, V


    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective treatment of obesity, bringing a significant weight loss and a major improvement of carbohydrate profile. However, in some patients, a deregulation in carbohydrate metabolism between insulin secretion and sensitivity is observed, whereupon early and late dumping happen. Their prevalence isn't well studied, although it seems that 10 to 20% of patients are affected. We've studied a cohort of 70 patients who undergone gastric bypass surgery at the CHUV. 18 (25.7%) patients have a positive anamnesis for early dumping and 10 (14.3%) for late dumping, being it superior as what is described in the literature.

  7. Emerging concepts for myocardial late gadolinium enhancement MRI. (United States)

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Hoyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian


    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspects of gadolinium-based imaging, as well as its applications and anticipated future developments.

  8. Late onset of subdural hematoma after bifrontal contusion (United States)

    Gürer, Bora; Kertmen, Hayri; Dolgun, Habibullah; Sekerci, Zeki


    Cerebral cortical contusions are one of the most common computed tomography findings in head-injured patients and common sequel of traumatic brain injury. These contusions tend to show a progressive increase in mass effect on repeated imaging, most small contusions do not require surgical evacuation. However, progression to subdural hematoma (SDH) in a late aspect is unique. Here we present a 71-year-old man with bifrontal contusion, who deteriorated 43 days after initial trauma with sudden onset of acute SDH. This unusual case suggests that neurosurgeons should be alert for the possibility of very late onset of acute SDH after bifrontal contusions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Buyarov


    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of the national policy of the Chinese government in respect of nonHan peoples. The relevance of this work is due to important national issue for China. Traditionally, China has evolved as a multinational state, which was caused solely as a factor of external influence, for example, the Mongol and Manchu invasion and implementation of foreign policy objectives aimed at expanding the boundaries, resulting in a connection of Xinjiang and Tibet. A key feature of China as a multiethnic state has always been a numerical predominance of one ethnic group - the Han, as a rule, makes up almost all periods of the history of China, about 90% of the population. At the same time, China has always been inhabited by many ethnic minorities, which are not only occasionally something borrowed from Han people, but also constantly subjected Sinification. Sinification it was and remains one of the leading destinations for small nations. With the formation of the PRC in 1949, before the new communist government faced the problem of alignment of the national policy with regard to national minorities. The national policy of the Communist Party of China in its development has passed through three stages. In this article is considered the second period of this policy since the late 1950‟s. When starting to implement policies "Great Leap Forward" and the end of 1970‟s., as a result of the reforms of Deng Xiaoping began to change and the situation of small nations. To date, the Chinese government's policy towards national minorities in general, aims to accelerate the socio-economic and cultural development of ethnic groups on the tightening of national areas to the level of the developed regions of China, which should consolidate the Chinese citizens and prevent separatist actions. Ethnic identity of small nations overshadowed and leveled.

  10. The Solanum demissumR8 late blight resistance gene is an Sw-5 homologue that has been deployed worldwide in late blight resistant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Jack H.; Arkel, van Gert; Bergervoet-van Deelen, Marjan; Jo, Kwang Ryong; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G.F.


    The potato late blight resistance geneR8has been cloned.R8is found in five late blight resistant varieties deployed in three different continents. R8 recognises Avr8 and is homologous to the NB-LRR protein Sw-5 from tomato.Abstract: The broad spectrum late blight resistance gene R8 from Solanum


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conodonts (34 species and subspecies from the Hojedk section north of Kerman span the late Givetian to early Famennian. The new data suggest that Devonian biostromes in central and eastern Iran were deposited on differing levels, and that the currently accepted ranges of Icriodus excavatus, Polygnathus subincompletus and P. mosquensis are late Givetian - late Frasnian, early to late Frasnian, and middle to late Frasnian. Polygnathus ashourii n. sp. is proposed. 

  12. Prospects for advanced late blight resistance breeding in potato (United States)

    The potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is able to rapidly evolve to overcome resistance genes. The pathogen accomplishes this by secreting an arsenal of proteins, termed effectors, that function to modify host cells. Although hundreds of candidate effectors have been identified in ...

  13. Session Introduction: Global correlation on late Quaternary paleovalley systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Amorosi, A.; Busschers, F.S.; Hori, K.; Tanabe, S.


    All around the world, paleovalley systems have trapped great amounts of deposits and hold a quite complete Late Quaternary record. Uniquely, these records directly interlink the shelf marine with the hinterland fluvial realms. In the vicinity of ice sheets, in similar ways, paleovalleys interlink th

  14. Strategies to control late blight in potatoes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Evenhuis, A.; Spits, H.G.


    In Europe an aggressive genetically diverse population of potato late blight is present which regularly causes problems in all potato growing regions. It is therefore of the utmost importance that blight is managed in an integrated way by combining a range of measures. Hygiene measures can keep the

  15. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis;


    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East ...

  16. Dynamics of Perceived Parenting and Identity Formation in Late Adolescence (United States)

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc


    Identity formation is a dynamic process of person-context interactions, and part of this context are parents, even in late adolescence. Several theories on parent-adolescent relationships share the idea that parents influence the process of identity formation. However, up to now, empirical evidence, particularly longitudinal evidence for this link…

  17. School Mobility during Childhood Predicts Psychotic Symptoms in Late Adolescence (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.


    Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…

  18. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasia D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.


    Background: This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. in addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in

  19. Late-Onset Startle Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez


    Full Text Available A case of late onset sporadic startle syndrome in a patient with a right posterior fossa brain tumour is reported. The exaggerated startle response did not respond to treatment with clonazepam. In addition to anxiety and depression, the patient developed obsessive- compulsive symptoms which responded to behavioural therapy. The possible mechanisms for this unique pattern of symptoms are discussed.

  20. Word Parsing by Late-Learning French-English Bilinguals. (United States)

    Golato, Peter


    Research on early learning French-English bilinguals suggests that development of segmentation is best characterized by a parameter-setting theory of language acquisition in which French segmentation is marked relative to English segmentation. Reports recent research with late-learning French-English bilinguals that finds evidence for parameter…

  1. Transport to late endosomes is required for efficient reovirus infection. (United States)

    Mainou, Bernardo A; Dermody, Terence S


    Rab GTPases play an essential role in vesicular transport by coordinating the movement of various types of cargo from one cellular compartment to another. Individual Rab GTPases are distributed to specific organelles and thus serve as markers for discrete types of endocytic vesicles. Mammalian reovirus binds to cell surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis in a process dependent on β1 integrin. Within organelles of the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly catalyzed by cathepsin proteases, which allows the disassembly intermediate to penetrate endosomal membranes and release the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. The pathway used by reovirus to traverse the endocytic compartment is largely unknown. In this study, we found that reovirus particles traffic through early, late, and recycling endosomes during cell entry. After attachment to the cell surface, reovirus particles and JAM-A codistribute into each of these compartments. Transfection of cells with constitutively active and dominant-negative Rab GTPases that affect early and late endosome biogenesis and maturation influenced reovirus infectivity. In contrast, reovirus infectivity was not altered in cells expressing mutant Rab GTPases that affect recycling endosomes. Thus, reovirus virions localize to early, late, and recycling endosomes during entry into host cells, but only those that traverse early and late endosomes yield a productive infection.

  2. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))


    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  3. High paleotemperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Jenkyns, H.; Forster, A.; Schouten, S.


    To understand the climate dynamics of the warm, equable greenhouse world of the Late Cretaceous period, it is important to determine polar palaeotemperatures. The early palaeoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean has, however, remained largely unknown, because the sea floor and underlying deposit

  4. Etiology and pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Balin, Brian J; Hudson, Alan P


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that occurs in two forms, an early-onset form that is genetically determined and a far more common late-onset form that is not. In both cases, the disease results in severe cognitive dysfunction, among other problems, and the late-onset form of the disease is now considered to be the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. While a good deal of research has been focused on elucidating the etiology of the late-onset form for more than two decades, results to date have been modest and have not yet engendered useful therapeutic strategies for cure of the disease. In this review, we discuss the prevalent ideas that have governed this research for several years, and we challenge these ideas with alternative findings suggesting a multifactorial etiology. We review promising newer ideas that may prove effective as therapeutic interventions for late-onset AD, as well as providing reliable means of earlier and more specific diagnosis of the disease process. In the discussions included here, we reference relevant clinical and basic science literature underlying research into disease etiology and pathogenesis, and we highlight current reviews on the various topics addressed.

  5. Mobile ICT use in early adopter vs. late majority countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina


    The rapid global diffusion of smartphones has not been uniform. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behaviour to investigate what drives smartphone use in early adopter (USA) versus late majority (Slovakia) countries. By surveying both current and potential owners, we also revisit K...

  6. Late-stage deoxyfluorination of alcohols with PhenoFluor. (United States)

    Sladojevich, Filippo; Arlow, Sophie I; Tang, Pingping; Ritter, Tobias


    An operationally simple protocol for the selective deoxyfluorination of structurally complex alcohols is presented. Several fluorinated derivatives of natural products and pharmaceuticals have been prepared to showcase the potential of the method for late-stage diversification and its functional group compatibility. A series of simple guidelines for predicting the selectivity in substrates with multiple alcohols is given.

  7. Late-time Spectroscopy of Type Iax Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; Pan, Yen-Chen; Zheng, WeiKang; Bildsten, Lars; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kasen, Daniel


    We examine the late-time (t > 200 days after peak brightness) spectra of Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax), a low-luminosity, low-energy class of thermonuclear stellar explosions observationally similar to, but distinct from, Type Ia supernovae. We present new spectra of SN 2014dt, resulting in the most complete published late-time spectral sequence of a SN Iax. At late times, SNe Iax have generally similar spectra, all with a similar continuum shape and strong forbidden-line emission. However, there is also significant diversity where some late-time SN Iax spectra display narrow P-Cygni features and a continuum indicative of a photosphere in addition to strong narrow forbidden lines, while others have no obvious P-Cygni features, strong broad forbidden lines, and weak narrow forbidden lines. Finally, some SNe Iax have spectra intermediate to these two varieties with weak P-Cygni features and broad/narrow forbidden lines of similar strength. We find that SNe Iax with strong broad forbidden lines also tend to be m...

  8. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob


    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction...

  9. Late-Onset Hearing Loss: Strategies for Effective Counseling. (United States)

    Smith, S. Mae; Kampfe, Charlene M.


    Late-onset hearing loss is one of the major chronic conditions experienced by older individuals. The term "presbycusis" is typically used when describing this condition. Presbycusis refers to many degenerative changes that affect older people's hearing. This article provides practical suggestions for working with persons with this…

  10. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh


    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  11. Plasma bilirubin and late graft failure in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Zelle, Dorien M.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Navis, Gerjan J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.


    Exogenous bilirubin has been shown to protect against oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic transplant dysfunction leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high e

  12. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction (United States)

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.


    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  13. Late cardiovascular and neurological complications in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen-Segarceanu, E.M.


    This thesis focuses on the early detection of cardiovascular and neurological abnormalities in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors (HLS) in a population of 82 patients and 40 controls and in a cross-sectional setting. Several screening test were performed for the assessment of these late effects of treatment

  14. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  15. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: Description of a late onset case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baglieri Francesco


    Full Text Available Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues with primary manifestations in the skin, retina and cardiovascular system, and a phenotypic spectrum highly variable.This article presents the case of a 46-year-old male patient with sporadic late-onset PXE, without severe systemic complications.

  16. Divorce Counseling Guidelines for the Late Divorced Female. (United States)

    Langelier, Regis; Deckert, Pamela


    Offers divorce counseling guidelines for the female who divorces after 20 years or more of marriage, based on a 1977 study of late divorced female Canadians. Research emphasizes six major life adjustment areas: emotions; divorce grounds; finances and budgeting; children; life-style change; and independence. (Author)

  17. Financial Conflicts Facing Late-Life Remarried Alzheimer's Disease Caregivers (United States)

    Sherman, Carey Wexler; Bauer, Jean W.


    This qualitative study explores financial conflicts faced by late-life remarried wives providing care for their husbands with Alzheimer's disease. Interviews with 9 women identified intergenerational secrets and tensions regarding financial and inheritance decisions. Participants' remarried spouse status, underlying family boundary ambiguities,…

  18. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health. (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Cohen, Shiri; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Waldinger, Robert J


    A growing body of research suggests that personality characteristics relate to physical health; however, this relation ship has primarily been tested in cross-sectional studies that have not followed the participants into old age. The present study utilizes data from a 70-year longitudinal study to prospectively examine the relationship between the adaptive defense mechanisms in midlife and objectively assessed physical health in late life. In addition to examining the direct effect, we test whether social support mediates this relation ship. The sample consisted of 90 men who were followed for over seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Health ratings from medical records were made at three time points (ages 70, 75, and 80). Defense mechanisms were coded from narratives by trained independent raters (Vaillant, Bond, & Vaillant, 1986). Independent raters assessed social supports between ages 50 and 70. More adaptive defenses in midlife were associated with better physical health at all three time points in late life. These relationships were partially mediated by social support. Findings are consistent with the theory that defense maturity is important for building social relationships, which in turn contribute to better late-life physical health. Psychological interventions aimed at improving these domains may be beneficial for physical health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conodont data from acid-leaching 110 samples from two Late Devonian-Carboniferous areas in the Shotori Range (Tabas region of eastern Iran are presented. At Howz-e-Dorah, a section (88 samples commencing high in the Bahram Formation (Givetian-early Frasnian extended through the Shishtu Formation (Frasnian, Early hassi Zone or older, to latest Tournaisian, anchoralis-latus Zone and the Sardar Formation (earliest Visean, texanus Zone, to late Namurian, sinuatus-corrugatus-sulcatus Zone and into the Jamal Formation (Permian. Four less exhaustively sampled sections (22 samples show the Kale Sardar area to be tectonically more complicated than the Howz-e-Dorah area. Useful marker horizons in the Howz-e-Dorah section, well constrained by conodont data, are: the early Frasnian (no older than Early hassi Zone biostromal beds of the Shishtu Formation, an early Famennian (Late triangularis to Early crepida interval of oolitic limestone, a cyclothem sequence straddling the Early Carboniferous-Late Carboniferous boundary, and an Early Permian interval of siliceous sand ("the white quartzite" of previous authors. Additionally, several iron-rich horizons, readily traceable from locality to locality, are well constrained by conodont ages. Eighty-five conodont species/subspecies are documented representing 24 genera.. Two new species, Polygnathus capollocki and Polygnathus ratebi and one new subspecies, Icriodus alternatus mawsonae are described. 

  20. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes


    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHA

  1. Can physiology help us to combat late blight in potato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.


    Late blight is a devastating disease in potato production world-wide. Breeding for resistance is complex because of the versatile and aggressive population of Phytophthora infestans, which overcomes any new genetic source of resistance very rapidly. There are reliable fungicides available to control

  2. Material souls and imagination in late Aristotelian embryology. (United States)

    Blank, Andreas


    This article explores some continuities between Late Aristotelian and Cartesian embryology. In particular, it argues that there is an interesting consilience between some accounts of the role of imagination in trait acquisition in Late Aristotelian and Cartesian embryology. Evidence for this thesis is presented using the extensive biological writings of the Padua-based philosopher and physician, Fortunio Liceti (1577-1657). Like the Cartesian physiologists, Liceti believed that animal souls are material beings and that acts of imagination result in material images that can be transmitted by means of medical spirits to the embryo. Moreover, while the Cartesian embryologists accepted such a view in a quite speculative way, one finds penetrating criticism of imagination theories of trait acquisition in the Late Aristotelian tradition. Evidence for this thesis is presented using the no less extensive biological writings of Liceti's contemporary, Emilio Parisano (1567-1643). In conclusion, the Late Aristotelian tradition itself provides the theoretical tools for excising immaterial formative forces from embryology and at the same time evinces a much more acute sense for the problems inherent in imagination theories of trait acquisition than the Cartesian tradition.

  3. Energiemarkten en energiehandel in Holland in de late middeleeuwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, Charles Louis Eduard


    This study analyses the economical and commercial development of Holland in the late Middle Ages, focusing on the fuel market and fuel trade. Energy was of vital importance to this society in which industry, trade and export were expanding rapidly. The brisk commercial and industrial development of

  4. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars


    Late Permian bryozoans from the Wegener Halvø, Ravnefjeld and Schuchert Formations in East Greenland have been investigated. 14 genera are recognised.      Integration of the new bryozoan data from the Upper Permian of East Greenland with data on the distribution of Permian bryozoans along...

  5. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.


    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

  6. Overcoming obstacles to late presentation for HIV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jürgens, R; Weait, M;


    The central goal of the HIV in Europe Initiative is to promote testing and treatment throughout Europe and Central Asia in order to decrease the number of people living with HIV presenting late for care. This article summarizes the results from the HIV in Europe 2009 Conference and the early resu...

  7. Late osteoarticular lesions following meningococcemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, E.; Boavida, J.E.; Barroso, A.; Carmona da Mota, H.; Seabra, J.


    Nineteen children, who had been admitted to the Pediatric Hospital of Coimbra with severe meningococcal infection with DIC, were submitted to clinical and radiological examination, an average of 4.2 years after hospitalization, in order to demonstrate late skeletal lesions. Patellar dystrophy, to our knowledge previously unreported, was found in 4 children, all of whom had overlying cutaneous scarring.

  8. Late degeneration in rabbit tissues after irradiation by heavy ions (United States)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Keng, P. C.; Lee, A. C.; Su, C. M.; Bergtold, D. S.


    Results are presented for investigations of the late effects of heavy-ion irradiation on rabbit tissues which were undertaken to assess the hazards associated with the long-term exposure of humans to heavy ions in space during such activities as the construction of solar power stations or voyages to Mars. White rabbits approximately six weeks old were exposed to various doses of collimated beams of 400-MeV/n Ne ions, 570 MeV/n Ar ions and Co-60 gamma rays directed through both eyes, and the responses of the various tissues (hair follicles, skin, cornea, lens, retina, Harderian glands, bone and forebrain) were examined. Proliferating tissues are found to exhibit high damage levels in the early and late periods following irradiation, while terminally differentiating tissues repond to radiation most intensely in the late period, years after irradiation, with no intermediate recovery. The results obtained from rabbits are used to predict the occurrence of late tissue degeneration in the central nervous system, terminally differentiating systems and stem cells of humans one or more decades following exposure to radiation levels anticipated during long-duration space flights. The studies also indicate that tissues may be prematurely aged in the sense that tissue life spans may be shortened without the development of malignancies.

  9. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.


    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  10. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh


    a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  11. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra


    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  12. Early Embedding and Late Reranking for Video Captioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Li, X.; Lan, W.; Huo, Y.; Snoek, C.G.M.


    This paper describes our solution for the MSR Video to Language Challenge. We start from the popular ConvNet + LSTM model, which we extend with two novel modules. One is early embedding, which enriches the current low-level input to LSTM by tag embeddings. The other is late reranking, for re-scoring

  13. A rhinoceros from the late miocene of Fort Ternan, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.


    SYNOPSIS A rhinoceros from the Fort Ternan site, Kenya, Late Miocene in age, represents a form distinctly more advanced than the genera and species known from the Early Miocene although it is not directly ancestral to the Quaternary forms. It is a collaterally developed tuskless, two-horned, browsin

  14. Late-onset myasthenia not on the increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E G; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, K;


    BACKGROUND: An increase in late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG) has been reported. There are few large population-based studies over longer periods of time reflecting recent developments in MG incidence. METHODS: We identified a nationwide cohort of patients with incident myasthenia in Denmark in 1996...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates and late charges. 36.4212 Section 36.4212 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... of interest rate changes. Interest rate adjustments must occur on an annual basis, except that...

  16. Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.


    Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.


    An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

  17. Maternal and fetal factors observed with late preterm births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey


    Conclusion: Higher incidences of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, anaemia and preterm premature rupture of membrane were found with late preterm birth and 10% of newborns required NICU care. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1969-1973

  18. 5 CFR 2634.704 - Late filing fee. (United States)


    ... supporting documentation. The designated agency ethics official's determination must be made in writing to....704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL...) Exceptions. (1) The designated agency ethics official may waive the late filing fee if he determines that...

  19. Changes in tropical Late Carboniferous compression floras and their causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, H.W. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    In the Late Carboniferous ten biostratigraphic boundaries can be recognized based on compression floras. Some of these boundaries coincide with classical stage boundaries whereas others do not. These boundaries are observable throughout Eurameria. In most cases the same species are involved in North America and Europe. Four boundaries are characterized by extinction events that involve only a few or many taxa. Four boundaries are characterized by origination of single taxa or by changes in the dominance of taxonomic groups. Two boundaries near the base of the Late Carboniferous seem to coincide with different stages in the onset of the ice age on Gondwanaland. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated what the local climatic signals in the tropics were. Three boundaries in the late Late Carboniferous are connected with well established trends toward dryer climate. It appears that many of these floral changes were climatically controlled. The actual triggering condition seems to have been produced by a variable combination of short term (allocyclic) and long term (orogeny, continental movement) effects. In one case the reason for the extinction is not obvious and could be biotic in nature.

  20. Early and late pathogenesis of natural scrapie infection in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Zijderveld, van F.G.


    The pathogenesis of scrapie infection was studied in sheep carrying the PrPVRQ/PrPVRQ genotype, which is associated with a high susceptibility for natural scrapie. The sheep were killed at sequential time points during a scrapie infection covering both the early and late stages of scrapie pathogenes

  1. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.


    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to th

  2. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.


    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  3. Late-onset CMV disease following CMV prophylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, C


    BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection after solid-organ transplantation, increasing morbidity and mortality. Three months of oral valganciclovir have been shown to provide effective prophylaxis. Late-onset CMV disease, occurring after the discontinuation of prophylaxis, is now increasingly recognised. AIMS: To investigate the incidence and the time of detection of CMV infections in liver transplant recipients who received CMV prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective review of 64 high- and moderate-risk patients with 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: The incidence of CMV infection was 12.5%, with 4.7% disease. All cases of symptomatic CMV disease were of late-onset. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMV infections in this study was low compared with literature reports; however, the late-onset disease is an emerging problem. Detection of late-onset disease may be delayed because of less frequent clinic follow-up visits. Increased regular laboratory monitoring may allow earlier detection at the asymptomatic infection stage.

  4. Identity Development in the Late Twenties: A Never Ending Story (United States)

    Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria; Frisén, Ann


    The aim of this study was to investigate identity development in the late 20s in order to learn more about the continued identity development after identity commitments have been made. The starting point for the study was the contradiction between ideas of identity development as a lifelong process and identity status research showing that…

  5. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents. (United States)

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia


    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  6. Late presentation of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gul, R


    BACKGROUND: A neonatal screening programme for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is ongoing in Cork. Despite early screening, infants continue to present at later ages with DDH. The impact of late diagnosis is significant. Established DDH causes significant morbidity and may have major medicolegal implications. AIM: To identify the reasons for the late presentation of DDH in the presence of a screening programme. METHODS: In a retrospective study all cases of late DDH presenting from 1988 to 2000 were identified using inpatient database. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases of DDH were diagnosed. The mean age of diagnosis was 14.8 months (range 6-47). Multiple risk factors were identified in four patients only. More than one risk factor was identified in 10 patients. CONCLUSION: Despite screening, children continue to present with late DDH. In this study, only 14 patients had multiple risk factors and only four patients had more than two risk factors, highlighting the low incidence of suspicion in this patient group.

  7. Natural History in Hispanic Journalism in the Late Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the Hispanic world of the late Eighteenth Century there was a certain amount of divulgation of Natural History, aided by the utilitarian nature of the Spanish Enlightenment, and by the fact that Natural History did not contradict Catholic doctrine. This paper approaches the diffusion of news of Natural History through periodicals, focusing on zoological references.

  8. Did intense volcanism trigger the first Late Ordovician icehouse? (United States)

    Buggisch, Werner; Joachimski, Michael M.; Lehnert, Oliver; Bergström, Stig M.; Repetski, John E.; Webers, Gerald F.


    Oxygen isotopes measured on Late Ordovician conodonts from Minnesota and Kentucky (United States) were studied to reconstruct the paleotemperature history during late Sandbian to Katian (Mohawkian–Cincinnatian) time. This time interval was characterized by intense volcanism, as shown by the prominent Deicke, Millbrig, and other K-bentonite beds. A prominent carbon isotope excursion (Guttenberg δ13C excursion, GICE) postdates the Millbrig volcanic eruptions, and has been interpreted to reflect a drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide and climatic cooling. The oxygen isotope record in conodont apatite contradicts this earlier interpretation. An increase in δ18O of 1.5‰ (Vienna standard mean ocean water) just above the Deicke K-bentonite suggests an abrupt and short-lived cooling that possibly initiated a first short-term glacial episode well before the major Hirnantian glaciation. The decrease in δ18O immediately after the mega-eruptions indicates warming before the GICE, and no cooling is shown in the GICE interval. The coincidence of the Deicke mega-eruption with a cooling event suggests that this major volcanic event had a profound effect on Late Ordovician (late Mohawkian) climate.

  9. Late Posthemorrhagic Structural and Functional Changes in Pulmonary Circulation Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Andreyeva


    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the major regularities and mechanisms of morphological changes in the rat pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period and to compare them with age-related features of the vessels. Materials and methods: experiments to generate graduated hemorrhagic hypotension with the blood pressure being maintained at 40 mm Hg were carried out on young (5—6-month albino male Wistar rats. Throughout hypotension and 60 days after blood loss, the blood was tested to determine low and average molecular-weight substances by spectrophotometry and the pro- and antioxidative systems by chemiluminescence. Pulmonary circulation arteries were morphologically studied in young animals, rats in the late posthemorrhagic period and old (24—25-month rats. Results. Sixty-minute hemorrhagic hypotension leads to the development of endotoxemia and imbalance of the pro- and antioxidative systems, the signs of which are observed in the late periods (2 months after hypotension. At the same time, the posthemorrhagic period is marked by the significant pulmonary circulation arterial morphological changes comparable with their age-related alterations in old rat. This shows up mainly in the reorganization of a connective tissue component in the vascular wall: the elevated levels of individual collagen fibers, their structural changes, elastic medial membrane destruction and deformity. At the same time, there is a change in the morphometric parameters of vessels at all study stages while their lowered flow capacity is only characteristic for intraorgan arteries. Conclusion: The increased activity of free radical oxidation and endotoxemia may be believed to be one of the causes of morphological changes in pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period, which is similar to age-related vascular alterations. Key words: hemorrhagic hypotension, pulmonary circulation arteries, free radical oxidation, endotoxemia, remodeling, late

  10. Late Quaternary environments and biogeography in the Great Basin (United States)

    Thompson, R. S.; Mead, J. I.


    Plant and animal remains found in packrat ( Neotoma spp.) middens and cave fill from the eastern and southern Great Basin region reveal the presence of subalpine conifers and boreal mammals at relatively low elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis) and bristlecone pine ( P. longaeva) were important in the late Pleistocene plant communities throughout this region. Spruce ( Picea cf. engelmannii) and common juniper ( Juniperus communis) were present in some of the more northerly localities, and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir ( Abies concolor) were present in southern and eastern localities. Single needle pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla), common across this region today, was apparently not present north of the Sheep Range of southern Nevada during the Late Wisconsin. Pikas ( Ochotona cf. princeps), small boreal mammals present in only a few Great Basin mountain ranges today, were common throughout the region. Heather voles ( Phenacomys cf. intermedius) have been found in two cave fill deposits in Nevada, though they are unknown in the Great Basin today. Limber and bristlecone pines are generally restricted to rocky substrates in modern subalpine habitats in the Great Basin, and this may also have been the case when these plants grew at lower elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Subalpine conifers were present on the rock outcrops sampled by the packrat middens, but shrub communities, perhaps dominated by sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), may have been present on alluvial valley-bottom substrates. Forested habitats would thus have been isolated habitat islands, as they are today. Boreal small mammals, including pikas and heather voles, were able to colonize the Great Basin mountain ranges during the late Pleistocene. We suggest that these mammals were able to survive in the intervening valley-bottoms under a cool-summer climatic regime, and that continuous forest or woodland corridors were not necessary for migration.

  11. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacob Hayden; Michelle Williams; Ann Granich; Hyoeun Ahn; Brandon Tenay; Joshua Lukehart; Chad Highfill; Sarah Dobard; Kyoungtae Kim


    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT) cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1’s implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole.

  12. Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifovski Tatjana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Although radical radiotherapy has proved to be a successful method in prostate cancer treatment, the conventional (box technique can result in significant adverse events. Objective. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods. In a clinical retrospective study, we included 283 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. All our patients received radical, conventional radiotherapy using the four-field technique. The study was performed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between January 1991 and December 2005. During regular follow-up, we analyzed the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity. Results. Two thirds (71% of our patients had acute toxicity of at least one organ within the radiation field. Most frequent complication was radiation dermatitis (10.5%, and enteritis (9%, cystitis (6% and proctitis (2.5%. Acute adverse events were mostly low grade (I and II, 28-61%. Late complications were registered in 20.5% of patients. Skin fibrosis was most frequent (12%. Chronic proctitis was detected in 4% and urethral stricture in 4.5% of our patients. All late complications were low grade. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance of radical radiotherapy is relatively good. Although most patients develop acute toxicity, it is commonly low grade and requires the interruption of radiotherapy treatment in 20% of patients only. Late toxicity is rarer than acute and, in most cases, it does not affect the quality of life.

  13. Late Language Emergence in 24-Month-Old Twins: Heritable and Increased Risk for Late Language Emergence in Twins (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E.


    Purpose: This study investigated the etiology of late language emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins, considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. Method: A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modeling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and…

  14. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.


    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  15. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhu, Jiang [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ozaki, Toshinori [Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuohku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Bu, Youquan, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)


    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza N. KRSTESKA


    Full Text Available Introduction: Late-life depression is one of the most frequent disorders among the seniors and often remains unrecognized. One of the reasons why late-life depression often passes unrecognized is the comorbidity. Hearing and visual impairments are very common condition among the elderly. Thus, depression among the elderly is commonly accompanied by hearing and visual impairment. The epidemiology together with the visual and hearing-related problems still remains poorly investigated.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hearing and visual function and the late-life depression.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 120 participants, 60 patients with late-life depression and 60 community-dwelling older adults aged over 60 and without the symptoms of depression. All participants were examined using a questionnaire designed for the aim of the study to measure the severity of the symptoms (scale with scores from 1 to 3 - from mild to profound degree of self-reported hearing and visual impairment. In addition, existing medical records and the Geriatric Depression Scale were used as well.Results: The patients with late-life depression in larger number suffered from hearing and visual impairment compared to the non - depressed elderly people: hearing impairments (χ2=6.97, df=1, p=0.0083 and visual impairments (χ2=4.37, df=2, p=0.012.Conclusion: These data suggest that the risk of late-life depression is higher among elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment. A comprehensive annual eye exam is the most important step that can be undertaken to help monitor and protect normal visual function in the elderly. It is necessary to conduct routine screening and early treatment of depression in elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment within the primary care practice. Ophthalmologists and otologists should be aware of the need for routine screening for geriatric syndromes in the

  17. The late Cretaceous Arman flora of Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia (United States)

    Herman, A. B.; Golovneva, L. B.; Shczepetov, S. V.; Grabovsky, A. A.


    The Arman flora from the volcanogenic-sedimentary beds of the Arman Formation is systematically studied using materials from the Arman River basin and the Nelkandya-Khasyn interfluve (Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia). Seventy-three species of fossil plants belonging to 49 genera are described. They consist of liverworts, horsetails, ferns, seed ferns, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, ginkgoaleans, czekanowskialeans, conifers, gymnosperms of uncertain systematic affinity, and angiosperms. The Arman flora shows a unique combination, with relatively ancient Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms occurring alongside younger Late Cretaceous plants, primarily angiosperms. The similarity of the Arman flora to the Penzhina and Kaivayam floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Tylpegyrgynai flora of the Pekul'nei Ridge allows the Arman flora to be dated as Turonian and Coniacian (Late Cretaceous), which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) age determination for the plant-bearing layers.

  18. Friedman-Robertson-Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdussattar; S. R. Prajapati2


    @@ In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modiGcation of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed.The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.%In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that ora modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  19. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan, Sevda


    Full Text Available An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysis method. The findings revealed that aassertiveness predicts separation anxiety in a meaningful way. Furthermore, the assertiveness predicts engulfment anxiety, peer enmeshment, need denial, practicing-mirroring, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. These findings suggest that psycho-educational studies improving assertiveness can be carried out for the late adolescents who experience separation-individuation problems.

  20. Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss


    rather than present specific estimates for these costs. Making the best use of environmental science and modelling helps to make environmental protection and precaution a priority. Producing cost estimates should not be left to economists alone, but should rather be seen as a starting point for a broader...... innovations whilst minimising harms. This chapter revisits some key environmental issues for which estimates of costs of inaction have been carefully developed over many years of research. The aim is to consider the methodological challenges involved in producing estimates that are credible and appropriate......The 2013 Late lessons from early warnings report is the second of its type produced by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in collaboration with a broad range of external authors and peer reviewers. The case studies across both volumes of Late lessons from early warnings cover a diverse range...

  1. North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous (United States)

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.


    Analyses of physiognomy of Late Cretaceous leaf assemblages and of structural adaptations of Late Cretaceous dicotyledonous woods indicate that megathermal vegetation was an open-canopy, broad-leaved evergreen woodland that existed under low to moderate amounts of rainfall evenly distributed through the year, with a moderate increase at about 40-45??N. Many dicotyledons were probably large, massive trees, but the tallest trees were evergreen conifers. Megathermal climate extended up to paleolatitude 45-50??N. Mesothermal vegetation was at least partially an open, broad-leaved evergreen woodland (perhaps a mosaic of woodland and forest), but the evapotranspirational stress was less than in megathermal climate. Some dicotyledons were large trees, but most were shrubs or small trees; evergreen conifers were the major tree element. Some mild seasonality is evidenced in mesothermal woods; precipitational levels probably varied markedly from year to year. Northward of approximately paleolatitude 65??N, evergreen vegetation was replaced by predominantly deciduous vegetation. This replacement is presumably related primarily to seasonality of light. The southern part of the deciduous vegetation probably existed under mesothermal climate. Comparisons to leaf and wood assemblages from other continents are generally consistent with the vegetational-climatic patterns suggested from North American data. Limited data from equatorial regions suggest low rainfall. Late Cretaceous climates, except probably those of the Cenomanian, had only moderate change through time. Temperatures generally appear to have warmed into the Santonian, cooled slightly into the Campanian and more markedly into the Maastrichtian, and then returned to Santonian values by the late Maastrichtian. The early Eocene was probably warmer than any period of the Late Cretaceous. Latitudinal temperature gradients were lower than at present. For the Campanian and Maastrichtian, a gradient of about 0.3??C/1

  2. Stochastic late accretion to Earth, the Moon, and Mars. (United States)

    Bottke, William F; Walker, Richard J; Day, James M D; Nesvorny, David; Elkins-Tanton, Linda


    Core formation should have stripped the terrestrial, lunar, and martian mantles of highly siderophile elements (HSEs). Instead, each world has disparate, yet elevated HSE abundances. Late accretion may offer a solution, provided that ≥0.5% Earth masses of broadly chondritic planetesimals reach Earth's mantle and that ~10 and ~1200 times less mass goes to Mars and the Moon, respectively. We show that leftover planetesimal populations dominated by massive projectiles can explain these additions, with our inferred size distribution matching those derived from the inner asteroid belt, ancient martian impact basins, and planetary accretion models. The largest late terrestrial impactors, at 2500 to 3000 kilometers in diameter, potentially modified Earth's obliquity by ~10°, whereas those for the Moon, at ~250 to 300 kilometers, may have delivered water to its mantle.

  3. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. V - Late Paleoproterozoic seawater (United States)

    Veizer, Jan; Plumb, K. A.; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.


    A study of mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Coronation Supergroup (about 1.9 Ga, NWT), Canada, and the McArthur Group (about 1.65 NT), Australia, is reported in order to obtain better constrained data for the first- and second-order variations in the isotopic composition of late Paleoproterozoic (1.9 +/- 0.2 Ga) seawater. Petrologically, both carbonate sequences are mostly dolostones. The McArthur population contains more abundant textural features that attest to the former presence of sulfates and halite, and the facies investigated represent ancient equivalents of modern evaporitic sabkhas and lacustrine playa lakes. It is suggested that dolomitization was an early diagenetic event and that the O-18 depletion of the Archean to late Paleoproterozoic carbonates is not an artifact of postdepositional alteration.

  4. Role of rice PPS in late vegetative and reproductive growth. (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo


    The rice peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) mutant shows a prolonged juvenile phase and early flowering. Although the early vegetative phase and flowering time of pps-1 have been closely examined, the phenotypes in the late vegetative and reproductive phases are not yet well understood. In the ninth leaf blade of pps-1, the relative length of the midrib was comparable to the sixth leaf blade of wild-type. Moreover, pps-1 had a small inflorescence meristem and small panicles. These phenotypes indicate that in pps-1 the juvenile phase coexists with the late vegetative phase, resulting in small panicles. Gibberellin is known to promote the juvenile-adult phase transition. d18-k is dwarf and has a prolonged juvenile phase. Double mutant (d18-k pps-1) showed the same phenotype as the pps-1, indicating that PPS is upstream of GA biosynthetic genes.

  5. [Late neck metastasis in esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report]. (United States)

    Damar, Murat; Başerer, Nermin; Ozkara, Selvinaz; Yılmazer, Rasim


    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignancy of olfactory neuroepithelium arising from sinonasal region. It has biologically an aggressive behavior. The tumor is characterised by common local recurrence, atypic distant metastasis and poor long-term prognosis. Cervical metastasis accounts for 20-30% of the patients. Late metastases are seen particularly six months or later following primary treatment. In this article, we present a 43-year-old female case with Kadish B stage esthesioneuroblastoma who underwent extracranial tumor resection and postoperative radiotherapy. Eleven years later (at 132 months) right neck cervical metastasis was occurred and we applied right functional neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy to treat. We also review the treatment of late neck metastasis in the light of the current literature data.

  6. Late Eocene impact microspherules - Stratigraphy, age and geochemistry (United States)

    Keller, G.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Oliver, P. Q.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Molina, E.


    The stratigraphy, faunal changes, and geochemistry of deep-sea sediments associated with late Eocene microtektite and microspherule layers are reported. Microprobe analyses of major element compositions of microspherules show that, although there is some compositional overlap in all three late Eocene layers as well as with the Pleistocene Australasian and Ivory Coast microtektites, each microspherule population has characteristic compositional features. All three microspherule layers are associated with decreased carbonate, possibly due to a sudden productivity change, increased dissolution as a result of sea-level and climate fluctuations, or impact events. A discovery of microtektites in the Gl. cerroazulensis Zone off the New Jersey coast extends the North American strewn field from the Caribbean to the northwest Atlantic.

  7. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia (United States)

    Morley, C. K.


    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  8. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature. (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R


    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  9. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)


    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  10. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago. (United States)

    Göhlich, Ursula B; Chiappe, Luis M


    Small Late Jurassic theropod dinosaurs are rare worldwide. In Europe these carnivorous dinosaurs are represented primarily by only two skeletons of Compsognathus, neither of which is well preserved. Here we describe a small new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Schamhaupten in southern Germany. Being exquisitely preserved and complete from the snout to the distal third of the tail, the new fossil is the best-preserved predatory, non-avian dinosaur in Europe. It possesses a suite of characters that support its identification as a basal coelurosaur. A cladistic analysis indicates that the new taxon is closer to maniraptorans than to tyrannosauroids, grouping it with taxa often considered to be compsognathids. Large portions of integument are preserved along its tail. The absence of feathers or feather-like structures in a fossil phylogenetically nested within feathered theropods indicates that the evolution of these integumentary structures might be more complex than previously thought.

  11. "Redo" surgery for late aorto-femoral graft occlusive failures. (United States)

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Le Thoai, M; Natali, J


    Experience of late failures of Dacron aortofemoral grafts is presented; about 70 cases observed during the past eight years on whom 105 subsequent operations were performed. One third of these patients were first operated upon by another surgical team. During the same period, 850 patients were submitted to reconstructive surgery of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries either for atherosclerotic or for aneurysmal disease. It appears that conservative procedures like thrombectomy of the occluded limb are often insufficient, impossible, inappropriate or dangerous, even after restoration of a good deep femoral outflow. On the other hand, aggressive restoration of limbflow is generally necessary, with other various and ingenious direct or indirect reconstructive techniques for restitution of a good inflow and outflow. These techniques are usually successful (85%) and gain time against the major etiology of these late failures viz the development of atherosclerotic disease.

  12. Late Relapses in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients on Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard


    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive data on late relapse (LR) and very LR (VLR) in patients with clinical stage I (CS-1) testicular cancer followed on surveillance are missing. These data are essential for planning optimal follow-up. OBJECTIVE: Assess incidence and outcome of LR (>2 yr) and VLR (>5 yr...... patients with LR(VLR) do not differ significantly from patients with ER. PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared stage I testicular cancer surveillance patients with early relapse (ER) versus late relapse (LR; >2 yr). LR patients as a group did no worse than ER patients, although increased time to relapse......) in a large cohort of CS-1 surveillance patients, and examine differences in the clinical characteristics of patients with early relapse (ER), LR, and VLR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: CS-1 surveillance patients diagnosed between 1984 and 2007 were identified from the retrospective Danish Testicular...

  13. Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A


    The transformations taking place in late-type galaxies in the environment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From the handful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether they were formed in-situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation or even destruction or if they are newcomers that recently infall from outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario, covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the gas tracers, the star formation tracers, the old star tracers and the dust. Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well studied clusters Virgo, A1367 and Coma, representative of different evolutionary stages, from unrelaxed, spiral rich (Virgo) to relaxed, spiral poor clusters (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models of galaxy interactions relevant to clusters of galaxies. Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed and their ty...

  14. Late Onset Combined Immunodeficiency Presenting with Recurrent Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia


    Ilias Papakonstantinou; Ioannis G. Baraboutis; Lazaros Karnesis


    Late onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID) is a recently described variant of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), involving adult patients presenting with opportunistic infections and/or low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. A 36-year-old male with unremarkable past medical history presented with fever, respiratory failure, and lymphocytopenia. He was found to have Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), subsequently complicated by recurrent hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and ...



    L. M. Li; ODONOGHUE, N. F.; Sander, JWAS


    We report the case of a patient with trisomy 21 (T21) with late onset epilepsy. The electroclinical features were of myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalised tonic clonic seizures, with generalised spike and wave on EEG, and a progressive dementia. As familial Alzheimer's dementia and progressive myoclonic epilepsy (Unverricht-Lundborg type) are both linked to the chromosome 21, this case may represent a distinct progressive myoclonic epilepsy related to T21.

  16. RB975242 and RB975201 - Late maturation sugarcane varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro


    Full Text Available The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation in the CentralSouth region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.

  17. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    CERN Document Server



    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  18. Late-onset Bochdalek's Hernia Associated with Severe Dyspnea


    早川, 峰司; 丸藤, 哲; 森本, 裕二; 武山, 佳洋; 中村, 宏治; 古根, 高; 松原, 泉


    Late-onset Bochdalek's hernia is rare enough to be frequently diagnosed incorrectly. We present a case of lateonset Bochdalek's hernia associated with severe dyspnea and cyanosis. A 14-month-old female infant was admitted to our emergency clinic due to severe dyspnea and cyanosis. A chest radiogram and computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a gastrointestinal shadow in the left thorax, necessitating emergency surgery that confirmed Bochdalek's hernia. Although left lung dysplasia was observe...

  19. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian Jannik; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late ...... of the carbonate and organic carbon isotope record can be explained by the release of methane hydrates from an anoxic dissolved organic carbon-rich ocean into an atmosphere containing oxygen levels considerably less than today....

  20. Hot Dust! Late-Time Infrared Emission From Supernovae (United States)

    Fox, Ori; Skrutskie, M. F.; Chevalier, R. A.


    Supernovae light curves typically peak and fade in the course of several months. Some supernovae , however, exhibit late-time infrared emission that in some cases can last for several years. These supernovae tend to be of the Type IIn subclass, which is defined by narrow hydrogen and helium emission lines arising from a dense, pre-existing circumstellar medium excited by the supernova radiation. Such a late-time ``IR excess'' with respect to the optical blackbody counterpart typically indicates the presence of warm dust. The origin and heating mechanism of the dust is not, however, always well constrained. In this talk, I will explore several scenarios that explain the observed late-time emission. In particular, I will discuss the case of the Type IIn SN 2005ip, which has displayed an ``IR excess'' for over 3 years. The results allow us to interpret the progenitor system and better understand the late stages of stellar evolution. Much of the data used for this analysis were obtained with TripleSpec, a medium-resolution near-infrared spectrograph located at Apache Point Observatory, NM, and FanCam, a JHK imager located at Fan Mountain Observatory, just outside of Charlottesville, VA. These two instruments were designed, fabricated, built, and commissioned by our instrumentation group at the University of Virginia. I will also spend some time discussing these instruments. I would like to thank the following for financial support of this work throughout my graduate career: NASA GSRP, NSF AAG-0607737, Spitzer PID 50256, Achievement Reward for College Scientists (ARCS), and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium.

  1. Thematizing the Subject from Gothicism to Late Romanticism


    Sucur, Slobodan


    In "Thematizing the Subject from Gothicism to Late Romanticism," Slobodan Sucur takes Habermas's suggestion that "modern art reveals its essence in Romanticism; and absolute inwardness determines the form and content of Romantic art" and offers an analysis of a spectrum of primary texts in relation to the statement. The texts analysed range from Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto to Odoyevsky’s Russian Nights. The texts are analyzed in chronological fashion, in an attempt to see how the thematiz...

  2. Friedman—Robertson—Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration (United States)

    Abdussattar; Prajapati, S. R.


    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman—Robertson—Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  3. [Late tamponade after heart surgery: a dreadful diagnostic pitfall]. (United States)

    Glock, Y F; Herreros, J; Tejeira, F J


    In a series of 250 consecutive open-heart operations, three cases of late cardiac tamponade were noted following the operation. This led the authors to review the literature pertaining to this complication. Ninety-nine cases were collected. The frequency of late tamponade associated with cardiac surgery was 0.62% and was fatal in 16.2% of those cases. The delay before the tamponade appeared varied from 3 days to 3 months (mean 14.5 +/- 7.8 days). The initial clinical picture is insidious and vague, and this constitutes the danger of late cardiac tamponade. The clinical signs are of the respiratory (dyspnea, chest pain), gastrointestinal (anorexia, vomiting) and central nervous (mental confusion, even coma) systems. Pallor with a drop in hematocrit in patients on anticoagulant therapy suggests occult bleeding. A definitive diagnosis depends on catheterization of the right side and on mono- and bidimensional echocardiography. The authors believe that computerized axial tomography represents an interesting noninvasive and reliable examination technique when it can be used during emergency treatment. Pericardial puncture, which is both a diagnostic and therapeutic technique, was useful in one third of the cases; it produced a false-negative result in 12%. The resulting differential diagnoses are pulmonary embolism, myocardial insufficiency and septic shock. Late cardiac tamponade may be produced by one of two mechanisms: hemopericardium due to overdosage of anticoagulants or an exacerbated form of the post-pericardiotomy syndrome. Emergency treatment is always necessary. Pericardiocentesis is a useful diagnostic aid and provides temporary stabilization preoperatively. A wide surgical approach is always indicated. The mortality in untreated patients is 100%. The frequency of immediate relapse or, occasionally, of delayed relapse is estimated to be 11%; relapse may be lethal.

  4. Anoxia in the terrestrial environment during the late Mesoproterozoic.



    A significant body of evidence suggests that the marine environment remained largely anoxic throughout most of the Precambrian. In contrast, the oxygenation history of terrestrial aquatic environments has received little attention, despite the significance of such settings for early eukaryote evolution. To address this, we provide here a geochemical and isotopic assessment of sediments from the late Mesoproterozoic Nonesuch Formation of central North America. We utilize rhenium-osmium (Re-Os)...

  5. [Edge effect and late thrombosis -- inevitable complications of vascular brachytherapy?]. (United States)

    Schiele, T M; Staber, L; Kantlehner, R; Pöllinger, B; Dühmke, E; Theisen, K; Klauss, V


    Restenosis is the limiting entity after percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Vascular brachytherapy for the treatment of in-stent restenosis has been shown to reduce the repeat restenosis rate and the incidence of major adverse events in several randomized trials. Besides the beneficial effects, brachytherapy yielded some unwanted side effects. The development of new stenoses at the edges of the target lesion treated with radiation is termed edge effect. It occurs after afterloading brachytherapy as well as after implantation of radioactive stents. It is characterized by extensive intimal hyperplasia and negative remodeling. As contributing factors the axial dose fall-off, inherent to all radioactive sources, and the application of vessel wall trauma by angioplasty have been identified. The combination of both factors, by insufficient overlap of the radiation length over the injured vessel segment, has been referred to as geographic miss. It has been shown to be associated with a very high incidence of the edge effect. Avoidance of geographic miss is strongly recommended in vascular brachytherapy procedures. Late thrombosis after vascular brachytherapy is of multifactorial origin. It comprises platelet recruitment, fibrin deposition, disturbed vasomotion, non-healing dissection and stent malapposition predisposing to turbulent blood flow. The strongest predictors for late thrombosis are premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy and implantation of new stents during the brachytherapy procedure. With a consequent and prolonged antiplatelet therapy, the incidence of late thrombosis has been reduced to placebo levels. Edge effect and late thrombosis represent unwanted side effects of vascular brachytherapy. By means of a thorough treatment planning and prolonged antiplatelet therapy their incidences can be largely reduced. With regard to the very favorable net effect, they do not constitute relevant limitations of vascular brachytherapy.

  6. Late Cretaceous Aquatic Angiosperms from Jiayin, Heilongjiang,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Cheng; SUN Ge


    Three taxa of Late Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, Queruexia angulata (Lesq.) Krysht., Cobbania corrugate. (Lesq.) Stockey et al. and Nelumbites cf. extenuinervis Upchurch et al. from Jiayin of Heilongjiang, NE China, are described in detail. Among them, Cobbania and Nelumbites from the Upper Cretaceous in China are reported for the first time. The aquatic angiosperm assemblage of Queruexia-Cobbania-Nelumbites appears to imply a seasonal, warm and moist environment in the Jiayin area during the Santonian-Campanian time.

  7. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob


    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction and...... was observed using positron emission tomography and fluor-18-labeled fluorodesoxyglucose. The neuropsychological deficits are related to the location of deficits in glucose metabolism....

  8. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost without late arrival (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Zhao, Lin


    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip cost without late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has significant effects on each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip costs and that the effects are dependent on its time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent effects on the minimum value of the system's total trip cost.

  9. Late reconstruction of condylar neck and head fractures. (United States)

    Davis, Ben


    Condyle fractures are a common injury, but only a few of these injuries require immediate or late reconstruction. The complications that most frequently necessitate condylar reconstruction include proximal segment degeneration, malunion, and ankylosis. Costochondral grafts and total joint prostheses, both stock and custom, remain the most common methods of reconstruction. Reconstruction plates with condylar extensions should only be used temporarily as an unacceptable number cause serious complications. Distraction osteogenesis may have an occasional role in reconstructing the posttraumatic condyle.

  10. Neurogenesis, Exercise, and Cognitive Late Effects of Pediatric Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaefali P. Rodgers


    Full Text Available Brain cancer is a common type of childhood malignancy, and radiotherapy (RT is a mainstay of treatment. RT is effective for tumor eradication, and survival rates are high. However, RT damages the brain and disrupts ongoing developmental processes, resulting in debilitating cognitive “late” effects that may take years to fully manifest. These late effects likely derive from a long-term decrement in cell proliferation, combined with a neural environment that is hostile to plasticity, both of which are induced by RT. Long-term suppression of cell proliferation deprives the brain of the raw materials needed for optimum cognitive performance (such as new neurons in the hippocampus and new glia in frontal cortex, while chronic inflammation and dearth of trophic substances (such as growth hormone limit neuroplastic potential in existing circuitry. Potential treatments for cognitive late effects should address both of these conditions. Exercise represents one such potential treatment, since it has the capacity to enhance cell proliferation, as well as to promote a neural milieu permissive for plasticity. Here, we review the evidence that cognitive late effects can be traced to RT-induced suppression of cell proliferation and hostile environmental conditions, as well as emerging evidence that exercise may be effective as an independent or adjuvant therapy.

  11. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals (United States)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Archibald, J. David


    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians ( Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  12. Late Viséan pelagic chondrichthyans from northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ginter


    Full Text Available The relatively rich assemblages of shark teeth from pelagic limestone (Mississippian, late Viséan, late Asbian–middle Brigantian of three northern European regions: the Rhenish Mountains (Westenfeld Quarry, Germany, the Holy Cross Mountains (Todowa Grząba at the edge of Ostrówka Quarry, Poland, and Derbyshire (Cawdor Quarry, Matlock, England, UK display certain similarities, with the absolute predominance of the teeth of Falcatidae (small Symmoriiformes and the constant presence of Thrinacodus spp. The largest and most diverse assemblage from Todowa Grząba contains at least three species of a falcatid Denaea, a xenacanthimorph Bransonella nebraskensis, a newly described phoebodontid Thrinacodus dziki sp. nov., a few ctenacanthiform and euselachian teeth, and two abraded euchondrocephalan dental elements. Anachronistidae, common in the most of late Viséan pelagic faunas, are absent from Todowa Grząba and Westenfeld. The material under study differs from the shallow-water chondrichthyan fauna, hitherto described from the Mississippian carbonate platform facies, by its taxonomic content (particularly almost total absence of Euchondrocephali, generally lower diversity, and higher frequency of small teeth.

  13. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Glasspool


    Full Text Available Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2 that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2, increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2 rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can therefore be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2 played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  14. Early and late vulval cancer recurrences: Are they different? (United States)

    Ragupathy, Kalpana; Grandidge, Lisa; Strelley, Katie; Wang, Huan; Tidy, John


    Vulval cancers are rare, but after primary treatment, known to recur with a high frequency (30%). Clinico-pathological predictors of recurrence have been established to a great extent. However, there is paucity of literature on predictors of early versus late recurrence. We sought to identify such predictors through a retrospective study of vulval cancer recurrences in a single cancer centre over 11 years. Age of women, depth of invasion/site of primary tumour and presence of background VIN/lichen sclerosus do not appear to affect timing of recurrence. However, vulval cancers that recur after 2 years of primary tumour recognition are more likely to be well-differentiated tumours, have undergone radical surgery and have had a closest disease-free margin >1 cm. Late recurrences are entirely local rather than distant metastases and this translates into a better survival as shown in our study (40 months median survival in the early group versus 112 in the late recurrence group).

  15. Late-stage galaxy mergers in COSMOS to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, C N; Salvato, M; Kampczyk, P; Kartaltepe, J S; Sanders, D; Capak, P; Civano, F; Ilbert, O; Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A M; Lee, N; Fevre, O Le; Liu, C T; Scoville, N; Sheth, K; Toft, S


    The role of major mergers in galaxy and black hole formation is not well constrained. To help address this, we develop an automated method to identify late-stage galaxy mergers before coalescence of the galactic cores. The resulting sample of mergers is distinct from those obtained using pair-finding and morphological indicators. Our method relies on median-filtering of high-resolution images in order to distinguish two concentrated galaxy nuclei at small separations. Using mock images, we derive statistical contamination and incompleteness corrections for the fraction of late-stage mergers. We apply our new method to a magnitude-limited (I 10.6$ and $0.25 < z \\leq 1.00$, we find ~5% of systems are late-stage mergers with separations between 2.2 and 8 kpc. Correcting for incompleteness and contamination, the fractional merger rate increases strongly with redshift as $(1+z)^{3.8\\pm0.9}$, in agreement with earlier studies and with dark matter halo merger rates. Separating the sample into star-forming and qu...

  16. Comorbidities and the Risk of Late-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Fleming


    Full Text Available The degree to which comorbidities affect the diagnosis of prostate cancer is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine how comorbidities affect the stage at which prostate cancer is diagnosed in elderly white and black men. We obtained data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute merged with Medicare claims data. For each patient, we estimated associations between stage of disease at diagnosis and each of the 27 comorbidities. The sample included 2,489 black and 2,587 white men with staged prostate cancer. Coronary artery disease, benign hypertension, and dyslipidemia reduced the odds of late-stage prostate cancer. A prior diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease, severe renal disease, or substance abuse increased the odds of being diagnosed with late-stage disease. The study shows some effect modification by race, particularly among white men with substance abuse, cardiac conduction disorders, and other neurologic conditions. The strongest predictors of late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis for both white and black men were age at diagnosis of at least 80 years and lack of PSA screening. Comorbidities do affect stage at diagnosis, although in different ways. Four hypotheses are discussed to explain these findings.

  17. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaniewski

    Full Text Available The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  18. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India. (United States)

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja


    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale.

  20. Combined obliquity and precession pacing of late Pleistocene deglaciations. (United States)

    Huybers, Peter


    Milankovitch proposed that Earth resides in an interglacial state when its spin axis both tilts to a high obliquity and precesses to align the Northern Hemisphere summer with Earth's nearest approach to the Sun. This general concept has been elaborated into hypotheses that precession, obliquity or combinations of both could pace deglaciations during the late Pleistocene. Earlier tests have shown that obliquity paces the late Pleistocene glacial cycles but have been inconclusive with regard to precession, whose shorter period of about 20,000 years makes phasing more sensitive to timing errors. No quantitative test has provided firm evidence for a dual effect. Here I show that both obliquity and precession pace late Pleistocene glacial cycles. Deficiencies in time control that have long stymied efforts to establish orbital effects on deglaciation are overcome using a new statistical test that focuses on maxima in orbital forcing. The results are fully consistent with Milankovitch's proposal but also admit the possibility that long Southern Hemisphere summers contribute to deglaciation.

  1. Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations. (United States)

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl


    The 100,000-year timescale in the glacial/interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene epoch (the past approximately 700,000 years) is commonly attributed to control by variations in the Earth's orbit. This hypothesis has inspired models that depend on the Earth's obliquity (approximately 40,000 yr; approximately 40 kyr), orbital eccentricity (approximately 100 kyr) and precessional (approximately 20 kyr) fluctuations, with the emphasis usually on eccentricity and precessional forcing. According to a contrasting hypothesis, the glacial cycles arise primarily because of random internal climate variability. Taking these two perspectives together, there are currently more than thirty different models of the seven late-Pleistocene glacial cycles. Here we present a statistical test of the orbital forcing hypothesis, focusing on the rapid deglaciation events known as terminations. According to our analysis, the null hypothesis that glacial terminations are independent of obliquity can be rejected at the 5% significance level, whereas the corresponding null hypotheses for eccentricity and precession cannot be rejected. The simplest inference consistent with the test results is that the ice sheets terminated every second or third obliquity cycle at times of high obliquity, similar to the original proposal by Milankovitch. We also present simple stochastic and deterministic models that describe the timing of the late-Pleistocene glacial terminations purely in terms of obliquity forcing.

  2. Identifying and Investigating the Late-1960s Interhemispheric SST Shift (United States)

    Friedman, A. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Liu, Y.; Chiang, J. C. H.


    The global north-south interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) difference experienced a pronounced and rapid decrease in the late 1960s, which has been linked to drying in the Sahel, South Asia, and East Asia. However, some basic questions about the interhemispheric SST shift remain unresolved, including its scale and whether the constituent changes in different basins were coordinated. In this study, we systematically investigate the spatial and temporal behavior of the late-1960s interhemispheric SST shift using ocean surface and subsurface observations. We also evaluate potential mechanisms using control and specific-forcing CMIP5 simulations. Using a regime shift detection technique, we identify the late-1960s shift as the most prominent in the historical observational SST record. We additionally examine the corresponding changes in upper-ocean heat content and salinity associated with the shift. We find that there were coordinated upper-ocean cooling and freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic, the region of the largest-magnitude SST decrease during the interhemispheric shift. These upper-ocean changes correspond to a weakened North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). However, the THC decrease does not fully account for the rapid global interhemispheric SST shift, particularly the warming in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere.

  3. Late time solution for interacting scalar in accelerating spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav


    We consider stochastic inflation in an interacting scalar field in spatially homogeneous accelerating space-times with a constant principal slow roll parameter $\\epsilon$. We show that, if the scalar potential is scale invariant (which is the case when scalar contains quartic self-interaction and couples non-minimally to gravity), the late-time solution on accelerating FLRW spaces can be described by a probability distribution function (PDF) $\\rho$ which is a function of $\\varphi/H$ only, where $\\varphi=\\varphi(\\vec x)$ is the scalar field and $H=H(t)$ denotes the Hubble parameter. We give explicit late-time solutions for $\\rho\\rightarrow \\rho_\\infty(\\varphi/H)$, and thereby find the order $\\epsilon$ corrections to the Starobinsky-Yokoyama result. This PDF can then be used to calculate e.g. various $n-$point functions of the (self-interacting) scalar field, which are valid at late times in arbitrary accelerating space-times with $\\epsilon=$ constant.

  4. Late preterm infants’ motor development until term age (United States)

    Santos, Viviane Martins; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; de Mello, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues


    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the motor development of late preterm newborn infants (LPI) from birth to term-corrected age using the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and to compare the obtained results with those of term infants at birth. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, 29 late preterm newborn infants were evaluated by the TIMP at birth and every two weeks until term-corrected age. The TIMP was administered to 88 term infants at birth. RESULTS: The mean TIMP score of late preterm newborn infants was 51.9±5.8 at 34–35 weeks and 62.6±5.2 at 40 weeks. There was a significant increase at 38–39 weeks in the LPI group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the motor evaluations between term infants at birth and LPI at the equivalent age. CONCLUSION: The LPI presented a gradual progression of motor development until the term-corrected age, but differences with term infants at birth were not detected.

  5. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis. (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile


    The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  6. Where Is ELSA? The Early to Late Shift in Aging (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Dobbins, Ian G.; Cabeza, Roberto


    Studies of cognitive and neural aging have recently provided evidence of a shift from an early- to late-onset cognitive control strategy, linked with temporally extended activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It has been uncertain, however, whether this age-related shift is unique to PFC and executive control tasks or whether the functional location might vary depending on the particular cognitive processes that are altered. The present study tested whether an early-to-late shift in aging (ELSA) might emerge in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during a protracted context memory task comprising both anticipatory cue (retrieval preparation) and retrieval probe (retrieval completion) phases. First, we found reduced MTL activity in older adults during the early retrieval preparation phase coupled with increased MTL activity during the late retrieval completion phase. Second, we found that functional connectivity between MTL and PFC regions was higher during retrieval preparation in young adults but higher during retrieval completion in older adults, suggesting an important interactive relationship between the ELSA pattern in MTL and PFC. Taken together, these results critically suggest that aging results in temporally lagged activity even in regions not typically associated with cognitive control, such as the MTL. PMID:22114083

  7. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system. (United States)

    Glasspool, Ian J; Scott, Andrew C; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi


    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  8. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  9. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported...

  10. Management of late/very late stent thrombosis: Utility of ıntravenous ultrasonography (IVUS) in clinical practise


    Emre Yalçınkaya; Barış Bugan; Yalçın Gökoğlan; Erkan Yıldırım


    To the editor We read with great interest the article by Aksu et al. [1] on the management of very late bare metal stent thrombosis. They performed intracoronary thrombus aspiration and inflated balloon in-stent for restenosis. During percutaneous coronary interventions, interventionalists have often to deal with thrombus-laden lesions in coronary vessels. Plaque characteristics and distribution, severity and extent of calcification, arterial remodeling and the presence of dissection or throm...

  11. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine


    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  12. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 All antigens Embryo Late embryo SRX146416,SRX3313...X043867 ...

  13. Late Cretaceous tectonic framework of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhan; Barosh, Patrick J.; Ye, Peisheng; Hu, Daogong


    New research, coupled with previous data, reveals the Late Cretaceous paleo-geography, and related paleo-tectonic movement of the Tibetan Plateau. A vast ocean, the Neo-Tethys Ocean, perhaps as wide as ∼7000 km, existed between the Indian and Eurasian Continental Plates in the early Late Cretaceous. In addition, a Himalaya Marginal Sea lay along the border of the Indian Plate and other marginal seas were present to the north in both the southern Lhasa and southwestern Tarim Blocks. Northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Oceanic Plate along the Yalung-Zangbu Suture closed most of the ocean and led to intensive thrusting, tight folding, magmatic plutonism and volcanic eruptions in the central plateau to the north. A magmatic arc up to 500 km wide formed across the southern margin of the continental plate in central Tibet and its varying granitic composition appears to reflect the depth to the subducted plate and define its geometry. A series of large, chiefly north-dipping thrust systems also developed across central Tibet. These include thrusts along the Yalung-Zangbu and Bangong-Nujiang Sutures, the North Gangdese and North Lhasa Thrusts in the Lhasa Block, the Qiangtang and North Tangula Thrusts in the Qiangtang block, the Hoh-Xil and Bayan Har Thrusts in the Hoh-Xil Block, as well as the sinistral-slip South Kunlun and Altyn Tagh Faults in northern Tibet. Uplifts formed above the hanging walls of the major thrusts and their eroded debris formed thick red-beds in basins below them. The central Tibetan Plateau maintained a low elevation and coastal vegetation was dominant during the Late Cretaceous.

  14. Late onset myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapia Verri


    Full Text Available Specific forms of epilepsy may be found at various ages in Down Syndrome (DS and a sharp increase in the incidence of epilepsy with age has been documented. A specific type of myoclonic epilepsy associated with cognitive decline has been reported as “senile myoclonic epilepsy” or “late onset myoclonic epilepsy in DS” (LOMEDS. We report a new case of LOMEDS, documented by clinical and neurophysiological evaluation and psychometric assessment (DSDS and DMR. MF, male, affected by DS, was referred in 2004 at 40 years of age; he had no personal or familial history of epilepsy. Since one year, the patient presented cognitive deterioration, characterized by regression of language abilities, loss of memory, and loss of sphincters control. A brain TC showed mild brainstem and sub-cortical atrophy. In 2006, myoclonic jerks involving upper limbs occurred mainly after awakening. EEG showed a low voltage 8 Hz background activity with diffuse slow activity, intermingled with spikes or polyspikes, persisting during NREM sleep. MF was initially treated with clonazepam and after with topiramate, resulting in partial seizures control. MRI (2008 demonstrated diffuse brain atrophy, associated with marked ventricular enlargement. At the psychometric evaluation, onset of dementia was evident late in 2004, with transition to the middle stage in 2006. Last assessment (2009 showed the clinical signs of a late stage of deterioration, with loss of verbal abilities and autonomous ambulation. Using levetiracetam till 2,000 mg/die, myoclonic jerks decreased but are still present every day after awakening. On the EEG slow and poorly organized background activity with bilateral polyspike-wave discharges was recorded. Therefore, we documented a parallel progression of dementia and myoclonic epilepsy in a DS subject.

  15. Proton Radiotherapy for Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Stephanie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Cancer Center Johnson Creek, Madison, WI (United States); Friedmann, Alison M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Adams, Judith; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome and late side effect profile of proton radiotherapy in the treatment of children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventeen consecutive children with PM-RMS were treated with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2005. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and asked referring physicians to report specific side effects of interest. Results: Median patient age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (range, 0.4-17.6). Embryonal (n = 11), alveolar (n = 4), and undifferentiated (n = 2) histologies were represented. Ten patients (59%) had intracranial extension. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 cobalt gray equivalents (GyRBE) (range, 50.4-56.0 GyRBE) delivered in 1.8-2.0-GyRBE daily fractions. Median follow-up was 5.0 years for survivors. The 5-year failure-free survival estimate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 33-79%), and overall survival estimate was 64% (95% confidence interval, 37-82%). Among the 7 patients who failed, sites of first recurrence were local only (n = 2), regional only (n = 2), distant only (n = 2), and local and distant (n = 1). Late effects related to proton radiotherapy in the 10 recurrence-free patients (median follow-up, 5 years) include failure to maintain height velocity (n = 3), endocrinopathies (n = 2), mild facial hypoplasia (n = 7), failure of permanent tooth eruption (n = 3), dental caries (n = 5), and chronic nasal/sinus congestion (n = 2). Conclusions: Proton radiotherapy for patients with PM-RMS yields tumor control and survival comparable to that in historical controls with similar poor prognostic factors. Furthermore, rates of late effects from proton radiotherapy compare favorably to published reports of photon-treated cohorts.

  16. Detection of lithium in nearby young late-M dwarfs (United States)

    Phan-Bao, N.; Bessell, M. S.; Nguyen-Thanh, D.; Martín, E. L.; Ho, P. T. P.; Lee, C. F.; Parsons, H.


    Context. Late M-type dwarfs in the solar neighborhood include a mixture of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs that is difficult to disentangle due to the lack of constraints on their age, such as trigonometric parallax, lithium detection, and space velocity. Aims: We search for young brown dwarf candidates among a sample of 28 nearby late-M dwarfs with spectral types between M5.0 and M9.0, and we also search for debris disks around three of them. Methods: Based on theoretical models, we used the color I-J, the J-band absolute magnitude, and the detection of the Li I 6708 Å doublet line as a strong constraint to estimate masses and ages of our targets. For the search of debris disks, we observed three targets at submillimeter wavelength of 850 μm. Results: We report here the first clear detections of lithium absorption in four targets and a marginal detection in one target. Our mass estimates indicate that two of them are young brown dwarfs, two are young brown dwarf candidates, and one is a young very low-mass star. The closest young field brown dwarf in our sample at only 15 pc is an excellent benchmark for further studying physical properties of brown dwarfs in the range 100-150 Myr. We did not detect any debris disks around three late-M dwarfs, and we estimated upper limits to the dust mass of debris disks around them. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  17. Late Quaternary loss of genetic diversity in muskox (Ovibos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mol Dick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modern wildherd of the tundra muskox (Ovibos moschatus is native only to the New World (northern North America and Greenland, and its genetic diversity is notably low. However, like several other megafaunal mammals, muskoxen enjoyed a holarctic distribution during the late Pleistocene. To investigate whether collapse in range and loss of diversity might be correlated, we collected mitochondrial sequence data (hypervariable region and cytochrome b from muskox fossil material recovered from localities in northeastern Asia and the Arctic Archipelago of northern North America, dating from late Pleistocene to late Holocene, and compared our results to existing databases for modern muskoxen. Results Two classes of haplotypes were detected in the fossil material. "Surviving haplotypes" (SHs, closely similar or identical to haplotypes found in modern muskoxen and ranging in age from ~22,000 to ~160 yrbp, were found in all New World samples as well as some samples from northeastern Asia. "Extinct haplotypes" (EHs, dating between ~44,000 and ~18,000 yrbp, were found only in material from the Taimyr Peninsula and New Siberian Islands in northeastern Asia. EHs were not found in the Holocene muskoxen specimens available for this study, nor have they been found in other studies of extant muskox populations. Conclusion We provisionally interpret this evidence as showing that genetic variability was reduced in muskoxen after the Last Glacial Maximum but before the mid-Holocene, or roughly within the interval 18,000-4,000 yrbp. Narrowing this gap further will require the recovery of more fossils and additional genetic information from this interval.

  18. Climate-forcing & Feedbacks of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age (United States)

    Montanez, I. P.; Brand, U.; Poulsen, C. J.; Horton, D. E.


    Evaluating climate-forcing and feedbacks during pre-Cenozoic ice ages requires reconstructing marine-terrestrial linkages between atmospheric composition, the regional hydroclimate expression of mean climate change, ice sheets, and sea-level. Here we evaluate the role of different climate parameters and their linkages during the Carboniferous icehouse through integration of a recently developed ID-TIMS U-Pb constrained sea-level history, brachiopod stable isotope time-series from shallow marine regions of paleotropical Pangaea, atmospheric pCO2 inferred from paleosol minerals and fossil leaf stomatal indices, ice sheet variations constrained by the distribution of high-latitude Gondwanan glacial deposits, and paleoclimate simulations. Within chronostratigraphic uncertainty, long-term sea-level lowstands coincide with glacial maxima defined from high-latitude Gondwanan basins, whereas long-term highstands are coeval with glacial minima suggesting a dynamic late Paleozoic icehouse. Superimposed shorter-term sea-level events define a stepwise onset (late Mississippian) and contraction of Carboniferous ice sheets prior to the initiation of Early Permian ice sheets. Sea level fluctuations, at different temporal scales parallel trends defined by brachiopod oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and paleo-atmospheric pCO2 estimates inferred using mineral and biologic proxies. A protracted (~9 my) stepwise sea level rise beginning in the middle Pennsylvanian and culminating in an earliest Gzhelian peak is coincident with overall increasing CO2 levels throughout this interval and substantially decreased effective moisture in paleotropical Pangaea. This possibly CO2-forced period of waning continental ice sheets and sea-level highstand encompassed a large-scale floral turnover across the mid-to-late Pennyslvanian boundary and the onset of the demise of paleotropical rainforests across much of Pangaea. Ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet climate simulations for this period reveal a

  19. Schwarzschild scalar wigs: spectral analysis and late time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, Juan; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Nunez, Dario; Sarbach, Olivier


    Using the Green's function representation technique, the late time behavior of localized scalar field distributions on Schwarzschild spacetimes is studied. Assuming arbitrary initial data we perform a spectral analysis, computing the amplitude of each excited quasi-bound mode without the necessity of performing dynamical evolutions. The resulting superposition of modes is compared with a traditional numerical evolution with excellent agreement; therefore, we have an efficient way to determine final black hole wigs. The astrophysical relevance of the quasi-bound modes is discussed in the context of scalar field dark matter models and the axiverse.

  20. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD


    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  1. Late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in a Caucasian woman. (United States)

    Patel, Dharmesh R; Knepper, Laurie; Jones, H Royden


    We describe a 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a 19-year history of an evolving amyotrophy confined to her dominant right arm and hand. Although this atypical case of a late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in some respects mimics Hirayama disease or O'Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, it does not conform precisely with either of those disorders. We compare this individual's difficulties and clinical temporal profile to other disorders considered in the differential diagnoses with regard to her evolving clinical setting.

  2. Late-Developing Supernumerary Premolars: Analysis of Different Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paduano


    Full Text Available This case series describes the different potential approaches to late-developing supernumerary premolars (LDSP. LDSP are supernumerary teeth (ST formed after the eruption of the permanent dentition; usually they develop in the premolar region of the upper and lower jaw. The choice to extract or to monitor the LDSP depends on many factors and has to be carefully planned due to the several risks that either the monitoring or the extraction could provoke. These four cases of LDSP showed different treatment plan alternatives derived from a scrupulous assessment of the clinical and radiographic information.

  3. Comet or asteroid shower in the late Eocene? (United States)

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe


    The passage of a comet shower approximately 35 million years ago is generally advocated to explain the coincidence during Earth's late Eocene of an unusually high flux of interplanetary dust particles and the formation of the two largest craters in the Cenozoic, Popigai and the Chesapeake Bay. However, new platinum-group element analyses indicate that Popigai was formed by the impact of an L-chondrite meteorite. Such an asteroidal projectile is difficult to reconcile with a cometary origin. Perhaps instead the higher delivery rate of extraterrestrial matter, dust, and large objects was caused by a major collision in the asteroid belt.

  4. Kinematics of late paleozoic continental collision between laurentia and gondwana. (United States)

    Sacks, P E; Secor, D T


    In the Appalachians, late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogenesis is widely regarded as resulting from dextral oblique collision between irregular margins of Gondwana and Laurentia. However, this relative plate motion cannot account for coeval convergence in the Ouachitas and Variscides and is incompatible with some tectonic transport indicators in the Appalachians. An alternative kinematic model is proposed in which early sinistral transpression in the Appalachians is followed by counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana and the development of a system of dextral strike-slip faults extending from southern Europe to Alabama.

  5. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B


    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy.

  6. The Economy of Charity in Late Medieval Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Teresa Colesanti


    Full Text Available The study focuses on the financial management of the Hospital of the Annunziata in Naples and aims for a food for thought on the origins of the gift economy in Southern Italy during the Late Middle Ages. Thanks to the copious historical documentation, it has been possible to reconstruct and analyse: the remarkable financial assets, and the economic impact of the hospital, both in the city and in the kingdom; the economic and management competences of the hospital governors, their social class and geographical origin; the role played by the Royal Court and the Church in the construction process of a “Southern model” of charity network.

  7. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: P

  8. Capgras syndrome in a very late onset, treatment resistant schizophrenia. (United States)

    Ain, M K Nurul; Rosdinom, R; Raynuha, M


    We report a Malay man, with underlying chronic medical illnesses, presenting with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, including Capgras syndrome (CS) at the age of 73. Physical examination and blood investigations were normal and brain CT scan showed age-related cerebral atrophy. Neuropsychological assessment showed probable right hemisphere lesions but relatively intact memory and intellectual functions. Several neuroleptics including depot injections were tried but ineffective. Positive symptoms including CS eventually improved with clozapine before his death from myocardial infarction. This case report highlights the uncommon occurrence of CS in treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) of very late onset and its treatment challenges.

  9. Water governement and inland navigation. Veneto in Late Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Orlando


    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on rivers and navigable canals of  Veneto in the Late Middle Ages as trade and transport routes: they covered a main and hegemonic role in the traffic of the region, guaranteeing communication and providing the backbone for the communication network of that time. In particular, the contribution seeks to analyze the policies of the greatest communes of Veneto concerning government and guardianship of the rivers and discipline of navigation. The sources are primarily normative and legal sources, particularly the abundant production of communal statutes and pacts, the series of international agreements and privileges established between the communes in terms of traffic, communication networks and transport.

  10. Hypoxia, global warming, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions. (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D


    A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained environmental degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate warming would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction.

  11. Nuclear pasta and supernova neutrinos at late times

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Caplan, M E; Fischer, T; Lin, Zidu; Newton, W G; O'Connor, E; Roberts, L F


    Nuclear pasta, with nucleons arranged into tubes, sheets, or other complex shapes, is expected in core collapse supernovae (SNe) at just below nuclear density. We calculate the additional opacity from neutrino-pasta coherent scattering using molecular dynamics simulations. We approximately include this opacity in simulations of SNe. We find that pasta slows neutrino diffusion and greatly increases the neutrino signal at late times of 10 or more seconds after stellar core collapse. This signal, for a galactic SN, should be clearly visible in large detectors such as Super-Kamiokande.

  12. Status cataplecticus as initial presentation of late onset narcolepsy. (United States)

    Panda, Samhita


    Narcolepsy, one of the important causes of hypersomnia, is an under diagnosed sleep disorder. It has a bimodal age of onset around 15 and 35 years. It is characterized by the tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic/ hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Cataplexy is by far the most predictive feature of narcolepsy. Status cataplecticus is the occurrence of cataplexy repeatedly for hours or days, a rare presentation of narcolepsy. This report describes an elderly gentleman with late onset narcolepsy in the sixth decade of life presenting with initial and chief symptom of status cataplecticus.

  13. Electronic structure of LaTe and CeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainani, A., E-mail: [RIKEN SPring-8 Centre, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Oura, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Centre, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsunami, M. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Ochiai, A.; Takahashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [RIKEN SPring-8 Centre, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Tamasaku, K.; Kohmura, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN SPring-8 Centre, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Hard X-ray and soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of LaTe and CeTe. • Evidence for Kondo screening in antiferromagnetic(T{sub N} = 2.2 K) compound CeTe. • Suppressed Kondo resonance in CeTe compared to typical Kondo materials. - Abstract: We report a comparative study of the electronic structure of the compounds LaTe and CeTe, both of which crystallize in the rock salt structure. LaTe is a paramagnetic metal while CeTe is known to exhibit anomalous Kondo-like transport behaviour and undergoes a transition to a complex magnetically ordered state at low temperature (T{sub N} = 2.2 K). We carry out hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) of the core-levels and valence band of LaTe and CeTe at T = 20 K, in order to characterize their intrinsic electronic structure, and to address the role of Kondo effect on the electronic structure of CeTe. The bulk sensitive core level HAXPES spectra show evidence of screened features in the La 3d and Ce 3d states mixed with plasmon features. From a careful analysis of the Te, La and Ce derived core levels, we separate out the respective origins of the satellites and show that CeTe indeed exhibits definitive but weak f{sup 0} and f{sup 2} satellites due to Kondo screening, in addition to the main f{sup 1} peak. The comparison of the valence band spectra of CeTe obtained using HAXPES and soft X-ray PES clearly identifies the Ce 4f derived features. Resonant photoelectron spectrosocopy across the Ce 3d − 4f threshold confirms the Ce 4f{sup 1} final state at the Fermi level, corresponding to the tail of the Kondo resonance feature which occurs above the Fermi level, while the Ce 4f{sup 0} final state feature is observed at a binding energy of 2.4 eV. The 4f{sup 0} and 4f{sup 1} final states show giant resonances compared to the off-resonant spectra. However, in contrast to typical Kondo systems, the tail of the Ce 4f{sup 1} Kondo resonance at the Fermi level is relatively suppressed compared to the Ce 4f

  14. Effect of vegetation on the Late Miocene ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann


    Full Text Available A weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is related to an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters. We estimate the effect of vegetation on the ocean general circulation using the atmospheric circulation model simulations for the Late Miocene climate. Caused by an increase in net evaporation in the Miocene North Atlantic, the North Atlantic water becomes more saline which enhances the overturning circulation and thus the northward heat transport. This effect reveals a potentially important feedback between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  15. Role of rice PPS in late vegetative and reproductive growth


    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo


    The rice peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) mutant shows a prolonged juvenile phase and early flowering. Although the early vegetative phase and flowering time of pps-1 have been closely examined, the phenotypes in the late vegetative and reproductive phases are not yet well understood. In the ninth leaf blade of pps-1, the relative length of the midrib was comparable to the sixth leaf blade of wild-type. Moreover, pps-1 had a small inflorescence meristem and small panicles. These phenotypes indica...

  16. [Antibiotic prophylaxis of immediate and late complications of scarlet fever]. (United States)

    Sarlău, A; Cucuruz, L


    Patients with scarlet fever were followed by clinical and laboratory investigation (bacteriologic and immunologic reactions, etc.), in relation with the early application, and the duration of penicillin therapy. The patients were also followed for a period of 30 days after discharge from the hospital. The results show a decrease in the number of early and late complications, as well as a reduction in the number of carriers of beta-haemolytic streptococcus in those patients in whom penicillin treatment was applied early, and when it was prolonged in the recovery period. The clinical and statistical data stress the pathologic morphology of scarlet fever, and the restructuration of complications when penicillin treatment is applied.

  17. [Causes of late diagnosis of appendicitis in children]. (United States)

    Zlámal, Z


    The author evaluates the case-history of 51 children with perforated appendicitis treated during 1984-1995 at the First Surgical Clinic of the Faculty Hospital Olomouc. The purpose was to find an answer to the problem why in these children the diagnosis was delayed and whose was the fault of the substantial deterioration of the health status. In the evaluation four groups of causal responsibility are differentiated: a very rapid development of appendicitis-parents, arriving late in the surgery-paediatricians-surgeons. The authors discuss circumstances associated with the diagnostic error and delay.

  18. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W


    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society...... or delayed reading intradermal). The main risk factors for LAR are a previous reaction to contrast medium, a history of allergy, and interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are mild or moderate and self-limiting. MANAGEMENT: Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug...

  19. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  20. Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A; Pedersen, M H


    OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90......-year-old woman receiving doxapram. At this point the randomization code was broken and we decided to terminate the trial. Three of nine patients receiving doxapram had had an adverse event whereas none of the patients receiving placebo had adverse events (P = 0.2). In the 18 patients studied...

  1. Chromosomal-Level Assembly of the Asian Seabass Genome Using Long Sequence Reads and Multi-layered Scaffolding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Vij


    Full Text Available We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species' native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.

  2. Regional behaviour among late Neanderthal groups in Western Europe: a comparative assessment of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tool variability. (United States)

    Ruebens, Karen


    Population dynamics between and within Pleistocene groups are vital to understanding wider behavioural processes like social transmission and cultural variation. The late Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5d-3, ca. 115,000-35,000 BP [years before present]) permits a novel, data-driven assessment of these concepts through a unique record: bifacial tools made by classic Neanderthals. Previously, studies of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tools were hampered by a convoluted plethora of competing terms, types and regional entities. This paper presents a large-scale intercomparison of this tool type, and bridges typo-technological and spatio-temporal data from across Western Europe (Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Germany). Results indicate a high level of variation among individual bifacial tools and assemblages. Each bifacial tool concept is correlated with various methods of production, resulting in large degrees of morphological variation. Despite such variation, a distinct three-fold, macro-regional pattern was identified: the Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MTA) in the southwest dominated by handaxes, the Keilmessergruppen (KMG) in the northeast typified by backed and leaf-shaped bifacial tools, and, finally a new unit, the Mousterian with Bifacial Tools (MBT), geographically situated between these two major entities, and characterised by a wider variety of bifacial tools. Differing local conditions, such as raw material or function, are not sufficient to explain this observed macro-regional tripartite. Instead, the MTA and KMG can be viewed as two distinct cultural traditions, where the production of a specific bifacial tool concept was passed on over generations. Conversely, the MBT is interpreted as a border zone where highly mobile groups of Neanderthals from both the east (KMG) and west (MTA) interacted. Principally, this study presents an archaeological contribution to behavioural concepts such as regionality, culture, social transmission and

  3. Mountain building triggered late cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A Gates

    Full Text Available Prior studies of Mesozoic biodiversity document a diversity peak for dinosaur species in the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, yet have failed to provide explicit causal mechanisms. We provide evidence that a marked increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity can be attributed to dynamic orogenic episodes within the Western Interior Basin (WIB. Detailed fossil occurrences document an association between the shift from Sevier-style, latitudinally arrayed basins to smaller Laramide-style, longitudinally arrayed basins and a well substantiated decreased geographic range/increased taxonomic diversity of megaherbivorous dinosaur species. Dispersal-vicariance analysis demonstrates that the nearly identical biogeographic histories of the megaherbivorous dinosaur clades Ceratopsidae and Hadrosauridae are attributable to rapid diversification events within restricted basins and that isolation events are contemporaneous with known tectonic activity in the region. SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic divergence estimates of fossil clades offer a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone.

  4. Genomic predictors for treatment of late stage prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Shevrin


    Full Text Available In spite of the development of new treatments for late stage prostate cancer, significant challenges persist to match individuals with effective targeted therapies. Genomic classification using high-throughput sequencing technologies has the potential to achieve this goal and make precision medicine a reality in the management of men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. This chapter reviews some of the most recent studies that have resulted in significant progress in determining the landscape of somatic genomic alterations in this cohort and, more importantly, have provided clinically actionable information that could guide treatment decisions. This chapter reviews the current understanding of common alterations such as alterations of the androgen receptor and PTEN pathway, as well as ETS gene fusions and the growing importance of PARP inhibition. It also reviews recent studies that characterize the evolution to neuroendocrine tumors, which is becoming an increasingly important clinical problem. Finally, this chapter reviews recent innovative studies that characterize the compelling evolutionary history of lethal prostate cancer evidenced by polyclonal seeding and interclonal cooperation between metastasis and the importance of tumor clone dynamics measured serially in response to treatment. The genomic landscape of late stage prostate cancer is becoming better defined, and the prospect for assigning clinically actionable data to inform rationale treatment for individuals with this disease is becoming a reality.

  5. Eveningness as a risk for behavioral problems in late adolescence. (United States)

    Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri


    Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear. Accordingly, we studied how circadian rhythm estimated both by self-reported chronotype and by actigraph-defined midpoint of sleep was associated with self-reported psychiatric problems based on Youth Self Report (YSR). The study builds on a community cohort born in 1998, Helsinki, Finland. At age 17 years (mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years), 183 adolescents (65.6% of the invited) participated in the study. We used the shortened version of the Horne-Östberg morningness-eveningness Questionnaire to define the chronotype, and actigraphs to define the naturally occur circadian rhythm over a 4 to 17 days' period (mean nights N = 8.3, SD = 1.8). The Achenbach software was used to obtain T-score values for YSR psychiatric problem scales. The analyses were adjusted for important covariates including gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, pubertal maturation, mother's licorice consumption during pregnancy, and actigraph-defined sleep duration and quality. Eveningness was associated with higher scores in rule-breaking behavior and conduct problems (as assessed either by midpoint of sleep or by self-reported chronotype, p-values adolescents, is also present in late adolescence when circadian rhythms shift toward evening.

  6. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review (United States)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred


    The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

  7. [Occupational complexity and late-life memory and reasoning abilities]. (United States)

    Ishioka, Yoshiko; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Megumi; Ogawa, Madoka; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro


    This study examined the associations between the complexity of an individual's primary lifetime occupation and his or her late-life memory and reasoning performance, using data from 824 community-dwelling participants aged 69-72 years. The complexity of work with data, people, and things was evaluated based on the Japanese job complexity score. The associations between occupational complexity and participant's memory and reasoning abilities were examined in multiple regression analyses. An association was found between more comple work with people and higher memory performance, as well as between more complex work with data and higher reasoning performance, after having controlled for gender, school records, and education. Further, an interaction effect was observed between gender and complexity of work with data in relation to reasoning performance: work involving a high degree of complexity with data was associated with high reasoning performance in men. These findings suggest the need to consider late-life cognitive functioning within the context of adulthood experiences, specifically those related to occupation and gender.

  8. Late Time Acceleration From Matter-Curvature Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zaregonbadi, Raziyeh


    We consider f(R,T) modified theory of gravity, in which, in general, the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We mainly focus on a particular model wherein matter is minimally coupled to the geometry in the metric formalism. In this type of the theory, the coupling energy-momentum tensor is not conserved; it determines the appearance of an extra force acting on the particles, and can cause the late time acceleration in the evolution of the universe. To check such a kind of effect, we obtain the corresponding Raychaudhuri dynamical equation that gives the evolution of the kinematic quantities. Then for the chosen model, we derive the behavior of the deceleration parameter, and show that the coupling term can cover the dynamic of the universe in the late time accelerating phase. On the other hand, the curvature of the universe corresponds with the deviation from parallelism in the geodesic motion. Thus, we also scrutinize the...

  9. The Late Stage of T Cell Development within Mouse Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifeng Chen


    After positive selection and lineage commitment, the TCRαβ+CD4/CD8 SP medullary thymocytes migrate into and reside in thymic medulla, where they undergo an ordered program of late stage of T cell functional maturation and negative selection to delete self-reactive clones by apoptosis. Accomplishment of this final differentiation pathway, a physiological T cell repertoire is formed : T cells acquire immunocompetence to respond to foreign antigens and tolerance to self-antigens, ready for the emigration to homing to the T cell regions of peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In this review, emphases are put on introducing the approaches applied in this area and our own observations. Basically, we have analyzed the late stage of medullary thymocyte phenotypic differentiation pathways of both CD4 SP and CD8 SP medullary thymocytes and the concomitant functional maturation pathway, in particular, of CD4 SP thymocytes. It is to provide a standard to compare the functional capacity of the cells at the developmental stages induced by different conditions. The cellular and molecular basis of this differentiation process has been partially described. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):3-11.

  10. The Late Stage of T Cell Development within Mouse Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    After positive selection and lineage commitment, the TCRαβ+CD4/CD8 SP medullary thymocytes migrate into and reside in thymic medulla, where they undergo an ordered program of late stage of T cell functional maturation and negative selection to delete self-reactive clones by apoptosis. Accomplishment of this final differentiation pathway, a physiological T cell repertoire is formed: T cells acquire immunocompetence to respond to foreign antigens and tolerance to self-antigens, ready for the emigration to homing to the T cell regions of peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In this review, emphases are put on introducing the approaches applied in this area and our own observations. Basically, we have analyzed the late stage of medullary thymocyte phenotypic differentiation pathways of both CD4 SP and CD8 SP medullary thymocytes and the concomitant functional maturation pathway, in particular, of CD4 SP thymocytes. It is to provide a standard to compare the functional capacity of the cells at the developmental stages induced by different conditions. The cellular and molecular basis of this differentiation process has been partially described. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):3-11.

  11. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic. (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer


    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV


    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  13. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

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    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  14. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction. (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie


    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  15. Late Cenozoic sedimentary and tectonic history of south Buton, Indonesia (United States)

    Fortuin, A. R.; De Smet, M. E. M.; Hadiwasastra, S.; Van Marle, L. J.; Troelstra, S. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.

    A description and interpretation are given of the Upper Cenozoic sedimentary record of south Buton. Various sections and outcrops were studied and sampled for their microfossil content, to provide age and paleobathymetrical data. Together with information from the literature, these data from the base for a geohistory analysis to evaluate the vertical motions. Deposition started some 11 Ma ago, after the main deformation of the island, which was related to the collision of a microplate carrying Buton, with the southeast arm of Sulawesi. Coarse and fine terrigenous debris accumulated in a rapidly subsiding foreland basin; subsidence may have exceeded 100 cm/ka. When the rate of subsidence decreased a late Miocene-early Pliocene period of quiet pelagic sedimentation followed. From the late Pliocene onwards (around 3.5 Ma BP) an overall uplift took place, with rates between 30-120 cm/ka. This drastic change is explained by the collision of Buton with a submerged microcontinent that presently forms the Tukang Besi platform, situated southeast of Buton, which interaction resulted in wrench type tectonics and a clockwise rotation of over 60° for south Buton.

  16. Interaction of late apoptotic and necrotic cells with vitronectin.

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    Ondrej Stepanek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitronectin is an abundant plasma glycoprotein identified also as a part of extracellular matrix. Vitronectin is substantially enriched at sites of injured, fibrosing, inflamed, and tumor tissues where it is believed to be involved in wound healing and tissue remodeling. Little is known about the mechanism of vitronectin localization into the damaged tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2E12 antibody has been described to bind a subset of late apoptotic cells. Using immunoisolation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified the antigen recognized by 2E12 antibody as vitronectin. Based on flow cytometry, we described that vitronectin binds to the late apoptotic and necrotic cells in cell cultures in vitro as well as in murine thymus and spleen in vivo. Confocal microscopy revealed that vitronectin binds to an intracellular cytoplasmic structure after the membrane rupture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that vitronectin could serve as a marker of membrane disruption in necrosis and apoptosis for flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we suggest that vitronectin binding to dead cells may represent one of the mechanisms of vitronectin incorporation into the injured tissues.

  17. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, Matt, E-mail: [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, Wales (United Kingdom)


    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  18. Dark Matter from Late Invisible Decays to/of Gravitinos

    CERN Document Server

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Queiroz, Farinaldo S; Strigari, Louis E; Wang, Mei-Yu


    In this work, we sift a simple supersymmetric framework of late invisible decays to/of the gravitino. We investigate two cases where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle or the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. The next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle decays into two dark matter candidates and has a long lifetime due to gravitationally suppressed interactions. However, because of the absence of any hadronic or electromagnetic products, it satisfies the tight bounds set by big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwaved background. One or both of the dark matter candidates produced in invisible decays can contribute to the amount of dark radiation and suppress perturbations at scales that are being probed by the galaxy power spectrum and the Lyman-alpha forest data. We show that these constraints are satisfied in large regions of the parameter space and, as a result, the late invisible decays to/of the gravitino can be responsible for the entire dark matter relic abundance.

  19. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease

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    Mohamed Ouladsaiad


    Full Text Available Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years. Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it.

  20. Late-onset psychosis and risedronate treatment for osteoporosis. (United States)

    Hirschmann, Shmuel; Gibel, Anatoly; Tsvelikhovsky, Irena; Lisker, Alexander


    As women age and enter menopause, they are sometimes more susceptible than men to certain physical and mental disorders such as osteoporosis and late-onset schizophrenia. Risedronate (Actonel©) is a bisphosphonate used for the treatment of osteopenia. Early initiation of pharmacotherapy for osteopenia is recommended to prevent greater bone loss. The most common side effects of risedronate include fever and flu-like symptoms, hypocalcemia, bone and joint pain, peripheral edema, fatigue, change in bowel movements, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atrial fibrillation. Though reports in the professional literature of psychotic reactions to risedronate are scant, there have been FDA reports as well as patient discussions of psychiatric side effects from this medication on popular websites. We report the case of M, age 59, who was treated with risedronate for osteoporosis, and was subsequently diagnosed with atypical psychosis after other organic causes were excluded. Though it is conceivable that age-related psychosocial and physical factors triggered late-onset schizophrenia, the temporal relationship between the termination of treatment with risedronate and the improvement in her mental state suggests that the risedronate might have triggered a psychotic reaction that resolved following cessation of treatment.

  1. Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler


    Understanding the cause of late Quaternary mammal extinctions is the subject of intense debate spanning the fields of archeology and paleontology. In the global context, the losses on continental Africa have received little attention and are poorly understood. This study aims to inspire new discussion of African extinctions through a review of the extinct species and the chronology and possible causes of those extinctions. There are at least 24 large mammal (> 5 kg) species known to have disappeared from continental Africa during the late Pleistocene or Holocene, indicating a much greater taxonomic breadth than previously recognized. Among the better sampled taxa, these losses are restricted to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene, between 13,000 and 6000 yrs ago. The African extinctions preferentially affected species that are grazers or prefer grasslands. Where good terrestrial paleoenvironmental records are present, extinctions are associated with changes in the availability, productivity, or structure of grassland habitats, suggesting that environmental changes played a decisive role in the losses. In the broader evolutionary context, these extinctions represent recent examples of selective taxonomic winnowing characterized by the loss of grassland specialists and the establishment of large mammal communities composed of more ecologically flexible taxa over the last million years. There is little reason to believe that humans played an important role in African extinctions.

  2. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi


    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  3. Refsum Disease Presenting with a Late-Onset Leukodystrophy. (United States)

    Bompaire, Flavie; Marcaud, Véronique; Trionnaire, Emmanuelle Le; Sedel, Frédéric; Levade, Thierry


    Adult Refsum disease is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by phytanic acid storage. Clinical symptoms usually begin in late childhood before the age of 20. Typical clinical presentation includes nyctalopia caused by retinitis pigmentosa, and anosmia. After 10-15 years, deafness, cerebellar ataxia, polyneuropathy, ichthyosis, and cardiac arrhythmia can occur.We report the case of a very late-onset adult Refsum disease presenting with marked cognitive decline and severe leukoencephalopathy, without peripheral nervous system involvement. Brain MRI showed a leukoencephalopathy involving the periventricular white matter, subcortical area, and the brainstem with relative sparing of juxtacortical U fibers. This was associated with severe cortical and subcortical atrophy with ventricle dilatation. MR spectroscopy showed a marked increase in the choline/NAA ratio. Elevated plasma phytanic acid level was found, whereas plasma levels of pristanic and very long chain fatty acids were normal. The patient is homozygous for a previously undescribed PHYH frameshift mutation. Whether the very unusual phenotype is related to this peculiar mutation remains unclear.

  4. A postal survey of maternal sleep in late pregnancy

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    Hutchison B Lynne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances in late pregnancy are common. This study aimed to survey sleep problems in third trimester pregnant women and to compare sleep in the pre-pregnancy period with the third trimester. Methods Third-trimester women (n=650 were sent a postal survey containing questions relating to sleep experience, including perceived sleep quality, sleep difficulties, night waking, sleep environment, snoring, daytime tiredness and daytime napping. Time periods reported on were before pregnancy and in the last week. Results Respondents numbered 244 (38%. Before pregnancy, the mean reported duration of night-time sleep was 8.1 (SD 1.1 hours; in the last week this had decreased to 7.5 (SD 1.8 hours (p10 prior to pregnancy, whereas in the last week 33% scored in the abnormal range. Likewise, 5% had regularly napped during the daytime before pregnancy, compared with 41% in the last week. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in women in late pregnancy, and increase markedly compared with before pregnancy.

  5. FGLamide Allatostatin genes in Arthropoda: introns early or late? (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S


    FGLamide allatostatins are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders and also show myomodulatory activity. The FGLamide allatostatin (AST) gene structure in Dictyoptera is intronless within the ORF, whereas in 9 species of Diptera, the FGLamide AST ORF has one intron. To investigate the evolutionary history of AST intron structure, (intron early versus intron late hypothesis), all available Arthropoda FGLamide AST gene sequences were examined from genome databases with reference to intron presence and position/phase. Three types of FGLamide AST ORF organization were found: intronless in I. scapularis and P. humanus corporis; one intron in D. pulex, A. pisum, A. mellifera and five Drosophila sp.; two introns in N. vitripennis, B. mori strains, A. aegypti, A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. The literature suggests that for the majority of genes examined, most introns exist between codons (phase 0) which may reflect an ancient function of introns to separate protein modules. 60% of the FGLamide AST ORFs introns were between the first and second base within a codon (phase 1), 28% were between the second and third nucleotides within a codon (phase two) and 12% were phase 0. As would be required for correct intron splicing consensus sequence, 84% of introns were in codons starting with guanine. The positioning of introns was a maximum of 9 codons from a dibasic cleavage site. Our results suggest that the introns in the analyzed species support the intron late model.

  6. Late time cosmic acceleration from natural infrared cutoff?

    CERN Document Server

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali


    In this paper, inspired by the ultraviolet deformation of the Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker geometry in loop quantum cosmology, we formulate an infrared-modified cosmological model. We obtain the associated deformed Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and we show that the late time cosmic acceleration can be addressed by the infrared corrections. As a particular example, we applied the setup to the case of matter dominated universe. This model has the same number of parameters as $\\Lambda$CDM, but a dynamical dark energy generates in the matter dominated era at the late time. According to our model, as the universe expands, the energy density of the cold dark matter dilutes and when the Hubble parameter approaches to its minimum, the infrared effects dominate such that the effective equation of state parameter smoothly changes from $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=0$ to $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=-2$. Interestingly and nontrivially, the unstable de Sitter phase with $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=-1$ is corresponding to $\\Omega_m=\\Omega_d ...

  7. Wave propagation in gravitational systems late time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, E S C; Suen, W M; Young, K


    It is well-known that the dominant late time behavior of waves propagating on a Schwarzschild spacetime is a power-law tail; tails for other spacetimes have also been studied. This paper presents a systematic treatment of the tail phenomenon for a broad class of models via a Green's function formalism and establishes the following. (i) The tail is governed by a cut of the frequency Green's function \\tilde G(\\omega) along the -~Im~\\omega axis, generalizing the Schwarzschild result. (ii) The \\omega dependence of the cut is determined by the asymptotic but not the local structure of space. In particular it is independent of the presence of a horizon, and has the same form for the case of a star as well. (iii) Depending on the spatial asymptotics, the late time decay is not necessarily a power law in time. The Schwarzschild case with a power-law tail is exceptional among the class of the potentials having a logarithmic spatial dependence. (iv) Both the amplitude and the time dependence of the tail for a broad cla...

  8. Masters of adaptation: learning in late life adjustments. (United States)

    Roberson, Donald N


    The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship between human development in older adults and personal learning. Personal or self-directed learning (SDL) refers to a style of learning where the individual directs, controls, and evaluates what is learned. It may occur with formal classes, but most often takes place in non-formal situations. This study employed a descriptive qualitative design incorporating in-depth, semistructured interviews for data collection. The sample of 10 purposefully selected older adults from a rural area reflected diversity in gender, race, education, and employment. Data analysis was guided by the constant comparative method. The primary late life adjustments of these older adults were in response to having extra time, changes in family, and social and physical loss. This research also indicated that late life adjustments are a primary incentive for self-directed learning. The results of this study indicated that older adults become masters of adaptation through the use of self-directed learning activities.

  9. Metaphors of Collecting in Late Nineteenth Century Paris

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    Valerie Mendelson


    Full Text Available At the same time that Aby Warburg was assembling his library and organizing his 'Bildatlas Mnemosyne', art critics and writers theorized late nineteenth-century collecting in Paris in metaphoric terms. Over and again, art collections were described as a bouquet, a conversation, a book, or indeed as a painting in and of itself put together by an ‘amateur’. By creating an ensemble, the amateur proposed a metaphorical mode of knowledge similar to that celebrated by Aby Warburg. This article considers the ways in which the arrangement and spaces of the late nineteenth-century amateurs, as seen in newspaper articles, sales catalogue essays and other texts and photographs, positioned the collector of paintings, but also of drawings and prints and rare books, in contradistinction to the development of the museum and proposed alternative modes of viewing and of knowing. The interdisciplinarity of Warburg’s focus on image, word, orientation and action is paralleled in many private collections.

  10. On the late spectral types of cataclysmic variable secondaries

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I


    We investigate why the spectral type of most cataclysmic variable (CV) secondaries is significantly later than that of a ZAMS star with the same mean density. Using improved stellar input physics, tested against observations of low-mass stars at the bottom of the main sequence, we calculate the secular evolution of CVs with low-mass donors. We consider sequences with different mass transfer rates and with a different degree of nuclear evolution of the donor prior to mass transfer. Systems near the upper edge of the gap ($P \\sim 3 - 6$ h) can be reproduced by models with a wide range of mass transfer rates from $1.5 \\times 10^{-9} \\msolyr$ to $10^{-8} \\msolyr$. Evolutionary sequences with a small transfer rate and donors that are substantially evolved off the ZAMS (central hydrogen content $0.05-0.5$) reproduce CVs with late spectral types above $P \\simgr$ 6 h. Systems with the most discrepant (late) spectral type should have the smallest donor mass at any given $P$. Consistency with the period gap suggests th...

  11. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios


    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene (~13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between ~7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  12. Late photography, military landscapes, and the politics of memory

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    Simon Faulkner


    Full Text Available This essay considers the photographic genre of ‘late photography’ that has emerged roughly over the last two decades. Late photographs picture material remains left in the aftermath of events that often involve forms of violence. These photographs are usually high in detail, but formally simple, framing aftermath sites in ways that suggest the reservation of judgement and commentary upon the things they picture. This gives the impression that such photographs are intended to distance the spectator from the political meanings of the events or situations to which they refer. The discussion presented in the essay suggests that it is this apparent distancing from the political that opens up possibilities for the imaginative rethinking of how the past might function in relation to the politics of the present. The essay explores these concerns through the discussion of photographs by Simon Norfolk, Angus Boulton, Gilad Ophir and Roi Kuper, in relation to two historical and political contexts: the Cold War, considered briefly in relation to Boulton’s work and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, considered more extensively in relation to the work of Norfolk, Ophir, and Kuper.

  13. Late Devonian conodonts and event stratigraphy in northwestern Algerian Sahara (United States)

    Mahboubi, Abdessamed; Gatovsky, Yury


    Conodonts recovered from the Late Devonian South Marhouma section comprise 5 genera with 31 species (3 undetermined). The fauna establishes the presence of MN Zones 5, undifferentiated 6/7, 8/10 for the Middle Frasnian, the MN Zones 11, 12, 13 for the Upper Frasnian as well as the Early through Late triangularis Zones in the basal Famennian. The outcropping lithological succession is one of mostly nodular calcilutites alternating with numerous marly and shaly deposits, which, in the lower and upper part, comprise several dysoxic dark shale intervals. Among these the Upper Kellwasser horizon can be precisely dated and as such the presence of the terminal Frasnian Kellwasser Event is recognized for the first time in Algeria. Both the Middlesex and Rhinestreet Events cannot yet be precisely located, but supposedly occur among the dark shale horizons in the lower part of the section. However, their assignment to a precise level has so far not been established. Though poor in conodont abundance the South Marhouma section provides first evidence of the presence of several Montagne Noire conodont zones within the so far widely unstudied Frasnian of the Ougarta Chain. As such it is considered representative for the northwestern Algerian Saoura region.

  14. Late presentation of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Georgios I


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is an inherited myocardial disease affecting predominantly young people and manifests as sustained ventricular tachycardia with left bundle branch block morphology, sudden death or isolated right or biventricular heart failure. However, its first manifestation as sustained ventricular tachycardia in older patients without preceding symptoms of heart failure is infrequent. To our knowledge, our patient is among the oldest reported in the literature presenting with ventricular tachycardia because of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy without preceding symptoms of heart failure. Case presentation We present an unusual case of a very late presentation of a right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a 72-year-old white Caucasian man. The patient was admitted with symptoms of weakness, dizziness and chest discomfort for several hours. His electrocardiogram showed a wide-complex tachycardia with left bundle branch block morphology and left axis deviation. Because of continuing hemodynamic instability, the patient was cardioverted to sinus rhythm with a single 300 J shock. His post-cardioversion electrocardiogram, cardiac echocardiogram, coronary angiogram, magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological study confirmed the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. The patient was treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and discharged on sotalol. Conclusion This case report demonstrates that arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy may have a very late presentation and this diagnosis should be considered as a potential cause of sustained ventricular tachycardia of right ventricular origin among the elderly and should be treated accordingly.

  15. Encephalocele presented in late third trimester: a case report

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    Hemant G. Deshpande


    Full Text Available In present era, most of the NTDs are diagnosed at quite early gestation, thanks to advancement in imaging technology. So it is rare to see a case of NTD in late gestational age. Encephalocele is still rare type of NTD, when we come across such a case in late gestational period associated with another risk factor (Previous LSCS, it can really present a challenge for management. We had to face such a case requiring skillful management. A 23 year, G2 P1 L1 with previous LSCS was referred to our institution for severe anemia. USG showed 37 weeks single, live fetus with absence of cranial vault and irregular compressed cystic structure attached to vault attached in occipital region. Previous USG done at 12 weeks showed no abnormality, while USG at 27 weeks showed Acrania. Ideal management of this patient could have been done if this anomaly was diagnosed before 20 weeks where option of MTP was clearly available. Though with high resolution technical and instrument and with expert sonologist encephalocele can be diagnosed by 14 weeks. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 460-462

  16. Discovery of Dihydrobenzoxazepinone (GS-6615) Late Sodium Current Inhibitor (Late INai), a Phase II Agent with Demonstrated Preclinical Anti-Ischemic and Antiarrhythmic Properties. (United States)

    Zablocki, Jeff A; Elzein, Elfatih; Li, Xiaofen; Koltun, Dmitry O; Parkhill, Eric Q; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Martinez, Ruben; Corkey, Britton; Jiang, Haibo; Perry, Thao; Kalla, Rao; Notte, Gregory T; Saunders, Oliver; Graupe, Michael; Lu, Yafan; Venkataramani, Chandru; Guerrero, Juan; Perry, Jason; Osier, Mark; Strickley, Robert; Liu, Gongxin; Wang, Wei-Qun; Hu, Lufei; Li, Xiao-Jun; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Kahlig, Kris; Xie, Cheng; Li, Cindy Hong; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Rajamani, Sridharan; Mollova, Nevena; Soohoo, Daniel; Lepist, Eve-Irene; Murray, Bernard; Rhodes, Gerry; Belardinelli, Luiz; Desai, Manoj C


    Late sodium current (late INa) is enhanced during ischemia by reactive oxygen species (ROS) modifying the Nav 1.5 channel, resulting in incomplete inactivation. Compound 4 (GS-6615, eleclazine) a novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of late INa, is currently in clinical development for treatment of long QT-3 syndrome (LQT-3), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and ventricular tachycardia-ventricular fibrillation (VT-VF). We will describe structure-activity relationship (SAR) leading to the discovery of 4 that is vastly improved from the first generation late INa inhibitor 1 (ranolazine). Compound 4 was 42 times more potent than 1 in reducing ischemic burden in vivo (S-T segment elevation, 15 min left anteriorior descending, LAD, occlusion in rabbits) with EC50 values of 190 and 8000 nM, respectively. Compound 4 represents a new class of potent late INa inhibitors that will be useful in delineating the role of inhibitors of this current in the treatment of patients.

  17. Two-temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping

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    Reis Arthur H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conventional PCR, total amplicon yield becomes independent of starting template number as amplification reaches plateau and varies significantly among replicate reactions. This paper describes a strategy for reconfiguring PCR so that the signal intensity of a single fluorescent detection probe after PCR thermal cycling reflects genomic composition. The resulting method corrects for product yield variations among replicate amplification reactions, permits resolution of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes based on endpoint fluorescence signal intensities, and readily identifies imbalanced allele ratios equivalent to those arising from gene/chromosomal duplications. Furthermore, the use of only a single colored probe for genotyping enhances the multiplex detection capacity of the assay. Results Two-Temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping combines Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE-PCR (an advanced form of asymmetric PCR that efficiently generates single-stranded DNA and mismatch-tolerant probes capable of detecting allele-specific targets at high temperature and total single-stranded amplicons at a lower temperature in the same reaction. The method is demonstrated here for genotyping single-nucleotide alleles of the human HEXA gene responsible for Tay-Sachs disease and for genotyping SNP alleles near the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. In each case, the final probe signals were normalized against total single-stranded DNA generated in the same reaction. Normalization reduces the coefficient of variation among replicates from 17.22% to as little as 2.78% and permits endpoint genotyping with >99.7% accuracy. These assays are robust because they are consistent over a wide range of input DNA concentrations and give the same results regardless of how many cycles of linear amplification have elapsed. The method is also sufficiently powerful to distinguish between samples with a 1:1 ratio of two alleles from samples comprised of

  18. Two-temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping (United States)

    Sanchez, J Aquiles; Abramowitz, Jessica D; Salk, Jesse J; Reis, Arthur H; Rice, John E; Pierce, Kenneth E; Wangh, Lawrence J


    Background In conventional PCR, total amplicon yield becomes independent of starting template number as amplification reaches plateau and varies significantly among replicate reactions. This paper describes a strategy for reconfiguring PCR so that the signal intensity of a single fluorescent detection probe after PCR thermal cycling reflects genomic composition. The resulting method corrects for product yield variations among replicate amplification reactions, permits resolution of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes based on endpoint fluorescence signal intensities, and readily identifies imbalanced allele ratios equivalent to those arising from gene/chromosomal duplications. Furthermore, the use of only a single colored probe for genotyping enhances the multiplex detection capacity of the assay. Results Two-Temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping combines Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE)-PCR (an advanced form of asymmetric PCR that efficiently generates single-stranded DNA) and mismatch-tolerant probes capable of detecting allele-specific targets at high temperature and total single-stranded amplicons at a lower temperature in the same reaction. The method is demonstrated here for genotyping single-nucleotide alleles of the human HEXA gene responsible for Tay-Sachs disease and for genotyping SNP alleles near the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. In each case, the final probe signals were normalized against total single-stranded DNA generated in the same reaction. Normalization reduces the coefficient of variation among replicates from 17.22% to as little as 2.78% and permits endpoint genotyping with >99.7% accuracy. These assays are robust because they are consistent over a wide range of input DNA concentrations and give the same results regardless of how many cycles of linear amplification have elapsed. The method is also sufficiently powerful to distinguish between samples with a 1:1 ratio of two alleles from samples comprised of 2:1 and 1:2 ratios of the

  19. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinab Mousavi


    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  20. Intracoronary adenosine improves myocardial perfusion in late reperfused myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Background Myocardial perfusion associates with clinical syndromes and prognosis.Adenosine could improve myocardial perfusion of acute myocardial infarction within 6 hours,but few data are available on late perfusion of myocardial infarction (MI).This study aimed at quantitatively evaluating the value of intracoronary adenosine improving myocardial perfusion in late reperfused MI with myocardial contrast echocardiography(MCE).Methods Twenty-six patients with anterior wall infarcts were divided randomly into 2 groups:adenosine group(n=12) and normal saline group(n=14).Their history of myocardial infarction was about 3-12 weeks.Adenosine or normalsaline was given when the guiding wire crossed the lesion through percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI),then the balloon was dilated and stent(Cypher/Cypher select)was implanted at the lesion.Contrast pulse sequencing MCE with Sonovue contrast via the coronary route was done before PCI and 30 minutes after PCI.Video densitometry and contrast filled-blank area were calculated with the CUSQ off-line software.Heart function and cardiac events were followed up within 30 days.Results Perfusion in the segments of the criminal occlusive coronary artery in the adenosine group was better than that in the saline group(5.71±0.29 vs 4.95±1.22,P<0.05).Ischemic myocardial segment was deminished significantly afterPCI,but the meliorated area was bigger in the adenosine group than in the saline group((1.56±0.60)cm2 vs(1.02±0.56) cm2,P<0.05).The video densitometry in critical segments was also improved significantly in the adenosine group (5.53±0.36 vs 5.26±0.35,P<0.05).Left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)was improved in all patients after PCI,but EF was not significant between the two groups((67±6)% vs(62±7)%,P>0.05).There was no in-hospital or 30-day major adverse cardiac event(MACE)in the adenosine group but 3 MACE in the saline group in 30 days after PCI.Conclusions Adenosine could improve myocardial microvascular

  1. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (United States)


    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure – N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). Results During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Conclusions In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention. PMID:24893787

  2. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.


    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  3. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the late Cenozoic Qaidam Basin, China (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, X.; Deng, T.; Tseng, Z. J.; Takeuchi, G.; Xie, G.; Xu, Y.


    Reconstruction of paleoenvironments in the Tibetan region is important to understanding the linkage between tectonic force and climate change. Here we report new isotope data from the Qaidam Basin, China, which is located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, including stable C and O isotope analyses of a wide variety of late Cenozoic mammalian tooth enamel samples (including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant), and O isotope compositions of phosphate (δ18Op) in fish bone samples. Mammalian tooth enamel δ13C values, when combined with fossil assemblage and other geological evidence, indicate that the Qaidam Basin was warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene, and that there was lush C3 vegetation with significant C4 components at that time, although the C4 plants were not consistently utilized. In contrast, the modern Qaidam Basin is dominated by C3 plants. Fish bone δ18Op values showed statistically significant enrichment from the Tuxi-Shengou-Naoge interval (late Miocene) to the Yahu interval (early Pliocene) and from the Yahu interval to the present day. This most likely reflects increases in the δ18O of lake water over time, as a result of increased aridification of the Qaidam Basin. Assuming that mammals drank exclusively from the lake, temperatures were calculated from average δ18Op values and average δ18Ow derived from large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. Temperatures were also estimated from δ18Op and δ18Ow estimated from co-ocurring large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. The temperature estimates were all lower than the average temperature of the modern Qinghai Lake surface water during the summer, and mostly too low to be reasonable, indicating that the fish and the large mammals were not in equilibrium with the same water. Assuming the relationship between salinity and δ18Ow observed for the modern Qinghai Lake and its surrounding lakes and ponds applied in the past, we calculated the paleosalinities of lake waters to be ~0 to

  4. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

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    Robert Hall


    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  5. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Graf, Norbert M. [University Hospital of the Saarland, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Homburg (Germany); Grundy, Paul [University of Alberta, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, and Northern Alberta Children' s Cancer Program, Edmonton (Canada); Godzinski, Jan [Mother and Child Institute, Department of Oncological Surgery for Children and Adolescents, Warsaw (Poland); Levitt, Gill A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children NHS Trust, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Jenkinson, Helen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Trust, Oncology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial

  6. The Additional Professional Training in the Late Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov


    Full Text Available The article reveals the experience of intensive organization and functioning of the system of additional professional training in the late imperial period of the Russian history, generated by the need of unfolded modernization in the country. The article is written on the basis of mass sources, including the regional archives of record keeping documentation and working in the mainstream of the study of basic organizational forms of additional training - agricultural courses, shopping classes and courses of technical drawing, also the author produces a macro shot of trends and directions, successes and challenges in its development. The additional professional training as a specific element of the education system of 20th century focusing on the real sector of economy has implemented the free practice-training based on the principles of interdisciplinarity, variability and the high role of self-education.

  7. Stellar Mass Assembly of Brightest Cluster Galaxies at Late Times

    CERN Document Server

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Huang, Hung-Jin; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Sugiyama, Naoshi


    Understanding the formation history of brightest cluster galaxies is an important topic in galaxy formation. Utilizing the Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich cluster catalog, and applying the Ansatz that the most massive halos at one redshift remain among the most massive ones at a slightly later cosmic epoch, we have constructed cluster samples at redshift z~0.4 and z~0.2 that can be statistically regarded as progenitor-descendant pairs. This allows us to study the stellar mass assembly history of BCGs in these massive clusters at late times, finding the degree of growth between the two epochs is likely at only few percent level, which is far lower compared to the prediction from a state-of-the-art semi-analytic galaxy formation model.

  8. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A


    in NW Europe and a table of the specific attributes of the most important fungicides in Europe are presented. The development and use of decision support systems (DSSs) in NW Europe are described. In The Netherlands, it is estimated that almost 40% of potato growers use recommendations based...... 20 years. The relative importance of the different primary inoculum sources and specific measures for reducing their role, such as covering dumps with plastic and preventing seed tubers from becoming infected, is described for the different regions. In NW Europe, varieties with greater resistance...... tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...

  9. Urban Planning and Territory in Hispania Late Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María- José Bravo-Bosch


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the reality of the cities of late antique Hispania, as well as the proliferation of the villae, a phenomena, which among others, is related to the tax burden imposed on citizens of the time. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this paper contextualizes the regulation of life in the urban and rural centers of Hispania, which were subject to numerous transformations, frozen in time, both from a historical perspective as well as archaeological, sociological, religious and legal point of view, while also demonstrating how the military was disorganized and unable to resolve problems on the borders. This paper also includes in its conclusions some necessary final reflections on this historic moment.

  10. DNS Study on Physics of Late Boundary Layer Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chaoqun


    This paper serves as a review of our recent new DNS study on physics of late boundary layer transition. This includes mechanism of the large coherent vortex structure formation, small length scale generation and flow randomization. The widely spread concept vortex breakdown to turbulence,which was considered as the last stage of flow transition, is not observed and is found theoretically incorrect. The classical theory on boundary layer transition is challenged and we proposed a new theory with five steps, i.e. receptivity, linear instability, large vortex formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. We have also proposed a new theory about turbulence generation. The new theory shows that all small length scales (turbulence) are generated by shear layer instability which is produced by large vortex structure with multiple level vortex rings, multiple level sweeps and ejections, and multiple level negative and positive spikes near the laminar sub-layers.Therefore,...

  11. Proteins encoded near the adenovirus late messenger RNA leader segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.B.; Anderson, C.W.


    Small fragments of adenovirus 2 DNA cloned into the single-strand phage M13 were used to select adenoviral messenger RNAs transcribed from the R-strand between map positions 16 and 30. Cell-free translation of these mRNAs produced proteins of 13.5K, 13.6K, and 11.5K, respectively encoded between the first and second segments of the tripartite major late leader, within the ''i''-leader segment, and immediately preceding the third leader segment. Partial sequence analysis of the 13.6K protein is consistent with the hypothesis that it is encoded within the i-leader segment.

  12. Late Onset Combined Immunodeficiency Presenting with Recurrent Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia (United States)

    Baraboutis, Ioannis G.; Karnesis, Lazaros


    Late onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID) is a recently described variant of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), involving adult patients presenting with opportunistic infections and/or low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. A 36-year-old male with unremarkable past medical history presented with fever, respiratory failure, and lymphocytopenia. He was found to have Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), subsequently complicated by recurrent hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and immune reconstitution phenomena, attributed to restoration of immunoglobulin levels. Clinicians should be aware of LOCID, which could be confused with HIV infection/AIDS or idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. In the English bibliography there is only one case report, where PJP was the initial presentation of CVID (that case would probably be classified as LOCID). Phenomena of immune reconstitution are described in various settings, including primary immunodeficiency, manifesting as temporary clinical and radiologic deterioration and leading to misperceptions of therapeutic failure and/or presence of alternative/additional diagnoses. PMID:24799913

  13. Late Onset Combined Immunodeficiency Presenting with Recurrent Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Papakonstantinou


    Full Text Available Late onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID is a recently described variant of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, involving adult patients presenting with opportunistic infections and/or low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. A 36-year-old male with unremarkable past medical history presented with fever, respiratory failure, and lymphocytopenia. He was found to have Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP, subsequently complicated by recurrent hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and immune reconstitution phenomena, attributed to restoration of immunoglobulin levels. Clinicians should be aware of LOCID, which could be confused with HIV infection/AIDS or idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. In the English bibliography there is only one case report, where PJP was the initial presentation of CVID (that case would probably be classified as LOCID. Phenomena of immune reconstitution are described in various settings, including primary immunodeficiency, manifesting as temporary clinical and radiologic deterioration and leading to misperceptions of therapeutic failure and/or presence of alternative/additional diagnoses.

  14. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

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    Mariegold E. Wollam


    Full Text Available Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013 when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms.

  15. Chad Basin: Paleoenvironments of the Sahara since the Late Miocene (United States)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Roquin, Claude; Sepulchre, Pierre; Moussa, Abderamane; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel


    Since the mid 1990s, the Mission paléoanthropologique francotchadienne (MPFT) conducts yearly paleontological field investigations of the Miocene-Pliocene of the Chad Basin. This article synthesizes some of the results of the MPFT, with focus on the Chad Basin development during the Neogene. We propose an overview of the depositional paleoenvironments of this part of Africa at different scales of time and space, based on a multidisciplinary approach (sedimentary geology, geomorphology, geophysic, numerical simulations and geochronology). The Miocene-Pliocene paleoenvironments are examined through the sedimentary archives of the early hominids levels and the Holocene Lake Mega-Chad episode illustrates the last major paleoenvironmental change in this area. The sedimentary record of the Chad Basin since the Late Miocene can be schematized as the result of recurrent interactions from lake to desert environments.

  16. Late-onset adenosine deaminase deficiency presenting with Heck's disease. (United States)

    Artac, Hasibe; Göktürk, Bahar; Bozdemir, Sefika Elmas; Toy, Hatice; van der Burg, Mirjam; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael; Reisli, Ismail


    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, also known as Heck's disease, is a rare but distinctive entity of viral etiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. It is a benign, asymptomatic disease of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). Previous studies postulated an association between these lesions and immunodeficiency. Genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase (ADA) results in varying degrees of immunodeficiency, including neonatal onset severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), and milder, later onset immunodeficiency. We report a 12-year-old girl with the late onset-ADA deficiency presenting with Heck's disease. Our case report should draw attention to the possibility of immunodeficiency in patients with HPV-induced focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  17. Does Preeclampsia Predict the Risk of Late Postpartum Eclampsia?

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    Diana S. Wolfe


    Full Text Available Objective - To investigate potential predictive symptoms of late postpartum eclampsia (LPE. Study Design - Retrospective review of patients delivered at a single academic medical center and diagnosed with eclampsia greater than 48 hours postdelivery. Results - Among 19 patients with eclampsia, 5 (26% patients with confirmed eclampsia seized greater than 48 hours after delivery. None of these patients showed evidence of preeclampsia intrapartum or immediately postpartum and none received intrapartum magnesium sulfate. Prior to seizure activity, 4 of 5 (80% patients had increased blood pressure and 2 of 5 (40% had central nervous system symptoms (headache and visual changes. Conclusion - Gestational hypertension (GHTN may be a risk factor for LPE. Consideration of seizure prophylaxis for patients with GHTN may facilitate the prevention of LPE.

  18. Huginn. A late-phase nuclear emergency exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, Bent (ed.) [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The Huginn late-phase exercise was carried out by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project group in the spring 2000. National teams from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden took part in the exercise. The objective of the exercise was to test the ability to calculate the radiological and economical consequences of various agricultural countermeasures following a nuclear accient. This report describes the findings of the four national teams, including the approaches made by the tesms, selection of countermeasures and the results of the cost-benefit analyses that they performed. The methods used and findings by the four teams have been compared and recommendations issued based on the exercise results. (au)

  19. Late adolescent perceptions of parent religiosity and parenting processes. (United States)

    Snider, J Blake; Clements, Andrea; Vazsonyi, Alexander T


    The current investigation examined the relations between adolescent reports of parent religiosity and parenting processes, using both a dimensional and a typological conceptualization of parenting. Self-report data were collected from 357 late adolescents. Partial correlations indicated that parent religiosity was associated with both parenting dimensions and parenting styles in conceptually expected directions. Regression analyses provided evidence that the dimensional conceptualization of parenting explained additional variability in perceived parental religiosity above and beyond parenting style effects. Findings suggest that a dimensional conceptualization of parenting processes extends the literature on parent religiosity because it yields more nuanced information about how parental religiosity may be related to differentiated parenting behaviors. Potential therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. [Pleural hernia of an esophageal graft--late postoperative complication]. (United States)

    Grabowski, K; Lewandowski, A; Moroń, K; Strutyńska-Karpińska, M; Błaszczuk, J; Machała, R


    Pleural hernia of the oesophageal substitute from pedicled intestinal segment is one of the late postoperative complications. 13 cases of patients with oesophagus reconstructed because of lye ingestion stenosis are presented. Problems concerning diagnosis and treatment of pleural hernia are analysed. Eight patients with minor symptoms were treated conservatively. Five patients were operated, two of them from acute necrosis of the substitute. Necrosis was caused by incarceration of the bowel and torsion of the mesentery. Elective operative treatment consisted of reduction of hernia sac contents, closing of the hernia orifice, chest drainage and temporary gastronomy. In patient operated as an emergency cases necrotic part of substitute was removed. This resulted in oesophageal exclusion in the neck, creating gastronomy. Chest drainage was also performed.

  1. SAT: a late NS protein of porcine parvovirus. (United States)

    Zádori, Zoltán; Szelei, József; Tijssen, Peter


    The genomes of all members of the Parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (ORF), designated SAT, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the VP2 initiation codon. Green fluorescent protein or FLAG fusion constructs of SAT demonstrated that these ORFs were expressed. Although the SAT proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stretch affected the localization of the SAT protein. SAT colocalized with calreticulin in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus. A knockout mutant (SAT(-)), with an unmodified VP sequence, showed a "slow-spreading" phenotype. These knockout mutants could be complemented with VP2(-) SAT(+) mutant. The SAT protein is a late nonstructural (NS) protein, in contrast to previously identified NS proteins, since it is expressed from the same mRNA as VP2.

  2. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T.; Gerz, T.; Doernbrack, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere


    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  3. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, Rafael C


    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the non-relativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state less than $-1$. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background.

  4. Late Spontaneous Migration of a Dorsal Column Stimulator Paddle Lead. (United States)

    Li, Chao; Galgano, Michael A; Carter, David A


    The most frequently encountered complication of dorsal column stimulators is lead migration. The vast majority of these events are seen in the first few weeks to months. Late paddle lead migration is a very uncommon occurrence in this setting. We describe a case of a 51-year-old male with a history of reflex sympathetic dystrophy having undergone dorsal column stimulator insertion at the level of C1-C2. A good clinical benefit was appreciated in the postoperative period once the stimulator was turned on. Approximately six months postoperatively, the patient suddenly lost coverage. Radiographic imaging revealed that the lead had migrated caudally to the C3-C4 level. Subsequent revision surgery took place. This description highlights a common complication, but occurring outside the expected time frame after surgery.

  5. Perfect fluids coupled to inhomogeneities in the late Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuk, Alexander


    We consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At such scales, the Universe is highly inhomogeneous and is filled with inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and the groups of galaxies. We also suggest that the Universe is filled with a perfect fluid, and its fluctuations have peculiar velocities of the same (non-relativistic) order of magnitude as for the inhomogeneities. In this sense, the inhomogeneities (e.g. galaxies) and fluctuations of perfect fluids are coupled with each other. We clarify some important points of this approach and present a brief review of previous studies (e.g. CPL model and Chaplygin gas). We demonstrate that considered perfect fluids which satisfy our approach are really coupled to galaxies concentrating around them. The averaged (over the whole Universe) value of their fluctuations is equal to zero.

  6. Late diagnosed Ochoa Syndrome: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Alves Antunes


    Full Text Available Ochoa syndrome, also known as urofacial syndrome, is a rare genetic disease (OMIM #236730 with autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the heparanase 2 (HPSE2 and the LRIG2 genes, characterized by functional obstructive uropathy and unusual facial abnormalities. Progression to renal failure if not early diagnosed is inevitable. The therapeutic goals are to restore bladder emptying, preventing damage to the urinary tract with the use of prophylactic antibiotics, clean intermittent catheterization, anticholinergic use, botulinum toxin injection, urinary diversion and bladder augmentation to slow the evolution of the disease. This article aims to report a patient with late diagnosis of Ochoa Syndrome, as well as describe its characteristics and clinical outcome.

  7. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija


    and usefulness of single financial ratios in short-term financial distress prediction when the effect of each different financial distress process stage is considered; (2) the effects of recognition of the financial distress process stage on the financial distress prediction model. The time horizon...... stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications......The present study adds to our understanding and knowledge of financial distress predictions regarding the usefulness of financial ratios in the late stages of the financial distress process. The study contributes to previous research by generating information concerning: (1) the behavior...

  8. School education, physical performance in late midlife and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse M.; Andersen, Lars L.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.;


    or secondary school (3 categories). Cumulative stress was operationalised as allostatic load (AL), and measured as the number of biological parameters (out of 14) in which participants scored in the poorest quartile. Physical performance included dynamic muscle performance (chair rise ability, postural balance......BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the social gradient in physical functioning are not fully understood. Cumulative physiological stress may be a pathway. The present study aimed to investigate the association between highest attained school education and physical performance in late midlife......, sagittal flexibility) and muscle strength (jump height, trunk extension and flexion, and handgrip strength). RESULTS: Among women, higher school education was associated with better performance in all physical performance tests. Among men, higher school education was associated with better performance only...

  9. Einstein Observatory coronal temperatures of late-type stars (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.


    The results are presented of a survey of the coronal temperatures of late-type stars using the Einstein Observatory IPC. The spectral analysis shows that the frequently found one- and two-temperature descriptions are mainly influenced by the SNR of the data and that models using continuous emission measure distributions can provide equally adequate and physically more meaningful and more plausible descriptions. Intrinsic differences in differential emission measure distributions are found for four groups of stars. M dwarfs generally show evidence for high-temperature gas in conjunction with lower-temperature material, while main-sequence stars of types F and G have the high-temperature component either absent or very weak. Very hot coronae without the lower-temperature component appearing in dwarf stars are evident in most of the giant stars studied. RS CVn systems show evidence for extremely hot coronae, sometimes with no accompanying lower-temperature material.

  10. New diagnosis myasthenia gravis and preeclampsia in late pregnancy. (United States)

    Ozcan, John; Balson, Ian Frank; Dennis, Alicia T


    Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease of neuromuscular transmission resulting in fatigable skeletal muscle weakness. Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease of pregnancy which is characterised by hypertension and involvement of one or more organ systems. Both diseases are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality for mother and fetus. The occurrence of both preeclampsia and myasthenia gravis in pregnancy is very rare, and conflicts arise when considering the optimal management of each disease.We present a case of a parturient who was newly diagnosed with both myasthenia gravis and preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Myasthenia treatment was started with prednisolone and pyridostigmine, and delivery was by caesarean section at 37 weeks gestation under spinal anaesthesia. Postnatally, the patient developed worsening of myasthenia and preeclampsia symptoms. We consider the anaesthetic implications for both diseases and describe our approach for the management of this case.

  11. Asphericity in supernova explosions from late-time spectroscopy. (United States)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Kawabata, Koji; Mazzali, Paolo A; Tanaka, Masaomi; Valenti, Stefano; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hattori, Takashi; Deng, Jinsong; Pian, Elena; Taubenberger, Stefan; Iye, Masanori; Matheson, Thomas; Filippenko, Alexei V; Aoki, Kentaro; Kosugi, George; Ohyama, Youichi; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Tadafumi


    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are the explosions that announce the death of massive stars. Some CC-SNe are linked to long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and are highly aspherical. One important question is to what extent asphericity is common to all CC-SNe. Here we present late-time spectra for a number of CC-SNe from stripped-envelope stars and use them to explore any asphericity generated in the inner part of the exploding star, near the site of collapse. A range of oxygen emission-line profiles is observed, including a high incidence of double-peaked profiles, a distinct signature of an aspherical explosion. Our results suggest that all CC-SNe from stripped-envelope stars are aspherical explosions and that SNe accompanied by GRBs exhibit the highest degree of asphericity.

  12. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period. (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M


    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

  13. Identity formation and social relations during late adolescence. (United States)

    Craig-Bray, L; Adams, G R; Dobson, W R


    Theoretical assumptions outlined by Erik Erikson on psychosocial crisis resolution hypothesizes that the positive resolution of the identity crisis is predictive of more mature intimacy formation. To test this hypothesis, college-aged late adolescents (48 subjects) completed interviews and selfreport instruments measuring identity formation and degree of intimacy along with daily records of social interactions for one week. Analyses indicated a complex association between identity and intimacy formation. Comparisons were made between the exploration and commitment process of identity and the measures of intimacy formation and social interaction measures. Numerous complex sex differences were observed with several interactions between gender, exploration, commitment, and intimacy context. Findings are discussed in terms of broadening future research direction beyond the simple study of the linkage of identity and intimacy.

  14. Late Holocene cooling event in the western Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翦知湣; 李保华; UwePflaumann; 汪品先


    Cores 255, 170, 17940-2, raised from the Okinawa Trough and South China Sea, have been studied for planktonic foraminifers. Among all the species, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata is shown to be sensitive to winter sea surface temperature in the late Quaternary in the western Pacific. Its relative abundance fluctuations are significant and correlatable between the cores. The most conspicuous change during Holocene is the P. obliquiloculata minimum zone around 4-2ka B. P., which correlates probably to the neoglacial cooling. The widespread occurrence of this cooling event in the western Pacific suggests that P. obliquiloculata is promising as a paleoceanographic and climatic monitor, possibly important for reconstructing sea-land correlation of climate.

  15. The Star Formation History of Late Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, R C


    The combination of huge databases of galaxy spectra and advances in evolutionary synthesis models in the past few years has renewed interest in an old question: How to estimate the star formation history of a galaxy out of its integrated spectrum? Fresh approaches to this classical problem are making it possible to extract the best of both worlds, producing exquisite pixel-by-pixel fits to galaxy spectra with state-of-the-art stellar population models while at the same time exploring the fabulous statistics of mega-surveys to derive the star-formation and chemical enrichment histories of different types of galaxies with an unprecedented level of detail. This review covers some of these recent advances, focusing on results for late-type, star-forming galaxies, and outlines some of the issues which will keep us busy in the coming years.

  16. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory. (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin; Droser, Mary; Mayer, Lawrence M; Pevear, David; Mrofka, David


    An enigmatic stepwise increase in oxygen in the late Precambrian is widely considered a prerequisite for the expansion of animal life. Accumulation of oxygen requires organic matter burial in sediments, which is largely controlled by the sheltering or preservational effects of detrital clay minerals in modern marine continental margin depocenters. Here, we show mineralogical and geochemical evidence for an increase in clay mineral deposition in the Neoproterozoic that immediately predated the first metazoans. Today most clay minerals originate in biologically active soils, so initial expansion of a primitive land biota would greatly enhance production of pedogenic clay minerals (the "clay mineral factory"), leading to increased marine burial of organic carbon via mineral surface preservation.

  17. Fatal Primary Capillary Leak Syndrome in a Late Preterm Newborn. (United States)

    Kulihova, Katarina; Prochazkova, Martina; Semberova, Jana; Janota, Jan


    Primary capillary leak syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by episodes of vascular collapse and plasma extravasation, which may lead to multiple organ failure. Primary capillary leak is extremely rare in children. The authors report a case of a late preterm newborn with fatal capillary leak syndrome of unknown etiology, manifesting as hypotension unresponsive to treatment, extravasation leading to generalised edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation and finally, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Aggressive volumotherapy and a combination of inotropes and high doses of terlipressin did not influence systemic vascular collapse and plasma extravasation. The newborn developed multiple organ failure and died on day 27 of life. Investigations performed failed to reveal any specific cause of capillary leak. This is the first report of a fatal primary capillary leak syndrome in a newborn.

  18. Errors in the Production of Adult Early and Late Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee


    Full Text Available This study examines the grammatical knowledge of adult second language (L2 learners and heritage speakers. Given the differences in the mode and age of acquisition between L2 learners (late bilinguals and heritage speakers (early bilinguals, the question arises as to whether and how these groups differ from each other in their knowledge of Korean. To address this question, the present study looks at the production of Korean relative clauses by three groups of learners (26 L2 learners, 11 simultaneous bilinguals, and 38 early sequential bilinguals. The results of a written production task showed that all three groups made similar types of errors such as those involving the use of incorrect word order and case markers. Yet differences were also observed in the nature of errors made by these three groups. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications are drawn for classroom instruction.

  19. Late-onset Pompe disease: first clinical description in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Nikitin


    Full Text Available Late-onset Pompe-disease (LOPD is an adult form of the glycogenosis type II. The age of onset ranges from 1 till 75 y.o. and older. The diagnosis of LOPD is based on the presence of trunk and limb-girdle muscle weakness with hyperlordosis, respiratory failure, ocasionally accompanied by cardiomyopathy, persistent mild elevation of creatine kinase, dry blood spot test of the enzyme activity and DNA-analysis of GAA-gene. Early recognition of the LOPD and beginning of the enzyme replacement therapy is important in preventing severe motor and respiratory deficit, the patient disability and in increasing the survival in those patients.

  20. [Late ulnar paralysis. Study of a series of 17 cases]. (United States)

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F


    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralyses are emphasized: very prolonged symptom free interval, rapid onset and severe involvement. Ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are undependable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal step of neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury.

  1. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco


    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  2. A long tailed bird from the Late Cretaceous of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正全; 赵丽君


    A new fossil bird was discovered from the lower part of Upper Cretaceous of Linhai, Zhejiang. With a long tail comprising more than 20 caudal vertebrae, this new brid is morphologically similar to that of Archaeopteryx. Meanwhile, it is similar to Confuciusornis in lacking in teeth. The bird shows the following plesiomorphies besides a long tail: elements of the forelimbs are simple in structure; bones of the manus are separate from one another and two digits are free; abdominal ribs are present. And the new bird shows some apomorphies: The skull bones are lightly built with no teeth; the hindlimbs are better developed than the forelimbs, the articular condyle of the femur is pronouced; the sternum is broad and long; the phalanges and unguals are small, showing its ground-dwelling habit. The fossil bird, coming from the rock of the Late Cretaceous in shouthem China, is very significant to the study of the evolution and relationships of birds.

  3. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late...... Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We interpret these fluctuations with a new carbon cycle model and demonstrate that all of the main features...... of the carbonate and organic carbon isotope record can be explained by the release of methane hydrates from an anoxic dissolved organic carbon-rich ocean into an atmosphere containing oxygen levels considerably less than today....

  4. Unifying inflation with late-time acceleration in BIonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Pradhan, Anirudh; Capozziello, Salvatore; Sardar, Iftikar Hossain


    In this research, we propose a new model that allows to unify inflation, deceleration and acceleration phases of expansion history in BIonic system. In this model, in the beginning, there have been $k$ black fundamental strings that transited to the BIon configuration at a corresponding point. At this point, two universe brane and universe antibrane have been created, interacted with each other via one wormhole and inflated. With decreasing temperature, the energy of this wormhole flowed into universe branes and lead to inflation. After a short time, wormhole died, inflation ended and deceleration epoch started. With approaching two universe brane and antibrane together, tachyon was born, grew and caused creation of one new wormhole. At this time, two universe brane and antibrane connected again and late-time acceleration era of the universe began. We compare our model with previous unified phantom model and observational data and obtain some cosmological parameters like temperature in terms of time. We also ...

  5. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Asai


    Full Text Available Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61. All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6–14 days (median: 10 after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  6. Fast Vegetational Responses to Late-Glacial Climate Change (United States)

    Williams, J. W.; Post, D. M.; Cwynar, L. C.; Lotter, A. F.; Levesque, A. J.


    How rapidly can natural ecosystems respond to rapid climate change? This question can be addressed by studying paired paleoecological and paleoclimatological records spanning the last deglaciation. Between 16 and 10 ka, abrupt climatic oscillations (e.g. Younger Dryas, Gerzensee/Killarney Oscillations) interrupted the general warming trend. Rates of climate change during these events were as fast or faster than projected rates of change for this century. We compiled a dozen high-resolution lacustrine records in North America and Europe with a pollen record and independent climatic proxy, a clear Younger Dryas signal, and good age control. Cross-correlation analysis suggests that vegetation responded rapidly to late-glacial climate change, with significant changes in vegetation composition occurring within the lifespan of individual trees. At all sites, vegetation lagged climate by less than 200 years, and at two-thirds of the sites, the initial vegetational response occurred within 100 years. The finding of rapid vegetational responses is consistent across sites and continents, and is similar to the 100-200 year response times predicted by gap-scale forest models. Likely mechanisms include 1) increased susceptibility of mature trees to disturbances such as fire, wind, and disease, thereby opening up gaps for colonization, 2) the proximity of these sites to late-glacial treeline, where climate may directly control plant population densities and range limits, 3) the presence of herbaceous taxa with short generation times in these plant communities, and 4) rapid migration due to rare long-distance seed dispersals. Our results are consistent with reports that plant ranges are already shifting in response to recent climate change, and suggest that these shifts will persist for the next several centuries. Widespread changes in plant distributions may affect surface-atmosphere interactions and will challenge attempts to manage ecosystems and conserve biodiversity.

  7. Gender Differences in Anxiety Trajectories from Middle to Late Adolescence. (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Milan, Stephanie; Vannucci, Anna


    Although developmental trajectories of anxiety symptomatology have begun to be explored, most research has focused on total anxiety symptom scores during childhood and early adolescence, using racially/ethnically homogenous samples. Understanding the heterogeneous courses of anxiety disorder symptoms during middle to late adolescence has the potential to clarify developmental risk models of anxiety and to inform prevention programs. Therefore, this study specifically examined gender differences in developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from middle to late adolescence in a diverse community sample (N = 1000; 57 % female; 65 % White), assessed annually over 2 years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that girls exhibited a slight linear decrease in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder symptoms, whereas boys exhibited a stable course. These models suggested that one trajectory was appropriate for panic disorder symptoms in both girls and boys. Growth mixture models indicated the presence of four latent generalized anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: low increasing, moderate decreasing slightly, high decreasing, and very high decreasing rapidly. Growth mixture models also suggested the presence of five latent social anxiety disorder symptom trajectory classes: a low stable trajectory class and four classes that were qualitatively similar to the latent generalized anxiety disorder trajectories. For both generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder symptoms, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be in trajectory classes characterized by moderate or high initial symptoms that subsequently decreased over time. These findings provide novel information regarding the developmental course of anxiety disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  8. Late sodium current in failing heart: friend or foe? (United States)

    Maltsev, Victor A; Undrovinas, Albertas


    Most cardiac Na+ channels open transiently upon membrane depolarization and then are quickly inactivated. However, some channels remain active, carrying the so-called persistent or late Na+ current (INaL) throughout the action potential (AP) plateau. Experimental data and the results of numerical modeling accumulated over the past decade show the emerging importance of this late current component for the function of both normal and failing myocardium. INaL is produced by special gating modes of the cardiac-specific Na+ channel isoform. Heart failure (HF) slows channel gating and increases INaL, but HF-specific Na+ channel isoform underlying these changes has not been found. Na+ channels represent a multi-protein complex and its activity is determined not only by the pore-forming alpha subunit but also by its auxiliary beta subunits, cytoskeleton, calmodulin, regulatory kinases and phosphatases, and trafficking proteins. Disruption of the integrity of this protein complex may lead to alterations of INaL in pathological conditions. Increased INaL and the corresponding Na+ flux in failing myocardium contribute to abnormal repolarization and an increased cell Ca2+ load. Interventions designed to correct INaL rescue normal repolarization and improve Ca2+ handling and contractility of the failing cardiomyocytes. This review considers (1) quantitative integration of INaL into the established electrophysiological and Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms in normal and failing cardiomyocytes and (2) a new therapeutic strategy utilizing a selective inhibition of INaL to target both arrhythmias and impaired contractility in HF.

  9. Gulf stream: velocity fluctuations during the late cenozoic. (United States)

    Kaneps, A G


    Biostratigraphic analysis of seven piston cores from the southeastern Blake Plateau suggests that the upper Miocene to Recent sedimentary section at this location represents a history of deposition of calcareous ooze alternating with current-induced nondeposition or erosion. This record is primarily a result of long-term fluctuations in the velocity of the western boundary current or Gulf Stream, which sweeps the plateau. High-velocity phases of this current system, as signaled by hiatuses in the section, lie within the time limits 4.8 to 6.1, 3.9 to 4.4, 2.3 to 2.9, and 0 to 1.5 million years before present (B.P.). These time intervals are coeval with dated episodes of climatic decline and glaciation. The most intense acceleration of the Gulf Stream, as indicated by deep erosion of the Blake Plateau, occurred in the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene (4.8 to 6.1 million years B.P.) in conjunction with a major expansion of the Antarctic ice cap. Subsequent accelerations of the Gulf Stream coincide with early Pliocene cooling in the Southern Hemisphere, worldwide expansion of high-altitude-high-latitude glaciers in the late Pliocene, and the classical glaciations of the Pleistocene. An additional, protracted increase in the average velocity of the Gulf Stream, which began in the late Miocene and culminated in the mid-Pliocene (about 3.8 million years B.P.), can be attributed to the gradual emergence of the Central American isthmus.

  10. Late life depression with cognitive impairment: Evaluation and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo H Wilkins


    Full Text Available Consuelo H Wilkins1,2, Jose Mathews2, Yvette I Sheline21Department of Medicine (Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science; 2Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Older adults with depression often present with signs and symptoms indicative of functional or cognitive impairment. These somatic symptoms make evaluating and treating depression in older adults more complex. Late life depression (LLD, depression in adults over the age of 65, is more frequently associated with cognitive changes. Cognitive impairment in LLD may be a result of the depressive disorder or an underlying dementing condition. Memory complaints are also common in older adults with depression. There is a wide range of cognitive impairment in LLD including decreased central processing speed, executive dysfunction, and impaired short-term memory. The etiology of cognitive impairment in LLD may include cerebrovascular disease, a significant risk factor for LLD, which likely interrupts key pathways between frontal white matter and subcortical structures important in mood regulation. Because depressive symptoms often coexist with dementia, it is important to determine the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive change. If depressive symptoms pre-date the cognitive impairment and cognitive symptoms are mild and temporary, LLD is the likely etiology of the cognitive impairment. If cognitive changes appear prior to depressive symptoms and persist after LLD is successfully treated, an underlying dementia is more likely. Clinicians should be exclude common conditions such as thyroid disease which can contribute to depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment prior to treating LLD. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy can be effective in treating LLD. Subsequent evaluations following treatment should also reassess cognition.Keywords: late life depression, cognitive impairment, diagnosis, treatment

  11. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.


    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  12. Proxy Constraints on a Warm, Fresh Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Super, J. R.; Li, H.; Pagani, M.; Chin, K.


    The warm Late Cretaceous is thought to have been characterized by open Arctic Ocean temperatures upwards of 15°C (Jenkyns et al., 2004). The high temperatures and low equator-to-pole temperature gradient have proven difficult to reproduce in paleoclimate models, with the role of the atmospheric hydrologic cycle in heat transport being particularly uncertain. Here, sediments, coprolites and fish teeth of Santonian-Campanian age from two high-latitude mixed terrestrial and marine sections on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic (Chin et al., 2008) were analyzed using a suite of organic and inorganic proxies to evaluate the temperature and salinity of Arctic seawater. Surface temperature estimates were derived from TEX86 estimates of near-shore, shallow (~100 meters depth) marine sediments (Witkowski et al., 2011) and MBT-CBT estimates from terrestrial intervals and both suggest mean annual temperatures of ~20°C, consistent with previous estimates considering the more southerly location of Devon Island. The oxygen isotope composition of non-diagenetic phosphate from vertebrate coprolites and bony fish teeth were then measured, giving values ranging from +13‰ to +19‰. Assuming the TEX86 temperatures are valid and using the temperature calibration of Puceat 2010, the δ18O values of coprolites imply Arctic Ocean seawater δ18O values between -4‰ and -10‰, implying very fresh conditions. Lastly, the δD of precipitation will be estimated from the hydrogen isotope composition of higher plant leaf waxes (C-25, C-27, C-29 and C-31 n-alkanes) from both terrestrial and marine intervals. Data are used to model the salinity of seawater and the meteoric relationship between δD and δ18O, thereby helping to evaluate the northern high-latitude meteoric water line of the Late Cretaceous.

  13. Late time cosmic acceleration from natural infrared cutoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gorji


    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the ultraviolet deformation of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker geometry in loop quantum cosmology, we formulate an infrared-modified cosmological model. We obtain the associated deformed Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and we show that the late time cosmic acceleration can be addressed by the infrared corrections. As a particular example, we applied the setup to the case of matter dominated universe. This model has the same number of parameters as ΛCDM, but a dynamical dark energy generates in the matter dominated era at the late time. According to our model, as the universe expands, the energy density of the cold dark matter dilutes and when the Hubble parameter approaches to its minimum, the infrared effects dominate such that the effective equation of state parameter smoothly changes from weff=0 to weff=−2. Interestingly and nontrivially, the unstable de Sitter phase with weff=−1 is corresponding to Ωm=Ωd=0.5 and the universe crosses the phantom divide from the quintessence phase with weff>−1 and Ωm>Ωd to the phantom phase with weff<−1 and Ωm<Ωd which shows that the model is observationally viable. The results show that the universe finally ends up in a big rip singularity for a finite time proportional to the inverse of the minimum of the Hubble parameter. Moreover, we consider the dynamical stability of the model and we show that the universe starts from the matter dominated era at the past attractor with weff=0 and ends up in a future attractor at the big rip with weff=−2.

  14. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence. (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A


    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence.

  15. Continental Ecosystem Instability During the Late Triassic Rise of Dinosaurs (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Dunlavey, M.; Lindström, S.; Irmis, R. B.; Kasprak, A. H.; Glasspool, I.; Nesbitt, S.; Smith, N.; Turner, A.


    Our assessment of the Earth system response to future global climate change requires the characterization of feedbacks that occur at temperatures significantly warmer than modern. Patterns derived from hothouse intervals in Earth's past can inform process-based models to better understand and predict such feedbacks. pCO2 values exceeded 1000 ppm during the Late Triassic (~235 million to 201.5 million years ago), one of the warmest - and one of the most climatically dynamic - intervals in Earth history. This long period of warmth saw rare and species-poor assemblages of early dinosaurs and their relatives at low-paleolatitudes. Here we present new records of palynology, charcoal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biomarkers of regional wildfires, and the bulk carbon isotopic composition of organic matter (δ13Corg) from fluvial and overbank sediments of the Chinle Formation of the Chama Basin in north-central New Mexico from low paleolatitude Pangea. These data illuminate the climatic and ecological drivers of low dinosaur diversity. Our data suggest that strongly fluctuating but generally very hot and periodically arid environmental conditions prevailed at low paleolatitudes in the Late Triassic. Strong variations in δ13Corg and xerophytic palynomorph abundance are highly correlated, suggesting these proxies responded to fluctuating arid conditions with intermittent wildfires, some burning at temperatures reaching at least 680°C. The abundant, reliable food source required by an extensive, diverse community of large-bodied, herbivorous, fast-growing tachymetabolic dinosaurs did not develop until climatic changes in the Early Jurassic. Despite this, the basic structure of this pseudosuchian archosaur-dominated community remained stable over ~10-15 million years.

  16. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Changbai Mountains in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; NIU YunBo; YAN Ling; CUI ZhiJiu; LI ChuanChuan; MU KeHua


    The Changbai Mountains (2749 m a.s.l.) in northeastern China are one of the typical mountain regions with glaciation since late Pleistocene as evidenced by well-preserved erosive and accumulative land-forms at elevations above 2000 m a.s.l. Formed by glaciers around the crater lake, Tianchi Lake. Cirque glaciers developed on both the inner and outer sides of the volcanic cone. Well-preserved cirques, glacial trough valleys, glacial threholds, polished surfaces of the glacial erratics and the moraine ridges indicate that several glaciation processes took place during the last glacial period in this region. Re-sults of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on the moraine sediments, and the K/Ar, ther-mal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), electronic spinning resonance (ESR) dating on the volcanic rocks suggest two periods of glacier advances. One is named the Black Wind Mouth glacier advance taking place on the west and north slopes of the volcanic cone at an elevation of 2000-2100 m a.s.l.,which is dated to about 20 ka, being the result of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The other is named the Meteorological Station glacier advance at the elevation of 2400--2600 m a.s.l., dated to 11 ka during the late glacial period, and is tentatively correlated to the Younger Dryas stage. The scope of the former glacier advance is larger than that of the latter. Regional comparisons showed that the glacial se-quences in the Changbai Mountains are similar to other glaciated areas in eastern Asia during the later part of the last glacial cycle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE A clinical study of morbidity and mortality pattern of late preterm infants in comparison with term infants. STUDY DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING SNCU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal. SUBJECTS Consecutive sample of late preterm infants and term infants referred to our hospital on or before fourth day of life. RESULTS 76 late preterm infants and 76 term infants with any of the pre-defined neonatal condition were included in the study. Late preterm infants were significantly at a higher risk for overall morbidity including hypothermia, sepsis, respiratory morbidity, jaundice, hypoglycemia, birth asphyxia. A trend towards higher mortality was also seen. CONCLUSION In an out born referral center, late preterm infants are more prone to suffer from morbidities than term infants. Hypothermia is the leading cause of morbidity in both term (61% and late pre-term (85% infants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  19. The late time structure of high density contrast, single mode Richtmyer-Meshkov flow

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R J R


    We study the late time flow structure of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. Recent numerical work has suggested a self-similar collapse of the development of this instability at late times, independent of the initial surface profile. Using the form of collapse suggested, we derive an analytic expression for the mass-velocity relation in the spikes, and a global theory for the late time flow structure. We compare these results with fluid dynamical simulation.

  20. Late-Quaternary recharge determined from chloride in shallow groundwater in the central Great Plains


    MacFarlane, PA; Clark, JF; Davisson, ML; Hudson, GB; Whittemore, DO


    An extensive suite of isotopic and geochemical tracers in groundwater has been used to provide hydrologic assessments of the hierarchy of flow systems in aquifers underlying the central Great Plains (southeastern Colorado and western Kansas) of the United States and to determine the late Pleistocene and Holocene paleotemperature and paleorecharge record. Hydrogeologic and geochemical tracer data permit classification of the samples into late Holocene, late Pleistocene-early Holocene, and much...