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Sample records for barramundi lates calcarifer

  1. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

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    Flavio F Ribeiro

    Full Text Available This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was 58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  2. Molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer myostatin gene

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    Smith-Keune Carolyn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin (MSTN is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that negatively regulates growth of skeletal muscle tissue. The gene encoding for the MSTN peptide is a consolidate candidate for the enhancement of productivity in terrestrial livestock. This gene potentially represents an important target for growth improvement of cultured finfish. Results Here we report molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer MSTN-1 gene. The barramundi MSTN-1 was encoded by three exons 379, 371 and 381 bp in length and translated into a 376-amino acid peptide. Intron 1 and 2 were 412 and 819 bp in length and presented typical GT...AG splicing sites. The upstream region contained cis-regulatory elements such as TATA-box and E-boxes. A first assessment of sequence variability suggested that higher mutation rates are found in the 5' flanking region with several SNP's present in this species. A putative micro RNA target site has also been observed in the 3'UTR (untranslated region and is highly conserved across teleost fish. The deduced amino acid sequence was conserved across vertebrates and exhibited characteristic conserved putative functional residues including a cleavage motif of proteolysis (RXXR, nine cysteines and two glycosilation sites. A qualitative analysis of the barramundi MSTN-1 expression pattern revealed that, in adult fish, transcripts are differentially expressed in various tissues other than skeletal muscles including gill, heart, kidney, intestine, liver, spleen, eye, gonad and brain. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights such as sequence variation and genomic information which will aid the further investigation of the barramundi MSTN-1 gene in association with growth. The finding for the first time in finfish MSTN of a miRNA target site in the 3'UTR provides an opportunity for the identification of regulatory mutations on the

  3. Effects of atrazine on endocrinology and physiology in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

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    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Osborn, Hannah L

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to certain environmental contaminants such as agricultural pesticides can alter normal endocrine and reproductive parameters in wild fish populations. Recent studies have found widespread pesticide contamination across the rivers that discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Potential impacts on native fish species exposed to known endocrine disrupting chemicals such as atrazine, simazine, and diuron have not been assessed. In the present study, the authors examined the endocrine and physiological effects of short-term, acute exposure of environmentally relevant concentrations of analytical grade atrazine in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Expression of hepatic vitellogenin was not affected, supporting results of previous studies that showed that atrazine does not have a direct estrogenic effect via mediation of estrogen receptors. The lack of effect on brain cytochrome P19B (CYP19B) expression levels, combined with increases in testosterone (T) and 17β estradiol and a stable T:17β estradiol ratio, does not support the hypothesis that atrazine has an indirect estrogenic effect via modulation of aromatase expression. Gill ventilation rate, a measure of oxidative stress, did not change in contrast to other studies finding enhanced osmoregulatory disturbance and gill histopathology after atrazine exposure. To more closely reflect field conditions, the authors recommend that laboratory studies should focus more on examining the effects of commercial pesticide formulations that contain additional ingredients that have been found to be disruptive to endocrine function.

  4. Characterization of apoptosis induced by grouper iridovirus in two newly established cell lines from barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

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    Lai, Y S; Chiou, P P; Chen, W J; Chen, Y C; Chen, C W; Chiu, I S; Chen, S D; Cheng, Y H; Chang, C Y

    2008-11-01

    Two new cell lines have been established from the muscle and swim bladder tissues of barramundi, Lates calcarifer, and designated as BM (barramundi muscle) and BSB (barramundi swimbladder), respectively. The cells multiplied well at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and have been continuously subcultured more than 100 times to date. Morphologically, BM cells were mostly fibroblastic, whereas BSB were mostly epithelial. Both cell lines were susceptible to grouper iridovirus (GIV) and displayed characteristics of apoptosis after viral infection. The induction of apoptosis was further assayed in GIV-infected BM and BSB cells by various methods. The inhibition of cell growth by GIV was demonstrated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Morphological observations revealed typical apoptotic features in the infected cells, including cell shrinkage and rounding, chromosome condensation and formation of apoptotic body-like vesicles. Chromosome fragmentation was detected by DNA laddering and TUNEL assays. Finally, the appearance of phosphotidylserine on the outer leaflet of apoptotic cell membranes was confirmed by annexin V staining. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by GIV in fish cells. PMID:19238757

  5. Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer

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    Lin Grace

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and the mapping of BAC clones to the linkage map. Results This BAC library consisted of 49,152 clones with an average insert size of 98 kb, representing 6.9-fold haploid genome coverage. Screening the library with 24 microsatellites and 15 ESTs/genes demonstrated that the library had good genome coverage. In addition, 62 novel microsatellites each isolated from 62 BAC clones were mapped onto the first generation linkage map. A total of 86 BAC clones were anchored on the linkage map with at least one BAC clone on each linkage group. Conclusion We have constructed the first BAC library for L. calcarifer and mapped 86 BAC clones to the first generation linkage map. This BAC library and the improved linkage map with 302 DNA markers not only supply an indispensable tool to the integration of physical and linkage maps, the fine mapping of QTL and map based cloning genes located in QTL of commercial importance, but also contribute to comparative genomic studies and eventually whole genome sequencing.

  6. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.

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    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia.

  7. Effect of Different Temperatures on the Free Amino Acids, Physico-Chemical and Microbial Changes during Storage of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Fillets

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    Ali Yassoralipour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage days and temperature on free amino acids, TVB-N, pH and microbial changes in Barramundi (Lates calcarifer fillets kept at 0°C and 8°C were investigated for 20 days. At the end of the storage, significant differences were observed (p0.05 between two temperatures during the storage period were observed. Among two temperatures, the psychrophiles were initially 4.07 log CFU/g and exceeded the acceptable limit of 7 log CFU/g on the 12th and 8th day at 0°C and 8°C, respectively. Although, Total Plate Count (TPC were initially 3.7 log CFU/g and exceeded the acceptable limit of 6 log CFU/g on the 12th day in the both storage temperatures. Histamine Forming Bacteria (HFB was significantly (p<0.05 lower in Barramundi fillets storage at 0°C compared to the 8°C. Significant differences (p<0.05 between the concentrations of Total Volatile Base-Nitrogen (TVB-N in fillets kept at 0°C and 8°C were observed.

  8. "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola", a novel Chlamydia-like agent of epitheliocystis in seven consecutive cohorts of farmed Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch.

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    Megan C Stride

    Full Text Available Six consecutively hatched cohorts and one cohort of pre-hatch eggs of farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer from south Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To identify and characterise the bacteria, 59 gill samples and three pre-hatch egg samples were processed for histology, in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Cases of epitheliocystis were observed microscopically and characterised by membrane-enclosed basophilic cysts filled with a granular material that caused hypertrophy of the epithelial cells. In situ hybridisation with a Chlamydiales-specific probe lead to specific labelling of the epitheliocystis inclusions within the gill epithelium. Two distinct but closely related 16S rRNA chlamydial sequences were amplified from gill DNA across the seven cohorts, including from pre-hatch eggs. These genotype sequences were found to be novel, sharing 97.1 - 97.5% similarity to the next closest 16S rRNA sequence, Ca. Similichlamydia latridicola, from Australian striped trumpeter. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these genotype sequences against representative members of the Chlamydiales order and against other epitheliocystis agents revealed these Chlamydia-like organisms to be novel and taxonomically placed them within the recently proposed genus Ca. Similichlamydia. Following Fredricks and Relman's molecular postulates and based on these observations, we propose the epitheliocystis agents of barramundi to be known as "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola" (sp. nov..

  9. Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Vacuum-Packaged Blue Spotted Emperor (Lethrinus sp), Saddletail Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus), Crimson Snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets Stored at 4°C.

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    Fuentes-Amaya, Luisa Fernanda; Munyard, Steve; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Howieson, Janet

    2016-05-01

    Quality assessment of finfish fillets during storage is important to be able to predict the shelf life of the fresh product during distribution. Microbial, chemical (pH, TMA, and TVB-N), and sensory (Quality index assessment QIA, Torry scheme) changes in vacuum-packaged blue-spotted emperor (Lethrinus sp), saddletail (Lutjanus malabaricus), crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored at 4°C were evaluated for 5 days. Microbiological study included evaluation of TVC (total viable counts), total psychrotrophic organisms, and H2S-producing bacteria. Numbers increased during storage time and reached an average of 8.5, 8.5, and 9.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively, for the five different fish species. These levels were above accepted microbiological limits for fish fillets. Although the sensory analyses showed a decrease in quality, none of the finfish fillets were considered unacceptable at the end of the storage trial. Chemically, there was a slight pH increase, but trimethylamine (TMA) levels remained low. However, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels increased over time, reaching levels above 35 mg/100 g for blue spotted emperor, saddletail snapper, and crimson snapper by the end of the storage period. Results show that the deterioration of finfish fillet quality is a complex event of biochemical, sensory, and microbial factors, and multiple analyses may be required to define acceptability.

  10. Diplectanids infesting the gills of the barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Perciformes: Centropomidae), with the proposal of Laticola n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae).

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    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun; Jianying, Zhang; Suhua, Shi; Agrawal, N

    2006-02-01

    Four species of the Monogenoidea, Laticola lingaoensis n. sp., L. latesi (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. [previously Pseudorhabdosynochus latesi (Tripathi, 1957) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986], L. paralatesi (Nagibina, 1976) n. comb. [previously Diplectanum paralatesi Nagibina, 1976] and Diplectanum penangi Liang & Leong, 1991, are reported from the gills of Lates calcarifer (Centropomidae) from the South China Sea (new geographical records for L. latesi and D. penangi). Collections from off Bathurst Island, Northern Territory, Australia, represent a new geographic record for L. paralatesi; Chilka Lake, Orissa, India, is established as the type-locality for L. latesi. Laticola n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for species with a spoon-shaped copulatory organ with two to four concentric incomplete ridges in the base. Laticola lingaoensis, the type-species of Laticola, is described, and L. latesi and L. paralatesi are redescribed based on specimens from the South China Sea. Pseudorhabdosynochus monosquamodiscusi Balasuriya & Leong, 1995 and Pseudorhabdosynochus yangjiangenesis Wu & Li, 2005 are considered junior subjective synonyms of L. latesi and L. paralatesi, respectively. PMID:16718593

  11. Streptococcosis in seabass (Lates calcarifer

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    Wanman, C.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus sp. isolated from infected seabass (Lates calcarifer can grow on medium at pH 9.6 and salinity 0 ppt. The lethal dose where the mortality is 50 percent (LD50 was 1.937×103 CFU/ml after 14 days. Diseased fish showed dark body coloration, erratic swimming, exophthalmia, dropsy, pale liver, splenomegaly and hemorrhage in the brain. Blood parameters i.e. haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and red blood cell of infected fish were decreased, while white blood cells were increased. Histopathological changes in diseased seabass were necrosis, vacuolization and granuloma of the liver, increased number of melanomacrophage in liver and spleen, shrinkage of glomerulus in kidneys, inflammation and necrosis of the spleen and heart, hyperplasia and telangiectasis of the gill, while vacuolization and capsulation of the exophthalmic eyes were observed.

  12. Molecular and morphological evidence for the widespread distribution of Laticola paralatesi infecting wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in Australia.

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    Chotnipat, Soranot; Miller, Terrence L; Knuckey, Richard M; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-04-01

    Infections with monogeneans of the Diplectanidae can limit productivity of and cause considerable health issues for fish in aquaculture. To date, 9 species of diplectanids have been reported from the Asian sea bass or barramundi Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae) in the Asia-Pacific region. This study characterised the diplectanid parasite fauna found infecting wild and farmed barramundi from 5 localities in tropical Australia, including north Queensland and Western Australia. A combination of morphometric and comparative genetic analyses of partial 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) from specimens recovered were used to confirm their identity and to explore relationships with other diplectanids. These data revealed that a single, dominant species of diplectanid, Laticola paralatesi, infects wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in tropical Australia. Laticola lingaoensis Yang, Kritsky, Sun, Jiangying, Shi & Agrawal, 2006 is synonymised with L. seabassi (Wu, Li, Zhu & Xie, 2005) Domingues & Boeger, 2008 based on the combination of the host infected (Lates calcarifer), geographic distribution, distinct morphological similarity, and identical 28S rRNA sequence data identified here. Laticola seabassi is now designated as the type species of Laticola due to nomenclatural priority. PMID:25850397

  13. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

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    Ad de Groof; Lars Guelen; Martin Deijs; Yorick van der Wal; Masato Miyata; Kah Sing Ng; Lotte van Grinsven; Bartjan Simmelink; Yvonne Biermann; Luc Grisez; Jan van Lent; Anthony de Ronde; Siow Foong Chang; Carla Schrier; Lia van der Hoek

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus wa...

  14. Transcriptome Survey of a Marine Food Fish: Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer

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    Natascha M. Thevasagayam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian seabass (or barramundi; Lates calcarifer is a marine teleost and a popular food fish in Southeast Asia and Australia. To date, comprehensive genome and transcriptome sequence information has not been available for this species in public repositories. Here, we report a comprehensive de novo transcriptome assembly of the Asian seabass. These data will be useful for the development of molecular tools for use in aquaculture of Asian seabass as well as a resource for genome annotation. The transcriptome was obtained from sequences generated from organs of multiple individuals using three different next-generation sequencing platforms (454-FLX Titanium, SOLiD 3+, and paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000. The assembled transcriptome contains >80% of the expected protein-coding loci, with 58% of these represented by a predicted full-length cDNA sequence when compared to the available Nile tilapia RefSeq dataset. Detailed descriptions of the various steps involved in sequencing and assembling a transcriptome are provided to serve as a helpful guide for transcriptome projects involving de novo assembly of short sequence reads for non-model teleosts or any species of interest.

  15. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

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    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs) of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Methods:The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India). Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results:A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm) were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions:Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  16. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

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    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR; Muthusamy THANGARAJ; Thathiredypalli R. BARATHKUMAR; Jayachandran SUBBURAJ; Kaliyan MUTHAZHAGAN

    2012-01-01

    Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai) and one captive (Mutukadu) population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and const...

  17. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

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    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  18. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

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    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  19. Small-scale transcriptomics reveals differences among gonadal stages in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

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    Ravi, Preethi; Jiang, Junhui; Liew, Woei Chang; Orbán, László

    2014-01-01

    Background The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a protandrous hermaphrodite that typically matures as a male at approximately 2–4 years of age and then changes sex in subsequent years. Although several sexual maturation stages have been described histologically for both testis and ovary, the underlying gene expression profiles remain lacking. The development of a gene expression platform is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of the gonad development of this cultured teleost s...

  20. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

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    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai and one captive (Mutukadu population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and construction of the dendrogram. A total of 589 scorable bands were obtained, 93.12% of them were polymorphic. The Nei�s gene diversity (H of two wild populations were more (0.0504 � 0.0670 and 0.0519 � 0.0953 than the captive population (0.0489 � 0.0850. The clustering pattern obtained by UPGMA method emphasized the wild populations were clustered in one clade and captive population was deviated into another clade. This study proved that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate L. calcarifer populations. Further molecular studies, comprising a higher number of molecular tools are still required to precisely evaluate the genetic structure of all seabass populations along the Indian coast.

  1. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

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    Monika Manthey-Karl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus and barramundi (Lates calcarifer and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1 were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  2. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

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    Phromkunthong, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  3. Screening of vibriosis in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay

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    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to standardize a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the detection of Vibrio harveyi,the causative agent of vibriosis in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. The dnaJ gene of the bacterial pathogen was used as the target gene for theLAMP assay. It was optimized at an incubation time of 1 h at 630C. The assay was highly specific for V. harveyiand did not cross-react withother bacterial pathogens of fish. However, the assay was able to detect V. harveyithat was isolated from infected shrimps. The limit of detectionof the LAMP assay was 40 pg of DNA mL-1 or 40 fg of the genomic DNA per LAMP reaction and was 10 times more sensitive than conventionalPCR in detecting the bacterial pathogen from infected samples. The LAMP products can be quantified spectrophotometrically usinghydroxynaphthol blue (HNB dye and showed positive correlation with the amount of the pathogen. These results demonstrated that LAMP isa simple and sensitive detection technique that has potential application for routine diagnosis of vibrosis caused by V. harveyiin Asian seabassand other aquatic species.

  4. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer.

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    Jun Hong Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer is an important marine foodfish species in Southeast Asia and Australia. Genetic improvement of this species has been achieved to some extent through selective breeding programs since 1990s. Several genomic tools such as DNA markers, a linkage map, cDNA and BAC libraries have been developed to assist selective breeding. A physical map is still lacking, although it is essential for positional cloning of genes located in quantitative trait loci (QTL and assembly of whole genome sequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A genome-wide physical map of the Asian seabass was constructed by restriction fingerprinting of 38,208 BAC clones with SNaPshot HICF FPC technique. A total of 30,454 were assembled into 2,865 contigs. The physical length of the assembled contigs summed up to 665 Mb. Analyses of some contigs using different methods demonstrated the reliability of the assembly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present physical map is the first physical map for Asian seabass. This physical map will facilitate the fine mapping of QTL for economically important traits and the positional cloning of genes located in QTL. It will also be useful for the whole genome sequencing and assembly. Detailed information about BAC-contigs and BAC clones are available upon request.

  5. Evidence for female-biased dispersal in the protandrous hermaphroditic Asian Seabass, Lates calcarifer.

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    Gen Hua Yue

    Full Text Available Movement of individuals influences individual reproductive success, fitness, genetic diversity and relationships among individuals within populations and gene exchange among populations. Competition between males or females for mating opportunities and/or local resources predicts a female bias in taxa with monogamous mating systems and a male-biased dispersal in polygynous species. In birds and mammals, the patterns of dispersal between sexes are well explored, while dispersal patterns in protandrous hermaphroditic fish species have not been studied. We collected 549 adult individuals of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer from four locations in the South China Sea. To assess the difference in patterns of dispersal between sexes, we genotyped all individuals with 18 microsatellites. Significant genetic differentiation was detected among and within sampling locations. The parameters of population structure (F(ST, relatedness (r and the mean assignment index (mAIC, in combination with data on tagging-recapture, supplied strong evidences for female-biased dispersal in the Asian seabass. This result contradicts our initial hypothesis of no sex difference in dispersal. We suggest that inbreeding avoidance of females, female mate choice under the condition of low mate competition among males, and male resource competition create a female-biased dispersal. The bigger body size of females may be a cause of the female-biased movement. Studies of dispersal using data from DNA markers and tagging-recapture in hermaphroditic fish species could enhance our understanding of patterns of dispersal in fish.

  6. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the Malaysian Sea against coral (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rahimi; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2016-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the pathogenicity (hemolytic activity) on corals (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer) of Aeromonas hydrophila from water, sediment, and coral. Samples were collected from coastal water and coral reef areas. One hundred and sixty-two isolates were successfully isolated. Out of 162, 95 were from seawater, 49 from sediment, and 18 from coral. Sixteen isolates were picked and identified. Isolates were identified using a conventional biochemical test, the API 20NE kit, and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences. Hemolytic activity was determined. Out of 16 isolates, 14 isolates were β-hemolytic and two isolates were non-hemolytic. Corals infected with A. hydrophila suffered bleaching. Similar effect was observed for both hemolytic and non-hemolytic isolates. Intramuscular injection of A. hydrophila into sea bass resulted in muscular bleeding and death. Higher infection rates were obtained from hemolytic compared to non-hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:27221587

  7. Isolation and characterization of a nodavirus associated with mass mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from the west coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Debashis; Hamod, Mohammed A.; Suresh, Thangavel; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    A fish nodavirus was detected in the juveniles of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) during a massive outbreak in the seabass cage culture farm located in the south west coast of India. The clinical signs of the disease included anorexia, inflated abdomen, exophthalmia, darkening of the whole body, erratic swimming and cork-screw type movement followed by death. The dead and the moribund fish were analyzed for nodavirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific ...

  8. Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bacillus cereus and Brachybacterium sp. Isolated from Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer

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    Mohamed Orsod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: EPS extracted from marine bacteria, which associated with Asian sea bass has potential antimicrobial activities.Methodology and Results: Two marine Bacteria were isolated from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer obtained from aquaculture farm, located at Johor bahru Malaysia. 16S rRNA analysis for bacteria identity revealed that bacteria ors1 had 99 % identity to Bacillus cereus and ors2 had 96 % identity with Brachybacterium sp. All bacteria shared many similarities and variation in terms of biochemical reactions and microscopic observation. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs were extracted and purified from bacteria as they produced mucous colonies. Average analysis of EPS components showed 50 % carbohydrates, 26 % protein and 24 % fatty acids. The FTIR analysis confirmed the functional groups of the EPS. Screening for antimicrobial activities assays using Kirby-Bauer methods against both grams positive and negative had shown presence of inhibition zones.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study recommends that bacteria isolated from Asian sea bass are having antimicrobial activities and could be used as a potential source for the development of marine drugs.

  9. Bakterijska flora zdravoga mlađa azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) s naglaskom na otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wei, Lee; Musa, Najiah; Wee, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Opisana je bakterijska flora te otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale bakterija izdvojenih iz mlađa slatkovodnoga azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) na mrijestilištu u Terengganu u Maleziji. Istraživanje je provedeno sa svrhom da se odredi bakterijska flora u uzorcima vode na ribogojilištu azijskoga lubina kao i otpornost izdvojenih bakterija na antibiotike i teške metale. Rezultati mogu biti od koristi za uzgajivače riba pri liječenju i provođenju preventivnih mjera. Bakterije su bile izd...

  10. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filt...

  11. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with ...

  12. Molecular analysis of dinucleotide microsatellite in growth hormone gene of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from Mumbal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Raj Naresh; Singh, S D; Kumari, Vibha; Pandey, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, out of four alleles amplified from seabass (Lates calcarifer) genome inhabiting Mumbai water by PCR using growth hormone (GH) gene-specific primers, two DNA fragments (SGMS1, 233 bp and SGMS2, 239 bp) were eluted from gel, cloned using pTZ57R (2.886 kb) vector into E. coli DH5α, characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis and sequenced by automated DNA sequencer. After blasting and multiple alignment of the above sequences, SGMS1 showed 97% and SGMS2 93.3% homology with promoter region of GH gene containing microsatellite of Australian seabass and 94.6% homology between both the fragments. These sequences SGMS1 and SGMS2 were submitted to NCBI GenBank. On blasting, these sequences with gene databases, SGMS1 and SGMS2 showed partial homologies with Seriola quinqueradiata (26.9%, 12.9%), flounder (15.8%, 15.8%), Oreochromis nilotica (23%, 7.9%), Oreochromis mossambicus (23%, 7.9%) and Danio rerio (8.2%, 7.5%). Critical analysis showed the presence of microsatellite (CA)16 and (CA)19 repeats in fragments SGMS1 and SGMS2, respectively in seabass from Mumbai water in comparison to (CA)14 repeats from the Australian seabass. Further, on sequence comparison, single nucleotide mismatches detected at their several positions in relation to seabass GH gene of Australia. These nucleotide variations detected in SGMS1 and SGMS2 in comparison to those of the Australian seabass may be due to mutations owing to environmental or habitat changes that seem to have definite potentials for development of genetic markers, which would be useful for identification and selection of superior germplasm with desirable commercial traits such as high growth rate. PMID:26536806

  13. A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

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    Feng Felicia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL, searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily map QTL for growth traits in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. Here, we report a high-resolution linkage map with 790 microsatellites and SNPs, comparative analysis of synteny, fine-mapping of QTL and the identification of potential candidate genes for growth traits. Results A second generation linkage map of Asian seabass was developed with 790 microsatellite and SNP markers. The map spanned a genetic length of 2411.5 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 3.4 cM or 1.1 Mb. This high density map allowed for comparison of the map with Tetraodon nigroviridis genome, which revealed 16 synteny regions between the two species. Moreover, by employing this map we refined QTL to regions of 1.4 and 0.2 cM (or 400 and 50 kb in linkage groups 2 and 3 in a population containing 380 progeny; potential candidate genes for growth traits in QTL regions were further identified using comparative genome analysis, whose effects on growth traits were investigated. Interestingly, a QTL cluster at Lca371 underlying growth traits of Asian seabass showed similarity to the cathepsin D gene of human, which is related to cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions We constructed a high resolution linkage map, carried out comparative mapping, refined the positions of QTL, identified candidate genes for growth traits and analyzed their effects on growth. Our study developed a framework that will be indispensable for further identification of genes and analysis of molecular variation within the refined QTL to enhance understanding of the molecular basis of growth and speed up genetic

  14. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection.

  15. Identification and analysis of a prepro-chicken gonadotropin releasing hormone II (preprocGnRH-II) precursor in the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, based on an EST-based assessment of its brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sik-Loo; Mohd-Adnan, Adura; Mohd-Yusof, Nurul Yuziana; Forstner, Michael R J; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2008-03-31

    Using a novel library of 5637 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the brain tissue of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), we first characterized the brain transcriptome for this economically important species. The ESTs generated from the brain of L. calcarifer yielded 2410 unique transcripts (UTs) which comprise of 982 consensi and 1428 singletons. Based on database similarity, 1005 UTs (41.7%) can be assigned putative functions and were grouped into 12 functional categories related to the brain function. Amongst others, we have identified genes that are putatively involved in energy metabolism, ion pumps and channels, synapse related genes, neurotransmitter and its receptors, stress induced genes and hormone related genes. Subsequently we selected a putative preprocGnRH-II precursor for further characterization. The complete cDNA sequence of the gene obtained was found to code for an 85-amino acid polypeptide that significantly matched preprocGnRH-II precursor sequences from other vertebrates, and possesses structural characteristics that are similar to that of other species, consisting of a signal peptide (23 residues), a GnRH decapeptide (10 residues), an amidation/proteolytic-processing signal (glycine-lysine-argine) and a GnRH associated peptide (GAP) (49 residues). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II sequence is a member of the subcohort Euteleostei and divergent from the sequences of the subcohort Otocephalan. These findings provide compelling evidence that the putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II precursor obtained in this study is orthologous to that of other vertebrates. The functional prediction of this preprocGnRH-II precursor sequence through in silico analyses emphasizes the effectiveness of the EST approach in gene identification in L. calcarifer. PMID:18280674

  16. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in some organs of the Ganges perch, Lates calcarifer, from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabber, Sardar Md Abdul; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed [Chittagong Univ., Inst. of Marine Sciences, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Rahman, M. Saifur [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB), Dhaka, (Bangladesh)

    2001-07-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p' DDT, DDD, DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Lindane, Heptachlor and BHC) were analysed in the dry and wet seasons in four organs (muscle, liver, gut and egg samples) of Granges Perch, Lates calcarifer, collected during October-November-December, 1996 and May-June-July, 1997 from the Ganges-Brahmaputtra-Meghna estuary. The residues were analysed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Among the four organs analysed, the residues were found in the order egg>gut>muscle>liver. The pesticide residues were found in the order {sigma}DDT>Heptachlor>Dieldrin>Aldrin. Higher levels of residues were found during the dry season due to high lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation was observed between the pesticide residues ({sigma}DDT and {sigma}OCs) and lipid contents of fish, and the correlation was found to be linear. The concentrations of pesticide residues in muscle, liver and gut were below the FAO/WHO (1993) recommended permissible limit except in eggs. (Author)

  17. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in an F1 family of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer

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    Yue Gen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight and length are economically important traits in foodfish species influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL and environmental factors. It is usually difficult to dissect the genetic and environmental effects. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer is an important marine foodfish species with a compact genome (~700 Mb. The recent construction of a first generation linkage map of Asian seabass with 240 microsatellites provides a good opportunity to determine the number and position of QTL, and the magnitude of QTL effects with a genome scan. Results We conducted a genome scan for QTL affecting body weight, standard length and condition factors in an F1 family containing 380 full-sib individuals from a breeding stock by using 97 microsatellites evenly covering 24 chromosomes. Interval mapping and multiple QTL model mapping detected five significant and 27 suggestive QTL on ten linkage groups (LGs. Among the five significant QTL detected, three (qBW2-a, qTL2-a and qSL2-a controlling body weight, total and standard length respectively, were mapped on the same region near Lca287 on LG2, and explained 28.8, 58.9 and 59.7% of the phenotypic variance. The other two QTL affecting body weight, qBW2-b and qBW3, were located on LG2 and 3, and accounted for 6.4 and 8.8% of the phenotypic variance. Suggestive QTL associated with condition factors are located on six different LGs. Conclusion This study presents the first example of QTL detection for growth-related traits in an F1 family of a marine foodfish species. The results presented here will enable further fine-mapping of these QTL for marker-assisted selection of the Asian seabass, eventually identifying individual genes responsible for growth-related traits.

  18. Identification of Nod like receptor C3 (NLRC3) in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer: Characterisation, ontogeny and expression analysis after experimental infection and ligand stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paria, Anutosh; Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Purushothaman, C S; Thirunavukkarasu, A R; Rajendran, K V

    2016-08-01

    Nod like receptors (NLRs) are a large group of cytoplasmic PRRs believed to play an important role in bacterial recognition in higher vertebrates. In this study, a novel Nod like receptor C3 (AsNLRC3) has been identified, cloned and characterised from Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. The full-length AsNLRC3 transcript composed of a 4142 bp nucleic acid sequence encode for a protein of 1134 deduced amino acids. Three signature domains identified are conserved NACHT-domain, C-terminal LLR domain and N-terminal CARD effector domain. From the domain architecture and phylogenetic analysis, it was quite evident that AsNLRC3 is different from the NLR subfamily C of other teleosts. AsNLRC3 expressed in all the 11 tissues tested but highly expressed in tissues facing external environment such as gill, hindgut and midgut. The ontogenic expression profile of this receptor showed constitutive expression throughout the embryonic and larval developmental stages, which could be an innate immune strategy against different marine pathogens for larval survival. Infection with Vibrio alginolyticus and poly I:C induction showed an alteration of expression pattern in different tissues but did not show significant alteration in expression with Staphylococcus aureus infection. In vitro study in Asian seabass kidney cell line (SISK) stimulated with different ligands such as LPS, PGN and poly I:C showed considerable up-regulation at some of the time-points tested. These results suggest that AsNLRC3 can be a pivotal cytosolic innate immune receptor for recognizing wide array of pathogens in a euryhaline teleost model like Asian seabass in diverse environmental conditions.

  19. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus, and green mungbeans (Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  20. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans ((Phaseolus aureus,and green mungbeans ((Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  1. Streptococcus iniae infection in cultured tilapia, sea bass, and barramundi in Guangdong%广东省养殖罗非鱼、海鲈、尖吻鲈海豚链球菌感染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 周素明; 李安兴

    2012-01-01

    利用细菌分离培养方法结合特异PCR技术,对广东省珠三角地区养殖罗非鱼(Oreochromis spp.)、海鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)及尖吻鲈(Lates calcarifer)的海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)感染情况进行了周年调查.每月固定时间在特定养殖区域采集目标鱼的脑、肝、脾、肾和肌肉等组织,并对其进行海豚链球菌的细菌分离培养鉴定.仅从已经患病的尖吻鲈中分离到3株链球菌,经生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA测序确定为海豚链球菌.利用海豚链球菌特异PCR技术对上述养殖鱼类不同组织进行检测,发现罗非鱼、海鲈、尖吻鲈的海豚链球菌感染率分别为30.21%、23.53%、14.55%,其中罗非鱼脑和肌肉的感染率明显较其他组织高(P<0.05),分别为20.65%和23.75%;海鲈的脑部和肌肉感染率也较其他组织高(P<0.05),分别为12.1%和10%;而尖吻鲈各组织感染率没有较大差异(P>0.05).另外,研究结果还表明采集样本的海豚链球菌感染率随着其体长的增加而呈现下降趋势.%Streptococcus iniae infects a number of cultured fish species, causing heavy economic loss in Guangdong province. We evaluated the prevalence of infection with S. Iniae in tilapia {Oreochromis spp.), sea bass {Lateolabrax japonicus), and barramundi (Lates calcarifex) using a standard microbiological assay and specific PCR. Using PCR, we detected S. Iniae in all three species (30.21%, 23.53%, and 14.55% of individuals, respectively). However, S. Iniae was only isolated from three barramundi using the traditional microbiological assay. S. Iniae was detected in all tissues, including brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and muscle. The brain and muscle were more susceptible to S. Iniae than the other tissues in tilapia (infection rate: 20.65% and 23.75%, respectively) and sea bass (infection rate: 12.1% and 10%, respectively). There was no difference in the susceptibility of the tissues in barramundi. Moreover, our results

  2. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Shubha; Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Gopikrishna, G.; Lau, Doreen; Saju, Jolly M.; Shamsudheen, K. V.; Kumar, K. Vinaya; Basheer, V. S.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod; J.K. JENA; Ponniah, A. G.; Orbán, László

    2014-01-01

    Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing t...

  3. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yan Ngoh

    Full Text Available As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1 to evaluate the effects of different pelleted feeds based on overall physiological changes and nutritional quality of fillets; 2 improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms with transcriptomic analysis; 3 if possible, identify the feed type that supports the growth of these fishes without substantially reducing the nutritional quality of fillet. The growth performance, fatty acid composition of fillet, hepatic histology and transcriptome of the fishes (Groups A-D were analyzed. The majority of fatty acids of the fillets, except γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n6, correlated significantly with the respective diets. Asian seabass fed Feed C showed highest specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion efficiency (FCE with closest histology and transcriptomic profile to control, but their fillet contained the highest n6/n3 ratio. When the liver-based transcriptomes were analyzed, a complex set of differentially expressed genes were detected between groups fed pelleted feeds and controls as well as among the pellet-fed groups themselves. Significant enrichment of genes with growth-related function tallied with the morphological data measured. When compared with control (Group A, 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids' and 'Steroid biosynthesis' pathways were significantly enriched in pellet-fed groups. Reduced goblet cell numbers were observed in the gut of pellet-fed fish compared to controls and fads6 was found to be a suitable candidate gene to separate wild-caught Asian seabass, from pellet-fed ones. These results provide insights for researchers on the various effects of feeds on the biochemistry and global gene expression of the fish and potentially for seabass farms to make more informed feed choices.

  4. Altered transcription levels of endocrine associated genes in two fisheries species collected from the Great Barrier Reef catchment and lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Henderson, Brent; Smith, Rachael; Warne, Michael St J; Turner, Ryan D; McKeown, Adam; Westcott, David A

    2015-03-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is chronically exposed to agricultural run-off containing pesticides, many of which are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here, we measure mRNA transcript abundance of two EDC biomarkers in wild populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus). Transcription levels of liver vitellogenin (vtg) differed significantly in both species amongst sites with different exposures to agricultural run-off; brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) revealed some differences for barramundi only. Exposure to run-off from sugarcane that contains pesticides is a likely pathway given (i) significant associations between barramundi vtg transcription levels, catchment sugarcane land use, and river pesticide concentrations, and (ii) consistency between patterns of coral trout vtg transcription levels and pesticide distribution in the GBR lagoon. Given the potential consequences of such exposure for reproductive fitness and population dynamics, these results are cause for concern for the sustainability of fisheries resources downstream from agricultural land uses.

  5. Fish mediate high food web connectivity in the lower reaches of a tropical floodplain river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Pusey, Bradley J; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pettit, Neil E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M; Sinnamon, Vivian; Halliday, Ian A; Bunn, Stuart E

    2012-03-01

    High levels of hydrological connectivity during seasonal flooding provide significant opportunities for movements of fish between rivers and their floodplains, estuaries and the sea, possibly mediating food web subsidies among habitats. To determine the degree of utilisation of food sources from different habitats in a tropical river with a short floodplain inundation duration (~2 months), stable isotope ratios in fishes and their available food were measured from three habitats (inundated floodplain, dry season freshwater, coastal marine) in the lower reaches of the Mitchell River, Queensland (Australia). Floodplain food sources constituted the majority of the diet of large-bodied fishes (barramundi Lates calcarifer, catfish Neoarius graeffei) captured on the floodplain in the wet season and for gonadal tissues of a common herbivorous fish (gizzard shad Nematalosa come), the latter suggesting that critical reproductive phases are fuelled by floodplain production. Floodplain food sources also subsidised barramundi from the recreational fishery in adjacent coastal and estuarine areas, and the broader fish community from a freshwater lagoon. These findings highlight the importance of the floodplain in supporting the production of large fishes in spite of the episodic nature and relatively short duration of inundation compared to large river floodplains of humid tropical regions. They also illustrate the high degree of food web connectivity mediated by mobile fish in this system in the absence of human modification, and point to the potential consequences of water resource development that may reduce or eliminate hydrological connectivity between the river and its floodplain.

  6. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  7. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-González, Alejandro; Constantinoiu, Constantin C; Rowe, Richard; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-12-01

    The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Latidae), by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia) with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 min, 24, 48 h, four, eight, 12, and 16 days). Fluorescent labelling revealed that parasites attached underneath and on the surface of the scales of host fish. Parasite infection success was 20% within 15 min, and peaked at 93% two days post-exposure, before gradually declining between four and sixteen days. Differences in parasite distribution on L. calcarifer over time provided strong evidence that Neobenedenia sp. larvae settled opportunistically and then migrated to specific microhabitats. Parasites initially attached (sexual maturity, there was a marked aggregation on the fins (22 ± 2.35) compared to the head (4 ± 0.97) and body (9 ± 1.33), indicating that Neobenedenia sp. may form mating aggregations. PMID:26199875

  8. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: t.jardine@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Halliday, Ian A. [Sustainable Fisheries Unit, Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 46, Brisbane QLD, 4001 (Australia); Howley, Christina [Howley Environmental Consulting and CYMAG Environmental, Cooktown, QLD (Australia); Sinnamon, Vivian [Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resource Management Office, Kowanyama, QLD (Australia); Bunn, Stuart E. [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. {delta}{sup 15}N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  9. Assessment Activity of 210Po and 210Pb in the Edible Tissues of Cultured Seabass (Lates calcariferat Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis levels of 210Po and 210Pb were determined in the edible tissue of sea bass (Lates calcarifer from 14 cages in the west and east coast Peninsular of Malaysia. The concentrations level in fish were found varies from 1.35 ± 0.22 to 6.20 ± 0.99 Bq/kg dry weight210Po and 3.30 ± 2.69 to 51.71 ± 19.26 Bq/kg dry weight 210Pb. The level of this radionuclide was much related to the anthropogenic activities at the sampling locations neighbouring area, differences in metabolisms of fish and food intake pattern for each cage. Then the calculated daily intake value due to fish consumption was to be 7.69 mBq/d/person210Po and 35.90 mBq/d/person210Pb, which lower than those reported in others countries. In addition, the collective doses of210Po and210Pb were estimated to be 0.001mSv/year and 0.009 mSv/year, respectively. This suggests that the dose received by Malaysian due to consumption of fish is rather small, and did not deteriorate human’s health and safe for consumption.

  10. Effect of rainfall as a component of climate change on estuarine fish production in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Lee, Shing Yip; Duke, Norman C.; Warnken, Jan

    2006-09-01

    The speculation that climate change may impact on sustainable fish production suggests a need to understand how these effects influence fish catch on a broad scale. With a gross annual value of A$ 2.2 billion, the fishing industry is a significant primary industry in Australia. Many commercially important fish species use estuarine habitats such as mangroves, tidal flats and seagrass beds as nurseries or breeding grounds and have lifecycles correlated to rainfall and temperature patterns. Correlation of catches of mullet (e.g. Mugil cephalus) and barramundi ( Lates calcarifer) with rainfall suggests that fisheries may be sensitive to effects of climate change. This work reviews key commercial fish and crustacean species and their link to estuaries and climate parameters. A conceptual model demonstrates ecological and biophysical links of estuarine habitats that influences capture fisheries production. The difficulty involved in explaining the effect of climate change on fisheries arising from the lack of ecological knowledge may be overcome by relating climate parameters with long-term fish catch data. Catch per unit effort (CPUE), rainfall, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and catch time series for specific combinations of climate seasons and regions have been explored and surplus production models applied to Queensland's commercial fish catch data with the program CLIMPROD. Results indicate that up to 30% of Queensland's total fish catch and up to 80% of the barramundi catch variation for specific regions can be explained by rainfall often with a lagged response to rainfall events. Our approach allows an evaluation of the economic consequences of climate parameters on estuarine fisheries, thus highlighting the need to develop forecast models and manage estuaries for future climate change impact by adjusting the quota for climate change sensitive species. Different modelling approaches are discussed with respect to their forecast ability.

  11. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  12. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:23769873

  13. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Trujillo-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch (Latidae, by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 min, 24, 48 h, four, eight, 12, and 16 days. Fluorescent labelling revealed that parasites attached underneath and on the surface of the scales of host fish. Parasite infection success was 20% within 15 min, and peaked at 93% two days post-exposure, before gradually declining between four and sixteen days. Differences in parasite distribution on L. calcarifer over time provided strong evidence that Neobenedenia sp. larvae settled opportunistically and then migrated to specific microhabitats. Parasites initially attached (<24 h in greater mean numbers on the body surface (13 ± 1.5 compared to the fins (4 ± 0.42 and head region (2 ± 0.41. Once larvae recruitment had ceased (48 h, there were significantly higher mean post-larvae counts on the head (5 ± 3.4 and fins (12 ± 3 compared to previous time intervals. Neobenedenia sp. aggregated on the eyes, fins, and dorsal and ventral extremities on the main body. As parasites neared sexual maturity, there was a marked aggregation on the fins (22 ± 2.35 compared to the head (4 ± 0.97 and body (9 ± 1.33, indicating that Neobenedenia sp. may form mating aggregations.

  14. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude;

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  15. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA Blending and Gamma Irradiation on Compressive Strength of FHAp/FGel Composite as Candidate of Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Composite as candidate of scaffold have been synthesized from fish hydroxyapatite (FHAp and fish gelatin (FGel of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Bloch scale that aqua-cultured in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA blending was investigated for improvement of compressive strength of composites. Composites were synthesized by wet method at FGel/PVA percent mass ratio of 10/0, 7.5/2.5, 5.0/5.0, and 7.5/2.5 (w/w, respectively. Sodium citrate was used as dispersant to forming a paste-like suspension condition. Porous composites were obtained after freeze-drying of suspensions. Compressive strength and Young’s modulus of scaffold were increased as increasing PVA content. FTIR spectra confirmed the molecular interaction among components of composite. SEM micrograph showed fibrous and ribbon structure over surface of FHAp/FGel composite that blended with PVA. Gamma irradiation lead to formation of micro- and mesopores in the wall surface of composite.

  16. Movements of diadromous fish in large unregulated tropical rivers inferred from geochemical tracers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Walther

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration and habitat use in diadromous fishes can be highly variable among individuals. Most investigations into diadromous movement patterns have been restricted to populations in regulated rivers, and little information exists for those in unregulated catchments. We quantified movements of migratory barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch in two large unregulated rivers in northern Australia using both elemental (Sr/Ba and isotope ((87Sr/(86Sr ratios in aragonitic ear stones, or otoliths. Chemical life history profiles indicated significant individual variation in habitat use, particularly among chemically distinct freshwater habitats within a catchment. A global zoning algorithm was used to quantify distinct changes in chemical signatures across profiles. This algorithm identified between 2 and 6 distinct chemical habitats in individual profiles, indicating variable movement among habitats. Profiles of (87Sr/(86Sr ratios were notably distinct among individuals, with highly radiogenic values recorded in some otoliths. This variation suggested that fish made full use of habitats across the entire catchment basin. Our results show that unrestricted movement among freshwater habitats is an important component of diadromous life histories for populations in unregulated systems.

  17. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha eVij

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing the Western and Eastern Coastline of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh and Australia. Samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore were collected as part of a previous study. DNA sequence variations, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI, 16S rDNA and the highly variable D-loop (or control region, were examined to establish species delineation. Data from all the sequences analyzed concordantly point to the existence of at least two distinct species - one representing the Indian subcontinent plus Myanmar, and a second, representing Southeast Asia (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia plus Northern Australia. These data are useful for conservation ecology, aquaculture management, for establishing the extent of genetic diversity in the Asian seabass and implementing selective breeding programs for members of this species complex.

  18. Movements of diadromous fish in large unregulated tropical rivers inferred from geochemical tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Benjamin D; Dempster, Tim; Letnic, Mike; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2011-04-06

    Patterns of migration and habitat use in diadromous fishes can be highly variable among individuals. Most investigations into diadromous movement patterns have been restricted to populations in regulated rivers, and little information exists for those in unregulated catchments. We quantified movements of migratory barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in two large unregulated rivers in northern Australia using both elemental (Sr/Ba) and isotope ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) ratios in aragonitic ear stones, or otoliths. Chemical life history profiles indicated significant individual variation in habitat use, particularly among chemically distinct freshwater habitats within a catchment. A global zoning algorithm was used to quantify distinct changes in chemical signatures across profiles. This algorithm identified between 2 and 6 distinct chemical habitats in individual profiles, indicating variable movement among habitats. Profiles of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios were notably distinct among individuals, with highly radiogenic values recorded in some otoliths. This variation suggested that fish made full use of habitats across the entire catchment basin. Our results show that unrestricted movement among freshwater habitats is an important component of diadromous life histories for populations in unregulated systems.

  19. Late-term abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  20. Late onset endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz AlHadlaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube.

  1. Late Sovereign Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    the promotion of national interests with those of the Union. In this late sovereign phase of diplomacy, political and legal authorities overlap, territorial exclusivity is replaced with functional boundaries, and states begin to speak with one voice. The article explores three interlinked aspects of late...... sovereign diplomacy: the teleological interpretation of the EC and EU treaties; the intense socialization of state representatives; and the negotiation process, which promotes national positions as part of a European cause, thereby delocalizing the national interest. While the EU has not rendered national...... diplomacy obsolete, it has profoundly changed its meaning and consequences....

  2. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a bro

  3. Was I Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶历来; 罗琪芳

    2011-01-01

    “Get up, Jane!” “Oh... Mom, let me sleep five more minutes. I'm so Ured ( 困的 ).” “It's 7:50. It's too late. ” “OK, three minutes then... Wait! What did you say? What time is it? It's 7:50.”

  4. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  5. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....

  6. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  7. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investiga...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  8. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  9. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or ...

  10. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e.g., wi...

  11. Late onset of Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, R. H.; Sax, D S; Schoenfeld, M; Bird, E D; Wolf, P. A.; Vonsattel, J P; White, R. F.; Martin, J B

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with late-onset Huntington's disease were studied; motor impairment appeared at age 50 years or later. The average age at onset of chorea was 57.5 years, with an average age at diagnosis of 63.1 years. Approximately 25% of persons affected by Huntington's disease exhibit late onset. A preponderance of maternal transmission was noted in late-onset Huntington's disease. The clinical features resembled those of mid-life onset Huntington's disease but progressed more slowly. ...

  12. Helping the Habitually Late Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    The author gives three major reasons for a student being habitually late to class: resistance, disorganization, or unavoidable schedule conflicts. He makes specific suggestions to teachers for dealing with the disorganized and resistant latecomers. (SJL)

  13. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  15. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  16. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  17. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  18. Trace metal dynamics in fishes from the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.

    The concentration of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the muscle tissue of marine fishes like Lates calcarifer, Nemipterus japonicus, Caranx melampygus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, and Cyanoglossus macrostomus was estimated from samples collected...

  19. [Late-onset dysthymic states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siranchiev, M A

    2002-01-01

    Sixty patients with dysthymic states which had emerged in later age of 60-80 years were examined. Two clinical types of dysthymic states were described: anergic (20 patients) and hypothymic (40 patients). Different comorbid mental disorders--obsessive-phobic (14 cases), somatoform (10), personality deviations (20) and psycho-organic (7)--were found to be characteristic of late-onset dysthymic states. According to developmental features, late dysthymia was primary (first manifested in the elderly) and secondary (develops after several depressive episodes). In diagnostic terms, the former is considered as "dysthymia" (F34.1 ICD-10) and the latter--as "recurrent depressive disorder" (F33).

  20. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  1. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  2. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive patient

  3. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  4. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  5. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  6. Late Blight demonstrations December 2013-February 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Gunadi, N.; Putter, de H.; Wustman, R.; Moekasan, T.K.; Laksminiwati, P.; Karjadi, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most important diseases worldwide. Also in Indonesia control of late blight is very important in potato and tomato, especially in the rainy season. In order to learn more about the important factors that determine late blight control - such

  7. Processing of Baculovirus Late and Very Late mRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda A. Guarino

    2007-01-01

    Baculoviruses encode a DNA-directed RNA polymerase that is evolutionarily divergent from cellular polymerases. This RNA polymerase is a multifunctional complex that has the ability to recognize late promoters, transcribe linked genes, and process transcripts at both the 5' and 3' ends. The LEF-4 subunit of the viral RNA polymerase is the mRNA capping enzyme, with both RNA triphosphatase and guanylyltransferase activities. Conversion to cap 1 structures is mediated by the viral enzyme MTase1 and another as yet unidentified methyltransferase. Termination is an intrinsic property of the viral RNA polymerase and occurs at oligoU rich sequences. Polyadenylation of the released transcripts is also a function of the viral RNA polymerase. Thus, although viral mRNAs resemble host messages with respect to their 5' and 3' end structures, the processing is mediated by viral enzymes and, in the case of the 3' ends, by mechanisms that differ from the host cell.

  8. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Brasser, R; Werner, S C; Matsumura, S; Ida, S

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal (`rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is th...

  9. Late complications of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  10. Late Disciform Endotheliitis after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Oruçoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and imaging features of the patient with late herpetic keratouveitis after LASIK were investigated. A 25-year-old male patient applied with a chief complaint of blurred vision and photophobia in the left eye. He had a history of herpetic keratitits and elsewhere underwent LASIK procedure in 2005. Oral and topical acyclovir treatments were started a week ago when his complaints started. His corrected distance visual acuity was 0.2 and intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg on the left eye. Slit-lamp revealed deep central disciform edema, keratic precipitates, and 2 positive cells in the anterior chamber. Although the patient had myopic LASIK ablation, the central corneal thickness was 652 microns. Scheimpflug imaging was drawing attention to the thickening of the posterior cornea and the keratic precipitates. Sagital and anterior elevation maps were not affected, however, posterior elevation map showed marked central flattening. Asphericity value Q was within normal limits anteriorly (Q=-0.14 and it was in oblate appearance posteriorly (Q=+5.24. In addition to the antiviral medications, a topical dexamethasone treatment was started. The vision improved to 0.6, and the edema was markedly reduced after 4 days of treatment. Scheimpflug imaging parameters were significantly improved. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 282-5

  11. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  12. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  13. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  14. LATE VISION: PROCESSES AND EPISTEMIC STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios eRaftopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the processes that occur in late vision and address the problem of whether late vision should be construed as a properly speaking perceptual stage, or as a thought-like discursive stage. Specifically, I argue that late vision, its (partly conceptual nature notwithstanding, neither is constituted by nor does it implicate what I call pure thoughts, that is, propositional structures that are formed in the cognitive areas of the brain through, and participate in, discursive reasoning and inferences. At the same time, the output of late vision, namely an explicit belief concerning the identity and category membership of an object (that is, a recognitional belief or its features, eventually enters into discursive reasoning. Using Jackendoff’s distinction between visual awareness, which characterizes perception, and visual understanding, which characterizes pure thought, I claim that the contents of late vision belong to visual awareness and not to visual understanding and that although late vision implicates beliefs, either implicit or explicit, these beliefs are hybrid visual/conceptual constructs and not pure thoughts. Distinguishing between these hybrid representations and pure thoughts and delineating the nature of the representations of late vision lays the ground for examining, among other things, the process of conceptualization that occurs in visual processing and the way concepts modulate perceptual content affecting either its representational or phenomenal character. I also do not discuss the epistemological relations between the representations of late vision and the perceptual judgments they ‘support’, or ‘guide’ or ‘render possible’ or ‘evidence’ or ‘entitle’. However, the specification of the epistemology of late vision lays the ground for attacking that problem as well.

  15. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  16. Hepatic blood flow in late sepsis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Abd El Maqsoud

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Duplex ultrasound assessment was a useful bedside method for predicting mortality in late sepsis patients through estimation of HABF, with a reasonable predictive potential at a definite cutoff level.

  17. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  18. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    the studies. The results of this review are generally inconclusive. In spite of the low quality scores, we did find that chronic stress, role/identity loss and friends approval of drinking, was associated with an increased risk for late-onset AUD whereas retirement, death of spouse or close relative does...... not increase the risk for late-onset AUD. However, the data was insufficient to give a reliable quantification of these associations. Discussion A common problem for the studies included (and the ones excluded as well) was the lack of common definitions of late-onset, “stress” and “traumatic life events...... late-onset AUD and other kinds of AUD....

  19. Are we ready to predict late effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salz, Talya; Baxi, Shrujal S; Raghunathan, Nirupa;

    2015-01-01

    : We searched Medline through April 2014. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing models that (1) predicted the absolute risk of a late effect present at least 1 year post-treatment, and (2) could be used in a clinical setting. DATA EXTRACTION: Three authors independently extracted data pertaining...... or heart failure and cardiac event after breast cancer; swallowing dysfunction after head and neck cancer; breast cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma and thyroid cancer after childhood cancer. Of these, four late effects are persistent effects of treatment and five appear after a latent period. Two studies were......BACKGROUND: After completing treatment for cancer, survivors may experience late effects: consequences of treatment that persist or arise after a latent period. PURPOSE: To identify and describe all models that predict the risk of late effects and could be used in clinical practice. DATA SOURCES...

  20. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna is...... invasion of migrants from Baltica that arrived later during the Hirnantian. The offshore migration of this atypical Hiscobeccus fauna likely demonstrates the path of warm-water currents as the Centrum SO locality was located at the equator during the Late Ordovician....

  1. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soto Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation.

  2. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Herrera, Mariana; Restrepo, José A.; Felipe Buitrago, Andrés; Gómez Mejía, Mabel; Díaz, Jesús H.

    2013-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation. PMID:24829831

  3. Shedding further light on late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary context......, are less understood and researched. To stimulate research on late globalization, Nikhilesh essay is a rich source for conceiving research questions. Herein I will try to do that....

  4. The late adopter scale: A measure of late adopters of technological innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanmir, Sara F.; Lages, Luís Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion of Innovation is a topic of interest for researchers and practitioners. Although substantial research is conducted on user categories, researchers often focus on the first half of the curve, ignoring the late adopters. We conduct two studies to measure the attributes of late adopters. In our first study of mobile phone users, we develop the Late-Adopter Scale. We then test it on a sample of laptop users. This scale is multi-dimensional, presents nomological and discriminant valid...

  5. Microbleeds in Late-Life Depression: Comparison of Early- and Late-Onset Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Feng; Min Fang; Yu Xu; Ting Hua; Xue-Yuan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Late-life depression could be classified roughly as early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD). LOD was proved to be associated with cerebral lesions including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), differently from EOD. However, it is unclear whether similar association is present between LOD and microbleeds which are also silent lesions. In this study, 195 patients of late-life depression were evaluated and divided into EOD, presenile-onset...

  6. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  7. Provincialism of the late Middle through middle Late Cambrian paraconodonts and protoconodonts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative paleoprovincialism is studied, using a coefficient of similarity (CS) formula. The results indicate that the provincialism of the late Middle through middle Late Cambrian paraconodonts and protoconodonts did exist. The provincialism of Ordovician conodonts can be traced back to late Middle Cambrian. The North China Province and South China Province can be recognized in late Middle Cambrian, whereas the North China Province, South China Province and Balitca Province can be recognized respectively in early Late Cambrian and middle Late Cambrian. The possibility that the larger units of provincialism, i.e. Faunal Regions existed in the areas mentioned above is discussed. It is inferred that the Midcontinent Faunal Region and the Atlantic Faunal Region had existed in early Late Cambrian and middle Late Cambrian. The North China Province was the secondary unit of provincialism in the Midcontinent Faunal Region, while the Baltica Province was that in the Atlantic Faunal Region. The South China Province is the secondary unit of provincialism between the two largest units of provincialism. Moreover, the comparison with the trilobite provincialism which has been accumulated on a solid basis of research is made, and the paleogeographic positions of North China Massif, South China Massif and Tarim Massif are revised.

  8. Climate predictors of late quaternary extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Batra, Persaram;

    2010-01-01

    of greater magnitudes during the Late Quaternary, witnessed more extinctions than continents with lower climate footprint values, with the exception of South America. Our results are consistent across species with different body masses, reinforcing the view that past climate changes contributed to global......Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary...... extinctions, but global quantitative evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. We test the potential role of global climate change on the extinction of mammals during the Late Quaternary. Our results suggest that continents with the highest climate footprint values, in other words, with climate changes...

  9. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: late skin manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Marckmann, Peter; Rossen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    confluent dermal plaques with thickening and hardening. In contrast, 3 patients presented with wrinkled, redundant skin as seen in cutis laxa. Patients with NSF had significantly poorer scores than control patients on the Daily Life Quality Index (mean [SD], 11. 4 [7.4] vs 1.5 [2. 3]; P ...: This descriptive case series of patients with NSF gives a detailed clinical picture of the skin manifestations late in the disease. It demonstrates that the clinical picture in the late stage has a varied presentation and that NSF has a significant effect on the quality of life.......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists...

  10. Mobile ICT Acceptance in Late Adopter Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid global diffusion of the smartphone, some countries have experienced much slower uptake of the technology. The low smartphone penetration within Slovakia provides the opportunity to explore what drives smartphone use in late majority countries. Slovakia is a central European nation...... and part of the Eurozone. It has advanced telecommunications infrastructure and is subject to the same telecommunications regulations as other EU members. While neighbours have high smartphone penetration, Slovakia is a late majority adopter. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behavior...... to investigate the question: What drives the use of smartphones in late majority countries? By studying the differences between current and potential smartphone users, the study revisits Karahanna et al.’s research question: Do potential adopters and users of IT hold the same behavioral and normative beliefs...

  11. Late effects of thoracic irradiation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, T.; Koenemann, S.; Ernst, I.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital of Muenster (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to summarize the literature regarding the late effects of radiotherapy to the thorax in childhood and adolescence with special emphasis on cardiac and pulmonary impairment. Material und methods: the literature was critically reviewed using the PubMed {sup registered} database with the key words 'late effects', 'late sequelae', 'child', 'childhood', 'adolescence', 'radiation', 'radiotherapy', 'thorax', 'lung', 'heart', and 'pulmonary'. Results: 17 publications dealing with radiation-induced pulmonary and cardiac late sequelae in children could be identified and were analyzed in detail. 29 further publications with additional information were also included in the analysis. Pulmonary function impairment after mediastinal irradiation arose in one third of all pediatric patients, even when treatment was performed with normofractionated lower doses (15-25 Gy). Whole lung irradiation was regularly followed by pulmonary function impairment with differing rates in several reports. However, clinically symptomatic function impairment like dyspnea was less frequent. Irradiation of up to 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2 Gy) to the heart showed little or no cardiac toxicity in analyses of irradiated children (median follow-up 1.3-14.3 years). Doses of > 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2-3.3 Gy) led to several cardiac dysfunctions. However, new data from adults with longer follow-up may indicate threshold doses as low as 1 Gy. Impairment of skeletal growth, breast hypoplasia, and secondary malignancy were further potential late sequelae. Conclusion: several retrospective reports described radiation-associated late sequelae in children. However, there is still a lack of sufficient data regarding the characterization of dose-volume effects. (orig.)

  12. Late diagnosis of chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesso, R; Belasco, A G; Ajzen, H

    1996-11-01

    A comparison was made between patients with a late diagnosis of chronic renal failure (1 month or less before starting dialysis, N = 96) and those with an early diagnosis (6 months or more, N = 45) in terms of the following aspects: referral characteristics during the pre-dialysis phase, demographic details and patient biochemistry prior to maintenance dialysis. Information was obtained by surveying consecutive patients with primary renal disease admitted to a university dialysis unit in São Paulo. Fifty-three percent of all patients surveyed had a late diagnosis. These patients had a lower median duration of symptoms (2 vs 6 months, P < 0.01) and were less likely to be referred for dialysis by a nephrologist (9% vs 51%, P < 0.001) than early diagnosis patients. In the early diagnosis group, 7 patients (16%) had follow-up care for less than 6 months and 11 (24%) did not receive any follow-up; 21 patients (47%) did not follow a low-protein diet. At the start of dialysis, patients with a late diagnosis had higher blood pressure and a higher rate of pulmonary infections (19% vs 4%, P = 0.03). Mean concentrations of BUN, serum creatinine and potassium were significantly higher and mean blood hematocrit was lower for the late diagnosis group. After 3 months of dialysis, the mortality rate was higher in the late than in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs 6.7%, P = 0.02). Late diagnosis of chronic renal failure and lack of adequate follow-up care, prior to the start of dialysis, are common. Interventions to promote early diagnosis of chronic renal failure and to improve compliance with regular nephrological follow-up can be important to reduce the morbidity and the mortality of patients with chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:9196548

  13. Late effects of thoracic irradiation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to summarize the literature regarding the late effects of radiotherapy to the thorax in childhood and adolescence with special emphasis on cardiac and pulmonary impairment. Material und methods: the literature was critically reviewed using the PubMed registered database with the key words 'late effects', 'late sequelae', 'child', 'childhood', 'adolescence', 'radiation', 'radiotherapy', 'thorax', 'lung', 'heart', and 'pulmonary'. Results: 17 publications dealing with radiation-induced pulmonary and cardiac late sequelae in children could be identified and were analyzed in detail. 29 further publications with additional information were also included in the analysis. Pulmonary function impairment after mediastinal irradiation arose in one third of all pediatric patients, even when treatment was performed with normofractionated lower doses (15-25 Gy). Whole lung irradiation was regularly followed by pulmonary function impairment with differing rates in several reports. However, clinically symptomatic function impairment like dyspnea was less frequent. Irradiation of up to 25 Gy (single doses ≤ 2 Gy) to the heart showed little or no cardiac toxicity in analyses of irradiated children (median follow-up 1.3-14.3 years). Doses of > 25 Gy (single doses ≤ 2-3.3 Gy) led to several cardiac dysfunctions. However, new data from adults with longer follow-up may indicate threshold doses as low as 1 Gy. Impairment of skeletal growth, breast hypoplasia, and secondary malignancy were further potential late sequelae. Conclusion: several retrospective reports described radiation-associated late sequelae in children. However, there is still a lack of sufficient data regarding the characterization of dose-volume effects. (orig.)

  14. Nonavian feathers in a late Triassic archosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T D; Ruben, J A; Martin, L D; Kurochkin, E N; Feduccia, A; Maderson, P F; Hillenius, W J; Geist, N R; Alifanov, V

    2000-06-23

    Longisquama insignis was an unusual archosaur from the Late Triassic of central Asia. Along its dorsal axis Longisquama bore a series of paired integumentary appendages that resembled avian feathers in many details, especially in the anatomy of the basal region. The latter is sufficiently similar to the calamus of modern feathers that each probably represents the culmination of virtually identical morphogenetic processes. The exact relationship of Longisquama to birds is uncertain. Nevertheless, we interpret Longisquama's elongate integumentary appendages as nonavian feathers and suggest that they are probably homologous with avian feathers. If so, they antedate the feathers of Archaeopteryx, the first known bird from the Late Jurassic. PMID:10864867

  15. Three comments on late antiquity history

    OpenAIRE

    Milin Milena L.

    2003-01-01

    The author suggests corrections in reading the inscription CIL III 4002 lines 3-7 (see pp. 1-2). The formula q(ui vixit) ann(os), lines 3-4, was common in Late Antiquity, unlike the previous reading...ann(orum), which was typical for the Early Empire. L.5 memoria frequently appeared in funerary monuments in Late Antiquity. L. 6 Instead of unlikely collegae, the complement colloc(avit or –erunt) has been suggested, according to analogies sedem conlocasse (Siscia, CIL 3996) sepulcrum (!) colloc...

  16. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  17. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  18. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.; Marck, M.A. van der; Elsen, G. van den; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicin

  19. The early days of late blight

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Paul RJ; Cooke, David EL

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years.

  20. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  1. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festman, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  2. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  3. Late Stages of Stellar Evolution - Herschel's contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, Leen

    2012-01-01

    Cool objects glow in the infrared. The gas and solid-state species that escape the stellar gravitational attraction of evolved late-type stars in the form of a stellar wind are cool, with temperatures typically $\\la$1500\\,K, and can be ideally studied in the infrared. These stellar winds create huge extended circumstellar envelopes with extents approaching $10^{19}$\\,cm. In these envelopes, a complex kinematical, thermodynamical and chemical interplay determines the global and local structural parameters. Unraveling the wind acceleration mechanisms and deriving the complicated structure of the envelopes is important to understand the late stages of evolution of ~97% of stars in galaxies as our own Milky Way. That way, we can also assess the significant chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium by the mass loss of these evolved stars. The Herschel Space Observatory is uniquely placed to study evolved stars thanks to the excellent capabilities of the three infrared and sub-millimeter instruments on board: ...

  4. Ribbed vaults of late Gothic in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Casu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The late Gothic construction practice, settled in the Spanish Mediterranean area, is based on predetermined geometric rules and is shown in religious buildings with ribbed vaults. The proportion between the sides of the area to cover, tracing plan of the ribs as a succession of corner bisectors, stereotomy problems and volumetric aspects, are just some of the elements that can describe the complex construction of a ribbed vault. The aim of this paper is to analyze the dimensional information of the late gothic ribbed vaults of Sardinia, in order to define the geometric and proportional rules for a correct drawing, establishing a standard procedure for the collection of measures and the construction of the 3D model of vaults.

  5. The late results of Hauser's operation

    OpenAIRE

    Cakmak, Mehmet; Domanic, Unsal; Akalin, Yilmaz; Taser, Omer

    2004-01-01

    Attempts have been made to examine the late results obtained from 9 knees in 7 cases, as well as to discuss the place of Hauser's operation today under the light of literature. It has also been stressed that Hausers operation should not be performed before the age of 14 and in cases of habitual patella dislocations and that Blauth-Mann modification should be applied in recurrent patella dislocations ana subluxations.

  6. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    Late preterm (LPT) neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature ...

  7. The Rural Market in Late Imperial China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ren

    2010-01-01

    The rural market was an important constituent of marketing system, and formed an un-vertical congruent relationship with urban market in late imperial China. There were different types of rural fair in the imperial China. Xu, Chang, Ji, Dian, Shi, Hui, all of them were the regular fairs. Their number was huge. They distributed widely, played a distinct role, and became the base of rural market development. During Tang and Song dynasties, county seat, town or village had some regular fairs. Th...

  8. Late diagnosis iniencephaly with spina bifida

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Marangoz Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Herein a rare case of iniencephaly combined with spina bifida is reported, which was diagnosed late because the G6P5 mother had not attended hospital for first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. A woman aged 33 years who was 38 weeks pregnant presented for ante-natal follow-up. Her clinical results were normal but abnormalities including polyhydramnios, retroflexion of the head with absence of neck, acrania, and severe growth retardation were observed in the fetus. The...

  9. Pyomyositis of Obturator Muscles: Unusual Late Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Channappa Soraganvi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. Keywords: Pyomyositis, septic arthritis, infection, obturator muscle.

  10. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  11. Nile behaviour and Late Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Van Neer, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of the environment and the human population history of the Nile Valley during the Late Pleistocene have received a lot of attention in the literature thus far. There seems to be a consensus that during MIS2 extreme dry conditions prevailed over north-eastern Africa, which was apparently not occupied by humans. The Nile Valley seems to be an exception; numerous field data have been collected suggesting an important population density in Upper Egypt during MIS2. The occupation remains are often stratified in, or at least related to, aeolian and Nile deposits at some elevation above the present-day floodplain. They are rich in lithics and animal bones, mainly fish, illustrating the exploitation of the Nile Valley by the Late Palaeolithic inhabitants. The fluvial processes active during that period have traditionally been interpreted as a continuously rising highly braided river. In this paper we summarize the evidence thus far available for the Late Pleistocene on the population densities in the Nile Valley, and on the models of Nilotic behaviour. In the discussion we include data on the environmental conditions in Eastern Africa, on the aeolian processes in the Western Desert of Egypt derived from satellite images, 14C and OSL dates, in order to formulate a new model that explains the observed high remnants of aeolian and Nilotic deposits and the related Late Palaeolithic sites. This model hypothesizes that, during the Late Pleistocene, and especially the LGM, dunes from the Western Desert invaded the Nile Valley at several places in Upper Egypt. The much reduced activity of the White Nile and the Blue Nile was unable to evacuate incoming aeolian sand and, as a consequence, several dams were created in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley. Behind such dams the created lakes offered ideal conditions for human subsistence. This model explains the occurrence of Late Palaeolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers in a very arid environment with very low Nile flows

  12. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  13. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy liver are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ... are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Childhood cancer survivors with liver ... Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ...

  14. 24 CFR 203.554 - Enforcement of late charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on the part of the mortgagor is the failure to pay a late charge or charges (§ 203.25), except as provided in § 203.556. (b) A late charge attributable to a particular installment payment due under the... mortgagor of his obligation to pay a late charge, such a charge may be deducted from any subsequent...

  15. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  16. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  17. Late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raashid Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to highlight the clinical profile, misdiagnosis, surgical treatment,and prognosis of late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH cases in a tertiary level hospital. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included all the babies and children >1 month of age with CDH who were admitted in our Hospital (Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, India during the period between January 2008 and December 2013. Babies with age <1 month were excluded from the study. Data regarding clinical profile, operative records, and follow-up was reviewed and analysed statistically. Results: A total of 20 patients were included in this study. The clinical picture ranged from respiratory distress (13 patients to non-specific gastrointestinal complaints (5 patients. In two patients, CDH was misdiagnosed as pneumothorax and had got chest tube inserted in other hospitals before referral to this tertiary care centre. In 14 patients chest, X-ray revealed the diagnosis of CDH and in remaining five patients (including the two patients with misdiagnosis further investigations were undertaken to establish the diagnosis. Age ranged from 45 days to 17 years with an average age of 58.9 months. There were 12 male and 8 female patients. In all the 20 patients, surgical procedures were undertaken with the retrieval of herniated contents from the thoracic cavity and repair of the diaphragmatic defect. There was no mortality in our series. All the 20 patients were followed-up for a period ranging from 6 months to 5 years (median 3.1 years. Conclusions: Late-presenting CDH can have diverse clinical presentation. Late diagnosis and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity and potential mortality if these cases are not managed properly at an appropriate stage. Outcome is favourable if these patients are expeditiously identified and surgically repaired.

  18. Baryogenesis and Late-Decaying Moduli

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver

    2010-01-01

    Late-decaying string moduli dilute the baryon asymmetry of the universe created in any previous era. The reheat temperature for such moduli is below a GeV, thus motivating baryogenesis at very low temperatures. We present an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with TeV-scale colored fields that can yield the correct baryon asymmetry of the universe in this context. Modulus decay, which reheats the universe at a temperature below GeV, produces the visible sector fields and n...

  19. Educating Citizens in Late Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2011-01-01

    . The model is based on the fundamental belief that the overall aim of civic education in democratic, late modern and global societies is empowerment of the citizen in order to establish a self governing citizen who simultaneous is capable of managing and keeping together partly contradictory citizens tasks....... One is being a loyal subject in state and society affairs, a second is being an informed voter in state elections, a third is being a critical participant in state and society affairs and a forth is being an independent, innovative citizen outside state. The model is inspired by rather comprehensive...

  20. Public Schools in Australia from the Late 1970s to the Late 1980s: The Seeds of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcan, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The period from the late 1970s to the late 1980s were transition years for most public(government) school systems in Australia. A reaction was developing against the neo-progressive and radical (neo-Marxist) innovations of the late 1960s and 1970s such as school-based curricula, activity methods, and "open education". By the early 1980s the…

  1. Cross-sectional analysis of late HAART initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: late testers and late presenters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI in this region. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4(+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817 who had baseline CD4(+ available (n = 8515, 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52-59], Chile (80%[95%CI:77-82], Haiti (76%[95%CI:74-77], Honduras (91%[95%CI:87-94], Mexico (79%[95%CI:75-83], Peru (86%[95%CI:84-88]. The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7, with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA. Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02-1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02-1.43; respectively, but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94-1.21. Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87-0.98 (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA. LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. CONCLUSION: LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation are needed

  2. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  3. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  4. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  5. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill : A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H A; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P M; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a

  6. New Modernist Studies and Late Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Kącka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available studies into late modernism—of the issues which are worth researchingor the problems which should be signalled. The article starts witha recognition of a poor presence of the category of modernism in thinkingabout the literature of the 20th and 21st centuries and submits severalproposals. At the beginning, a proposal of confronting a modernistparadigm with a paradigm of Romantic revision. This proposal was presentedwith an awareness of the fuzziness of the notion of modernism aswell as the notion of Romantic revision in Polish academic environment.The following research postulates that would be formulated are: deeperreflection on the language (in connection with tradition, heritage andtheir problematization and on the practices of reading. Later, the textposes a question about the way of studying the permeation of discoursesin the writing of specific representatives of modernism and demandsgreater recognition for the Central European perspective in research.

  7. How Common are Extrasolar, Late Heavy Bombardments?

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Levison, Harold F

    2009-01-01

    The habitability of planets is strongly affected by impacts from comets and asteroids. Indications from the ages of Moon rocks suggest that the inner Solar System experienced an increased rate of impacts roughly 3.8 Gya known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Here we develop a model of how the Solar System would have appeared to a distant observer during its history based on the Nice model of Gomes et al. (2005). We compare our results with observed debris discs. We show that the Solar System would have been amongst the brightest of these systems before the LHB. Comparison with the statistics of debris disc evolution shows that such heavy bombardment events must be rare occurring around less than 12% of Sun-like stars.

  8. Late presentation for HIV care across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Antinori, Andrea;

    2015-01-01

    Late presentation (LP) for HIV care across Europe remains a significant issue. We provide a cross-European update from 34 countries on the prevalence and risk factors of LP for 2010-2013. People aged ≥ 16 presenting for HIV care (earliest of HIV-diagnosis, first clinic visit or cohort enrollment......) after 1 January 2010 with available CD4 count within six months of presentation were included. LP was defined as presentation with a CD4 count HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression investigated changes in LP over time. A total.......02-1.32), and a significant decline in LP in northern Europe (aOR/year later 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94). Further improvements in effective HIV testing strategies, with a focus on vulnerable groups, are required across the European continent....

  9. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  10. Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Povlsen, G K

    2011-01-01

    Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) carries high morbidity and mortality because of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and subsequent cerebral ischaemia. This is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in cerebral artery smooth muscles via the activation...... of intracellular signalling. In addition, delayed cerebral ischaemia after SAH is associated with inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This article reviews recent evidence concerning the roles of vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation, inflammation and BBB breakdown in delayed cerebral...... their sensitivity to endogenous agonists such as ET-1 and 5-HT by increasing their smooth muscle expression of receptors for these after SAH. This is associated with reduced CBF and neurological deficits. A number of signal transduction components mediating this receptor upregulation have been identified, including...

  11. Possible impact event in the Late Cambrian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The repeated investigation of the Batyrbay section has been done by the authors. Today we see increasing of interest to revising of volumes and boundaries of Stages and Series in the Cambrian and Ordovician,as well as to the events of this time. In this work the description of iron spherules and particles, found in the deep-water limestone layer of the conodont Cordylodus primitivus Zone in the middle Upper Cambrian of the Batyrbay section, Malyi Karatau of South Kazakhstan, and formed during the time of global sea-level changes known as a world-wide Lange Ranch Eustatic event, have been done. From our point of view, finds of iron spherules and particles may evidence about new unknown yet Event of cosmic origin, i.e. falling of a meteorite on Earth in the middle Late Cambrian.

  12. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravanthi, A; Srivalli, P; Gopal, K V T; Rao, T Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2(nd) decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  13. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sravanthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda, which is an infrequently reported rare variant.

  14. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle...... force. Fifteen healthy young males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle...... biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area...

  15. Late Preterm birth and its morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo-Ramos Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: preterm birth is a public health problem due to its high incidence. It canbe extremely preterm, very preterm and late preterm, according to the gestational age.The late preterm birth is the most prevalent subgroup.Objective: identify the early complications and the long-term morbidity that morefrequently have been related with preterm born between 34 and 36 weeks/6 days ofpregnancy.Methods: thematic review. An electronic search was carried out in databases Pubmed,Science direct, EBSCOhost and Scielo. There were considered articles published sinceJanuary, 1997 to December, 2012 in Spanish and English. Obstetric texts also werereviewed.Results: 50 of 300 identified articles achieved the aim of the review. The most commoncomplications that had an early presentation were: hospital re-entry, respiratory problems, suction defects, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia. The most frequent latecomplications were: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, psychological and psychiatricdisorders, mainly schizophrenia and depressive disorders. The late preterm births present10% of the neonatal mortality.Conclusions: late preterm births present higher morbidity than those full-term births.It is not recommended to finish the pregnancy between 34 and 36 weeks without the adequate indication. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2012;4(1: 134-141RESUMEN:Introducción: el parto pretérmino es un problema de salud pública por su elevadaincidencia. Puede ser extremo, muy pretérmino o tardío, dependiendo de la edadgestacional. El parto pretérmino tardío es el subgrupo más prevalente.Objetivo: identificar las complicaciones tempranas y la morbilidad a largo plazo que másfrecuentemente se han relacionado con pretérminos nacidos entre las 34 y 36 semanas/6días de gestación.Metodología: revisión temática. Se realizó búsqueda electrónica en las bases de datosPubMed, Science direct, EBSCOhost y Scielo. Se consideraron artículos publicados desdeenero de 1997 a

  16. Electronic entanglement in late transition metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Patrik; Di Marco, Igor; Eriksson, Olle

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the entanglement in the electronic structure of the late transition metal monoxides--MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO--obtained by means of density-functional theory in the local density approximation combined with dynamical mean-field theory. The impurity problem is solved through exact diagonalization, which grants full access to the thermally mixed many-body ground state density operator. The quality of the electronic structure is affirmed through a direct comparison between the calculated electronic excitation spectrum and photoemission experiments. Our treatment allows for a quantitative investigation of the entanglement in the electronic structure. Two main sources of entanglement are explicitly resolved through the use of a fidelity based geometrical entanglement measure, and additional information is gained from a complementary entropic entanglement measure. We show that the interplay of crystal field effects and Coulomb interaction causes the entanglement in CoO to take a particularly intricate form.

  17. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  18. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathew Domeier; Trond H. Torsvik

    2014-01-01

    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonicsdand its influence on the deep Earth and climatedit is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma w60% of the lithosphere is missing and re-constructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles;in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ re-constructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geo-dynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410e250 Ma) together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  19. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (birds of prey. Nonetheless, from geologic point of view, this paleosol represents an event horizon, which accumulated rapidly maybe within tens or hundreds of years. The vertebrate fauna comprises of scattered fishes (e.g. cyprinids, gobiids, ?channids), amphibians (e.g. salamandrids, ranids, discoglossids, bufonids, pelobatids,), reptiles (scincids, lacertids, gekkonids, anguids, varanids, colubrids, testudinids, emydids), birds (coliiformes), rodents and lagomorphs (cricetids, glirids, eomyids, sciurids, castorids), insectivores and chiropterans (erinaceids, soricids, talpids), and large mammals (suids, tragulids, moschids, cervids, ?palaeomerycids, equids, chalicotheriids, rhinos, proboscidians, carnivors). Litho- and biostratigraphy (terrestrial gastropods) as well as magnetostratigraphic data and the sequence stratigraphic and geodynamic frame indicate an age of 12-12.2 Ma (early Late Sarmatian s.str., chron 5An.1n) for the locality. Therefore, Gratkorn is one of richest and most complete fauna of the late Middle Miocene of Central Europe and will be confidentially one of the key faunas for a high-resolution continental biostratigraphy and the comprehension of the faunal succession and interchanges near the Middle/Late Miocene transition. Acknowledgements This is a preliminary overview of the Gratkorn vertebrate fauna. Several taxa are still under investigation. We are especially grateful to Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Ursula Göhlich (both Natural History Museum Vienna) and Getrud R

  20. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, P.W. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. FLouis, MO (United States); Russell, A. [Radiological Associates, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bruner, D. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptons, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed. 61 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Correlates of late HIV diagnosis: implications for testing policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Cuzin, Lise; Marchou, Bruno; Massip, Patrice; Lang, Thierry; Lert, France; Study Group, The Vespa

    2007-01-01

    To develop new strategies aimed to reduce the delay in seeking HIV diagnosis, we proposed to identify correlates of late diagnosis of HIV infection in France. Late testing was studied among the 1077 patients diagnosed from 1996 and enrolled in the ANRS-EN12-VESPA, a representative sample of the French HIV-infected population. Patients were defined as 'late testers' if they had presented either clinical AIDS events or CD4 cell count

  2. Treatment-resistant late-life depression: challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Knöchel, Christian; Alves, Gilberto; Friedrichs, Benedikt; Schneider, Barbara; Schmidt-Rechau, Anna; Wenzlera, Sofia; Schneider, Angelina; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, André F.; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    The current Review article provides a narrative review about the neurobiological underpinnings and treatment of treatment resistant late-life depression (TRLLD). The manuscript focuses on therapeutic targets of late-life depression, which include pharmacological, psychological, biophysical and exercise treatment approaches. Therefore, we summarize available evidences on that kind of therapies for patients suffering from late-life depression. The search for evidences of therapeutic options of ...

  3. Psychiatry - life events and social support in late life depression

    OpenAIRE

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva; Tânia Ferraz Alves; Luís Fernando Tófoli; Yuan-Pang Wang; Laura Helena Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 ...

  4. Negotiating Chinese modernity: British imperialism and the late Qing reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dongqing; 王冬青

    2013-01-01

     This thesis offers a critical analysis of the intellectual and institutional transformations in late Qing China. The Western invasion of China in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the making of modern China. Focusing on the late Qing reforms in the fields of law, public rituals, education, and economy, this thesis investigates China’s efforts and strategies to negotiate with British imperialism in its search for modernity. Situating the late Qing reforms in a semi...

  5. Two-stage arterial switch operation: is late ever too late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qethamy, Howaida O; Aizaz, Khawar; Aboelnazar, Saber A R; Hijab, Samina; Al Faraidi, Yahya

    2002-09-01

    Results of the two-stage arterial switch operation in 49 patients with transposition of the great arteries, performed between January 1995 and September 2000, were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-one patients had a ventricular septal defect. Anatomical correction was carried out 21.89 +/- 9.86 months after pulmonary artery banding, with or without a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Hospital mortality was 8% (4 patients). During follow-up of 30.12 +/- 14.38 months, there was 1 late death and 1 patient required reoperation for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta. Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation at 5 years were 90% and 97%, respectively. Late anatomic correction (> 6 months) after the preliminary procedure can be performed with an acceptable mortality and morbidity, but undue delay may lead to left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and new aortic valve regurgitation or subaortic stenosis. PMID:12213747

  6. The fallacy of late-life divorce in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Fumie

    2006-01-01

    Late-life divorces in Japan, that is, divorces by couples with more than 20 years' duration of marriage at the time of divorce, have become increasingly conspicuous since in the mid-1990s. However, an increase in the number of late-life divorces is not the same as an increase in the divorce rate. That is, the conspicuous phenomenon of late-life divorces may not reflect the true nature of the institution of divorce. It may be a fallacy of late-life divorce in Japan today. This is the starting point of the present study. Five major findings have emerged. First, late-life divorces did increase dramatically over the recent past. Second, late-life divorces will continue to increase after 2007, when the new old-age pension division scheme for couples who pursue divorce will be in effect. Third, the increment in late-life divorce cases is due primarily to the baby-boomers born between 1947 and 1949 who are pursuing such late-life divorces. Fourth, as the duration of marriage increases, Japanese married couples are less inclined to pursue divorce. Fifth, the reasons for late-life divorces differ from those expressed for divorces in general. It is hoped that these findings will provide valuable insights for Japanese couples married for many years who may wish to reconsider and to reconstruct their marital relationship for the better.

  7. Never too late? An advantage on tests of auditory attention extends to late bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hieronymus Bak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies, using predominantly visual tasks, indicate that early bilinguals outperform monolinguals on attention tests. It remains less clear whether such advantages extend to those bilinguals who have acquired their second language later in life.We examined this question in 38 monolingual and 60 bilingual university students. The bilingual group was further subdivided into early childhood, late childhood and early adulthood bilinguals. The assessment consisted of five subtests from the clinically validated Test of Everyday Attention (TEA. Overall, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on auditory attention tests, but not on visual search tasks. The latter observation suggests that the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals are specific and not due to a generally higher cognitive performance in bilinguals.Within the bilingual group, early childhood bilinguals showed a larger advantage on attention switching, late childhood/early adulthood bilinguals on selective attention. We conclude that the bilingual advantage extends into the auditory domain and is not confined to childhood bilinguals, although its scope might be slightly different in early and late bilinguals.

  8. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  9. The late Precambrian greening of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, L Paul; Kennedy, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Many aspects of the carbon cycle can be assessed from temporal changes in the (13)C/(12)C ratio of oceanic bicarbonate. (13)C/(12)C can temporarily rise when large amounts of (13)C-depleted photosynthetic organic matter are buried at enhanced rates, and can decrease if phytomass is rapidly oxidized or if low (13)C is rapidly released from methane clathrates. Assuming that variations of the marine (13)C/(12)C ratio are directly recorded in carbonate rocks, thousands of carbon isotope analyses of late Precambrian examples have been published to correlate these otherwise undatable strata and to document perturbations to the carbon cycle just before the great expansion of metazoan life. Low (13)C/(12)C in some Neoproterozoic carbonates is considered evidence of carbon cycle perturbations unique to the Precambrian. These include complete oxidation of all organic matter in the ocean and complete productivity collapse such that low-(13)C/(12)C hydrothermal CO(2) becomes the main input of carbon. Here we compile all published oxygen and carbon isotope data for Neoproterozoic marine carbonates, and consider them in terms of processes known to alter the isotopic composition during transformation of the initial precipitate into limestone/dolostone. We show that the combined oxygen and carbon isotope systematics are identical to those of well-understood Phanerozoic examples that lithified in coastal pore fluids, receiving a large groundwater influx of photosynthetic carbon from terrestrial phytomass. Rather than being perturbations to the carbon cycle, widely reported decreases in (13)C/(12)C in Neoproterozoic carbonates are more easily interpreted in the same way as is done for Phanerozoic examples. This influx of terrestrial carbon is not apparent in carbonates older than approximately 850 Myr, so we infer an explosion of photosynthesizing communities on late Precambrian land surfaces. As a result, biotically enhanced weathering generated carbon-bearing soils on a large

  10. Identification of a novel downstream binding protein implicated in late-phase-specific activation of the adenovirus major late promotor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mondesert, G; Tribouley, C; Kedinger, C

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus major late promotor (MLP) is induced to very high levels after the onset of the viral DNA replication. Previous studies have identified sequence elements located downstream of the MLP startsite (DE1, between +85 and +98; DE2, between +100 and +120) implicated, together with the upstream promoter element, in this late-phase-specific transcriptional activation. One protein (DEF, now renamed DEF-A), induced during the late phase of viral infection, has been identified and shown to...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Giant Sea Perch Iridovirus in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a megalocytivirus strain, GSIV-K1, isolated from a farmed giant sea perch (Lates calcarifer) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. GSIV-K1 causes mortality in farmed marine fish, including giant sea perch and groupers. The genome sequence is nearly identical to the genome of the orange-spotted grouper iridovirus. PMID:27125488

  12. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  13. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  14. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  15. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  16. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  17. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aia; van der Marck, M A; van den Elsen, Gah; Olde Rikkert, Mgm

    2015-06-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicinal uses of cannabinoids, the bioactive components of the cannabis plant, including the treatment of LOAD and other physical conditions that are common in older people. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids can reduce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the key hallmarks of LOAD. In addition, in population-based studies, cannabinoids reduced dementia-related symptoms (e.g., behavioral disturbances). The current article provides an overview of the potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of LOAD and related neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people. We also discuss the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of cannabinoid-based drugs in older people with dementia. PMID:25788394

  18. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  19. Queer theory, late capitalism, and internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Max

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of queer theory represents a transformation in the approach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered peoples. It has claimed new ground for treating sexuality and gender as worthy subjects in their own rights, rather than offshoots of gay and lesbian studies or of general cultural theory. The author contends, however, that it is doubtful that this approach can lead to social change. Queer theory has dismissed the usefulness of the disciplines that were the foundation of the social movements that initiated gay and lesbian studies, such as political economy, and in doing so, it has surreptitiously mirrored the social relations of reproduction that constitute late capitalism. This mirroring has had unseen consequences for the individual in society, and with queer theory's insistence on the relativity of experience and the dismissal of identity, has set the stage for a benign reinforcement of internalized homophobia. The author argues that this approach can be mediated by recognizing that identity is fluid, and that by focusing on identifying with social movements rather than centering analyses on the problems associated with identifying as a particular category of status and being, we can refocus our energies on the building and maintenance of mutual support and collective recognition that can lead to resolving the stagnation now dominating attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter.

  20. MR imaging of regional late brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports, to complement current knowledge on brain development, late regional brain maturation assessed with quantitative MR imaging. Axial and coronal head spin-echo (SE) images were obtained in 60 healthy individuals aged 5--56 years, with a double-echo, flow compensated imaging sequence obtained with a 1.5-T Magnetom spectroscopy and imaging system. T2-weighted images were calculated from the intensity differences in SE images at echo times (TEs) of 15 and 90 msec (TR = 2.5 second). The mean T2 values were determined at 16 sites in each cerebral hemisphere. T2 values of the six frontal subcortical white matter (FSCWM) sites and of the internal capsule (IC) were evaluated. Mean T2 values in the IC decreased until age 10 years, whereas this decrease continued in the FSCWM past age 15 years before reaching a plateau. Differential age-dependent patterns of mean T2 values emerged between the six FSCWM sites. The spread of T2 values varied at different sites independent of the age of the individuals. T2- values have previously been shown to reflect the status of brain development. The authors' data on the six FSCWM sites and the IC extend these findings to specific substructures of the brain. Interindividual variations and technical issues are responsible for the observed spread of data

  1. History of Late-Notice HIEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Question was raised: are we seeing more late-notice events in recent months? Two definitions oflate-notice used to compare data: Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 days where the Pcwas below 1E-7, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data point between TCA-2days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 dayswhere the Pc was below 1E-5, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data pointbetween TCA-2 days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4. The case studies that were examined all fall within criteriafor both definitions Terra vs 38192; TCA 24 JUN 2015Aura vs 89477; TCA 29 AUG 2015Terra vs 37131; TCA 19 DEC2015GPM vs 28685; TCA 5 SEP 2015.

  2. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBattaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirms the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions.

  3. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve

  4. Post-Traumatic Late Onset Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artery-to-artery emboli or occlusion of craniocervical arteries mostly due to dissection are the most common causes of ischemia after trauma. A 29 year-old male had been admitted to another hospital with loss of consciousness lasting for about 45 minutes after a hard parachute landing without head trauma three days ago. As his neurological examination and brain CT were normal, he had been discharged after 24 hours of observation. Two days after his discharge, he was admitted to our department with epileptic seizure. His neurological examination revealed left hemianopia. After observing occipital subacute ischemia at right side in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we performed cerebral angiography and no dissection was observed. Excluding the rheumatologic, cardiologic and vascular events, our final diagnosis was late onset cerebral ischemia. Anti-edema and antiepileptic treatment was initiated. He was discharged with left hemianopia and mild cognitive deficit. We suggest that it will be wise to hospitalize patients for at least 72 hours who has a history of unconsciousness following trauma.

  5. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Spratt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal component analysis (PCA on seven records from 0–430 ka and five records from 0–798 ka. The first principal component, which we use as the stack, describes ~80 % of the variance in the data and is similar using either five or seven records. After scaling the stack based on Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM sea level estimates, the stack agrees to within 5 m with isostatically adjusted coral sea level estimates for Marine Isotope Stages 5e and 11 (125 and 400 ka, respectively. When we compare the sea level stack with the δ18O of benthic foraminifera, we find that sea level change accounts for about ~40 % of the total orbital-band variance in benthic δ18O, compared to a 65 % contribution during the LGM-to-Holocene transition. Additionally, the second and third principal components of our analyses reflect differences between proxy records associated with spatial variations in the δ18O of seawater.

  6. [Medical statistics in the late Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    Chinese medical statistics basically went through three stages in the Late Qing Dynasty. The early stage was individual behavior of missionary doctors. In the early 16(th) century, western countries began to collect materials about medicine and public health in China. After the Opium War in 1840, more missionaries came to China and more doctors engaged in medical information collection and statistics. In 1860s, the western countries stole the customs power control from the Qing's government and the systematization process of statistics began. The process, content, method and time of statistics were improved. In the 20(th) century, modernity of medicine became the scale for a country's self-management qualification. Statistics was needed by the Qing government and relevant medical administration was established. During this process, they carried out this activity with different purposes according to the different participants. But from the point of influence, medical statistics promoted the spread and development of western medicine in China. They were also helpful to the perfection of medical research and public health system in China. PMID:23879982

  7. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  8. Late diagnosis iniencephaly with spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Marangoz Chapman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein a rare case of iniencephaly combined with spina bifida is reported, which was diagnosed late because the G6P5 mother had not attended hospital for first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. A woman aged 33 years who was 38 weeks pregnant presented for ante-natal follow-up. Her clinical results were normal but abnormalities including polyhydramnios, retroflexion of the head with absence of neck, acrania, and severe growth retardation were observed in the fetus. The infant was delivered through Cesarean section and died shortly after birth. The results of a gross examination revealed acrania, iniencephaly, spina bifida, and an imperforated anus. Iniencephaly is a rare and fatal neural tube defect characterized by extreme retroflexion of the head and severs distortion of the spine. This case report underlines the importance of first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1543-1545

  9. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  10. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  11. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  12. Family and Individual Predictors of Late Adolescents' Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Marchand, Jennifer F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied parent-adolescent conflict and late adolescents' attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms as predictors of late adolescents' romantic relationships. Findings based on questionnaire responses of 256 college students highlight the differential roles of familial and individual attributes in female and male adolescents' romantic relationship…

  13. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  14. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furunes, Trude; Mykletun, Reidar; Solem, Per Erik; Lange, Annet de; Syse, Astri; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Ilmarinen, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process o

  15. Late time tail of wave propagation on curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, E S C; Suen, W M; Young, K; Ching, E S C; Leung, P T; Suen, W M; Young, K

    1994-01-01

    The late time behavior of waves propagating on a general curved spacetime is studied. The late time tail is not necessarily an inverse power of time. Our work extends, places in context, and provides understanding for the known results for the Schwarzschild spacetime. Analytic and numerical results are in excellent agreement.

  16. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  17. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  18. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgenic stacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, K.R.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.J.; Kim, T.J.; Bergervoet-van Deelen, J.E.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Vossen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into p

  19. Late post-operative hypoxaemia and organ dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    an adverse effect of tissue hypoxia on wound healing and on resistance to bacterial wound infections. Finally, mental confusion and surgical delirium may be related to inadequate arterial oxygenation during the late post-operative period. Late post-operative constant and episodic hypoxaemia may therefore...

  20. Differential Parenting between Mothers and Fathers: Implications for Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…

  1. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing..., late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual. Payments may not be based on false or misleading....S.C. chapter 33 in the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false...

  2. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran....C. chapter 30 in the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false or...

  3. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false or misleading claims for...

  4. SPECT and PET in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, Tiago S; Oude Voshaar, Richard; De Deyn, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Late-life late onset depression (i.e., depression with an age of onset above 60 yrs) appears to differ from depression with early onset in its association with cerebral small vessel disease, beta-amyloid and tau deposition, and neurodegenerative processes. Multimodality imaging (SPECT, PET, MRI) sup

  5. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D;

    2010-01-01

    of what is meant by a 'late-presenting' patient. Results Two definitions were agreed upon, as follows. Late presentation: persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Presentation with advanced HIV disease...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition......: persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 200 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Conclusion The European Late Presenter Consensus working group believe it would be beneficial if all national health agencies, institutions, and researchers were...

  6. Three comments on late antiquity history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Milena L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests corrections in reading the inscription CIL III 4002 lines 3-7 (see pp. 1-2. The formula q(ui vixit ann(os, lines 3-4, was common in Late Antiquity, unlike the previous reading...ann(orum, which was typical for the Early Empire. L.5 memoria frequently appeared in funerary monuments in Late Antiquity. L. 6 Instead of unlikely collegae, the complement colloc(avit or –erunt has been suggested, according to analogies sedem conlocasse (Siscia, CIL 3996 sepulcrum (! collocavit, with the Christogram ( Siscia,CIL 3996a. The inscription can be more precisely dated with regard to the Christogram. In nearby Sirmium, this symbol repeatedly appears in epitaphs, whether unaccompanied, or between the letters a and w. According to a dated inscription with a Christogram from Constantius times the entire group of inscriptions bearing this symbol may be supposed to have originated from mid-, or, at the latest, second half of 4th century (notes 2-4. Durostoranus (Amm. Marc. XXXI 15, 6 In the paragraph referred to above: Verum introire non ausus, qui missus est, per Christianum quendam portatis scriptis et recitatis, utque decebat, contemptatis parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta (ed. W.Seyfarth, Leipzig 1978, the author instead of the reading to date, christianum, suggests the restitution of the Codex lection Vat. lat. 1873 diristanum, which would be the adjective derived from the toponym D(iristra, a variant of Durostorus, cf. Zonara (XVI 12 e/n Dorosto$lw...toy#to d h% Dri$stra e/sti. Further on, (...scriptis et recitatis, utque dicebat, contemptatis, parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta, two differently noted or emendated points are present. The one is ut dicebat, in a later manuscript, and in Seyfarth's critical edition changed into ut decebat. This emendation is not necessary: the emissary said that he had taken the letter and given the message that was ignored by the inhabitants, and not "given the message as was

  7. Glacial onset predated Late Ordovician climate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Alexandre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Le Hir, Guillaume; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Ordovician glaciation represents the acme of one of only three major icehouse periods in Earth's Phanerozoic history and is notorious for setting the scene for one of the "big five" mass extinction events. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that drove ice sheet growth remain poorly understood and the final extent of the ice sheet crudely constrained. Here using an Earth system model with an innovative coupling method between ocean, atmosphere, and land ice accounting for climate and ice sheet feedback processes, we report simulations portraying for the first time the detailed evolution of the Ordovician ice sheet. We show that the emergence of the ice sheet happened in two discrete phases. In a counterintuitive sequence of events, the continental ice sheet appeared suddenly in a warm climate. Only during the second act, and set against a background of decreasing atmospheric CO2, followed steeply dropping temperatures and extending sea ice. The comparison with abundant sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological data suggests that glacial onset may have occurred as early as the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian, in agreement with recent studies reporting third-order glacioeustatic cycles during the same period. The second step in ice sheet growth, typified by a sudden drop in tropical sea surface temperatures by ˜8°C and the further extension of a single, continental-scale ice sheet over Gondwana, marked the onset of the Hirnantian glacial maximum. By suggesting the presence of an ice sheet over Gondwana throughout most of the Middle and Late Ordovician, our models embrace the emerging paradigm of an "early Paleozoic Ice Age."

  8. Reconstructing Late Ordovician carbon cycle variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, Richard D.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Herrmann, Achim D.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Ainsaar, Leho; Martma, Tõnu

    2013-03-01

    The role of carbon dioxide in regulating climate during the early Paleozoic, when severe glaciations occurred during a putative greenhouse world, remains unclear. Here, we present the first molecular carbon isotope proxy-based estimates for Late Ordovician (early Katian) pCO2 levels, and explore the limitations of applying this approach to the reconstruction of Paleozoic pCO2. Carbon isotope profiles from three sites in Laurentia (Iowa, Ontario and Pennsylvania) and one site in Baltica (Estonia) exhibit overall low isotope fractionation between organic and inorganic carbon during photosynthesis (ɛp) and these values declined during the early Katian carbonate carbon isotope excursion (or Guttenberg Carbon Isotope Excursion, GICE). Algal ɛp values are sensitive to changes in CO2 concentrations, algae cell morphologies, and cell growth rates. To constrain these factors, we present molecular evidence that a decrease in the relative abundance of cyanobacteria and a change in the eukaryotic algae community co-occurred with the GICE. Regardless of local biotic or oceanographic influences, a decline in ɛp values indicates photosynthesis was sensitive to carbon concentrations, and via analogy with modern taxa, constrains pCO2 to below ˜8× pre-industrial levels (PIL), or about half of previous estimates. In addition, the global, positive carbon isotope excursions expressed in a wide variety of sedimentary materials (carbonate, bulk organic matter, n-alkanes, acyclic and cyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons), provide compelling evidence for perturbation of the global carbon cycle, and this was likely associated with a decrease in pCO2 approximately 10 million years prior to the Hirnantian glaciations. Isotopic records from deeper water settings suggest a complex interplay of carbon sources and sinks, with pCO2 increasing prior to and during the early stages of the GICE and then decreasing when organic carbon burial outpaced increased volcanic inputs.

  9. Eszopiclone for late-life insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Christina S; Ross, Amanda; Stripling, Ashley; Dautovich, Natalie D

    2007-01-01

    Insomnia, the most common sleep disturbance in later life, affects 20%–50% of older adults. Eszopiclone, a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent developed for the treatment of insomnia, has been available in Europe since 1992 and in the US since 2005. Although not yet evaluated for transient insomnia in older adults, eszopiclone has been shown to be safe and efficacious for short-term treatment (2 weeks) of chronic, primary insomnia in older adults (64–91 years). Clinical studies in younger adults (mean = 44 years) have shown eszopiclone can be used for 6–12 months without evidence of problems. Because the oldest participant in these longer-term trials was 69, it not known whether eszopiclone is effective for older adults [particularly the old old (75–84 years) and oldest old (85+)] when used over longer periods. This is unfortunate, because older individuals frequently suffer from chronic insomnia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, which effectively targets the behavioral factors that maintain chronic insomnia, represents an attractive treatment alternative or adjuvant to eszopiclone for older adults. To date, no studies have compared eszopiclone to other hypnotic medications or to nonpharmacological interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, in older adults. All of the clinical trials reported herein were funded by Sepracor. This paper provides an overview of the literature on eszopiclone with special emphasis on its use for the treatment of late-life insomnia. Specific topics covered include pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trial data, adverse events, drug interactions, tolerance/dependence, and economics/cost considerations for older adults. PMID:18044182

  10. Late Oligocene to Late Miocene Antarctic Climate Reconstructions Using Molecular and Isotopic Biomarker Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B.; Mckay, R. M.; Bendle, J. A.; Naish, T.; Levy, R. H.; Ventura, G. T.; Moossen, H. M.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major climate and environmental changes occurred during late Oligocene to the late Miocene when atmospheric CO2 ranged between 500 and 300ppm, indicating threshold response of Antarctic ice sheets and climate to relatively modest CO2 variations. This implies that the southern high latitudes are highly sensitive to feedbacks associated with changes in global ice sheet and sea-ice extent, as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. This study focuses on two key intervals during the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: (1) The Late Oligocene and the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded close to present day volume following an extended period of inferred warmth. (2) The Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO ~17-15 Ma), a period of global warmth and moderately elevated CO2 (350->500 ppm) which was subsequently followed by rapid cooling at 14-13.5 Ma. Reconstructions of climate and ice sheet variability, and thus an understanding of the various feedbacks that occurred during these intervals, are hampered by a lack of temperature and hydroclimate proxy data from the southern high latitudes. We present proxy climate reconstructions using terrestrial and marine organic biomarkers that provide new insights into Antarctica's climate evolution, using Antarctic drill cores and outcrop samples from a range of depositional settings. Bacterial ether-lipids have been analysed to determine terrestrial mean annual temperatures and soil pH (via the methylation and cyclisation indexes of branched tetraethers - MBT and CBT, respectively). Tetraether-lipids of crenarchaeota found in marine sediments sampled from continental shelves around Antarctica have been used to derive sea surface temperatures using the TEX86 index. Compound specific stable isotopes on n-alkanes sourced from terrestrial plants have been analysed to investigate changes in the hydrological and carbon cycles.

  11. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  12. Late Pennsylvanian climate changes and palynomorph extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanke, R.M.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    A major floral change occurs in the Upper Pennsylvanian strata in the Midcontinent, Illinois basin, and in the northern Appalachian basin of eastern United States. Lycospora spp. (derived from arborescent lycopsids) became extinct along with some other palynomorph taxa. This investigation is concerned with the importance of this major floral change. Samples were studied from western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and West Virginia (from a previous study) cover the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Freeport coal bed, uppermost part of the Allegheny Formation, to the Mahoning, Mason, Brush Creek, Wilgus, and Anderson coal beds in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation. The floral change occurs either at or below the accepted Desmoinesian-Missourian boundary in the Midcontinent and Illinois basin, whereas in the northern Appalachians this change occurs in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation, between the Mahoning and Brush Creek coal beds, or when the Mason is present, between the Mahoning and Mason coal beds. With the advent of late Middle Pennsylvanian time, the climate began to change from wet tropical to seasonal tropical. The Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary is the culmination of this drying trend, which was marked by reduction of available water. The peat swamps are interpreted as having changed from the domed type of bog to the planar type under these circumstances. Thus, in general, the coals of the Conemaugh Formation are characteristically much thinner than those of the Allegheny Formation. This was caused by a number of factors including reduced or more seasonal rainfall, decline of arborescent lycopsids, and the increased dominance of herbaceous and fern plants. As a result, there are fewer minable coal beds in the Conemaugh Formation. The first coal bed above the extinction of Lycospora spp. is dominated by the palynomorph taxon Endosporites globiformis which is derived from a heterosporous, herbaceous lycopsid. However, Sigillaria, another

  13. Muscle adaptation and disability in late poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, G

    1991-01-01

    Persons who suffered poliomyelitis 3 or more decades ago now report functional decline and symptoms designated as "post-polio syndrome". The objects of this investigation were to identify subjects fulfilling the criteria of this syndrome, to describe their motor impairment and resulting disabilities/handicaps, to study the adaptive changes in the muscle structure and effects of a resistance exercise program. Forty-one late-polio subjects, 40-65 years old, volunteered for the studies of motor impairment, subgroups of those volunteered to further studies of long-term and short-term adaptations. Seventy-five per cent of the subjects met the criteria for the post-polio syndrome. Complete manual muscle tests and dynamometer measurements of knee muscle strength revealed severe motor impairment predominantly in the lower extremities, the strength of the latter correlating to the degree of mobility handicap. In biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, type grouping was frequent. Half of the subjects demonstrated over 70% occurrence of type I fibers with negative significant correlation to strength in the female subjects. Cross-section areas of muscle fibers were on average twice the normal, with negative significant correlation to strength values in male subjects. Muscle enzymatic activity values showed large individual variations; oxidative activities (citrate synthase) were low or very low, while average glycolytic activities were nearly normal. Macro EMG and single-fiber EMG measurements in the vastus lateralis muscle demonstrated large macro motor unit potentials and increased fiber density. Neuromuscular transmission was disturbed as identified by jitter and blockings in most subjects regardless of the occurrence of new muscular symptoms. A statistically significant increase in strength (25-30%) resulted from a 6 weeks' heavy resistance exercise program, utilizing a dynamometer, without any obvious side-effects. Strength improvement was maintained for 6-12 months

  14. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There are different opinions on whether Claraia appeared in the Late Permian or not. Itis convinced that Claraia had turned up in the Late Permian through the study on the Upper Per-mian in South China. Pseudoclaraia, Claraioides and Claraia are compared and they are found tobear basically the same features. According to the rule of nomenclatural priority, Pseudoclaraiaand Claraioides should be attributed to the genus Claraia. Late Permian Claraia lived in the mid-dle-lower part of the bathyal continental slope as epifauna, which could swim occasionally. Thestudy on Claraia of the Permian-Triassic transition shows that Triassic Claraia was evolved fromPermian Claraia

  15. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  16. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  17. Late Archean Surface Ocean Oxygenation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by 2.45-2.32 Ga, when atmospheric oxygen abundances first rose above 0.001% present atmospheric level (Great Oxidation Event; GOE). Biomarker evidence for a time lag between the evolution of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis and the GOE continues to be debated. Geochemical signatures from sedimentary rocks (redox-sensitive trace metal abundances, sedimentary Fe geochemistry, and S isotopes) represent an alternative tool for tracing the history of Earth surface oxygenation. Integrated high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles through the 2.5 Ga Mt. McRae Shale (Pilbara Craton, Western Australia) suggest a ‘whiff’ of oxygen in the surface environment at least 50 M.y. prior to the GOE. However, the geochemical data from the Mt. McRae Shale does not uniquely constrain the presence or extent of Late Archean ocean oxygenation. Here, we present high-resolution chemostratigraphic profiles from 2.6-2.5 Ga black shales (upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa) that provide the earliest direct evidence for an oxygenated ocean water column. On the slope beneath the Campbellrand - Malmani carbonate platform (Nauga Formation), a mildly oxygenated water column (highly reactive iron to total iron ratios [FeHR/FeT] ≤ 0.4) was underlain by oxidizing sediments (low Re and Mo abundances) or mildly reducing sediments (high Re but low Mo abundances). After drowning of the carbonate platform (Klein Naute Formation), the local bottom waters became anoxic (FeHR/FeT > 0.4) and intermittently sulphidic (pyrite iron to highly reactive iron ratios [FePY/FeHR] > 0.8), conducive to enrichment of both Re and Mo in sediments, followed by anoxic and Fe2+-rich (ferruginous) conditions (high FeT, FePY/FeHR near 0). Widespread surface ocean oxygenation is suggested by Re enrichment in the broadly correlative Klein Naute Formation and Mt. McRae Shale, deposited ~1000 km apart in the Griqualand West and Hamersley basins

  18. Late Cretaceous Volcaniclastics in NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Katharina; Wolfgring, Erik; Omer Yilmaz, Ismail; Tüysüz, Okan; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    and the following rifting and opening of the western and eastern Black Sea basin. The existence of a Pontide magmatic arc, as referred to in literature, is not precluded by the back-arc interpretation and should be further looked at, as geochemistry confirms a volcanic arc setting. Correlation of the volcaniclastics with biostratigraphic events and ages from the same outcrops refers to a relative time span between Turonian and Campanian when the magmatic arc was active, at least. Further this correlation contributes to connecting particular outcrops with Dereköy or Cambu Formation. Consequently using these results Cambu Formation can be assigned as less alkaline and acidic then the lower volcanic succession. Furthermore the volcanic series seem to be more tholeiitic in the upper volcanic succession. Generally samples belonging to the Dereköy Formation are enriched in Zr, Th and Nb with respect to samples of Cambu formation. The volcanic arc setting and the chemical characteristics of the volcanism, traced along the southwestern Black Sea coast as distinct tuff layers, are interesting mosaics in understanding paleogeography and paleoenvironmental changes in the Late Cretaceous.

  19. A Late-Time Flattening of Afterglow Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Berger, E; Kulkarni, S R; Yost, S A

    2004-01-01

    We present a sample of radio afterglow light curves with measured decay slopes which show evidence for a flattening at late times compared to optical and X-ray decay indices. The simplest origin for this behavior is that the change in slope is due to a jet-like outflow making a transition to sub-relativistic expansion. This can explain the late-time radio light curves for many but not all of the bursts in the sample. We investigate several possible modifications to the standard fireball model which can flatten late-time light curves. Changes to the shock microphysics which govern particle acceleration, or energy injection to the shock (either radially or azimuthally) can reproduce the observed behavior. Distinguishing between these different possibilities will require simultaneous optical/radio monitoring of afterglows at late times.

  20. Zika Virus Can Damage Fetal Brain Late in Pregnancy: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161451.html Zika Virus Can Damage Fetal Brain Late in Pregnancy: Study ... WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may harm a baby's brain even if the ...

  1. Attention and word learning in toddlers who are late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macroy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel pseudo-words for unfamiliar objects over ten training sessions. The toddlers' attention allocation during the word-learning sessions was measured as well as their comprehension of the newly learned words. Late talkers showed reduced attention allocation to objects during word-training sessions, and also comprehended fewer of the novel words than toddlers with typical language development. Attention allocation was found to be a stronger predictor of word learning as compared to cognition and auditory comprehension. Reduced attention allocation may contribute to the early lexical delay characteristic in late talkers. PMID:27464621

  2. NIH Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Consensus Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    This day and a half symposium will bring together experts in blood and marrow transplantation, late effects, and health care delivery to discuss current evidence and knowledge gaps, develop consensus guidelines, and inform future research in the BMT survivor population.

  3. Mosasaurs (Reptilia) from the late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of northern Patagonia (Río Negro, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Marta; Martin, James; Casadío, Silvio

    2008-03-01

    A diverse assemblage of mosasaurs was recently recovered from the Jagüel Formation (late Maastrichtian) exposed at three localities of northern Patagonia (Río Negro, Argentina). Four taxa (three mosasaurines and a plioplatecarpine) have been identified, and three of these marine reptiles can be identified at lower taxonomic levels: Mosasaurus sp. aff. M. hoffmanni, Plioplatecarpus sp., and Prognathodon sp. These occurrences are significant because they represent the first diagnostic material at generic level exhumed from Patagonia and include one of the youngest mosasaurs found worldwide. One of the specimens described herein was found only 1.5 m below the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Only mosasaurs from Antarctica found within a meter of the boundary are known to occur higher in the geologic section.

  4. Better Late than Never: Information Retrieval from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstein, Sam; Pirandola, Stefano; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior...

  5. Nomograms to predict late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Romain; Arango, Juan David Ospina; Beckendorf, Véronique; Delobel, Jean-Bernard; Messai, Taha; Chira, Ciprian; Bossi, Alberto; Le Prisé, Elisabeth; Guerif, Stéphane; Simon, Jean-Marc; Dubray, Bernard; Zhu, Jian; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Pommier, Pascal; Gnep, Khemara

    2013-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: To analyze late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT): symptom description and identification of patient characteristics or treatment parameters allowing for the generation of nomograms. METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty-five patients underwent RT in seventeen French centers for localized prostate cancer. Median total dose was 70 Gy (range, 65-80 Gy), using different fractionations (2 or 2.5 Gy/day) and techniques. Late urinary toxicity an...

  6. Evidence for global cooling in the Late Cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    Linnert, C.; Robinson, S.A.; J.A. Lees; Bown, P.R.; I. Pérez-Rodríguez; Petrizzo, M.R.; F. Falzoni; Littler, K; Arz, J.A.; Russell, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ world witnessed a transition from one of the warmest climates of the past 140 million years to cooler conditions, yet still without significant continental ice. Low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records are a vital piece of evidence required to unravel the cause of Late Cretaceous cooling, but high-quality data remain illusive. Here, using an organic geochemical palaeothermometer (TEX86), we present a record of SSTs for the Campanian–Maastrichtian int...

  7. Employment and Retirement Following a Late Career Job Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Sewin; Stevens, Ann Huff

    1999-01-01

    The frequency of job loss among workers in late career has risen disproportionately in recent years. The effects of job loss on these workers are potentially severe: their earnings capacity, savings, and retirement expectations are likely to be dramatically affected and they may take substantially longer to be re-employed. However, despite these reasons for heightened concern, relatively little is known about the economic consequences of late career job loss among recent cohorts of workers. T...

  8. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2002-06-01

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  9. Iconography and Costume from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, new ways of interpreting and evaluating costume are introduced through the analysis of iconographic sources, among others gold sheets from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia. These sources provide information about prehistoric attitudes towards body and dress.......In this paper, new ways of interpreting and evaluating costume are introduced through the analysis of iconographic sources, among others gold sheets from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia. These sources provide information about prehistoric attitudes towards body and dress....

  10. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  11. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  12. Dressler's syndrome demonstrated by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Kovac Jan; Khoo Jeffrey; Steadman Christopher D; McCann Gerry P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A 49-year old patient presented late with an anterolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction and was treated with rescue angioplasty to an occluded left anterior descending artery. Her recovery was complicated by low-grade pyrexia and raised inflammatory markers. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance 5 weeks after the acute presentation showed transmural infarction and global late gadolinium enhancement of the pericardium in keeping with Dressler's syndrome.

  13. Neuromuscular Disease as the Cause of Late Clubfoot Relapses

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Matthew E; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    Following correction with the Ponseti method some idiopathic clubfeet still will relapse even after six years of age. A better understanding of the cause for these late relapses will greatly help in the management of this condition. We evaluated a consecutive case-series from 1948 through December 1984 including 209 patients (321 clubfeet). Patients were treated following the Ponseti method. Initial number of casts, age at relapse, neurological evaluation, and final treatment for the late-rel...

  14. Emerging Concepts for Myocardial Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Høyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspect...

  15. Late-time spectroscopy of Type Iax Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Zheng, Wei Kang; Bildsten, Lars; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kasen, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We examine the late-time (t ≳ 200 d after peak brightness) spectra of Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax), a low-luminosity, low-energy class of thermonuclear stellar explosions observationally similar to, but distinct from, Type Ia supernovae. We present new spectra of SN 2014dt, resulting in the most complete late-time spectral sequence of an SN Iax. At late times, SNe Iax have generally similar spectra, all with a similar continuum shape and strong forbidden-line emission. However, there is also significant diversity where some SN Iax spectra display narrow P-Cygni features from permitted lines and a continuum indicative of a photosphere at late times in addition to strong narrow (FWHM 6000 km s-1) forbidden lines, and weak narrow forbidden lines, and some SNe Iax have spectra intermediate to these two varieties. We find that SNe Iax with strong broad forbidden lines are more luminous and have higher velocity ejecta at peak brightness. We estimate blackbody and kinematic radii of the late-time photosphere, finding the latter significantly larger than the former. We propose a two-component model that solves this discrepancy and explains the diversity of the late-time spectra of SNe Iax. In this model, the broad forbidden lines originate from the SN ejecta, while the photosphere, P-Cygni lines, and narrow forbidden lines originate from a wind launched from the remnant of the progenitor white dwarf and is driven by the radioactive decay of newly synthesized material left in the remnant. The relative strength of the two components accounts for the diversity of late-time SN Iax spectra. This model also solves the puzzle of a long-lived photosphere and the slow late-time decline of SNe Iax.

  16. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  17. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  18. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB. PMID:24401535

  19. Late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia and the risk of dementia--a nationwide register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Lauritzen, Lise;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia carry a risk for later development of dementia. METHODS: By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nation-wide registers of all out- and in-patients with hospital contact in Denmark, we identified all patients...... with first ever contact during the period from January 1994 to December 2001 with one of the index main diagnoses: late (age >or=40) and very-late first-contact (age >or=60) schizophrenia. First contact osteoarthritis patients as well as data on the general population were used as controls. The first...... diagnosis of dementia for each individual at discharge or at out-patient contact was established. The probability of getting a dementia diagnosis is estimated using Poisson regression models with dementia as the outcome of interest. RESULTS: Twelve thousand six hundred and sixteen and 7,712 individuals were...

  20. Late Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease Among US Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Ailes, Elizabeth; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Oster, Matthew E.; Olney, Richard S.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Fixler, David E.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for Newborns in the United States in 2011. Many states have recently adopted or are considering requirements for universal CCHD screening through pulse oximetry in birth hospitals. Limited previous research is directly applicable to the question of how many US infants with CCHD might be identified through screening. OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of US infants with late detection of CCHD (>3 days after birth) based on existing clinical practice and to investigate factors associated with late detection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive and multivariable analysis. Data were obtained from a multisite population-based study of birth defects in the United States, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). We included all live-born infants with estimated dates of delivery from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2007, and nonsyndromic, clinically verified CCHD conditions potentially detectable through screening via pulse oximetry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was the proportion of infants with late detection of CCHD through echocardiography or at autopsy under the assumption that universal screening at birth hospitals might reduce the number of such late diagnoses. Secondary outcome measures included prevalence ratios for associations between selected demographic and clinical factors and late detection of CCHD. RESULTS Of 3746 live-born infants with nonsyndromic CCHD, late detection occurred in 1106 (29.5% [95%CI, 28.1%–31.0%]), including 6 (0.2%) (0.1% –0.4%) first receiving a diagnosis at autopsy more than 3 days after birth. Late detection varied by CCHD type from 9 of 120 infants (7.5%[95%CI, 3.5%–13.8%]) with pulmonary atresia to 497 of 801 (62.0% [58.7%–65.4%]) with coarctation of the aorta. In multivariable analysis, late detection varied significantly by CCHD type and study site, and infants with

  1. Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684

  2. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, N.; Harlou, R.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    2015-11-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  3. Late Cretaceous (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea-surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Nicolas; Harlou, Rikke; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2016-02-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical timescale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Ma). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  4. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian–Maastrichtian sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Thibault

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr sea-surface temperature (SST changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark, tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian–Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr. Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian–Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  5. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Judith A.W. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Stacul, Fulvio [Institute of Radiology, Ospedale di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  6. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  7. Extremely Large EUV Late Phase of Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong

    2015-01-01

    The second peak in the Fe XVI 33.5 nm line irradiance observed during solar flares by Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is known as Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) late phase. Our previous paper (Liu et al. 2013) found that the main emissions in the late phase are originated from large-scale loop arcades that are closely connected to but different from the post flare loops (PFLs), and we also proposed that a long cooling process without additional heating could explain the late phase. In this paper, we define the extremely large late phase because it not only has a bigger peak in the warm 33.5 irradiance profile, but also releases more EUV radiative energy than the main phase. Through detailedly inspecting the EUV images from three point-of-view, it is found that, besides the later phase loop arcades, the more contribution of the extremely large late phase is from a hot structure that fails to erupt. This hot structure is identified as a flux rope, which is quickly energized by the flare reconnection...

  8. Performance of some Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. Varieties Sown in Late-autumn and Late-spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge COŞGE

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of late-spring and late-autumn sowing times on oil content, seed yield and some yield components of three safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. varieties at Field Crops Department, Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University. Yenice, Dinçer and Remzibey-05 safflower varieties were sown on 19 November 2004 and 20 May 2005. According to results of this research; plant height 111.47 and 59.93 cm, capitula number per plant 15.57 and 8.58, secondary branch number per plant 6.26 and 5.07, seed number per capitula 30.18 and 28.67, a thousand seed weight 35.62 and 38.24 g, seed yield 200.74 and 112.30 kg/da, harvest index 30.09 and 30.46 %, oil content 26.75 and 22.14 % and oil yield 53.87 kg/da and 23.03 kg/da were recorded in late-autumn and late-spring sowing, respectively. The highest seed yield and, oil content and yield were obtained from cv. Dinçer and cv. Dinçer and cv. Remzibey-05, respectively. The effect of late-autumn sowing on plant height, capitula number, secondary branch number, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were positive and significant statistically. The increasing ratio of these characters in late-autumn sowing according to late-spring sowing was 86.14%, 81.38%, 5.68%, 80.00% , 21.03% and 119.10%, respectively.

  9. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashodhan Chinchore

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive retinal degeneration is the underlying feature of many human retinal dystrophies. Previous work using Drosophila as a model system and analysis of specific mutations in human rhodopsin have uncovered a connection between rhodopsin endocytosis and retinal degeneration. In these mutants, rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin form stable complexes, and endocytosis of these complexes causes photoreceptor cell death. In this study we show that the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded in the lysosome but instead accumulates in the late endosomes. Using mutants that are defective in late endosome to lysosome trafficking, we were able to show that rhodopsin accumulates in endosomal compartments in these mutants and leads to light-dependent retinal degeneration. Moreover, we also show that in dying photoreceptors the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded but instead shows characteristics of insoluble proteins. Together these data implicate buildup of rhodopsin in the late endosomal system as a novel trigger of death of photoreceptor neurons.

  10. The Nuclei of Late-type Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Böker, T; Rix, H W; Haering, N; Schinnerer, E; Sarzi, M; Van der Marel, R P; Ho, L C; Shields, J C; Lisenfeld, U; Laine, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize some recent results from our observational campaign to study the central regions of spiral galaxies of late Hubble type (Scd - Sm). These disk-dominated, bulgeless galaxies have an apparently uneventful merger history. The evolution of their nuclei thus holds important constraints on the mechanisms that are responsible for bulge formation and nuclear activity in spiral galaxies. We discuss the structural properties, stellar populations, and dynamical masses of the compact, luminous star cluster that is found in the nuclei of most late-type spiral galaxies. Although preliminary, our results strongly indicate that many galaxies of our sample experience repeated periods of nuclear star formation. While the exact mechanism that leads to the required high gas densities in the galaxy nucleus remains unclear, results from our recent CO survey of late-type spirals demonstrate that in most cases, the central kpc contains enough molecular gas to support repetitive nuclear starbursts.

  11. A triple risk model for unexplained late stillbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The triple risk model for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been useful in understanding its pathogenesis. Risk factors for late stillbirth are well established, especially relating to maternal and fetal wellbeing. Discussion We propose a similar triple risk model for unexplained late stillbirth. The model proposed by us results from the interplay of three groups of factors: (1) maternal factors (such as maternal age, obesity, smoking), (2) fetal and placental factors (such as intrauterine growth retardation, placental insufficiency), and (3) a stressor (such as venocaval compression from maternal supine sleep position, sleep disordered breathing). We argue that the risk factors within each group in themselves may be insufficient to cause the death, but when they interrelate may produce a lethal combination. Summary Unexplained late stillbirth occurs when a fetus who is somehow vulnerable dies as a result of encountering a stressor and/or maternal condition in a combination which is lethal for them. PMID:24731396

  12. Tectonic model for the Late Paleozoic of southeastern New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintsch, R.P.; Sutter, J.F.

    1986-07-01

    Hornblende and biotite /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra from rocks in south-central Connecticut help define a Permian-Triassic cooling curve for the area. Together with petrologic and structural information, a time-temperature-pressure-strain path is established. Similar data for the Narragansett basin in Rhode Island and Massachusetts allow correlation of the late Paleozoic histories of the two areas. Together, these data suggest that in the late Paleozoic, south-central New England was part of a fold-thrust belt, and the Narragansett basin was a retroarc foreland basin. NW-SE compression during the final assembly of Pangaea resulted in SE directed thrusting, causing the development of clastic wedges in adjacent Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. A clockwise rotation of this deformation from NW to NNE led to northward underthrusting and concomitant uplift of both eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island in the Permian and Triassic.

  13. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  14. Influence of social factors on patient-reported late symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Andersen, Elo;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer and morbidity and mortality after treatment are associated with social factors. Whether social factors also play a role in the prevalence of late-onset symptoms after treatment for head and neck cancer is not clear. METHODS: Three hundred sixty...... ratio [OR] = 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-8.63). For survivors who lived alone, the adjusted ORs were significantly increased for physical functioning (2.17; 95% CI = 1.01-4.68) and trouble with social eating (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.14-4.47). CONCLUSION: Self-reported severe late symptoms...... were more prevalent in survivors with short education and in those living alone, suggesting differences in perception of late symptoms between social groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015....

  15. Late Holocene eolian fossilization of Podzols in Northeastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Schneider, Anna; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2016-04-01

    The North European lowland has been formed by glacial and periglacial processes in the Late Pleistocene. Multiple reshaping since the Late Glacial considerably changed the landscape up to and including especially historic times. Sediment sequences and (fossilized) soils can improve our understanding of Late Quaternary landscape development, but mapping of buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. Ongoing archaeological rescue excavations in the pre-field of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord (northeastern Germany) with dense excavation trenches in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area reveal multilayered sediment sequences with fossilized soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. Archaeological findings ranging from Mesolithic flint stones to an about 200 year old ceramics in eolian sediments covering plow horizons and wheel tracks suggest that eolian relocation of sandy material was intensive about 200 years ago. Still unpublished OSL dating underline the intense eolian activity. Recent studies showed that between the 15Th to the 19Th century an iron smelter 5 km to the west of our study site was supplied with charcoal, which was produced in a forest 5 km east to our study site. Our current findings about Late Holocene eolian activity raise the question if this eolian reshaping of the landscape is connected with the operation of the iron smelter either directly by transport or bog iron ore winning or indirectly by population pressure caused by the prospering iron smelter. Our ongoing research indicates, that already for historic land-use off-site effects causing further landscape changes have to be considered.

  16. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis;

    2015-01-01

    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East...... and West Greenland sediments in the fraction of minerals (e.g. pyroxene) sourced from the basalt outcrops. We demonstrate the differences in the mineralogy between East and West Greenland marine sediments on three scales: (1) modern day, (2) late Quaternary inputs and (3) detailed down-core variations...

  17. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-01

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.

  18. XRF 050406 late time flattening: appearance of an IC component?

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate on the possible evidence for Inverse Compton (IC) emission in the X-ray afterglow of XRF 050406. In the framework of the standard fireball model, we show how the late time flattening observed in the X-ray light curve between ~10^{4} s and ~10^{6} s can be explained in a synchrotron plus IC scenario, when the IC peak frequency crosses the X-ray band. We thus conclude that the appearance of an IC component above the synchrotron one at late times successfully accounts for the X-ray observations.

  19. Late effects of ionizing radiations on vulva, vagina and uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reporting and scoring complications after radiotherapy of gynaecological cancers is difficult because of the variety of treatment techniques involved. Use of an international classification is necessary to compare results obtained in series of patients treated in different institutions. An international group of experts designed in the early nineties the so-called French-Italian glossary. This classification of late effects is now completed with the new LENT SOMA scales. This paper contains details of these late changes, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, potential treatment, and prevention. (authors)

  20. Strontium isotope evolution of Late Permian and Triassic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Bruckschen, Peter; Veizer, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The 87Sr/ 86Sr values based on brachiopods and conodonts define a nearly continuous record for the Late Permian and Triassic intervals. Minor gaps in measurements exist only for the uppermost Brahmanian, lower part of the Upper Olenekian, and Middle Norian, and only sparse data are available for the Late Permian. These 219 measurements include 67 brachiopods and 114 conodont samples from the Tethyan realm as well as 37 brachiopods and one conodont sample from the mid-European Middle Triassic Muschelkalk Sea. The Late Permian/Lower Triassic interval is characterized by a steep 1.3 × 10 -3 rise, from 0.7070 at the base of the Dzhulfian to 0.7082 in the late Olenekian, a rate of change comparable to that in the Cenozoic. In the mid-Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian), the isotope values fall to 0.7075, followed again by a rise to 0.7081 in the Middle/Late Norian. The 87Sr/ 86Sr values decline again in the Late Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian to 0.7076. The sharp rise in the 87Sr/ 86Sr values during the Late Permian/Early Triassic was coincident with widespread clastic sedimentation. Because of the paucity of tectonic uplifts, the enhanced erosion may have been due to intermittent humid phases, during mainly an arid interval, coupled with the absence of a dense protective land plant cover following the mass extinction during the latest Permian. The apex of the 87Sr/ 86Sr curve at the Olenekian/Anisian boundary coincides with cessation of the large-scale clastic sedimentation and also marks the final recovery of land vegetation, as indicated by the renewed onset of coal formation in the Middle Triassic. The rising 87Sr/ 86Sr values from the Middle Carnian to the Late Norian coincide with the uplift and erosion of the Cimmeride-Indosinian orogens marking the closure of the Palaeotethys. The subsequent Rhaetian decline that continues into Jurassic (Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary), on the other hand, coincides with the opening of the Vardar Ocean and its eastern continuation

  1. The Expressive Turn of Citizenship in Digital Late Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Svensson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to connect the idea of expressive rationality to current debates on citizenship and political participation online. Socializing, cultural consumption/ production, identity management, information and publication strategies are both different and accentuated in digital, networked and late modern environments. In the paper I argue that the kind of network sociability that is emerging today favours an expressive form of rationality. I also claim that expressive rationality transcends the bipolar instrumental – communicative dimension that has been so important for normative theorizing in Political (and Social Sciences and hence is a more rewarding theoretical concept for understanding political participation in digital late modernity.

  2. XRF 050406 late-time flattening: an inverse Compton component?

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, A.; Piro, L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate for possible evidence of inverse Compton (IC) emission in the X-ray afterglow of XRF 050406. In the framework of the standard fireball model, we show how the late-time flattening observed in the X-ray light curve between \\~10^{4} s and ~10^{6} s can be explained in a synchrotron-plus-IC scenario, when the IC peak frequency crosses the X-ray band. We thus conclude that the appearance of an IC component above the synchrotron one at late times successfully accounts for these X-ray...

  3. Emerging concepts for myocardial late gadolinium enhancement MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Hoyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspects of gadolinium-based imaging, as well as its applications and anticipated future developments.

  4. Diagnosis and management of late hepatic allograft dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Jian-min; YU Cong-hui

    2005-01-01

    Late hepatic allograft dysfunction (LHAD) is common after liver transplantation (LT) and can cause graft failure,retransplantation,or even death.A variety of etiologies including rejection,vascular complications,bile duct complications,recurrent diseases,infections,de novo diseases,neoplasms and drug toxicity can result in LHAD.The recurrent diseases have the potential to become the most serious problems facing LT in the future.It is difficult to differentiate late acute rejection from recurrent viral or autoimmune hepatitis.Accurate diagnosis of the cause of LHAD has therapeutic importance.

  5. Late onset of subdural hematoma after bifrontal contusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Bora; Kertmen, Hayri; Dolgun, Habibullah; Sekerci, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral cortical contusions are one of the most common computed tomography findings in head-injured patients and common sequel of traumatic brain injury. These contusions tend to show a progressive increase in mass effect on repeated imaging, most small contusions do not require surgical evacuation. However, progression to subdural hematoma (SDH) in a late aspect is unique. Here we present a 71-year-old man with bifrontal contusion, who deteriorated 43 days after initial trauma with sudden onset of acute SDH. This unusual case suggests that neurosurgeons should be alert for the possibility of very late onset of acute SDH after bifrontal contusions.

  6. Late onset endophthalmitis associated with unexposed glaucoma valved drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHadlaq, Abdulaziz; AlMalki, Salem; AlShahwan, Sami

    2016-01-01

    We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube. PMID:27330390

  7. Emerging concepts for myocardial late gadolinium enhancement MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Hoyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspects of gadolinium-based imaging, as well as its applications and anticipated future developments. PMID:23909638

  8. CHINA NATIONAL POLICY IN THE LATE 1950'S TO THE LATE 1970'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Buyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of the national policy of the Chinese government in respect of nonHan peoples. The relevance of this work is due to important national issue for China. Traditionally, China has evolved as a multinational state, which was caused solely as a factor of external influence, for example, the Mongol and Manchu invasion and implementation of foreign policy objectives aimed at expanding the boundaries, resulting in a connection of Xinjiang and Tibet. A key feature of China as a multiethnic state has always been a numerical predominance of one ethnic group - the Han, as a rule, makes up almost all periods of the history of China, about 90% of the population. At the same time, China has always been inhabited by many ethnic minorities, which are not only occasionally something borrowed from Han people, but also constantly subjected Sinification. Sinification it was and remains one of the leading destinations for small nations. With the formation of the PRC in 1949, before the new communist government faced the problem of alignment of the national policy with regard to national minorities. The national policy of the Communist Party of China in its development has passed through three stages. In this article is considered the second period of this policy since the late 1950‟s. When starting to implement policies "Great Leap Forward" and the end of 1970‟s., as a result of the reforms of Deng Xiaoping began to change and the situation of small nations. To date, the Chinese government's policy towards national minorities in general, aims to accelerate the socio-economic and cultural development of ethnic groups on the tightening of national areas to the level of the developed regions of China, which should consolidate the Chinese citizens and prevent separatist actions. Ethnic identity of small nations overshadowed and leveled.

  9. The Solanum demissumR8 late blight resistance gene is an Sw-5 homologue that has been deployed worldwide in late blight resistant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Jack H.; Arkel, van Gert; Bergervoet-van Deelen, Marjan; Jo, Kwang Ryong; Jacobsen, Evert; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The potato late blight resistance geneR8has been cloned.R8is found in five late blight resistant varieties deployed in three different continents. R8 recognises Avr8 and is homologous to the NB-LRR protein Sw-5 from tomato.Abstract: The broad spectrum late blight resistance gene R8 from Solanum

  10. LATE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM THE HOJEDK SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts (34 species and subspecies from the Hojedk section north of Kerman span the late Givetian to early Famennian. The new data suggest that Devonian biostromes in central and eastern Iran were deposited on differing levels, and that the currently accepted ranges of Icriodus excavatus, Polygnathus subincompletus and P. mosquensis are late Givetian - late Frasnian, early to late Frasnian, and middle to late Frasnian. Polygnathus ashourii n. sp. is proposed. 

  11. Perspective Taking, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Hans; Johnson, Lena

    1992-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perspective taking in response to another's distress and prosocial behavior and dispositional affective empathy in late childhood. The tendency to reflect spontaneously on the inner experience of others who are unfortunate was positively related to prosocial behavior in boys and to affective empathy in both sexes.…

  12. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  13. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (∼1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and su

  14. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  15. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: Description of a late onset case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baglieri Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by ectopic mineralization of connective tissues with primary manifestations in the skin, retina and cardiovascular system, and a phenotypic spectrum highly variable.This article presents the case of a 46-year-old male patient with sporadic late-onset PXE, without severe systemic complications.

  16. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasia D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. in addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in

  17. Late-onset CMV disease following CMV prophylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection after solid-organ transplantation, increasing morbidity and mortality. Three months of oral valganciclovir have been shown to provide effective prophylaxis. Late-onset CMV disease, occurring after the discontinuation of prophylaxis, is now increasingly recognised. AIMS: To investigate the incidence and the time of detection of CMV infections in liver transplant recipients who received CMV prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective review of 64 high- and moderate-risk patients with 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: The incidence of CMV infection was 12.5%, with 4.7% disease. All cases of symptomatic CMV disease were of late-onset. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMV infections in this study was low compared with literature reports; however, the late-onset disease is an emerging problem. Detection of late-onset disease may be delayed because of less frequent clinic follow-up visits. Increased regular laboratory monitoring may allow earlier detection at the asymptomatic infection stage.

  18. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction...

  19. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHA

  20. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Late Permian bryozoans from the Wegener Halvø, Ravnefjeld and Schuchert Formations in East Greenland have been investigated. 14 genera are recognised.      Integration of the new bryozoan data from the Upper Permian of East Greenland with data on the distribution of Permian bryozoans along...

  1. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction

  2. Late-time Spectroscopy of Type Iax Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; Pan, Yen-Chen; Zheng, WeiKang; Bildsten, Lars; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kasen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examine the late-time (t > 200 days after peak brightness) spectra of Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax), a low-luminosity, low-energy class of thermonuclear stellar explosions observationally similar to, but distinct from, Type Ia supernovae. We present new spectra of SN 2014dt, resulting in the most complete published late-time spectral sequence of a SN Iax. At late times, SNe Iax have generally similar spectra, all with a similar continuum shape and strong forbidden-line emission. However, there is also significant diversity where some late-time SN Iax spectra display narrow P-Cygni features and a continuum indicative of a photosphere in addition to strong narrow forbidden lines, while others have no obvious P-Cygni features, strong broad forbidden lines, and weak narrow forbidden lines. Finally, some SNe Iax have spectra intermediate to these two varieties with weak P-Cygni features and broad/narrow forbidden lines of similar strength. We find that SNe Iax with strong broad forbidden lines also tend to be m...

  3. Late osteoarticular lesions following meningococcemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, E.; Boavida, J.E.; Barroso, A.; Carmona da Mota, H.; Seabra, J.

    1989-03-01

    Nineteen children, who had been admitted to the Pediatric Hospital of Coimbra with severe meningococcal infection with DIC, were submitted to clinical and radiological examination, an average of 4.2 years after hospitalization, in order to demonstrate late skeletal lesions. Patellar dystrophy, to our knowledge previously unreported, was found in 4 children, all of whom had overlying cutaneous scarring.

  4. Late Silurian fish microfossils from Helvetesgraven, Skane (southern Sweden) (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergoossen, JMJ

    1999-01-01

    The fauna from a Late Silurian residue sample from Ovedskloster (Skane) is listed. It comprises scales of 'Agnatha' (rare osteostracan scales, and the thelodonts Thelodus parvidens, 'T. traquairi', T. sculptilis, T. admirabilis, and 'Loganellia cuneata') and of Gnathostomata (the acanthodians Nostol

  5. Operative treatment in patella fractures and its late results

    OpenAIRE

    Domanic, U.; Durmaz, H.; Cakmak, M.; Taser, O.; Akalin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    78 cases with patella fractures which have been treated operatively between 1970-1983 are assesed for the type of treatment and late results. The results and the affecting factors are discussed under the light of literature knowledge and our experiences.

  6. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  7. Radioactive demonstration of the ''late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ''late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests

  8. Late Proterozoic extensional collapse in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasband, B.B.; White, S.H.; Brooijmans, P.; Boorder, H. de; Visser, W.

    2000-01-01

    A structural and petrological study of the Late Proterozoic rocks in the Wadi Kid area, Sinai, Egypt indicates the presence of an extensional metamorphic core complex in the northern Arabian–Nubian Shield. Gneissic domes throughout the Arabian–Nubian Shield resemble the core complex of the Wadi Kid

  9. Late presentation of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gul, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: A neonatal screening programme for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is ongoing in Cork. Despite early screening, infants continue to present at later ages with DDH. The impact of late diagnosis is significant. Established DDH causes significant morbidity and may have major medicolegal implications. AIM: To identify the reasons for the late presentation of DDH in the presence of a screening programme. METHODS: In a retrospective study all cases of late DDH presenting from 1988 to 2000 were identified using inpatient database. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases of DDH were diagnosed. The mean age of diagnosis was 14.8 months (range 6-47). Multiple risk factors were identified in four patients only. More than one risk factor was identified in 10 patients. CONCLUSION: Despite screening, children continue to present with late DDH. In this study, only 14 patients had multiple risk factors and only four patients had more than two risk factors, highlighting the low incidence of suspicion in this patient group.

  10. School Mobility during Childhood Predicts Psychotic Symptoms in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…

  11. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia

    1999-01-01

    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  12. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  13. Out of Weakness: The "Educational Good" in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the educational good as it appears in late antiquity, arguing that the "good" variously promised by education is in a state of perpetual deferral. This extends the tradition of ancient Greek philosophy where wisdom is to be forever approached but never realised. Three exemplary cases are considered: the…

  14. Late-onset drug fever associated with minocycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, D A

    1990-01-01

    A patient presenting with a pyrexial illness and transiently deranged liver function tests is described. He had been taking minocycline for 12 months. The causal association with this drug was demonstrated by withholding and then rechallenging with minocycline. This report documents drug fever as an adverse reaction to minocycline, and its late onset is of added interest.

  15. Late Neogene, Seismic stratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, Mollusca, Evolution, Pannonian basin

    OpenAIRE

    Velić, I.; Durn, G.

    1993-01-01

    The combined use of seismic stratigraphy and mollusc biostratigraphy in Late Neogene lacustrine deposits of the Pannonian basin offers three new approaches: First, the comparison of seismic facies and biofacies facilitates to make a distinction between biostratigraphic units and biofacies. Second, seismic datum levels permit crosschecking of discrete (magnetic, radiometric, and biostratigraphic) data, thus dating evolutionary events. Third, seismic monitoring of the sedimentary hi...

  16. 5 CFR 2634.704 - Late filing fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supporting documentation. The designated agency ethics official's determination must be made in writing to....704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL...) Exceptions. (1) The designated agency ethics official may waive the late filing fee if he determines that...

  17. Changes in tropical Late Carboniferous compression floras and their causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, H.W. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    In the Late Carboniferous ten biostratigraphic boundaries can be recognized based on compression floras. Some of these boundaries coincide with classical stage boundaries whereas others do not. These boundaries are observable throughout Eurameria. In most cases the same species are involved in North America and Europe. Four boundaries are characterized by extinction events that involve only a few or many taxa. Four boundaries are characterized by origination of single taxa or by changes in the dominance of taxonomic groups. Two boundaries near the base of the Late Carboniferous seem to coincide with different stages in the onset of the ice age on Gondwanaland. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated what the local climatic signals in the tropics were. Three boundaries in the late Late Carboniferous are connected with well established trends toward dryer climate. It appears that many of these floral changes were climatically controlled. The actual triggering condition seems to have been produced by a variable combination of short term (allocyclic) and long term (orogeny, continental movement) effects. In one case the reason for the extinction is not obvious and could be biotic in nature.

  18. LATE DEVONIAN-CARBONIFEROUS CONODONTS FROM EASTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI YAZDI

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont data from acid-leaching 110 samples from two Late Devonian-Carboniferous areas in the Shotori Range (Tabas region of eastern Iran are presented. At Howz-e-Dorah, a section (88 samples commencing high in the Bahram Formation (Givetian-early Frasnian extended through the Shishtu Formation (Frasnian, Early hassi Zone or older, to latest Tournaisian, anchoralis-latus Zone and the Sardar Formation (earliest Visean, texanus Zone, to late Namurian, sinuatus-corrugatus-sulcatus Zone and into the Jamal Formation (Permian. Four less exhaustively sampled sections (22 samples show the Kale Sardar area to be tectonically more complicated than the Howz-e-Dorah area. Useful marker horizons in the Howz-e-Dorah section, well constrained by conodont data, are: the early Frasnian (no older than Early hassi Zone biostromal beds of the Shishtu Formation, an early Famennian (Late triangularis to Early crepida interval of oolitic limestone, a cyclothem sequence straddling the Early Carboniferous-Late Carboniferous boundary, and an Early Permian interval of siliceous sand ("the white quartzite" of previous authors. Additionally, several iron-rich horizons, readily traceable from locality to locality, are well constrained by conodont ages. Eighty-five conodont species/subspecies are documented representing 24 genera.. Two new species, Polygnathus capollocki and Polygnathus ratebi and one new subspecies, Icriodus alternatus mawsonae are described. 

  19. Can physiology help us to combat late blight in potato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Late blight is a devastating disease in potato production world-wide. Breeding for resistance is complex because of the versatile and aggressive population of Phytophthora infestans, which overcomes any new genetic source of resistance very rapidly. There are reliable fungicides available to control

  20. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Mulder; E.C. van Dalen; M. van den Hof; D. Bresters; B.G.P. Koot; S.M. Castellino; Y. Loke; E. Leclercq; P.N. Post; H.N. Caron; A. Postma; L.C.M. Kremer

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood cancer. Howev

  1. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late-planted acreage. 1437.103 Section 1437.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE...

  2. Late-stage deoxyfluorination of alcohols with PhenoFluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladojevich, Filippo; Arlow, Sophie I; Tang, Pingping; Ritter, Tobias

    2013-02-20

    An operationally simple protocol for the selective deoxyfluorination of structurally complex alcohols is presented. Several fluorinated derivatives of natural products and pharmaceuticals have been prepared to showcase the potential of the method for late-stage diversification and its functional group compatibility. A series of simple guidelines for predicting the selectivity in substrates with multiple alcohols is given.

  3. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

  4. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Golonka, J. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. (Consulting Geologist, Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  5. Pedagogical Technology Experiences of Successful Late-Career Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    A small-scale phenomenological study reveals interesting and suggestive insights into the pedagogical technology experiences of late-career faculty with institutional recognition as successful instructors. Referred to in much of the literature as "resistant" and assumed to lack training in pedagogical technology and/or to adhere to…

  6. Late-Onset Startle Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset sporadic startle syndrome in a patient with a right posterior fossa brain tumour is reported. The exaggerated startle response did not respond to treatment with clonazepam. In addition to anxiety and depression, the patient developed obsessive- compulsive symptoms which responded to behavioural therapy. The possible mechanisms for this unique pattern of symptoms are discussed.

  7. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  8. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  9. Biotechnology Symposium - In Memoriam, the Late Dr. Allan Zipf

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-day biotechnology symposium was held at Alabama A&M University (AAMU), Normal, AL on June 4, 2004 in memory of the late Dr. Allan Zipf (Sept 1953-Jan 2004). Dr. Zipf was a Research Associate Professor at the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, AAMU, who collaborated extensively with ARS/MS...

  10. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  11. It's Not Too Late to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicare & Medicaid Services HealthSense Alternate Language URL Español It’s Not Too Late to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes ... a greater chance of getting type 2 diabetes? It’s true. You have a greater chance of getting ...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4212 - Interest rates and late charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates and late charges. 36.4212 Section 36.4212 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... of interest rate changes. Interest rate adjustments must occur on an annual basis, except that...

  13. Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

  14. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W;

    2011-01-01

    DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society...

  15. Capitellocondylar total elbow replacement in late-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Janne; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Johannsen, Hans Viggo;

    2012-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2000, 51 capitellocondylar elbow replacements were inserted in 41 patients. All patients had late-stage rheumatoid arthritis. The mean age at operation was 56 years (range, 25-78 years). There were 12 men and 29 women. At follow-up, 6 patients had died of unrelated causes...

  16. Overcoming obstacles to late presentation for HIV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jürgens, R; Weait, M;

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of the HIV in Europe Initiative is to promote testing and treatment throughout Europe and Central Asia in order to decrease the number of people living with HIV presenting late for care. This article summarizes the results from the HIV in Europe 2009 Conference and the early...

  17. Late effects of radiation on the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes experiments concerned with the mechanisms of the development of late radiation damage in the spinal cord. Male rats were used in most of the experiments. The effects of 300 kV X-rays or 15 MeV neutrons were evaluated for different regions of the spinal cord. (Auth.)

  18. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1

  19. Some Consequences of Limited Literacy in Late Antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaster, Robert A.

    This examination of education in late antiquity looks at the variable definitions of literacy, the function of elite literacy as a scarce and highly valued commodity, and the nature of the relationship between the cultural elite and Christianity. A basic definition of a literate person is one who can read and write in his or her society's standard…

  20. Natural History in Hispanic Journalism in the Late Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo MORGADO GARCÍA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Hispanic world of the late Eighteenth Century there was a certain amount of divulgation of Natural History, aided by the utilitarian nature of the Spanish Enlightenment, and by the fact that Natural History did not contradict Catholic doctrine. This paper approaches the diffusion of news of Natural History through periodicals, focusing on zoological references.

  1. The depiction of soil profiles since the late 1700s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Artists have depicted soils in paintings since medieval times, and most landscape and soil paintings were made in the eighteenth century. The systematic study of soils started later and soil science was dominated by agricultural chemistry for most of the nineteenth century. Since the late 1800s soil

  2. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jacob; Williams, Michelle; Granich, Ann; Ahn, Hyoeun; Tenay, Brandon; Lukehart, Joshua; Highfill, Chad; Dobard, Sarah; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2013-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 delta cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT))cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1's implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole. PMID:23385815

  3. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacob Hayden; Michelle Williams; Ann Granich; Hyoeun Ahn; Brandon Tenay; Joshua Lukehart; Chad Highfill; Sarah Dobard; Kyoungtae Kim

    2013-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT) cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1’s implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole.

  4. Acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifovski Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although radical radiotherapy has proved to be a successful method in prostate cancer treatment, the conventional (box technique can result in significant adverse events. Objective. The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods. In a clinical retrospective study, we included 283 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. All our patients received radical, conventional radiotherapy using the four-field technique. The study was performed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia between January 1991 and December 2005. During regular follow-up, we analyzed the frequency, type and severity of acute and late toxicity. Results. Two thirds (71% of our patients had acute toxicity of at least one organ within the radiation field. Most frequent complication was radiation dermatitis (10.5%, and enteritis (9%, cystitis (6% and proctitis (2.5%. Acute adverse events were mostly low grade (I and II, 28-61%. Late complications were registered in 20.5% of patients. Skin fibrosis was most frequent (12%. Chronic proctitis was detected in 4% and urethral stricture in 4.5% of our patients. All late complications were low grade. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance of radical radiotherapy is relatively good. Although most patients develop acute toxicity, it is commonly low grade and requires the interruption of radiotherapy treatment in 20% of patients only. Late toxicity is rarer than acute and, in most cases, it does not affect the quality of life.

  5. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhu, Jiang [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ozaki, Toshinori [Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuohku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Bu, Youquan, E-mail: buyqcn@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2015-03-13

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited

  6. Seacage aquaculture in a World Heritage Area: The environmental footprint of a Barramundi farm in tropical Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of aquaculture wastes from a seacage farm within a pristine mangrove environment was studied. Seasonal and tidal differences were most important in determining water quality within receiving waters and obscured any nutrient enrichment effect by the farm. Farm wastes added significantly to the N budget status of the creek system, but overall water quality conformed to Queensland EPA Water Quality standards. Mangrove trees throughout the creek system contained 15N signatures traceable to aquaculture feeds, but the footprint of the farm itself was best indicated by the ratio of Zn:Li in sediments. The creek became hypoxic (-1) during wet season low tides. Consequently, we recommended monitoring of water-column oxygen concentrations to warn of hypoxic conditions threatening to fish health, as well as Zn:Li ratios in sediment accumulation zones to determine the area of influence of the farm.

  7. HEARING AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTSAS RISK FACTORS FOR LATE- LIFE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza N. KRSTESKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late-life depression is one of the most frequent disorders among the seniors and often remains unrecognized. One of the reasons why late-life depression often passes unrecognized is the comorbidity. Hearing and visual impairments are very common condition among the elderly. Thus, depression among the elderly is commonly accompanied by hearing and visual impairment. The epidemiology together with the visual and hearing-related problems still remains poorly investigated.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hearing and visual function and the late-life depression.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 120 participants, 60 patients with late-life depression and 60 community-dwelling older adults aged over 60 and without the symptoms of depression. All participants were examined using a questionnaire designed for the aim of the study to measure the severity of the symptoms (scale with scores from 1 to 3 - from mild to profound degree of self-reported hearing and visual impairment. In addition, existing medical records and the Geriatric Depression Scale were used as well.Results: The patients with late-life depression in larger number suffered from hearing and visual impairment compared to the non - depressed elderly people: hearing impairments (χ2=6.97, df=1, p=0.0083 and visual impairments (χ2=4.37, df=2, p=0.012.Conclusion: These data suggest that the risk of late-life depression is higher among elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment. A comprehensive annual eye exam is the most important step that can be undertaken to help monitor and protect normal visual function in the elderly. It is necessary to conduct routine screening and early treatment of depression in elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment within the primary care practice. Ophthalmologists and otologists should be aware of the need for routine screening for geriatric syndromes in the

  8. Geochemistry of Precambrian carbonates. V - Late Paleoproterozoic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizer, Jan; Plumb, K. A.; Clayton, R. N.; Hinton, R. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of mineralogy, chemistry, and isotopic composition of the Coronation Supergroup (about 1.9 Ga, NWT), Canada, and the McArthur Group (about 1.65 NT), Australia, is reported in order to obtain better constrained data for the first- and second-order variations in the isotopic composition of late Paleoproterozoic (1.9 +/- 0.2 Ga) seawater. Petrologically, both carbonate sequences are mostly dolostones. The McArthur population contains more abundant textural features that attest to the former presence of sulfates and halite, and the facies investigated represent ancient equivalents of modern evaporitic sabkhas and lacustrine playa lakes. It is suggested that dolomitization was an early diagenetic event and that the O-18 depletion of the Archean to late Paleoproterozoic carbonates is not an artifact of postdepositional alteration.

  9. Friedman-Robertson-Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdussattar; S. R. Prajapati2

    2011-01-01

    @@ In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modiGcation of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed.The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.%In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that ora modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  10. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysis method. The findings revealed that aassertiveness predicts separation anxiety in a meaningful way. Furthermore, the assertiveness predicts engulfment anxiety, peer enmeshment, need denial, practicing-mirroring, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. These findings suggest that psycho-educational studies improving assertiveness can be carried out for the late adolescents who experience separation-individuation problems.

  11. Brane gas cosmology in M-theory late time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Easther, R; Jackson, M G; Kabat, D; Easther, Richard; Greene, Brian R.; Jackson, Mark G.; Kabat, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the late-time behavior of a universe containing a supergravity gas and wrapped 2-branes in the context of M-theory compactified on T^10. The supergravity gas tends to drive uniform expansion, while the branes impede the expansion of the directions about which they are wrapped. Assuming spatial homogeneity, we study the dynamics both numerically and analytically. At late times the radii obey power laws which are determined by the brane wrapping numbers, leading to interesting hierarchies of scale between the wrapped and unwrapped dimensions. The biggest hierarchy that could evolve from an initial thermal fluctuation produces three large unwrapped dimensions. We also study configurations corresponding to string winding, in which the M2-branes are all wrapped around the (small) 11th dimension, and show that this recovers the scenario discussed by Brandenberger and Vafa.

  12. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhlich, Ursula B; Chiappe, Luis M

    2006-03-16

    Small Late Jurassic theropod dinosaurs are rare worldwide. In Europe these carnivorous dinosaurs are represented primarily by only two skeletons of Compsognathus, neither of which is well preserved. Here we describe a small new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Schamhaupten in southern Germany. Being exquisitely preserved and complete from the snout to the distal third of the tail, the new fossil is the best-preserved predatory, non-avian dinosaur in Europe. It possesses a suite of characters that support its identification as a basal coelurosaur. A cladistic analysis indicates that the new taxon is closer to maniraptorans than to tyrannosauroids, grouping it with taxa often considered to be compsognathids. Large portions of integument are preserved along its tail. The absence of feathers or feather-like structures in a fossil phylogenetically nested within feathered theropods indicates that the evolution of these integumentary structures might be more complex than previously thought.

  13. Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A

    2006-01-01

    The transformations taking place in late-type galaxies in the environment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From the handful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether they were formed in-situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation or even destruction or if they are newcomers that recently infall from outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario, covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the gas tracers, the star formation tracers, the old star tracers and the dust. Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well studied clusters Virgo, A1367 and Coma, representative of different evolutionary stages, from unrelaxed, spiral rich (Virgo) to relaxed, spiral poor clusters (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models of galaxy interactions relevant to clusters of galaxies. Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed and their ty...

  14. Late-time dynamics of rapidly rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the late-time behaviour of a dynamically perturbed rapidly rotating black hole. Considering an extreme Kerr black hole, we show that the large number of virtually undamped quasinormal modes (that exist for nonzero values of the azimuthal eigenvalue m) combine in such a way that the field (as observed at infinity) oscillates with an amplitude that decays as 1/t at late times. For a near extreme black hole, these modes, collectively, give rise to an exponentially decaying field which, however, is considerably 'long-lived'. Our analytic results are verified using numerical time-evolutions of the Teukolsky equation. Moreover, we argue that the physical mechanism behind the observed behaviour is the presence of a 'superradiance resonance cavity' immediately outside the black hole. We present this new feature in detail, and discuss whether it may be relevant for astrophysical black holes. (author)

  15. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  16. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  17. Domain-wall formation in late-time phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate domain-wall formation in late-time phase transitions. We find that, as in the invisible-axion--domain-wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different regions of the Universe to different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low-temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some nonthermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact that domain-wall production is not a robust prediction of late-time transitions may suggest future directions in model building

  18. Mobile ICT use in early adopter vs. late majority countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The rapid global diffusion of smartphones has not been uniform. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behaviour to investigate what drives smartphone use in early adopter (USA) versus late majority (Slovakia) countries. By surveying both current and potential owners, we also revisit...... Karahanna et al.’s question: Do potential adopters and users of IT hold the same behavioural and normative beliefs? Partial least squares analysis finds that habit, affect, and perceived social norms explain 65% of the intention to buy a smartphone. Surprisingly, perceived consequences (i.e., perceived...... usefulness) and whether people live in an early adopter versus late majority country, are not significant. Comparing users and non-users finds that they differ in almost every attribute measured in the study, and that users intend to continue using a smartphone whereas non-users have more ambivalent...

  19. Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2013-01-01

    rather than present specific estimates for these costs. Making the best use of environmental science and modelling helps to make environmental protection and precaution a priority. Producing cost estimates should not be left to economists alone, but should rather be seen as a starting point for a broader...... innovations whilst minimising harms. This chapter revisits some key environmental issues for which estimates of costs of inaction have been carefully developed over many years of research. The aim is to consider the methodological challenges involved in producing estimates that are credible and appropriate......The 2013 Late lessons from early warnings report is the second of its type produced by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in collaboration with a broad range of external authors and peer reviewers. The case studies across both volumes of Late lessons from early warnings cover a diverse range...

  20. Late Eocene impact microspherules - Stratigraphy, age and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Oliver, P. Q.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Molina, E.

    1987-03-01

    The stratigraphy, faunal changes, and geochemistry of deep-sea sediments associated with late Eocene microtektite and microspherule layers are reported. Microprobe analyses of major element compositions of microspherules show that, although there is some compositional overlap in all three late Eocene layers as well as with the Pleistocene Australasian and Ivory Coast microtektites, each microspherule population has characteristic compositional features. All three microspherule layers are associated with decreased carbonate, possibly due to a sudden productivity change, increased dissolution as a result of sea-level and climate fluctuations, or impact events. A discovery of microtektites in the Gl. cerroazulensis Zone off the New Jersey coast extends the North American strewn field from the Caribbean to the northwest Atlantic.

  1. Endoscopic scoring of late gastrointestinal mucosal damage after adjuvant radiochemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Resat Dabak; Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; Cengiz Gemici; Dilek Yavuzer; Mehmet Sargin; Mehmet Yildirim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate late effects of chemoradiation on gastrointestinal mucosa with an endoscopic scoring system and compare it to a clinical scoring system.METHODS: Twenty-four patients going to receive chemoradiation after gastric surgery underwent endoscopy four wk after surgery and one year after the chemoradiation finished. Upper gastrointestinal findings were recorded according to a system proposed by World Organisation for Digestive Endoscopy (OMED) and clinical scoring was done with RTOG-EORTC radiation morbidity scoring systems.RESULTS: There was no significant endoscopic difference in gastric and intestinal mucosa after chemoradiation (P > 0.05) and there was no association between endoscopic scores and clinical scores.Endoscopic changes were minimal.CONCLUSION: Late effects after chemoradiation in operated patients with gastric cancers can be evaluated with an endoscopic scoring system objectively and this system is superior to clinical scoring systems.

  2. Disposition of firocoxib in late pregnant and early postpartum mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, S; Macpherson, M L; Benson, S M; Cox, S; McNaughten, J W; Pozor, M A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces several physiologic changes that might impact the bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on the disposition of oral firocoxib in mares. Seven pony mares received oral firocoxib paste at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg during late pregnancy and again 12 to 33 days postpartum. Firocoxib concentrations were measured in plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Maximum plasma concentrations were significantly lower in pregnant (50.0 ± 21.8 ng/mL) than in postpartum (73.7 ± 25.6 ng/mL) mares. Plasma concentrations 24 h after administration, time to maximum plasma concentrations, and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve were not significantly different between late pregnancy and the postpartum period in mares. PMID:26202842

  3. Late Adverse Events after Enhanced and Unenhanced MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2014-01-01

    Prospective evaluation of frequency of late and very late adverse events in patients undergoing enhanced or unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). The imaging procedure was performed according to the protocols of the department. All patients were contacted three...... of LAEs was significantly higher in the enhanced MRI (38%) and CT (27%) groups than unenhanced MRI (20%) and CT (16%) groups. The frequency of nausea, dizziness, abdominal pain and diarrhoea was significantly higher in the enhanced MRI group than in the MRI control group, while taste sensation...... was reported more frequent in the enhanced CT group than in the CT control group. The incidence of VLAEs was significantly higher in the enhanced CT (21%) than unenhanced CT group (13%). The same LAEs and VLAEs were reported in all four groups. LAEs and VLAEs were reported more often in patients with allergy...

  4. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  5. Radiologic findings in late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly has a different clinical and serologic course from that in young patients. Radiographic findings in patients in whom the diagnosis was made after age 50 were compared with findings in younger patients to see if the radiologic patterns are also different. The only significant radiographic difference between the two groups was that the older group had a greater incidence of soft-tissue swelling of the hands and wrists (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in osteopenia, erosion, soft-tissue calcification, alignment abnormalities, or intrathoracic findings. Of 24 patients over age 50, two developed lymphoma and another developed multiple myeloma. The data agree with clinical observations that there is a higher incidence of arthritis in late-onset lupus, but clinical findings of increased incidence of pleuropericardial disease are not confirmed radiographically. The coincidence of hematologic malignancy with late-onset lupus in this series is noteworthy

  6. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-01

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory. PMID:23521247

  7. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Late Adolescence with Online Gaming Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; DONG, tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education...

  8. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from...

  9. Inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis with late-decaying massive particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Suarez, J.; Canal, R.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of accounting for the currently inferred primordial abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li by big bang nucleosynthesis in the presence of baryon density inhomogeneities plus the effects of late-decaying massive particles (X), and we explore the allowed range of baryonic fraction of the closure density Omega_b in such context. We find that, depending on the parameters of this composite model (characteristic size and density contrast of the inhomogeneities; mass-densi...

  10. Late Forming Dark Matter in Theories of Neutrino Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subinoy; Weiner, Neal

    2006-01-01

    We study the possibility of Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM), where a scalar field, previously trapped in a metastable state by thermal or finite density effects, begins to oscillate near the era matter-radiation equality about its true minimum. Such a theory is motivated generally if the dark energy is of a similar form, but has not yet made the transition to dark matter, and, in particular, arises automatically in recently considered theories of neutrino dark energy. If such a field comprise...

  11. Deciphering the Late Biosynthetic Steps of Antimalarial Compound FR-900098

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes, Tyler W.; DeSieno, Matthew A.; Griffin, Benjamin M.; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Metcalf, William W.; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    FR-900098 is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of malaria. Here we report the heterologous production of this compound in E. coli by re-constructing the entire biosynthetic pathway using a three plasmid system. Based on this system, whole cell feeding assays in combination with in vitro enzymatic activity assays reveal an unprecedented functional role of nucleotide conjugation and lead to the complete elucidation of the previously unassigned late biosynthetic steps. These stud...

  12. Session Introduction: Global correlation on late Quaternary paleovalley systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.; Amorosi, A; Busschers, F.S.; Hori, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2015-01-01

    All around the world, paleovalley systems have trapped great amounts of deposits and hold a quite complete Late Quaternary record. Uniquely, these records directly interlink the shelf marine with the hinterland fluvial realms. In the vicinity of ice sheets, in similar ways, paleovalleys interlink the glacial record with the non-glacial domain. Considerable advances have been made in their study over the past decades, and many case well-dated and well-mapped case studies are now available. The...

  13. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Abdussattar,

    2016-01-01

    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  14. Late-life work and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Carol.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work time and retirement options are a potential solution for the challenges of unemployment, aging populations, and unsustainable pensions systems around the world. Voluntary part-time workers in Europe and the US are happier, experience less stress and anger, and are more satisfied with their jobs than other employees. Late-life workers, meanwhile, have higher levels of well-being than retirees. The feasibility of a policy that is based on more flexible work arrangements will vary ...

  15. The late stage of autophagy: cellular events and molecular regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Jingjing; Yan, Xianghua; Yu, Li

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic contents to the lysosome for degradation. It is a “self-eating” process and plays a “house-cleaner” role in cells. The complex process consists of several sequential steps—induction, autophagosome formation, fusion of lysosome and autophagosome, degradation, efflux transportation of degradation products, and autophagic lysosome reformation. In this review, the cellular and molecular regulations of late stage of autopha...

  16. A Sequential Detection Method for Late Auditory Evoked Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, U; Eysholdt, U; Weiss, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents a novel mechanism for detection of late auditory evoked potentials (AEP). AEPs, which are an important diagnostic tool to detect hearing deficiencies, are contained within the electroencephalogram (EEG) at a very low SNR. Our proposed automatic detection of AEPs is based on the Wavelet-Transform of EEG data for feature extraction. Several transform coefficients are then used for a classification by a neural network; its decisions on successive EEG segments are judged by a s...

  17. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Donald E Canfield

    2011-01-01

    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We inter...

  18. Stellar Halo Constraints on Simulated Late Type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris

    2003-01-01

    How do late type spiral galaxies form within the context of a CDM cosmology? We contrast N-body, smoothed particle hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation which employ two different supernova feedback mechanisms. Observed mass and metallicity distributions of the stellar halos of the Milky Way and M31 provide constraints on these models. A strong feedback model, incorporating an adiabatic phase in star burst regions, better reproduces these observational properties than our comparative...

  19. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread,...

  20. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysi...

  1. The Expressive Turn of Citizenship in Digital Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to connect the idea of expressive rationality to current debates on citizenship and political participation online. Socializing, cultural consumption/ production, identity management, information and publication strategies are both different and accentuated in digital, networked and late modern environments. In the paper I argue that the kind of network sociability that is emerging today favours an expressive form of rationality. I also claim that expressive ratio...

  2. Cognitive functioning in late senescence : influences of age and health

    OpenAIRE

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita

    1999-01-01

    The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate potential age-related differences between groups of healthy very old adults from 75 to 96 years of age in various cognitive functions. An additional objective was to examine the influence of individual-difference variables within demographic (e.g., education, gender), psychometric (e.g., general cognitive status; MMSE) and biological (e.g., vitamin B12, folic acid [FA]) domains on cognitive functioning in late life. ...

  3. Friedman—Robertson—Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdussattar; Prajapati, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman—Robertson—Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  4. Differences between early and late onset adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj;

    2011-01-01

    episode depression were systematically recruited. Characteristics including psychiatric co-morbidity, personality disorders and traits, stressful life events prior to onset, family history, and treatment outcome were assessed by structured interviews and compared by chi-square tests for categorical data...... illness. Conclusion: Early adult onset of depression is associated with co-morbid personality deviances, whereas late onset is associated with environmental risk factors....

  5. Frailty & late-life depression: a delicate balance

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disease worldwide. With demographic balance shifting towards an older population, the number of older adults with a lifetime history of depression or subthreshold depression will be significant over the next decades. Depression is a serious psychiatric disease that affects not only the person suffering from depression, but also the social environment oft he person. The course of late-life depression is characterized by high recurrence and relapse rate...

  6. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi; Rakesh Behman; Raj Kumar; Dharmender Kumar Nehra; Naresh Kuma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200) adolescents were select...

  7. Identity processes and experience of being alone during late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Musetti; Paola Corsano; Marinella Majorano; Tiziana Mancini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the experience of being alone and identity processes analysing the mediation role of adolescents’ age and gender. The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire – EIPQ (Balistrieri, Busch-Rossnagel, & Geisinger, 1995) and the Louvain Loneliness Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents – LLCA (Marcoen, Goossens, & Caes, 1987) were administered to 181 high school adolescents and 141 university students, classed as late adolescents. Data...

  8. Psychoanalysis, Sexuality, and Nationality in Late Habsburg Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    How does one grasp, historically and conceptually, the relatively recent phenomenon that gay identity politics is systematically mobilized to support racism and imperialism, a phenomenon theorized as "homonationalism" (Puar) and "gay imperialism" (Haritaworn, Erdem & Tauqir)? This dissertation examines psychoanalysis, sexuality, and nationality in late Habsburg Austria in the light of recent analyses of homonationalism and gay imperialism in order to contribute to a better understanding of th...

  9. Late-quaternary vegetational dynamics and community stability reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.

    1983-03-01

    Defining the spatial and temporal limits of vegetational processes such as migration and invasion of established communities is a prerequisite to evaluating the degree of stability in plant communities through the late Quaternary. The interpretation of changes in boundaries of major vegetation types over the past 20,000 yr offers a complementary view to that provided by migration maps for particular plant taxa. North of approximately 43°N in eastern North America, continual vegetational disequilibrium has resulted from climatic change, soil development, and species migrations during postglacial times. Between 33° and 39°N, stable full-glacial vegetation was replaced by a relatively unstable vegetation during late-glacial climatic amelioration; stable interglacial vegetation developed there after about 9000 yr B.P. Late-Quaternary vegetation has been in dynamic equilibrium, with a relatively constant flora, south of 33°N on upland interfluves along the northern Gulf Coastal Plain, peninsular Florida, and west-central Mexico.

  10. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created. PMID:23967146

  11. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaniewski

    Full Text Available The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  12. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change.

  13. Ecological impacts of the late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jacquelyn L

    2014-03-01

    As a result of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions (50,000-10,000 before present (BP)), most continents today are depauperate of megaherbivores. These extinctions were time-transgressive, size- and taxonomically selective, and were caused by climate change, human hunting, or both. The surviving megaherbivores often act as ecological keystones, which was likely true in the past. In spite of this and extensive research on the causes of the Late Quaternary Extinctions, the long-term ecological consequences of the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna remained unknown until recently, due to difficulties in linking changes in flora and fauna in paleorecords. The quantification of Sporormiella and other dung fungi have recently allowed for explicit tests of the ecological consequences of megafaunal extirpations in the fossil pollen record. In this paper, I review the impacts of the loss of keystone megaherbivores on vegetation in several paleorecords. A growing number of studies support the hypothesis that the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna resulted in cascading effects on plant community composition, vegetation structure and ecosystem function, including increased fire activity, novel communities and shifts in biomes. Holocene biota thus exist outside the broader evolutionary context of the Cenozoic, and the Late Quaternary Extinctions represent a regime shift for surviving plant and animal species. PMID:24649488

  14. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Archibald, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians ( Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  15. Late-stage galaxy mergers in COSMOS to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, C N; Salvato, M; Kampczyk, P; Kartaltepe, J S; Sanders, D; Capak, P; Civano, F; Ilbert, O; Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A M; Lee, N; Fevre, O Le; Liu, C T; Scoville, N; Sheth, K; Toft, S

    2014-01-01

    The role of major mergers in galaxy and black hole formation is not well constrained. To help address this, we develop an automated method to identify late-stage galaxy mergers before coalescence of the galactic cores. The resulting sample of mergers is distinct from those obtained using pair-finding and morphological indicators. Our method relies on median-filtering of high-resolution images in order to distinguish two concentrated galaxy nuclei at small separations. Using mock images, we derive statistical contamination and incompleteness corrections for the fraction of late-stage mergers. We apply our new method to a magnitude-limited (I 10.6$ and $0.25 < z \\leq 1.00$, we find ~5% of systems are late-stage mergers with separations between 2.2 and 8 kpc. Correcting for incompleteness and contamination, the fractional merger rate increases strongly with redshift as $(1+z)^{3.8\\pm0.9}$, in agreement with earlier studies and with dark matter halo merger rates. Separating the sample into star-forming and qu...

  16. Late Viséan pelagic chondrichthyans from northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ginter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively rich assemblages of shark teeth from pelagic limestone (Mississippian, late Viséan, late Asbian–middle Brigantian of three northern European regions: the Rhenish Mountains (Westenfeld Quarry, Germany, the Holy Cross Mountains (Todowa Grząba at the edge of Ostrówka Quarry, Poland, and Derbyshire (Cawdor Quarry, Matlock, England, UK display certain similarities, with the absolute predominance of the teeth of Falcatidae (small Symmoriiformes and the constant presence of Thrinacodus spp. The largest and most diverse assemblage from Todowa Grząba contains at least three species of a falcatid Denaea, a xenacanthimorph Bransonella nebraskensis, a newly described phoebodontid Thrinacodus dziki sp. nov., a few ctenacanthiform and euselachian teeth, and two abraded euchondrocephalan dental elements. Anachronistidae, common in the most of late Viséan pelagic faunas, are absent from Todowa Grząba and Westenfeld. The material under study differs from the shallow-water chondrichthyan fauna, hitherto described from the Mississippian carbonate platform facies, by its taxonomic content (particularly almost total absence of Euchondrocephali, generally lower diversity, and higher frequency of small teeth.

  17. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  18. Formation of Late Quaternary paleoshorelines in Crete, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Begg, John; Nicol, Andrew; Oncken, Onno; Prior, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Paleoshorelines of Late Quaternary age in western Crete do not exclusively increase in age with rising altitude as is generally observed worldwide. At numerous sites, for example, Late-Holocene paleoshorelines decrease in age with increasing altitude while in other cases paleoshorelines at similar altitude vary in age by tens of thousands of years. We propose that the observed paleoshoreline altitude-age relationships can be accounted for by eustatic sea-level changes and tectonic rock uplift without requiring substantial errors on radiocarbon ages or tectonic subsidence, as has been previously proposed. To test this model we use a dataset consisting of altitude and age data for 71 individual paleoshorelines sampled from 21 sites distributed along the entire Cretan coastline. These data include radiocarbon ages of marine biota (40 new dates) within beachrock resting on paleoshorelines ranging up to 48 kyr BP in age and ≤20 m above present sea-level. We find that paleoshoreline formation reflects Late Holocene tectonic rock uplift in western Crete, preceded by eustatic sea-level rise and by >10 kyr BP rock uplift along the entire island. Our observations contravene existing models as they suggest that some paleoshorelines, and their associated lithified beachrock, survived passage through the wave-zone multiple times and formed throughout the sea-level cycle (i.e., preservation is not restricted to highstand deposits). These results may have application globally in regions where erosion-resistant carbonate beachrock mantles paleoshorelines.

  19. Dietary control of late trypsin gene transcription in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, F G; Barillas-Mury, C; Wells, M A

    1994-06-01

    In Aedes aegypti the levels of midgut trypsin activity after feeding are directly proportional to the protein concentration in the meal. The mechanisms of this up-regulatory event were investigated by analyzing the expression of the late trypsin gene under different dietary conditions. Transcription of the gene was dependent on both the quality and quantity of protein in the meal. As measured by Northern blot analysis, the levels of late trypsin gene expression increased up to 100-fold 24 h after feeding on gamma-globulin, hemoglobin or albumin (100 mg/ml). In contrast, gelatin, histone, amino acids, saline or agarose were very poor inducers of transcription. The rates of late trypsin transcription induced during the first 24 h were directly proportional to the concentration of protein in the meal. These data further support the suggestion that the primary mechanism that regulates the synthesis of trypsin in the mosquito midgut is transcriptional regulation of the gene. This regulatory mechanism enables the midgut to maintain the appropriate balance between protease synthesis and the protein content of the meal. PMID:7519098

  20. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  1. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale. PMID:23876495

  2. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Glasspool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2 that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2, increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2 rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can therefore be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2 played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  3. Comorbidities and the Risk of Late-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which comorbidities affect the diagnosis of prostate cancer is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine how comorbidities affect the stage at which prostate cancer is diagnosed in elderly white and black men. We obtained data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute merged with Medicare claims data. For each patient, we estimated associations between stage of disease at diagnosis and each of the 27 comorbidities. The sample included 2,489 black and 2,587 white men with staged prostate cancer. Coronary artery disease, benign hypertension, and dyslipidemia reduced the odds of late-stage prostate cancer. A prior diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease, severe renal disease, or substance abuse increased the odds of being diagnosed with late-stage disease. The study shows some effect modification by race, particularly among white men with substance abuse, cardiac conduction disorders, and other neurologic conditions. The strongest predictors of late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis for both white and black men were age at diagnosis of at least 80 years and lack of PSA screening. Comorbidities do affect stage at diagnosis, although in different ways. Four hypotheses are discussed to explain these findings.

  4. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasspool, Ian J; Scott, Andrew C; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  5. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. PMID:26434655

  6. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  8. Palynology of Waikato Coal Measures (Late Eocene-Late Oligocene) from the Raglan area, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocknall, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Spore-pollen assemblages from Waikato Coal Measures in the Kawhia-Raglan region, North Island, indicate that the coal measures, which rest on basement, are time transgressive and young to the southwest. The climate was predominantly cool to warm temperate, in accord with other climatic reconstructions for the Late Eocene-Late Oligocene period elsewhere in New Zealand, with brassi beech being the dominant component in the forests of the region. One new genus, Gemmapollis, is erected to accommodate tricolporate pollen with thickened colpi margins and gemmate/verrucate surface sculpture. Five new species are described. These are Monosulcites subverrucatus, Gemmapollis raglanensis, Rhoipites aequatorius, R. karamuensis, and Sparsipollis acuminatus. One species, Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, has been recombined, a revised description is given for Nothofagidites waipawaensis, and a new name is proposed for Rhoipites pilatus. The following taxa are recorded and/or illustrated from New Zealand for the first time - Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, Tricolpites discus, Cupanieidites reticularis, Santalumidites cainozoicus, and Corsinipollenites oculus noctis.

  9. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported...

  10. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early ... more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer than those who are slightly older, a new ...

  11. Was there more space in the late Early Devonian for marine biodiversity to peak than in the early Late Ordovician?: A brief note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the so-called “Cambrian explosion”, marine biodiversity peaked either in the early Late Ordovician (as shown by the “classical” curves based on the extensive palaeontological data compilation or in the late Early Devonian (as shown by the “innovative” curve based on the sampling standardization. The brief review of the modern plate tectonic, palaeoclimatic, and eustatic reconstructions demonstrates that shelves, which likely provided the main space for biotic radiation, shrank, concentrated in the tropics, and were better connected in the late Early Devonian than in the early Late Ordovician. The results of the present analysis permit to hypothesize that there was more (or the same space for marine organisms to reach their maximum in their number in the early Late Ordovician relatively to the late Early Devonian. This is the only particular hypothesis, and the other extrinsic and intrinsic factors should be considered in further discussions.

  12. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

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  1. Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Sarah

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT. SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for

  2. Treatment of Late-Life Depression Alleviates Caregiver Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Whyte, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the burden experienced by family caregivers of older adults with depression and to examine the positive effects on caregivers of treating late-life depression. Design Two-phase treatment study for major depressive disorder (MDD) that included 6 weeks of open treatment with antidepressant medication for all older patients followed by 16 weeks of randomized treatment for patients who were partial responders, comparing a combination of medication and interpersonal psychotherapy with medication alone. Setting Primary care and university late-life mental health research clinic. Participants Adults aged 60 and older participating in a randomized trial for treatment of MDD who enrolled in a family caregiver study and their caregiver (N = 244 dyads). Measurements Improvement in patient symptoms during open treatment (lower scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)) and remission of depression during randomized treatment (3 consecutive weekly HRSD scores of ≤7) were examined as predictors of lower general caregiver burden and burden specific to patient depression. Results Caregivers reported a moderate to high level of general caregiver burden on average. Change in patient depression during open treatment was associated with significantly decreased depression-specific burden (β = −0.22, P =.001) and a trend toward lower general burden (β = − 0.08, P =.08). Caregivers of patients who remitted showed significantly decreased depression-specific burden (F (1,76) = 4.27, P =.04). Conclusion Treatment of late-life depression has benefits that extend to the family members on whom patients depend. Caregiver education and support may strengthen these effects. PMID:19943833

  3. Proton Radiotherapy for Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Stephanie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Cancer Center Johnson Creek, Madison, WI (United States); Friedmann, Alison M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Adams, Judith; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: tyock@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome and late side effect profile of proton radiotherapy in the treatment of children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventeen consecutive children with PM-RMS were treated with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2005. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and asked referring physicians to report specific side effects of interest. Results: Median patient age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (range, 0.4-17.6). Embryonal (n = 11), alveolar (n = 4), and undifferentiated (n = 2) histologies were represented. Ten patients (59%) had intracranial extension. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 cobalt gray equivalents (GyRBE) (range, 50.4-56.0 GyRBE) delivered in 1.8-2.0-GyRBE daily fractions. Median follow-up was 5.0 years for survivors. The 5-year failure-free survival estimate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 33-79%), and overall survival estimate was 64% (95% confidence interval, 37-82%). Among the 7 patients who failed, sites of first recurrence were local only (n = 2), regional only (n = 2), distant only (n = 2), and local and distant (n = 1). Late effects related to proton radiotherapy in the 10 recurrence-free patients (median follow-up, 5 years) include failure to maintain height velocity (n = 3), endocrinopathies (n = 2), mild facial hypoplasia (n = 7), failure of permanent tooth eruption (n = 3), dental caries (n = 5), and chronic nasal/sinus congestion (n = 2). Conclusions: Proton radiotherapy for patients with PM-RMS yields tumor control and survival comparable to that in historical controls with similar poor prognostic factors. Furthermore, rates of late effects from proton radiotherapy compare favorably to published reports of photon-treated cohorts.

  4. Late onset myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapia Verri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific forms of epilepsy may be found at various ages in Down Syndrome (DS and a sharp increase in the incidence of epilepsy with age has been documented. A specific type of myoclonic epilepsy associated with cognitive decline has been reported as “senile myoclonic epilepsy” or “late onset myoclonic epilepsy in DS” (LOMEDS. We report a new case of LOMEDS, documented by clinical and neurophysiological evaluation and psychometric assessment (DSDS and DMR. MF, male, affected by DS, was referred in 2004 at 40 years of age; he had no personal or familial history of epilepsy. Since one year, the patient presented cognitive deterioration, characterized by regression of language abilities, loss of memory, and loss of sphincters control. A brain TC showed mild brainstem and sub-cortical atrophy. In 2006, myoclonic jerks involving upper limbs occurred mainly after awakening. EEG showed a low voltage 8 Hz background activity with diffuse slow activity, intermingled with spikes or polyspikes, persisting during NREM sleep. MF was initially treated with clonazepam and after with topiramate, resulting in partial seizures control. MRI (2008 demonstrated diffuse brain atrophy, associated with marked ventricular enlargement. At the psychometric evaluation, onset of dementia was evident late in 2004, with transition to the middle stage in 2006. Last assessment (2009 showed the clinical signs of a late stage of deterioration, with loss of verbal abilities and autonomous ambulation. Using levetiracetam till 2,000 mg/die, myoclonic jerks decreased but are still present every day after awakening. On the EEG slow and poorly organized background activity with bilateral polyspike-wave discharges was recorded. Therefore, we documented a parallel progression of dementia and myoclonic epilepsy in a DS subject.

  5. Climate-forcing & Feedbacks of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, I. P.; Brand, U.; Poulsen, C. J.; Horton, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating climate-forcing and feedbacks during pre-Cenozoic ice ages requires reconstructing marine-terrestrial linkages between atmospheric composition, the regional hydroclimate expression of mean climate change, ice sheets, and sea-level. Here we evaluate the role of different climate parameters and their linkages during the Carboniferous icehouse through integration of a recently developed ID-TIMS U-Pb constrained sea-level history, brachiopod stable isotope time-series from shallow marine regions of paleotropical Pangaea, atmospheric pCO2 inferred from paleosol minerals and fossil leaf stomatal indices, ice sheet variations constrained by the distribution of high-latitude Gondwanan glacial deposits, and paleoclimate simulations. Within chronostratigraphic uncertainty, long-term sea-level lowstands coincide with glacial maxima defined from high-latitude Gondwanan basins, whereas long-term highstands are coeval with glacial minima suggesting a dynamic late Paleozoic icehouse. Superimposed shorter-term sea-level events define a stepwise onset (late Mississippian) and contraction of Carboniferous ice sheets prior to the initiation of Early Permian ice sheets. Sea level fluctuations, at different temporal scales parallel trends defined by brachiopod oxygen and carbon isotope compositions and paleo-atmospheric pCO2 estimates inferred using mineral and biologic proxies. A protracted (~9 my) stepwise sea level rise beginning in the middle Pennsylvanian and culminating in an earliest Gzhelian peak is coincident with overall increasing CO2 levels throughout this interval and substantially decreased effective moisture in paleotropical Pangaea. This possibly CO2-forced period of waning continental ice sheets and sea-level highstand encompassed a large-scale floral turnover across the mid-to-late Pennyslvanian boundary and the onset of the demise of paleotropical rainforests across much of Pangaea. Ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet climate simulations for this period reveal a

  6. Palynology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the late Holocene Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Frank Harald; Kagan, Elisa J.; Schwab, Markus J.; Stein, Mordechai

    2007-06-01

    Palynological and sedimentological studies were performed at two Holocene profiles in erosion gullies (Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha) which dissect the retreating western shore of the Dead Sea. The aim of the project was to analyse possible links between climate, lithology, and vegetation development. The section in Ze'elim shows both lacustrine and fluvial sediments, whereas sedimentation at Ein Feshkha is predominantly lacustrine. The Ze'elim profile, previously used for paleo-lake reconstruction provides an opportunity to compare climate triggered lake levels as paleo-hydrological indicators and vegetation history by use of palynology. The vegetation development in Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha is influenced by both climate and human impact. The pollen record of Ze'elim begins in the Pottery Neolithic, the section of Ein Feshkha in the Late Bronze Age, both records end in the Middle Ages. The Ze'elim section is characterized by sedimentary hiati between the beginning of the Chalcolithic Period until the Middle Bronze Age and within the Late Bronze Age. Settlement periods during the Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age and Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine Period are indicated by high values of anthropogenic indicators and/or Mediterranean trees. Collapses of agriculture, which can be related to climate effects, are evident during the Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age and at the end of the Byzantine Period when the lake level curve indicates arid conditions. A comparison of the two pollen records, from different environments, illustrates a more prominent influence of Mediterranean vegetation and cultivated plants in the pollen diagram of Ein Feshkha. The southern Dead Sea region (at the desert fringe) is more vulnerable to regional climate change.

  7. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: P

  8. Late-Onset Psychogenic Chronic Phonic-Tics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Pedroso, José Luiz; Knobel, Marcos; Knobel, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background Tics beginning in late adulthood often have an identifiable etiology. Psychogenic tics with onset around 60 years of age are rarely described in the literature. Case report A 67-year-old female had experienced phonic tics for 8 years. Episodes occurred without premonitory sensations and precipitant factors, and she could not suppress them. She had no history of childhood tic disorder, and secondary causes of tics were excluded. She was diagnosed with psychogenic tics and treated with quetiapine with mild improvement. Discussion When physicians are faced with no identifiable cause of tics combined with certain clinical clues, a psychogenic disorder must be suspected. PMID:27375961

  9. The nature of plague in late eighteenth-century Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069

  10. Composition and production of late antique glass bowls type Helle

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, T.; Brüggler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Helle bowls are a particular type of late antique glass vessels found exclusively in continental northern Europe, both within and outside the Roman Empire. We analysed about one quarter of all known finds of this type using LA-ICP-MS, and several also using EPMA. The majority of the analysed bowls are made of HIMT glass, with a few consisting of Roman blue/green glass. Several bowls were found to be likely production pairs, defined as those produced from a single batch; most of these were fou...

  11. Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A; Pedersen, M H;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90-y...... promising, further studies on the effect of continuous nocturnal postoperative doxapram infusion on levels of arterial oxygen saturation should be postponed until more knowledge about the pharmacokinetics of doxapram in this particular clinical situation has been gathered....

  12. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the late antique period)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesařová, Drahomíra

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological literature in the Late Antique period followed the Roman tradition and widely used Scribonius Largus and excerpts from the writings of Pliny the Elder. Literature was created both in the western part of the Roman Empire and in North Africa in Carthage. Manuals have been written about medicinal plants (Herbarius of Pseudo-Apuleius, De herba vettonica of Pseudo-Musa), for drugs obtained from the animal kingdom (Liber medicinae of Sextus Placitus) or documents containing both (De medicina of Cassius Felix, De medicamentis of Marcellus Empiricus). The contribution of this literature is the mediation of ancient knowledge into the Middle Ages. PMID:25994825

  13. [Antibiotic prophylaxis of immediate and late complications of scarlet fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlău, A; Cucuruz, L

    1979-01-01

    Patients with scarlet fever were followed by clinical and laboratory investigation (bacteriologic and immunologic reactions, etc.), in relation with the early application, and the duration of penicillin therapy. The patients were also followed for a period of 30 days after discharge from the hospital. The results show a decrease in the number of early and late complications, as well as a reduction in the number of carriers of beta-haemolytic streptococcus in those patients in whom penicillin treatment was applied early, and when it was prolonged in the recovery period. The clinical and statistical data stress the pathologic morphology of scarlet fever, and the restructuration of complications when penicillin treatment is applied.

  14. 9. Judith in Late Anglo-Saxon England

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Tracey-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Judith makes two spectacular appearances in the Old English corpus: she is the brave heroine of a poem which is included in one of the most famous manuscripts of the late Anglo-Saxon period, the Nowell Codex, which also contains the heroic epic, Beowulf. Judith is the subject also of a homily by Ælfric, the most prolific and highly-regarded homilist of the age, who rendered her as an appropriate subject for the contemplation of clænnysse (chastity) for the benefit of nuns. Thus, even at our f...

  15. Pulmonary embolus arising from sloughed off myoma in late puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    ERGENOĞLU, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; ULUKUŞ, Murat; Aşkar, Niyazi

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary embolus is a rare and serious complication of myoma uteri in the puerperium that resulted in late postpartum hysterectomy A 38-year-old, multiparous woman with a large myoma located on the left lateral wall of the uterus underwent emergency cesarean section due to fetal distres at 28 weeks. During the operation, a 15 cm sized intramural myoma was left without any intervention. On the 40th day postpartum the patient returned to the clinic with sepsis and pulmonary embolus because of ...

  16. The Economy of Charity in Late Medieval Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Teresa Colesanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the financial management of the Hospital of the Annunziata in Naples and aims for a food for thought on the origins of the gift economy in Southern Italy during the Late Middle Ages. Thanks to the copious historical documentation, it has been possible to reconstruct and analyse: the remarkable financial assets, and the economic impact of the hospital, both in the city and in the kingdom; the economic and management competences of the hospital governors, their social class and geographical origin; the role played by the Royal Court and the Church in the construction process of a “Southern model” of charity network.

  17. Effect of vegetation on the Late Miocene ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is related to an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters. We estimate the effect of vegetation on the ocean general circulation using the atmospheric circulation model simulations for the Late Miocene climate. Caused by an increase in net evaporation in the Miocene North Atlantic, the North Atlantic water becomes more saline which enhances the overturning circulation and thus the northward heat transport. This effect reveals a potentially important feedback between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  18. Late complications of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement on the treatment of malignant lymphoma have led to prolonged survival for many patients. However, they are at risk of late complications of the disease and treatment. Impaired function due to radiation-induced injury of normal tissues, such as cardiac, pulmonary, or thyroid dysfunction, becoming manifest at few months to years after treatment. Fortunately, only a small portion of these are major complications, causing severe, or permanent disability. The frequency of secondary leukemia (AML) occurring in patients treated for malignant lymphoma is highest in those patients receiving many courses of combination chemotherapy and is low in those receiving radiation therapy alone. (author) 47 refs

  19. Late Onset Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Olanzapine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Santonastaso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset anorexia nervosa (AN treated with olanzapine is reported. The patient suffered AN onset at the age of 53 and was brought to our attention four years later in a very poor state of health due to extreme starvation and laxative abuse. She presented severe obsessions about food, a very disturbed body image, and “ascetic” rituals of self-punishment. There was no improvement of her symptoms with cognitive behavioural therapy, antidepressant drugs and inpatient nutritional therapy. After the prescription of olanzapine, the patient was more cooperative and able to maintain a stable acceptable weight, although her psychiatric and anorexic symptoms only improved partially.

  20. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  1. [Causes of late diagnosis of appendicitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlámal, Z

    1996-07-01

    The author evaluates the case-history of 51 children with perforated appendicitis treated during 1984-1995 at the First Surgical Clinic of the Faculty Hospital Olomouc. The purpose was to find an answer to the problem why in these children the diagnosis was delayed and whose was the fault of the substantial deterioration of the health status. In the evaluation four groups of causal responsibility are differentiated: a very rapid development of appendicitis-parents, arriving late in the surgery-paediatricians-surgeons. The authors discuss circumstances associated with the diagnostic error and delay.

  2. Kinematics of late Paleozoic continental collision between Laurentia and Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    In the Appalachians, late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogenesis is widely regarded as resulting from dextral oblique collision between irregular margins of Gondwana and Laurentia. However, this relative plate motion cannot account for coeval convergence in the Ouachitas and Variscides and is incompatible with some tectonic transport indicators in the Appalachians. An alternative kinematic model is proposed in which early sinistral transpression in the Appalachians is followed by counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana and the development of a system of dextral strike-slip faults extending from southern Europe to Alabama.

  3. The ultraviolet energy distributions of late A stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Observed late A star energy distributions for the wavelength range 1400-2500 A are compared. No difference is found between energy distributions of Am stars and those of normal slowly rotating A stars. The fluxes of rapidly rotating stars, however, appear to be increased for wavelengths smaller than 1530 A; this cannot be understood as an effect of pole heating or reduced gravity. In addition, the comparison of the UV energy distributions with model atmosphere energy distributions of Kurucz indicates some problems with the theoretical Si I absorption edges at 1530 A.

  4. Alcohol abuse: medical effects of heavy drinking in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambert, S R

    1997-06-01

    As many as 15% of community-dwelling older persons are heavy drinkers, but their alcoholism is often hidden from their physicians. Depression, loneliness, and lack of social support are the most frequently cited antecedents to drinking for older alcoholics. Clinically, the same amount of alcohol once consumed with impunity may cause clinical symptoms in late life. Physiologic changes in volume of distribution make older patients susceptible to acute alcohol toxicity, with its CNS effects and metabolic disturbances. Liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, and impotence are consequences of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:9194788

  5. Late Sodium Current in Human Atrial Cardiomyocytes from Patients in Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulet, Claire; Wettwer, Erich; Grunnet, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right......, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late) in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room temperature, but not at physiological temperature. While our study provides evidence for the presence of INa,late in human atria...... atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (ΔKPQ), and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses...

  6. Chemotherapy agents and the induction of late lethal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, C B; Mothersill, C

    1991-01-01

    Radiation is now known to be capable of producing both lethal and non lethal lesions in a variety of mammalian cells which may not be expressed for several cell divisions after the initial insult. The mechanism by which such an effect occurs is unknown. Because of the possible implications for cancer treatment, if such an effect also occurred following chemotherapy exposure, cells were exposed to various cytotoxic chemotherapy agents with known and well characterised effects on DNA or other areas of cell function or structure. The results indicate that late lethal defects are not detectable after treatment with appropriate ranges of doses of cisplatinum, vincristine, BCNU or adriamycin, but that they are induced by Bleomycin and to a lesser extent by 5-Fluorouracil. Bleomycin is known to cause strand breaks and is regarded as a radiomimetic agent. 5-Fluorouracil may act by preventing efficient and faithful synthesis of DNA, allowing mutations to become integrated into the genome. The occurrence of lethal mutations with both these agents supports previous suggestions that error-prone repair of DNA base sequence abnormalities may be fundamental to the process of late lethal damage production in mammalian cells. The cloning efficiency of cells which survived exposure to Vincristine or BCNU over a wide dose range was found to be significantly increased; this may represent an adaptive response to the drugs.

  7. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  8. Evidence for global cooling in the Late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnert, Christian; Robinson, Stuart A.; Lees, Jackie A.; Bown, Paul R.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Irene; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Falzoni, Francesca; Littler, Kate; Arz, José Antonio; Russell, Ernest E.

    2014-06-01

    The Late Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ world witnessed a transition from one of the warmest climates of the past 140 million years to cooler conditions, yet still without significant continental ice. Low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records are a vital piece of evidence required to unravel the cause of Late Cretaceous cooling, but high-quality data remain illusive. Here, using an organic geochemical palaeothermometer (TEX86), we present a record of SSTs for the Campanian-Maastrichtian interval (~83-66 Ma) from hemipelagic sediments deposited on the western North Atlantic shelf. Our record reveals that the North Atlantic at 35 °N was relatively warm in the earliest Campanian, with maximum SSTs of ~35 °C, but experienced significant cooling (~7 °C) after this to <~28 °C during the Maastrichtian. The overall stratigraphic trend is remarkably similar to records of high-latitude SSTs and bottom-water temperatures, suggesting that the cooling pattern was global rather than regional and, therefore, driven predominantly by declining atmospheric pCO2 levels.

  9. Relationship between longest utterances and later MLU in late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan B; Jackins, Megan

    2014-03-01

    The task of developing prognoses for late-talking children has long been a challenge for speech-language pathologists, developmental psychologists, and pediatricians. Improved predictors would help to assess long-term risk and determine appropriate intervention services. The present study evaluated children's length of longest utterances (LLU) as a predictor of mean length of utterance (MLU) one year later. Relationships between LLU at 30 months, MLU at 30 months and MLU at 42 months were examined in 43 late talkers (LT) and 33 age-matched children whose language was typically developing (TD). LLU was a significant predictor of MLU at 42 months with particularly strong correlations within the LT group. Similar results were obtained when controlling for language sample size, which was positively related to LLU. For the LT group, a regression model combining 30-month LLU and MLU was better at predicting 42-month MLU than 30-month MLU alone. The results are discussed in terms of frequency distributions of utterance lengths within language samples. PMID:24160753

  10. Interaction of late apoptotic and necrotic cells with vitronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Stepanek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitronectin is an abundant plasma glycoprotein identified also as a part of extracellular matrix. Vitronectin is substantially enriched at sites of injured, fibrosing, inflamed, and tumor tissues where it is believed to be involved in wound healing and tissue remodeling. Little is known about the mechanism of vitronectin localization into the damaged tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2E12 antibody has been described to bind a subset of late apoptotic cells. Using immunoisolation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified the antigen recognized by 2E12 antibody as vitronectin. Based on flow cytometry, we described that vitronectin binds to the late apoptotic and necrotic cells in cell cultures in vitro as well as in murine thymus and spleen in vivo. Confocal microscopy revealed that vitronectin binds to an intracellular cytoplasmic structure after the membrane rupture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that vitronectin could serve as a marker of membrane disruption in necrosis and apoptosis for flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we suggest that vitronectin binding to dead cells may represent one of the mechanisms of vitronectin incorporation into the injured tissues.

  11. Mountain building triggered late cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A Gates

    Full Text Available Prior studies of Mesozoic biodiversity document a diversity peak for dinosaur species in the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, yet have failed to provide explicit causal mechanisms. We provide evidence that a marked increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity can be attributed to dynamic orogenic episodes within the Western Interior Basin (WIB. Detailed fossil occurrences document an association between the shift from Sevier-style, latitudinally arrayed basins to smaller Laramide-style, longitudinally arrayed basins and a well substantiated decreased geographic range/increased taxonomic diversity of megaherbivorous dinosaur species. Dispersal-vicariance analysis demonstrates that the nearly identical biogeographic histories of the megaherbivorous dinosaur clades Ceratopsidae and Hadrosauridae are attributable to rapid diversification events within restricted basins and that isolation events are contemporaneous with known tectonic activity in the region. SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic divergence estimates of fossil clades offer a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone.

  12. Refsum Disease Presenting with a Late-Onset Leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompaire, Flavie; Marcaud, Véronique; Trionnaire, Emmanuelle Le; Sedel, Frédéric; Levade, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Adult Refsum disease is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by phytanic acid storage. Clinical symptoms usually begin in late childhood before the age of 20. Typical clinical presentation includes nyctalopia caused by retinitis pigmentosa, and anosmia. After 10-15 years, deafness, cerebellar ataxia, polyneuropathy, ichthyosis, and cardiac arrhythmia can occur.We report the case of a very late-onset adult Refsum disease presenting with marked cognitive decline and severe leukoencephalopathy, without peripheral nervous system involvement. Brain MRI showed a leukoencephalopathy involving the periventricular white matter, subcortical area, and the brainstem with relative sparing of juxtacortical U fibers. This was associated with severe cortical and subcortical atrophy with ventricle dilatation. MR spectroscopy showed a marked increase in the choline/NAA ratio. Elevated plasma phytanic acid level was found, whereas plasma levels of pristanic and very long chain fatty acids were normal. The patient is homozygous for a previously undescribed PHYH frameshift mutation. Whether the very unusual phenotype is related to this peculiar mutation remains unclear.

  13. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ouladsaiad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years. Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it.

  14. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  15. Late time cosmic acceleration from natural infrared cutoff?

    CERN Document Server

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the ultraviolet deformation of the Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker geometry in loop quantum cosmology, we formulate an infrared-modified cosmological model. We obtain the associated deformed Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and we show that the late time cosmic acceleration can be addressed by the infrared corrections. As a particular example, we applied the setup to the case of matter dominated universe. This model has the same number of parameters as $\\Lambda$CDM, but a dynamical dark energy generates in the matter dominated era at the late time. According to our model, as the universe expands, the energy density of the cold dark matter dilutes and when the Hubble parameter approaches to its minimum, the infrared effects dominate such that the effective equation of state parameter smoothly changes from $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=0$ to $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=-2$. Interestingly and nontrivially, the unstable de Sitter phase with $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=-1$ is corresponding to $\\Omega_m=\\Omega_d ...

  16. Late Time Acceleration From Matter-Curvature Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zaregonbadi, Raziyeh

    2015-01-01

    We consider f(R,T) modified theory of gravity, in which, in general, the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We mainly focus on a particular model wherein matter is minimally coupled to the geometry in the metric formalism. In this type of the theory, the coupling energy-momentum tensor is not conserved; it determines the appearance of an extra force acting on the particles, and can cause the late time acceleration in the evolution of the universe. To check such a kind of effect, we obtain the corresponding Raychaudhuri dynamical equation that gives the evolution of the kinematic quantities. Then for the chosen model, we derive the behavior of the deceleration parameter, and show that the coupling term can cover the dynamic of the universe in the late time accelerating phase. On the other hand, the curvature of the universe corresponds with the deviation from parallelism in the geodesic motion. Thus, we also scrutinize the...

  17. Magnetized dark energy and the late time acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Ray, Saibal; Goswami, G K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the Universe. The matter source that is responsible for the late time acceleration of the Universe consists of cosmic fluid with the equation of state parameter $\\omega =\\frac{p}{\\rho}$ and uniform magnetic field of energy density $\\rho_{B}$. The study is done here under the framework of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi-I cosmological model in the presence of magnetized dark energy. To get the deterministic model of the Universe, we assume that the shear scalar $(\\sigma)$ in the model is proportional to expansion scalar $(\\theta)$. This condition leads to $A=B^{n}$, where $A$ and $B$ are metric functions and $n$ is a positive constant giving the proportionality condition between shear and expansion scalar. It has been found that the isotropic distribution of magnetized dark energy leads to the present accelerated expansion of the Universe and the derived model is in good agreem...

  18. The Late Stage of T Cell Development within Mouse Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifeng Chen

    2004-01-01

    After positive selection and lineage commitment, the TCRαβ+CD4/CD8 SP medullary thymocytes migrate into and reside in thymic medulla, where they undergo an ordered program of late stage of T cell functional maturation and negative selection to delete self-reactive clones by apoptosis. Accomplishment of this final differentiation pathway, a physiological T cell repertoire is formed : T cells acquire immunocompetence to respond to foreign antigens and tolerance to self-antigens, ready for the emigration to homing to the T cell regions of peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In this review, emphases are put on introducing the approaches applied in this area and our own observations. Basically, we have analyzed the late stage of medullary thymocyte phenotypic differentiation pathways of both CD4 SP and CD8 SP medullary thymocytes and the concomitant functional maturation pathway, in particular, of CD4 SP thymocytes. It is to provide a standard to compare the functional capacity of the cells at the developmental stages induced by different conditions. The cellular and molecular basis of this differentiation process has been partially described. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):3-11.

  19. The Late Stage of T Cell Development within Mouse Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeifengChen

    2004-01-01

    After positive selection and lineage commitment, the TCRαβ+CD4/CD8 SP medullary thymocytes migrate into and reside in thymic medulla, where they undergo an ordered program of late stage of T cell functional maturation and negative selection to delete self-reactive clones by apoptosis. Accomplishment of this final differentiation pathway, a physiological T cell repertoire is formed: T cells acquire immunocompetence to respond to foreign antigens and tolerance to self-antigens, ready for the emigration to homing to the T cell regions of peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In this review, emphases are put on introducing the approaches applied in this area and our own observations. Basically, we have analyzed the late stage of medullary thymocyte phenotypic differentiation pathways of both CD4 SP and CD8 SP medullary thymocytes and the concomitant functional maturation pathway, in particular, of CD4 SP thymocytes. It is to provide a standard to compare the functional capacity of the cells at the developmental stages induced by different conditions. The cellular and molecular basis of this differentiation process has been partially described. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):3-11.

  20. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  1. Radiation doses and correlated late effects in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient irradiation in diagnostic radiology was estimated from measurements of absorbed doses in different organs, assessment of the energy imparted and retrospective calculations based on literature data. Possible late biological effects, with special aspects on children, were surveyed. The dose to the lens of the eye and the possibility of shielding in carotid angiography was studied as was the absorbed dose to the thyroid gland at cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography in children. Calculations of the mean bone marrow dose and gonad doses were performed in children with chronic skeletal disease revealing large contributions from examinations of organs other than the skeleton. The dose distribution in the breast in mammography was investigated. Comparison of the energy imparted in common roentgen examinations in 1960 and 1975 showed an unexpected low decrease in spite of technical improvements. Reasons for the failing decrease are discussed. The energy imparted to children in urological examinations was reduced significantly due to introduction of high sensitivity screens and omission of dose demanding projections. Contributions to the possible late effects were estimated on the basis of the organ doses assessed. (author)

  2. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2016-06-01

    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene (~13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between ~7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  3. Wave propagation in gravitational systems late time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, E S C; Suen, W M; Young, K

    1995-01-01

    It is well-known that the dominant late time behavior of waves propagating on a Schwarzschild spacetime is a power-law tail; tails for other spacetimes have also been studied. This paper presents a systematic treatment of the tail phenomenon for a broad class of models via a Green's function formalism and establishes the following. (i) The tail is governed by a cut of the frequency Green's function \\tilde G(\\omega) along the -~Im~\\omega axis, generalizing the Schwarzschild result. (ii) The \\omega dependence of the cut is determined by the asymptotic but not the local structure of space. In particular it is independent of the presence of a horizon, and has the same form for the case of a star as well. (iii) Depending on the spatial asymptotics, the late time decay is not necessarily a power law in time. The Schwarzschild case with a power-law tail is exceptional among the class of the potentials having a logarithmic spatial dependence. (iv) Both the amplitude and the time dependence of the tail for a broad cla...

  4. Late-time Constraints on the Fates of Supernova Impostors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Transients showing circumstellar interactions, low luminosities and low expansion velocities are generally considered to be non-terminal outbursts. Two main classes of such transients are 'supernova impostors', whose progenitors are massive stars (>20 solar masses) and may be extra-galactic analogs of Eta Car's eruptions, and SN 2008S-like transients, which have lower-mass (~10 solar masses), dust-obscured progenitors. We present late-time Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the archetypal 'supernova impostor', SN 1997bs, as well as the prototypes of the SN 2008S class of transients, SN 2008S and NGC 300 2008-OT1. All of these objects have faded below their progenitor luminosities in all bands for which comparisons are possible. We show that it is difficult to reconcile the late-time observations with models where surviving stars are obscured by either ejected shells or thick, dusty winds. Although some supernova impostors, such as SN 1954J, are clearly non-fatal, our results suggest that many of these weak stellar transients with circumstellar interactions may actually be low energy supernovae.

  5. Are CPL models compatible with the late inhomogeneous Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Akarsu, Ozgur; Brilenkov, Maxim; Brilenkov, Ruslan; Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We study the late-time evolution of the Universe where dark energy (DE) is presented by a barotropic fluid on top of cold dark matter (CDM). We also take into account the radiation content of the Universe. Here by the late stage of the evolution we refer to the epoch where CDM is already clustered into inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Under this condition the mechanical approach is an adequate tool to study the Universe deep inside the cell of uniformity. More precisely, we study scalar perturbations of the FLRW metric due to inhomogeneities of CDM as well as fluctuations of radiation and DE. For an arbitrary equation of state for DE we obtain a system of equations for the scalar perturbations within the mechanical approach. We apply this approach to different linear parametrizations of the DE equation of state, e.g., the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) perfect fluid model. We reach the conclusion that all these models are incompatible with the theo...

  6. Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cause of late Quaternary mammal extinctions is the subject of intense debate spanning the fields of archeology and paleontology. In the global context, the losses on continental Africa have received little attention and are poorly understood. This study aims to inspire new discussion of African extinctions through a review of the extinct species and the chronology and possible causes of those extinctions. There are at least 24 large mammal (> 5 kg) species known to have disappeared from continental Africa during the late Pleistocene or Holocene, indicating a much greater taxonomic breadth than previously recognized. Among the better sampled taxa, these losses are restricted to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene, between 13,000 and 6000 yrs ago. The African extinctions preferentially affected species that are grazers or prefer grasslands. Where good terrestrial paleoenvironmental records are present, extinctions are associated with changes in the availability, productivity, or structure of grassland habitats, suggesting that environmental changes played a decisive role in the losses. In the broader evolutionary context, these extinctions represent recent examples of selective taxonomic winnowing characterized by the loss of grassland specialists and the establishment of large mammal communities composed of more ecologically flexible taxa over the last million years. There is little reason to believe that humans played an important role in African extinctions.

  7. Encephalocele presented in late third trimester: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant G. Deshpande

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In present era, most of the NTDs are diagnosed at quite early gestation, thanks to advancement in imaging technology. So it is rare to see a case of NTD in late gestational age. Encephalocele is still rare type of NTD, when we come across such a case in late gestational period associated with another risk factor (Previous LSCS, it can really present a challenge for management. We had to face such a case requiring skillful management. A 23 year, G2 P1 L1 with previous LSCS was referred to our institution for severe anemia. USG showed 37 weeks single, live fetus with absence of cranial vault and irregular compressed cystic structure attached to vault attached in occipital region. Previous USG done at 12 weeks showed no abnormality, while USG at 27 weeks showed Acrania. Ideal management of this patient could have been done if this anomaly was diagnosed before 20 weeks where option of MTP was clearly available. Though with high resolution technical and instrument and with expert sonologist encephalocele can be diagnosed by 14 weeks. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 460-462

  8. On the late spectral types of cataclysmic variable secondaries

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I

    2000-01-01

    We investigate why the spectral type of most cataclysmic variable (CV) secondaries is significantly later than that of a ZAMS star with the same mean density. Using improved stellar input physics, tested against observations of low-mass stars at the bottom of the main sequence, we calculate the secular evolution of CVs with low-mass donors. We consider sequences with different mass transfer rates and with a different degree of nuclear evolution of the donor prior to mass transfer. Systems near the upper edge of the gap ($P \\sim 3 - 6$ h) can be reproduced by models with a wide range of mass transfer rates from $1.5 \\times 10^{-9} \\msolyr$ to $10^{-8} \\msolyr$. Evolutionary sequences with a small transfer rate and donors that are substantially evolved off the ZAMS (central hydrogen content $0.05-0.5$) reproduce CVs with late spectral types above $P \\simgr$ 6 h. Systems with the most discrepant (late) spectral type should have the smallest donor mass at any given $P$. Consistency with the period gap suggests th...

  9. Protein complexes and cholesterol in the control of late endosomal dynamicsCholesterol and multi-protein complexes in the control of late endosomal dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Rik Henricus Nicolaas van der

    2013-01-01

    Late endosomal transport is disrupted in several diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C, ARC syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis describes the regulation of late endosomal dynamics by cholesterol and multi-protein complexes. We find that cholesterol acts as a cellular tomtom that steers the

  10. Fish scales patterning guiding hASC growth

    OpenAIRE

    Joana M Silva; Afonso, David Losa de Areia; Silva, Tiago H.; Volpato, F.; Motta, A.; Marques, A.P.; Mano, J. F.; Reis, R. L.; Migliaresi, C

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms and materials exhibit interesting properties for their use in biomedical applications, following biomimetic approaches [1,2]. For instance, the white seabass (Lates Calcarifer) scales exhibit a very interesting pattern, which inspire their use as a guiding platform for cellular growth, in a tissue regeneration approach. Moreover, fish scales are composed of hydroxyapatite and type I collagen fibrils, equivalent to the materials that one can find in human bon...

  11. Geological Evidences For Late Paleozoic Intra-pangea Dextral Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Abrahamsen, N.; Brack, P.

    The Wegenerian configuration of Pangea at Jurassic times, also known as Pangea A, is not questioned among Earth scientists. Debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configu- ration since Ted Irving (1977 Nature) introduced twenty-five years ago Pangea B by placing Gondwana to the East by 2500km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. Pangea B is mainly necessitated by paleolatitude discrepancy be- tween Africa (Gondwana) and North America (Laurasia), which would overlap by about 1700km if reconstructed in a Pangea A configuration at Early Perian times. West Gondwana/Adria poles support Pangea B in the Early Permian, but allow transi- tion to Pangea A by the end of the Permian in the late stages of the Variscan/Hercynian orogeny (Muttoni et al., 1996 EPSL). Importantly, some of the Early Permian pale- opoles are in igneous rocks and/or from low paleolatitude sites (e.g., Adria), hence making inclination error less likely as an explanation for Pangea B as envisaged by Rochette and Vandamme (2001 Annali di Geofisica). A few Earth scientists tried to seek geological evidence for the pre-Jurassic dextral mega-shear between Gondwana and Laurasia necessary to go from Pangea B or similar configuration to the Pangea A configuration at the time of Atlantic opening in the Jurassic (e.g., Ricou, The Ocean Basins and Margins, Vol. 8, Plenum Press, 1996). Nevertheless, it is fair to say that Pangea B and its tectonic implications have not been broadly accepted but this leaves the problem of the supportive paleomagnetic data unresolved. The ultimate option is to abandon the geocentral axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis by introducing a non-dipole component in the Late Paleozoic paleomagnetic field to explain the paleolatitude dis- crepancy between Africa and North America (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001 EPSL). We are not so distressed by the geological consequences of Pangea B to abandon the GAD hypothesis which has been the basis for virtually all tectonic

  12. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  13. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinab Mousavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  14. Two-temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Arthur H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conventional PCR, total amplicon yield becomes independent of starting template number as amplification reaches plateau and varies significantly among replicate reactions. This paper describes a strategy for reconfiguring PCR so that the signal intensity of a single fluorescent detection probe after PCR thermal cycling reflects genomic composition. The resulting method corrects for product yield variations among replicate amplification reactions, permits resolution of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes based on endpoint fluorescence signal intensities, and readily identifies imbalanced allele ratios equivalent to those arising from gene/chromosomal duplications. Furthermore, the use of only a single colored probe for genotyping enhances the multiplex detection capacity of the assay. Results Two-Temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping combines Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE-PCR (an advanced form of asymmetric PCR that efficiently generates single-stranded DNA and mismatch-tolerant probes capable of detecting allele-specific targets at high temperature and total single-stranded amplicons at a lower temperature in the same reaction. The method is demonstrated here for genotyping single-nucleotide alleles of the human HEXA gene responsible for Tay-Sachs disease and for genotyping SNP alleles near the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. In each case, the final probe signals were normalized against total single-stranded DNA generated in the same reaction. Normalization reduces the coefficient of variation among replicates from 17.22% to as little as 2.78% and permits endpoint genotyping with >99.7% accuracy. These assays are robust because they are consistent over a wide range of input DNA concentrations and give the same results regardless of how many cycles of linear amplification have elapsed. The method is also sufficiently powerful to distinguish between samples with a 1:1 ratio of two alleles from samples comprised of

  15. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Graf, Norbert M. [University Hospital of the Saarland, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Homburg (Germany); Grundy, Paul [University of Alberta, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, and Northern Alberta Children' s Cancer Program, Edmonton (Canada); Godzinski, Jan [Mother and Child Institute, Department of Oncological Surgery for Children and Adolescents, Warsaw (Poland); Levitt, Gill A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children NHS Trust, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Jenkinson, Helen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Trust, Oncology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial

  16. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plafki, C. [Center for Hyperbaric Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A. [Department for Radiotherapy, University Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Radiogene Spaeteffekte koennen die Lebensqualitaet der betroffenen Patienten erheblich beeintraechtigen. Bei vielen Erscheinungsformen fehlen standardisierte Therapieschemata. Die hyperbare Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) hat sich als hilfreiche Methode in der Behandlung radiogener Spaeteffekte erwiesen. Material und Methode: Die wesentlichen Grundlagen und klinischen

  17. Late diagnosis among our ageing HIV population: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mensforth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, more people infected with HIV are living into older age; 22% of adults receiving care in the UK are aged over 50 years [1]. Age influences HIV infection; the likelihood of seroconversion illness, mean CD4 count and time from infection to development of AIDs defining illnesses decreases with increasing age. A UK study estimates that half of HIV infections in persons over 50 years are acquired at an age over 50 [2]. Studies exploring sexual practices in older persons have repeatedly shown that we cannot assume there is no risk of STI and HIV infection [3,4]. Physicians should be alert to risk of HIV even in the older cohort, where nearly half diagnoses are made late [2]. Local audit has demonstrated poor testing rates in the over 50's on the Acute Medical Unit. Late diagnosis (CD4<350 results in poorer outcomes and age confounds further; older late presenters are 2.4 times more likely to die within the first year of diagnosis than younger counterparts [2]. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case notes review was conducted of all patients aged 60 years and over attending HIV clinic in the last 2 years. Outcomes audited included features around diagnosis; age, presentation, missed testing opportunities and CD4 count at diagnosis. Results: Of the current cohort of 442 patients, 34 were over 60 years old (8%. Age at diagnosis in this group ranged from 36 to 80 years, mean 56.6 years. Presentation triggers included opportunistic infections or malignancies (n=10, constitutional symptoms (n=6, diagnosis of another STI (n=4, seroconversion illness (n=2, partner status (n=3. Eight patients were diagnosed through asymptomatic screening at Sexual Health. We identified missed opportunities in five patients who were not tested despite diagnoses or symptoms defined as clinical indicators for HIV. Half of older patients had a CD4 count of <200 at diagnosis. Conclusions: It is imperative

  18. Intracoronary adenosine improves myocardial perfusion in late reperfused myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Myocardial perfusion associates with clinical syndromes and prognosis.Adenosine could improve myocardial perfusion of acute myocardial infarction within 6 hours,but few data are available on late perfusion of myocardial infarction (MI).This study aimed at quantitatively evaluating the value of intracoronary adenosine improving myocardial perfusion in late reperfused MI with myocardial contrast echocardiography(MCE).Methods Twenty-six patients with anterior wall infarcts were divided randomly into 2 groups:adenosine group(n=12) and normal saline group(n=14).Their history of myocardial infarction was about 3-12 weeks.Adenosine or normalsaline was given when the guiding wire crossed the lesion through percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI),then the balloon was dilated and stent(Cypher/Cypher select)was implanted at the lesion.Contrast pulse sequencing MCE with Sonovue contrast via the coronary route was done before PCI and 30 minutes after PCI.Video densitometry and contrast filled-blank area were calculated with the CUSQ off-line software.Heart function and cardiac events were followed up within 30 days.Results Perfusion in the segments of the criminal occlusive coronary artery in the adenosine group was better than that in the saline group(5.71±0.29 vs 4.95±1.22,P<0.05).Ischemic myocardial segment was deminished significantly afterPCI,but the meliorated area was bigger in the adenosine group than in the saline group((1.56±0.60)cm2 vs(1.02±0.56) cm2,P<0.05).The video densitometry in critical segments was also improved significantly in the adenosine group (5.53±0.36 vs 5.26±0.35,P<0.05).Left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)was improved in all patients after PCI,but EF was not significant between the two groups((67±6)% vs(62±7)%,P>0.05).There was no in-hospital or 30-day major adverse cardiac event(MACE)in the adenosine group but 3 MACE in the saline group in 30 days after PCI.Conclusions Adenosine could improve myocardial microvascular

  19. Expression profiling of the intermediate and late stages of poxvirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhilong; Reynolds, Sara E; Martens, Craig A; Bruno, Daniel P; Porcella, Stephen F; Moss, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    The double-stranded DNA genome of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, contains approximately 200 open reading frames (ORFs) that are transcribed at early, intermediate, and late stages of infection. Previous high-throughput deep RNA sequencing allowed us to map 118 VACV early genes that are expressed before viral DNA replication and 93 postreplicative genes. However, the intermediate- and late-stage postreplicative genes could not be differentiated. Here, we synchronized infections with a reversible inhibitor of DNA replication and used a VACV mutant that conditionally transcribes late genes to sequence the two classes of mRNAs. In addition, each postreplicative ORF was individually expressed under conditions that distinguished intermediate and late classes. We identified 38 VACV genes that belong to the late class and 53 that belong to the intermediate class, with some of the latter continuing to be expressed late. These data allowed us to prepare a genome-wide early, intermediate, and late transcription map. Inspection of sequences upstream of these ORFs revealed distinctive characteristics of intermediate and late promoters and suggested that some promoters have intermediate and late elements. The intermediate genes encoded many DNA binding/packaging and core-associated proteins in addition to late transcription factors; the late genes encoded many morphogenesis and mature virion membrane proteins, including those involved in entry, in addition to early transcription factors. The top-ranked antigens for CD4(+) T cells and B cells were mainly intermediate rather than late gene products. The differentiation of intermediate and late genes may enhance understanding of poxvirus replication and lead to improvements in expression vectors and recombinant vaccines. PMID:21795349

  20. GravitinoPack and late decays involving gravitinos

    CERN Document Server

    Eberl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, we present the package GravitinoPack that calculates decays of unstable supersymmetric particles, involving gravitinos in the final or initial state. If the gravitino is the dark matter particle and therefore stable, the package calculates the decays of the lightest neutralino, and the lighter stau or stop NLSP into the gravitino LSP and one or two Standard Model particles. On the other hand, assuming that the gravitino is unstable, GravitinoPack calculates all its two-body and the three-body decay widths to the neutralino LSP and Standard Model particles. Since all these decays, involving the gravitino, are of gravitational nature, the lifetime of the decaying particle can be of the order of seconds are more, hence called "late decays". The precise knowledge of all these partial decay widths enables the user to apply accurately the relevant cosmological constraints.

  1. Identity formation and social relations during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig-Bray, L; Adams, G R; Dobson, W R

    1988-04-01

    Theoretical assumptions outlined by Erik Erikson on psychosocial crisis resolution hypothesizes that the positive resolution of the identity crisis is predictive of more mature intimacy formation. To test this hypothesis, college-aged late adolescents (48 subjects) completed interviews and selfreport instruments measuring identity formation and degree of intimacy along with daily records of social interactions for one week. Analyses indicated a complex association between identity and intimacy formation. Comparisons were made between the exploration and commitment process of identity and the measures of intimacy formation and social interaction measures. Numerous complex sex differences were observed with several interactions between gender, exploration, commitment, and intimacy context. Findings are discussed in terms of broadening future research direction beyond the simple study of the linkage of identity and intimacy. PMID:24277583

  2. How effective is harassment on infalling late-type dwarfs?

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R; Nelson, A H; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16545.x

    2010-01-01

    A new harassment model is presented that models the complex, and dynamical tidal field of a Virgo like galaxy cluster. The model is applied to small, late-type dwarf disc galaxies (of substantially lower mass than in previous harassment simulations) as they infall into the cluster from the outskirts. These dwarf galaxies are only mildly affected by high speed tidal encounters with little or no observable consequences; typical stellar losses are $ 31$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$), and a factor of two drop in dynamical mass-to-light ratio. Final stellar discs remain disc-like, and dominated by rotation although often with tidally induced spiral structure. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations, the statistically likely influences of harassment on infalling dwarf galaxies are determined. The effects of harassment are found to be highly dependent on the orbit of the galaxy within the cluster, such that newly accreted dwarf galaxies typically suffer only mild harassment. Strong tidal encounters, that can morphologically transf...

  3. [Pleural hernia of an esophageal graft--late postoperative complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, K; Lewandowski, A; Moroń, K; Strutyńska-Karpińska, M; Błaszczuk, J; Machała, R

    1997-01-01

    Pleural hernia of the oesophageal substitute from pedicled intestinal segment is one of the late postoperative complications. 13 cases of patients with oesophagus reconstructed because of lye ingestion stenosis are presented. Problems concerning diagnosis and treatment of pleural hernia are analysed. Eight patients with minor symptoms were treated conservatively. Five patients were operated, two of them from acute necrosis of the substitute. Necrosis was caused by incarceration of the bowel and torsion of the mesentery. Elective operative treatment consisted of reduction of hernia sac contents, closing of the hernia orifice, chest drainage and temporary gastronomy. In patient operated as an emergency cases necrotic part of substitute was removed. This resulted in oesophageal exclusion in the neck, creating gastronomy. Chest drainage was also performed.

  4. Errors in the Production of Adult Early and Late Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the grammatical knowledge of adult second language (L2 learners and heritage speakers. Given the differences in the mode and age of acquisition between L2 learners (late bilinguals and heritage speakers (early bilinguals, the question arises as to whether and how these groups differ from each other in their knowledge of Korean. To address this question, the present study looks at the production of Korean relative clauses by three groups of learners (26 L2 learners, 11 simultaneous bilinguals, and 38 early sequential bilinguals. The results of a written production task showed that all three groups made similar types of errors such as those involving the use of incorrect word order and case markers. Yet differences were also observed in the nature of errors made by these three groups. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications are drawn for classroom instruction.

  5. Dispersion of aircraft exhaust in the late wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, T.; Gerz, T.; Doernbrack, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The dispersion of aircraft emissions is investigated at cruising levels, i.e. in the free, stably stratified atmosphere near the tropopause. The study is based on large-eddy simulations in a domain of size 4.3 x 1.1{sup 2} km{sup 3} where the combined effects of typical atmospheric stratification, shear and turbulence are considered. The effect of a breaking gravity wave on the dispersion of the exhaust is analyzed. The mixing processes during the late wake flow are evaluated, i.e. in the dispersion and diffusion regimes when the organized flow by the wing tip vortices has ceased and the atmospheric motions gradually dominate the events. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  6. Late Time Behaviors of an Inhomogeneous Rolling Tachyon

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, O K; Lee, Chong Oh

    2006-01-01

    We study an inhomogeneous decay of an unstable D-brane in the context of Dirac-Born-Infeld~(DBI)-type effective action. We consider tachyon and electromagnetic fields with dependence of time and one spatial coordinate, and an exact solution is found under an exponentially decreasing tachyon potential, $e^{-|T|/\\sqrt{2}}$, which is valid for the description of the late time behavior of an unstable D-brane. Though the obtained solution contains both time and spatial dependence, the corresponding momentum density vanishes over the entire spacetime region. The solution is governed by two parameters. One adjusts the distribution of energy density in the inhomogeneous direction, and the other interpolates between the homogeneous rolling tachyon and static configuration. As time evolves, the energy of the unstable D-brane is converted into the electric flux and tachyon matter.

  7. Huginn. A late-phase nuclear emergency exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, Bent (ed.) [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-02-01

    The Huginn late-phase exercise was carried out by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project group in the spring 2000. National teams from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden took part in the exercise. The objective of the exercise was to test the ability to calculate the radiological and economical consequences of various agricultural countermeasures following a nuclear accient. This report describes the findings of the four national teams, including the approaches made by the tesms, selection of countermeasures and the results of the cost-benefit analyses that they performed. The methods used and findings by the four teams have been compared and recommendations issued based on the exercise results. (au)

  8. Binary black hole late inspiral: Simulations for gravitational wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J G; Choi, D I; Kelly, B J; Koppitz, M; McWilliams, S T; Van Meter, J R; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael; Meter, James R. van; Williams, Sean T. Mc

    2006-01-01

    Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for ~1200M through ~7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass ~14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when compari...

  9. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariegold E. Wollam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013 when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms.

  10. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rafael C.

    2016-04-01

    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the nonrelativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state (EoS) less than ‑ 1. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  11. Late Precambrian oxygenation; inception of the clay mineral factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin; Droser, Mary; Mayer, Lawrence M; Pevear, David; Mrofka, David

    2006-03-10

    An enigmatic stepwise increase in oxygen in the late Precambrian is widely considered a prerequisite for the expansion of animal life. Accumulation of oxygen requires organic matter burial in sediments, which is largely controlled by the sheltering or preservational effects of detrital clay minerals in modern marine continental margin depocenters. Here, we show mineralogical and geochemical evidence for an increase in clay mineral deposition in the Neoproterozoic that immediately predated the first metazoans. Today most clay minerals originate in biologically active soils, so initial expansion of a primitive land biota would greatly enhance production of pedogenic clay minerals (the "clay mineral factory"), leading to increased marine burial of organic carbon via mineral surface preservation.

  12. School education, physical performance in late midlife and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse M; Andersen, Lars L; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the social gradient in physical functioning are not fully understood. Cumulative physiological stress may be a pathway. The present study aimed to investigate the association between highest attained school education and physical performance in late midlife...... or secondary school (3 categories). Cumulative stress was operationalised as allostatic load (AL), and measured as the number of biological parameters (out of 14) in which participants scored in the poorest quartile. Physical performance included dynamic muscle performance (chair rise ability, postural balance......, sagittal flexibility) and muscle strength (jump height, trunk extension and flexion, and handgrip strength). RESULTS: Among women, higher school education was associated with better performance in all physical performance tests. Among men, higher school education was associated with better performance only...

  13. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding and knowledge of financial distress predictions regarding the usefulness of financial ratios in the late stages of the financial distress process. The study contributes to previous research by generating information concerning: (1) the behavior...... and usefulness of single financial ratios in short-term financial distress prediction when the effect of each different financial distress process stage is considered; (2) the effects of recognition of the financial distress process stage on the financial distress prediction model. The time horizon...... stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications...

  14. Late adolescent perceptions of parent religiosity and parenting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, J Blake; Clements, Andrea; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2004-12-01

    The current investigation examined the relations between adolescent reports of parent religiosity and parenting processes, using both a dimensional and a typological conceptualization of parenting. Self-report data were collected from 357 late adolescents. Partial correlations indicated that parent religiosity was associated with both parenting dimensions and parenting styles in conceptually expected directions. Regression analyses provided evidence that the dimensional conceptualization of parenting explained additional variability in perceived parental religiosity above and beyond parenting style effects. Findings suggest that a dimensional conceptualization of parenting processes extends the literature on parent religiosity because it yields more nuanced information about how parental religiosity may be related to differentiated parenting behaviors. Potential therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. A long tailed bird from the Late Cretaceous of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正全; 赵丽君

    1999-01-01

    A new fossil bird was discovered from the lower part of Upper Cretaceous of Linhai, Zhejiang. With a long tail comprising more than 20 caudal vertebrae, this new brid is morphologically similar to that of Archaeopteryx. Meanwhile, it is similar to Confuciusornis in lacking in teeth. The bird shows the following plesiomorphies besides a long tail: elements of the forelimbs are simple in structure; bones of the manus are separate from one another and two digits are free; abdominal ribs are present. And the new bird shows some apomorphies: The skull bones are lightly built with no teeth; the hindlimbs are better developed than the forelimbs, the articular condyle of the femur is pronouced; the sternum is broad and long; the phalanges and unguals are small, showing its ground-dwelling habit. The fossil bird, coming from the rock of the Late Cretaceous in shouthem China, is very significant to the study of the evolution and relationships of birds.

  16. Mode coupling mechanism for late-time Kerr tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.; Khanna, Gaurav

    2014-03-01

    We consider the decay rate for scalar fields in Kerr spacetime. We consider pure initial multipoles l', and focus attention in the decay rate of the multipole l. We use an iterative method proposed by Gleiser, Price, and Pullin, and identify the mode coupling mechanism that gives rise to a decay rate formula recently proposed by Zenginoğlu, Khanna, and Burko through the iterations in powers of the square of the Kerr black hole's specific angular momentum. We also show that one may identify the dominant channel of mode excitation, and obtain approximate results for the mode of interest by studying the dominant channel. The results of the dominant channel approximation approach the full-mode results at late times, and their difference approaches zero quadratically in inverse time.

  17. Late abortion and the European convention for human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Braake, T A

    1999-01-01

    National abortion laws usually do not allow abortion when a foetus is independently viable, i.e. from a gestational age of about 24 weeks. Fetal anomalies, which may be a reason to seek abortion, are sometimes detected only in an advanced stage of pregnancy. National legislatures who want to allow 'late' abortion need to account for the protection the fetus may derive from the European Convention for the protection of human rights. As yet it remains unclear to what extent the fetus can in fact derive protection from the Convention, although several national abortion laws have been tested against it by the European Commission. The significance of the reports of the Commission on the question whether national legislation allowing abortion of a viable fetus is in conflict with the Convention, is explored. It is concluded that there is no European legal standard in terms of duration of pregnancy to which national legislatures are committed.

  18. Late Onset Combined Immunodeficiency Presenting with Recurrent Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Papakonstantinou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID is a recently described variant of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, involving adult patients presenting with opportunistic infections and/or low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. A 36-year-old male with unremarkable past medical history presented with fever, respiratory failure, and lymphocytopenia. He was found to have Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP, subsequently complicated by recurrent hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and immune reconstitution phenomena, attributed to restoration of immunoglobulin levels. Clinicians should be aware of LOCID, which could be confused with HIV infection/AIDS or idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. In the English bibliography there is only one case report, where PJP was the initial presentation of CVID (that case would probably be classified as LOCID. Phenomena of immune reconstitution are described in various settings, including primary immunodeficiency, manifesting as temporary clinical and radiologic deterioration and leading to misperceptions of therapeutic failure and/or presence of alternative/additional diagnoses.

  19. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; van Cappelle, M.; Abels, H. A.; Ladant, J.-B.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; France-Lanord, C.; Donnadieu, Y.; Vandenberghe, J.; Rigaudier, T.; Lécuyer, C.; Terry, D., Jr.; Adriaens, R.; Boura, A.; Guo, Z.; Soe, Aung Naing; Quade, J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Jaeger, J.-J.

    2014-09-01

    The strong present-day Asian monsoons are thought to have originated between 25 and 22 million years (Myr) ago, driven by Tibetan-Himalayan uplift. However, the existence of older Asian monsoons and their response to enhanced greenhouse conditions such as those in the Eocene period (55-34 Myr ago) are unknown because of the paucity of well-dated records. Here we show late Eocene climate records revealing marked monsoon-like patterns in rainfall and wind south and north of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen. This is indicated by low oxygen isotope values with strong seasonality in gastropod shells and mammal teeth from Myanmar, and by aeolian dust deposition in northwest China. Our climate simulations support modern-like Eocene monsoonal rainfall and show that a reinforced hydrological cycle responding to enhanced greenhouse conditions counterbalanced the negative effect of lower Tibetan relief on precipitation. These strong monsoons later weakened with the global shift to icehouse conditions 34 Myr ago.

  20. Late-onset Pompe disease: first clinical description in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Nikitin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset Pompe-disease (LOPD is an adult form of the glycogenosis type II. The age of onset ranges from 1 till 75 y.o. and older. The diagnosis of LOPD is based on the presence of trunk and limb-girdle muscle weakness with hyperlordosis, respiratory failure, ocasionally accompanied by cardiomyopathy, persistent mild elevation of creatine kinase, dry blood spot test of the enzyme activity and DNA-analysis of GAA-gene. Early recognition of the LOPD and beginning of the enzyme replacement therapy is important in preventing severe motor and respiratory deficit, the patient disability and in increasing the survival in those patients.

  1. Light sterile neutrinos from a late phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Light sterile neutrinos represent a well-motivated extension of the 3-neutrino paradigm. However, the impressive agreement between standard cosmology and data casts doubts on their existence. Here we present a class of scenarios that robustly avoids this tension. In these models the sterile neutrinos are light, chiral states of a new sector interacting with the Standard Model via the right-handed neutrino portal and, crucially, active-sterile neutrino oscillations require a phase transition in the hidden sector. We explore the hidden-couplings/critical-temperature plane and identify regions where several sterile neutrinos can be accommodated. A late phase transition is usually preferred and may also ward off a potential threat posed by the formation of topologically stable defects.

  2. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A;

    2011-01-01

    20 years. The relative importance of the different primary inoculum sources and specific measures for reducing their role, such as covering dumps with plastic and preventing seed tubers from becoming infected, is described for the different regions. In NW Europe, varieties with greater resistance...... tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...... in NW Europe and a table of the specific attributes of the most important fungicides in Europe are presented. The development and use of decision support systems (DSSs) in NW Europe are described. In The Netherlands, it is estimated that almost 40% of potato growers use recommendations based...

  3. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  4. Late Holocene cooling event in the western Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翦知湣; 李保华; UwePflaumann; 汪品先

    1996-01-01

    Cores 255, 170, 17940-2, raised from the Okinawa Trough and South China Sea, have been studied for planktonic foraminifers. Among all the species, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata is shown to be sensitive to winter sea surface temperature in the late Quaternary in the western Pacific. Its relative abundance fluctuations are significant and correlatable between the cores. The most conspicuous change during Holocene is the P. obliquiloculata minimum zone around 4-2ka B. P., which correlates probably to the neoglacial cooling. The widespread occurrence of this cooling event in the western Pacific suggests that P. obliquiloculata is promising as a paleoceanographic and climatic monitor, possibly important for reconstructing sea-land correlation of climate.

  5. Huginn. A late-phase nuclear emergency exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huginn late-phase exercise was carried out by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project group in the spring 2000. National teams from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden took part in the exercise. The objective of the exercise was to test the ability to calculate the radiological and economical consequences of various agricultural countermeasures following a nuclear accient. This report describes the findings of the four national teams, including the approaches made by the tesms, selection of countermeasures and the results of the cost-benefit analyses that they performed. The methods used and findings by the four teams have been compared and recommendations issued based on the exercise results. (au)

  6. The Additional Professional Training in the Late Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the experience of intensive organization and functioning of the system of additional professional training in the late imperial period of the Russian history, generated by the need of unfolded modernization in the country. The article is written on the basis of mass sources, including the regional archives of record keeping documentation and working in the mainstream of the study of basic organizational forms of additional training - agricultural courses, shopping classes and courses of technical drawing, also the author produces a macro shot of trends and directions, successes and challenges in its development. The additional professional training as a specific element of the education system of 20th century focusing on the real sector of economy has implemented the free practice-training based on the principles of interdisciplinarity, variability and the high role of self-education.

  7. [Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy Associated with MGUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taiji; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2015-12-01

    Sporadic late-onset nemaline myopathy is an uncommon disease. Clinically, it is characterized by progressive muscle weakness that can develop in limbs or axial muscles. Asymmetrical distal weakness, facial weakness, dropped head, and dysphagia can also occur. Since the serum creatine kinase level usually remains within the normal range, patients can be misdiagnosed with motor neuron disease. Recognition of nemaline rods on muscle biopsy is crucial for accurate diagnosis. If it is associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, the outcome is known to be unfavorable. In spite of various immunotherapies such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and plasmapheresis, most patients die of respiratory failure within 5 years. Since the efficacy of autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose melphalan was first reported in 2008, there have been accumulating reports that showed the positive effect of this therapy for the disease. PMID:26618766

  8. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the non-relativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state less than $-1$. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background.

  9. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We interpret these fluctuations with a new carbon cycle model and demonstrate that all of the main features...... of the carbonate and organic carbon isotope record can be explained by the release of methane hydrates from an anoxic dissolved organic carbon-rich ocean into an atmosphere containing oxygen levels considerably less than today.......The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late...

  10. Einstein Observatory coronal temperatures of late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of a survey of the coronal temperatures of late-type stars using the Einstein Observatory IPC. The spectral analysis shows that the frequently found one- and two-temperature descriptions are mainly influenced by the SNR of the data and that models using continuous emission measure distributions can provide equally adequate and physically more meaningful and more plausible descriptions. Intrinsic differences in differential emission measure distributions are found for four groups of stars. M dwarfs generally show evidence for high-temperature gas in conjunction with lower-temperature material, while main-sequence stars of types F and G have the high-temperature component either absent or very weak. Very hot coronae without the lower-temperature component appearing in dwarf stars are evident in most of the giant stars studied. RS CVn systems show evidence for extremely hot coronae, sometimes with no accompanying lower-temperature material.

  11. Structure of the atmosphere of late-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculation of model atmospheres of late-type stars is described. The model atmospheres have been constructed for effective temperature Tsub(e)=2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500 and 5785 K at solar chemical composition and surface gravities log g = 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 based on LTE and a plane-parallel horizontally homogeneous structure. Opacity due to H, H- and H2- was taken into account. The equation of state includes 10 metals and H2, H2- and H2+ molecules. The results are compared with those published elsewhere. A satisfactory agreement is obtained for Tsub(e) > 3000 K

  12. LATE PRESENTATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a case of basal cell carcinoma with late presentation. METHODS: A 55year - old woman with gradual progressive, nodular, small brown lesion at the left lower eye lid for past 3 years was examined with, computed tomography (CT and then Excisional biopsy was done. RESULTS: The presenting symptom s of the patient were gradual progressive, nodular, sma ll brown lesion at the left lower eye lid . Excisional bi opsy with frozen section of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic evaluation of the eyelid lesion disclosed Trichoblastic (basal cell carcinoma of lower eye lid with large nodular and cribiform (a denoid patterns without any lymph - vascula r and perineural invasion. Post - operative period was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We are hereby reporting this case of eyelid BCC, with no history of skin cancer, or radiation treatment but exposure to sunlight. With earl y adequate treatment the prognosis is good KEYWORDS: B asal cell carcinoma, Excisional biopsy, Trichoblastic carcinoma .

  13. Iatromathematica (medical astrology) in late antiquity and the Byzantine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, M

    1999-01-01

    Byzantium inherited the rich astrological tradition of Late Antiquity, especially that of Alexandria, where even in the 6th century A.D., astrology was taught in philosophical schools. The great number of Byzantine astrological MSS, which preserve works of famous authors and many anonymous treatises, shows the survival and continuity of astrology in Byzantium. Through medical astrology physicians can better understand the temperament of an individual man and find out about his bodily constitution and psychic faculties, his inclination to chronic and acute diseases, the possibilities of curable or incurable cases, and finally the periods of major danger for his health. They can conjecture about the evolution of a disease, choose a favorable time for an operation, or initiate a cure.

  14. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  15. Identity processes and experience of being alone during late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Musetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the experience of being alone and identity processes analysing the mediation role of adolescents’ age and gender. The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire – EIPQ (Balistrieri, Busch-Rossnagel, & Geisinger, 1995 and the Louvain Loneliness Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents – LLCA (Marcoen, Goossens, & Caes, 1987 were administered to 181 high school adolescents and 141 university students, classed as late adolescents. Data revealed that, both in the interpersonal and ideological domains, exploration was positively related both with affinity for aloneness and with peer and parent-related loneliness, while in the interpersonal domains commitment was negatively related to these dimensions. Moreover, exploration was associated with a positive attitude to being alone, but not with peer-related loneliness in older individuals. Results supported the hypothesis proposed by Buchholz (1997, who defined “alonetime”, or the time spent in solitude, as an opportunity for exploration.

  16. Unifying inflation with late-time acceleration in BIonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Pradhan, Anirudh; Capozziello, Salvatore; Sardar, Iftikar Hossain

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we propose a new model that allows to unify inflation, deceleration and acceleration phases of expansion history in BIonic system. In this model, in the beginning, there have been $k$ black fundamental strings that transited to the BIon configuration at a corresponding point. At this point, two universe brane and universe antibrane have been created, interacted with each other via one wormhole and inflated. With decreasing temperature, the energy of this wormhole flowed into universe branes and lead to inflation. After a short time, wormhole died, inflation ended and deceleration epoch started. With approaching two universe brane and antibrane together, tachyon was born, grew and caused creation of one new wormhole. At this time, two universe brane and antibrane connected again and late-time acceleration era of the universe began. We compare our model with previous unified phantom model and observational data and obtain some cosmological parameters like temperature in terms of time. We also ...

  17. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi2, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  18. Late time cosmic acceleration from natural infrared cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, inspired by the ultraviolet deformation of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry in loop quantum cosmology, we formulate an infrared-modified cosmological model. We obtain the associated deformed Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and we show that the late time cosmic acceleration can be addressed by the infrared corrections. As a particular example, we applied the setup to the case of matter dominated universe. This model has the same number of parameters as ΛCDM, but a dynamical dark energy generates in the matter dominated era at the late time. According to our model, as the universe expands, the energy density of the cold dark matter dilutes and when the Hubble parameter approaches to its minimum, the infrared effects dominate such that the effective equation of state parameter smoothly changes from weff = 0 to weff = - 2. Interestingly and nontrivially, the unstable de Sitter phase with weff = - 1 is corresponding to Ωm =Ωd = 0.5 and the universe crosses the phantom divide from the quintessence phase with weff > - 1 and Ωm >Ωd to the phantom phase with weff < - 1 and Ωm <Ωd which shows that the model is observationally viable. The results show that the universe finally ends up in a big rip singularity for a finite time proportional to the inverse of the minimum of the Hubble parameter. Moreover, we consider the dynamical stability of the model and we show that the universe starts from the matter dominated era at the past attractor with weff = 0 and ends up in a future attractor at the big rip with weff = - 2.

  19. Continental Ecosystem Instability During the Late Triassic Rise of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Dunlavey, M.; Lindström, S.; Irmis, R. B.; Kasprak, A. H.; Glasspool, I.; Nesbitt, S.; Smith, N.; Turner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Our assessment of the Earth system response to future global climate change requires the characterization of feedbacks that occur at temperatures significantly warmer than modern. Patterns derived from hothouse intervals in Earth's past can inform process-based models to better understand and predict such feedbacks. pCO2 values exceeded 1000 ppm during the Late Triassic (~235 million to 201.5 million years ago), one of the warmest - and one of the most climatically dynamic - intervals in Earth history. This long period of warmth saw rare and species-poor assemblages of early dinosaurs and their relatives at low-paleolatitudes. Here we present new records of palynology, charcoal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biomarkers of regional wildfires, and the bulk carbon isotopic composition of organic matter (δ13Corg) from fluvial and overbank sediments of the Chinle Formation of the Chama Basin in north-central New Mexico from low paleolatitude Pangea. These data illuminate the climatic and ecological drivers of low dinosaur diversity. Our data suggest that strongly fluctuating but generally very hot and periodically arid environmental conditions prevailed at low paleolatitudes in the Late Triassic. Strong variations in δ13Corg and xerophytic palynomorph abundance are highly correlated, suggesting these proxies responded to fluctuating arid conditions with intermittent wildfires, some burning at temperatures reaching at least 680°C. The abundant, reliable food source required by an extensive, diverse community of large-bodied, herbivorous, fast-growing tachymetabolic dinosaurs did not develop until climatic changes in the Early Jurassic. Despite this, the basic structure of this pseudosuchian archosaur-dominated community remained stable over ~10-15 million years.

  20. Gulf stream: velocity fluctuations during the late cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneps, A G

    1979-04-20

    Biostratigraphic analysis of seven piston cores from the southeastern Blake Plateau suggests that the upper Miocene to Recent sedimentary section at this location represents a history of deposition of calcareous ooze alternating with current-induced nondeposition or erosion. This record is primarily a result of long-term fluctuations in the velocity of the western boundary current or Gulf Stream, which sweeps the plateau. High-velocity phases of this current system, as signaled by hiatuses in the section, lie within the time limits 4.8 to 6.1, 3.9 to 4.4, 2.3 to 2.9, and 0 to 1.5 million years before present (B.P.). These time intervals are coeval with dated episodes of climatic decline and glaciation. The most intense acceleration of the Gulf Stream, as indicated by deep erosion of the Blake Plateau, occurred in the latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene (4.8 to 6.1 million years B.P.) in conjunction with a major expansion of the Antarctic ice cap. Subsequent accelerations of the Gulf Stream coincide with early Pliocene cooling in the Southern Hemisphere, worldwide expansion of high-altitude-high-latitude glaciers in the late Pliocene, and the classical glaciations of the Pleistocene. An additional, protracted increase in the average velocity of the Gulf Stream, which began in the late Miocene and culminated in the mid-Pliocene (about 3.8 million years B.P.), can be attributed to the gradual emergence of the Central American isthmus.