WorldWideScience

Sample records for barramundi lates calcarifer

  1. Effects of nutritional requirement of live food organisms on growth and survival of barramundi/seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmer, M.; Reed, A.

    1989-01-01

    Larvae of barramundi (Lates calcarifer ) reared intensively in some Australian hatcheries have suffered periodic high mortalities which have been ascribed to nutritional deficiencies in the live food organisms used, particularly deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Barramundi larvae reared in an experimental system and fed on four diets, representing combinations of supplemented and unsupplemented rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis ) and supplemented and unsupplemented brine shrimp (Arte...

  2. Modelling size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer: cannibalistic polyphenism and its implication to aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio F Ribeiro

    Full Text Available This study quantified size-dependent cannibalism in barramundi Lates calcarifer through coupling a range of prey-predator pairs in a different range of fish sizes. Predictive models were developed using morphological traits with the alterative assumption of cannibalistic polyphenism. Predictive models were validated with the data from trials where cannibals were challenged with progressing increments of prey sizes. The experimental observations showed that cannibals of 25-131 mm total length could ingest the conspecific prey of 78-72% cannibal length. In the validation test, all predictive models underestimate the maximum ingestible prey size for cannibals of a similar size range. However, the model based on the maximal mouth width at opening closely matched the empirical observations, suggesting a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity of mouth size among cannibalistic individuals. Mouth size showed allometric growth comparing with body depth, resulting in a decreasing trend on the maximum size of ingestible prey as cannibals grow larger, which in parts explains why cannibalism in barramundi is frequently observed in the early developmental stage. Any barramundi has the potential to become a cannibal when the initial prey size was 58% of their size, suggesting that 50% of size difference can be the threshold to initiate intracohort cannibalism in a barramundi population. Cannibalistic polyphenism was likely to occur in barramundi that had a cannibalistic history. An experienced cannibal would have a greater ability to stretch its mouth size to capture a much larger prey than the models predict. The awareness of cannibalistic polyphenism has important application in fish farming management to reduce cannibalism.

  3. Structure and development of free neuromasts in barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Block).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yukinori; Chai, Liy Lang; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad; Senoo, Shigeharu

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the development of free neuromasts with growth of the barramundi, Lates calcarifer. A pair of free neuromasts was observed behind the unpigmented eyes in newly hatched eleutheroembryos with a mean total length of 1.93 mm, and two-hour-old eleuthero-embryos could respond to an approaching pipette. At 2 days after hatching, the egg yolk sac was mostly consumed, the eyes were pigmented, and the larvae commenced feeding on rotifers. Free neuromasts increased in number with growth and commenced developing into canal neuromasts in barramundi 15 days old with a mean total length of 8.07 mm. The average length of the major axis of the trunk free neuromasts attained approximately 12.9-15.5 microm, and the number of sensory cells was 15.4-17.5 at 15-20 days old. Developed cupulae of free neuromasts were observed in 1-day-old eleutheroembryos. The direction of maximum sensitivity of free neuromasts, determined from the polarity of the sensory cells, coincided with the minor axis of the lozenge-shaped outline of the apical surface of the free neuromasts. The polarity of trunk neuromasts was usually oriented along the antero-posterior axis of the fish body, but a few had a dorso-ventral direction. On the head, free neuromasts were oriented on lines tangential to concentric circles around the eye. PMID:18217491

  4. Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Grace; Zhu Ze; Li Jian; Gong Ping; Feng Felicia; Lo Loong; Wang Chun; Yue Gen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the mapping of BAC clones to the linkage map. Results This BAC library consisted of 49,152 clones with an average insert si...

  5. Characterization of apoptosis induced by grouper iridovirus in two newly established cell lines from barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y S; Chiou, P P; Chen, W J; Chen, Y C; Chen, C W; Chiu, I S; Chen, S D; Cheng, Y H; Chang, C Y

    2008-11-01

    Two new cell lines have been established from the muscle and swim bladder tissues of barramundi, Lates calcarifer, and designated as BM (barramundi muscle) and BSB (barramundi swimbladder), respectively. The cells multiplied well at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and have been continuously subcultured more than 100 times to date. Morphologically, BM cells were mostly fibroblastic, whereas BSB were mostly epithelial. Both cell lines were susceptible to grouper iridovirus (GIV) and displayed characteristics of apoptosis after viral infection. The induction of apoptosis was further assayed in GIV-infected BM and BSB cells by various methods. The inhibition of cell growth by GIV was demonstrated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Morphological observations revealed typical apoptotic features in the infected cells, including cell shrinkage and rounding, chromosome condensation and formation of apoptotic body-like vesicles. Chromosome fragmentation was detected by DNA laddering and TUNEL assays. Finally, the appearance of phosphotidylserine on the outer leaflet of apoptotic cell membranes was confirmed by annexin V staining. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by GIV in fish cells. PMID:19238757

  6. Improvement in non-specific immunity and disease resistance of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), by diets containing Daphnia similis meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shieh-Tsung; Shiu, Ya-Li; Wu, Tsung-Meng; Lin, Yu-Syuan; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2015-05-01

    A 42-day study was conducted with barramundi, Lates calcarifer, to evaluate the effects of Daphnia meal derived from Daphnia similis on fish growth, immune response, and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila. Three isonitrogenous (45%) and isolipid (10%) experimental diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 5% (D5), and 10% (D10) Daphnia meal. Growth was depressed when fish were fed with the D10 diet for 42 days compared to control. However, the growth in fish fed with control and D5 diets for 42 days was not significantly different. By day 42, the leukocyte phagocytic activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly increased in D5 and D10 groups compared to control. Mx gene expression in the spleen and head kidney of fish after being injected with nerve necrosis virus was also significantly up-regulated in both groups compared to control. In an increased immune response, D5 and D10 fish had significantly higher survival rates than control after being challenged by A. hydrophila. Therefore, we suggest that a 5% Daphnia-meal diet could improve the barramundi immune response and disease resistance without a negative impact on growth. PMID:25681749

  7. Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Grace

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and the mapping of BAC clones to the linkage map. Results This BAC library consisted of 49,152 clones with an average insert size of 98 kb, representing 6.9-fold haploid genome coverage. Screening the library with 24 microsatellites and 15 ESTs/genes demonstrated that the library had good genome coverage. In addition, 62 novel microsatellites each isolated from 62 BAC clones were mapped onto the first generation linkage map. A total of 86 BAC clones were anchored on the linkage map with at least one BAC clone on each linkage group. Conclusion We have constructed the first BAC library for L. calcarifer and mapped 86 BAC clones to the first generation linkage map. This BAC library and the improved linkage map with 302 DNA markers not only supply an indispensable tool to the integration of physical and linkage maps, the fine mapping of QTL and map based cloning genes located in QTL of commercial importance, but also contribute to comparative genomic studies and eventually whole genome sequencing.

  8. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg-1 and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg-1, the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant ≥2 mg kg-1. There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils

  9. Effect of Different Temperatures on the Free Amino Acids, Physico-Chemical and Microbial Changes during Storage of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yassoralipour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage days and temperature on free amino acids, TVB-N, pH and microbial changes in Barramundi (Lates calcarifer fillets kept at 0°C and 8°C were investigated for 20 days. At the end of the storage, significant differences were observed (p0.05 between two temperatures during the storage period were observed. Among two temperatures, the psychrophiles were initially 4.07 log CFU/g and exceeded the acceptable limit of 7 log CFU/g on the 12th and 8th day at 0°C and 8°C, respectively. Although, Total Plate Count (TPC were initially 3.7 log CFU/g and exceeded the acceptable limit of 6 log CFU/g on the 12th day in the both storage temperatures. Histamine Forming Bacteria (HFB was significantly (p<0.05 lower in Barramundi fillets storage at 0°C compared to the 8°C. Significant differences (p<0.05 between the concentrations of Total Volatile Base-Nitrogen (TVB-N in fillets kept at 0°C and 8°C were observed.

  10. Diplectanids infesting the gills of the barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Perciformes: Centropomidae), with the proposal of Laticola n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun; Jianying, Zhang; Suhua, Shi; Agrawal, N

    2006-02-01

    Four species of the Monogenoidea, Laticola lingaoensis n. sp., L. latesi (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. [previously Pseudorhabdosynochus latesi (Tripathi, 1957) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986], L. paralatesi (Nagibina, 1976) n. comb. [previously Diplectanum paralatesi Nagibina, 1976] and Diplectanum penangi Liang & Leong, 1991, are reported from the gills of Lates calcarifer (Centropomidae) from the South China Sea (new geographical records for L. latesi and D. penangi). Collections from off Bathurst Island, Northern Territory, Australia, represent a new geographic record for L. paralatesi; Chilka Lake, Orissa, India, is established as the type-locality for L. latesi. Laticola n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for species with a spoon-shaped copulatory organ with two to four concentric incomplete ridges in the base. Laticola lingaoensis, the type-species of Laticola, is described, and L. latesi and L. paralatesi are redescribed based on specimens from the South China Sea. Pseudorhabdosynochus monosquamodiscusi Balasuriya & Leong, 1995 and Pseudorhabdosynochus yangjiangenesis Wu & Li, 2005 are considered junior subjective synonyms of L. latesi and L. paralatesi, respectively. PMID:16718593

  11. Molecular and morphological evidence for the widespread distribution of Laticola paralatesi infecting wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotnipat, Soranot; Miller, Terrence L; Knuckey, Richard M; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-04-01

    Infections with monogeneans of the Diplectanidae can limit productivity of and cause considerable health issues for fish in aquaculture. To date, 9 species of diplectanids have been reported from the Asian sea bass or barramundi Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae) in the Asia-Pacific region. This study characterised the diplectanid parasite fauna found infecting wild and farmed barramundi from 5 localities in tropical Australia, including north Queensland and Western Australia. A combination of morphometric and comparative genetic analyses of partial 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) from specimens recovered were used to confirm their identity and to explore relationships with other diplectanids. These data revealed that a single, dominant species of diplectanid, Laticola paralatesi, infects wild and farmed Lates calcarifer in tropical Australia. Laticola lingaoensis Yang, Kritsky, Sun, Jiangying, Shi & Agrawal, 2006 is synonymised with L. seabassi (Wu, Li, Zhu & Xie, 2005) Domingues & Boeger, 2008 based on the combination of the host infected (Lates calcarifer), geographic distribution, distinct morphological similarity, and identical 28S rRNA sequence data identified here. Laticola seabassi is now designated as the type species of Laticola due to nomenclatural priority. PMID:25850397

  12. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Ad de Groof; Lars Guelen; Martin Deijs; Yorick van der Wal; Masato Miyata; Kah Sing Ng; Lotte van Grinsven; Bartjan Simmelink; Yvonne Biermann; Luc Grisez; Jan van Lent; Anthony de Ronde; Siow Foong Chang; Carla Schrier; Lia van der Hoek

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus wa...

  13. Transcriptome Survey of a Marine Food Fish: Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha M. Thevasagayam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian seabass (or barramundi; Lates calcarifer is a marine teleost and a popular food fish in Southeast Asia and Australia. To date, comprehensive genome and transcriptome sequence information has not been available for this species in public repositories. Here, we report a comprehensive de novo transcriptome assembly of the Asian seabass. These data will be useful for the development of molecular tools for use in aquaculture of Asian seabass as well as a resource for genome annotation. The transcriptome was obtained from sequences generated from organs of multiple individuals using three different next-generation sequencing platforms (454-FLX Titanium, SOLiD 3+, and paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000. The assembled transcriptome contains >80% of the expected protein-coding loci, with 58% of these represented by a predicted full-length cDNA sequence when compared to the available Nile tilapia RefSeq dataset. Detailed descriptions of the various steps involved in sequencing and assembling a transcriptome are provided to serve as a helpful guide for transcriptome projects involving de novo assembly of short sequence reads for non-model teleosts or any species of interest.

  14. Sesamin modulation of lipid class and fatty acid profile in early juvenile teleost, Lates calcarifer, fed different dietary oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Carter, Chris G; Nichols, Peter D

    2012-10-15

    Sesamin, a major sesame seed lignan, has diverse biological functions including the modulation of molecular actions in lipid metabolic pathways and reducing cholesterol levels. Vertebrates have different capacities to biosynthesize long-chain PUFA from dietary precursors and sesamin can enhance the biosynthesis of ALA to EPA and DHA in marine teleost. Early juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer, were fed for two weeks on diets rich in ALA or SDA derived from linseed or Echium plantagineum, respectively. Both diets contained phytosterols and less cholesterol compared with a standard fish oil-based diet. The growth rates were reduced in the animals receiving sesamin regardless of the dietary oil. However, the relative levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in total lipid, but not the phospholipid, increased in the whole body by up to 25% in animals fed on sesamin with ALA or SDA. Sesamin reduced the relative levels of triacylglycerols and increased polar lipid, and did not affect the relative composition of phospholipid subclasses or sterols. Sesamin is a potent modulator for LC-PUFA biosynthesis in animals, but probably will have more effective impact at advanced ages. By modulating certain lipid metabolic pathways, sesamin has probably disrupted the body growth and development of organs and tissues in early juvenile barramundi. PMID:23442656

  15. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs) of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Methods:The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India). Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results:A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm) were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions:Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  16. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR; Muthusamy THANGARAJ; Thathiredypalli R. BARATHKUMAR; Jayachandran SUBBURAJ; Kaliyan MUTHAZHAGAN

    2012-01-01

    Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai) and one captive (Mutukadu) population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and const...

  17. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  18. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  19. Small-scale transcriptomics reveals differences among gonadal stages in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, Preethi; Jiang, Junhui; Liew, Woei Chang; Orbán, László

    2014-01-01

    Background The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a protandrous hermaphrodite that typically matures as a male at approximately 2–4 years of age and then changes sex in subsequent years. Although several sexual maturation stages have been described histologically for both testis and ovary, the underlying gene expression profiles remain lacking. The development of a gene expression platform is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of the gonad development of this cultured teleost s...

  20. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 in Captive and Wild Populations Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy RAJASEKAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai and one captive (Mutukadu population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and construction of the dendrogram. A total of 589 scorable bands were obtained, 93.12% of them were polymorphic. The Nei�s gene diversity (H of two wild populations were more (0.0504 � 0.0670 and 0.0519 � 0.0953 than the captive population (0.0489 � 0.0850. The clustering pattern obtained by UPGMA method emphasized the wild populations were clustered in one clade and captive population was deviated into another clade. This study proved that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate L. calcarifer populations. Further molecular studies, comprising a higher number of molecular tools are still required to precisely evaluate the genetic structure of all seabass populations along the Indian coast.

  1. A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun Ming; Bai, Zhi Yi; He, Xiao Ping; Lin, Grace; Xia, Jun Hong; Sun, Fei; Lo, Loong Chueng; Feng, Felicia; Zhu, Ze Yuan; Yue, Gen Hua

    2011-01-01

    Background High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily map QTL for growth traits in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Here, we report a high-resolution linkage map with...

  2. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  3. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hong Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer is an important marine foodfish species in Southeast Asia and Australia. Genetic improvement of this species has been achieved to some extent through selective breeding programs since 1990s. Several genomic tools such as DNA markers, a linkage map, cDNA and BAC libraries have been developed to assist selective breeding. A physical map is still lacking, although it is essential for positional cloning of genes located in quantitative trait loci (QTL and assembly of whole genome sequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A genome-wide physical map of the Asian seabass was constructed by restriction fingerprinting of 38,208 BAC clones with SNaPshot HICF FPC technique. A total of 30,454 were assembled into 2,865 contigs. The physical length of the assembled contigs summed up to 665 Mb. Analyses of some contigs using different methods demonstrated the reliability of the assembly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present physical map is the first physical map for Asian seabass. This physical map will facilitate the fine mapping of QTL for economically important traits and the positional cloning of genes located in QTL. It will also be useful for the whole genome sequencing and assembly. Detailed information about BAC-contigs and BAC clones are available upon request.

  4. Evidence for female-biased dispersal in the protandrous hermaphroditic Asian Seabass, Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Hua Yue

    Full Text Available Movement of individuals influences individual reproductive success, fitness, genetic diversity and relationships among individuals within populations and gene exchange among populations. Competition between males or females for mating opportunities and/or local resources predicts a female bias in taxa with monogamous mating systems and a male-biased dispersal in polygynous species. In birds and mammals, the patterns of dispersal between sexes are well explored, while dispersal patterns in protandrous hermaphroditic fish species have not been studied. We collected 549 adult individuals of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer from four locations in the South China Sea. To assess the difference in patterns of dispersal between sexes, we genotyped all individuals with 18 microsatellites. Significant genetic differentiation was detected among and within sampling locations. The parameters of population structure (F(ST, relatedness (r and the mean assignment index (mAIC, in combination with data on tagging-recapture, supplied strong evidences for female-biased dispersal in the Asian seabass. This result contradicts our initial hypothesis of no sex difference in dispersal. We suggest that inbreeding avoidance of females, female mate choice under the condition of low mate competition among males, and male resource competition create a female-biased dispersal. The bigger body size of females may be a cause of the female-biased movement. Studies of dispersal using data from DNA markers and tagging-recapture in hermaphroditic fish species could enhance our understanding of patterns of dispersal in fish.

  5. Characterization and experimental infection of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ransangan, J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Vibrio harveyi causes vibriosis to Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The disease spreads rapidly among fish stocked in the same cage. It causes high mortality especially in weak and small sized fish stocked at high density in poorly managed net cage. Study to determine the virulence levels of the bacterial pathogen in various aquaculture animals is a key to prevent vibriosis in marine aquaculture. Methodology and Result: Isolation of bacteria from diseased Asian seabass was done using tryptic soy agar (TSAand thiosulphate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS plates. Virulence of two strains of Vibrio harveyi (VHJR4 and VHJR7was tested against clinically healthy aquaculture animals. The analysis revealed that the two bacterial strains differ in pathogenicity. The V. harveyi strain VHJR7 was virulent to Asian seabass at 1.40 x 104 c.f.u. g-1, humpback grouper(Cromileptis altivelis at LD50 8.33 x 103 c.f.u. g-1 and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon at LD50 3.26 x 104 c.f.u. g-1,respectively. The V. harveyi strain VHJR4 was not virulent to Asian seabass and humpback grouper but it caused mortality to black tiger shrimp at LD50 1.32 x 106 c.f.u. g-1. Phenotypically, the two strains shared most of the biochemical features except that the V. harveyi strain VHJR7 was a urease positive and grew at 8.5 % NaCl, and at 10 °C. The percentage similarity of nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA in V. harveyi VHJR4 and V. harveyi VHJR7 was higher (99% but reduced at 95 % in hemolysin gene. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Pathogenic strain of V. harveyi causes mortality and affects aquaculture production of Asian seabass. Hence, vaccine development against the bacterial pathogen is urgently needed for sustainability of Asian seabass aquaculture in Malaysia.

  6. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the Malaysian Sea against coral (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rahimi; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires

    2016-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the pathogenicity (hemolytic activity) on corals (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer) of Aeromonas hydrophila from water, sediment, and coral. Samples were collected from coastal water and coral reef areas. One hundred and sixty-two isolates were successfully isolated. Out of 162, 95 were from seawater, 49 from sediment, and 18 from coral. Sixteen isolates were picked and identified. Isolates were identified using a conventional biochemical test, the API 20NE kit, and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences. Hemolytic activity was determined. Out of 16 isolates, 14 isolates were β-hemolytic and two isolates were non-hemolytic. Corals infected with A. hydrophila suffered bleaching. Similar effect was observed for both hemolytic and non-hemolytic isolates. Intramuscular injection of A. hydrophila into sea bass resulted in muscular bleeding and death. Higher infection rates were obtained from hemolytic compared to non-hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila isolates. PMID:27221587

  7. Isolation and characterization of a nodavirus associated with mass mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from the west coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Debashis; Hamod, Mohammed A.; Suresh, Thangavel; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    A fish nodavirus was detected in the juveniles of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) during a massive outbreak in the seabass cage culture farm located in the south west coast of India. The clinical signs of the disease included anorexia, inflated abdomen, exophthalmia, darkening of the whole body, erratic swimming and cork-screw type movement followed by death. The dead and the moribund fish were analyzed for nodavirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific ...

  8. Growth response and feed intake of Lates calcarifer to four different dietary protein levels with green pea (Pisum sativum) under controlled laboratory condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer is strictly a carnivorous fish and has been considered a potential prospect for commercial culture due to its rapid growth rate, high market demand and ability to accept formulated feeds. Protein is the most expensive dietary component, and feeds represent about 50 % of operating costs in the intensification for the sea bass culture. A 75-day feeding trial was conducted with juvenile fish (initial mean weight = 0.62 g) at 10 % body weight to evalua...

  9. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in an F1 family of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Gen; Zhu Ze; Lo Loong; Wang Chun

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Body weight and length are economically important traits in foodfish species influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL) and environmental factors. It is usually difficult to dissect the genetic and environmental effects. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is an important marine foodfish species with a compact genome (~700 Mb). The recent construction of a first generation linkage map of Asian seabass with 240 microsatellites provides a good opportunity to determine the numb...

  10. A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Felicia; Lo Loong; Sun Fei; Xia Jun; Lin Grace; He Xiao; Bai Zhi; Wang Chun; Zhu Ze; Yue Gen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily map QTL for growth traits in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Here, we report a high-resolution linkage...

  11. Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bacillus cereus and Brachybacterium sp. Isolated from Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Orsod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: EPS extracted from marine bacteria, which associated with Asian sea bass has potential antimicrobial activities.Methodology and Results: Two marine Bacteria were isolated from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer obtained from aquaculture farm, located at Johor bahru Malaysia. 16S rRNA analysis for bacteria identity revealed that bacteria ors1 had 99 % identity to Bacillus cereus and ors2 had 96 % identity with Brachybacterium sp. All bacteria shared many similarities and variation in terms of biochemical reactions and microscopic observation. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs were extracted and purified from bacteria as they produced mucous colonies. Average analysis of EPS components showed 50 % carbohydrates, 26 % protein and 24 % fatty acids. The FTIR analysis confirmed the functional groups of the EPS. Screening for antimicrobial activities assays using Kirby-Bauer methods against both grams positive and negative had shown presence of inhibition zones.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study recommends that bacteria isolated from Asian sea bass are having antimicrobial activities and could be used as a potential source for the development of marine drugs.

  12. Bakterijska flora zdravoga mlađa azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) s naglaskom na otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wei, Lee; Musa, Najiah; Wee, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Opisana je bakterijska flora te otpornost na antibiotike i teške metale bakterija izdvojenih iz mlađa slatkovodnoga azijskoga lubina (Lates calcarifer) na mrijestilištu u Terengganu u Maleziji. Istraživanje je provedeno sa svrhom da se odredi bakterijska flora u uzorcima vode na ribogojilištu azijskoga lubina kao i otpornost izdvojenih bakterija na antibiotike i teške metale. Rezultati mogu biti od koristi za uzgajivače riba pri liječenju i provođenju preventivnih mjera. Bakterije su bile izd...

  13. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filt...

  14. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with ...

  15. A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Felicia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL, searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily map QTL for growth traits in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. Here, we report a high-resolution linkage map with 790 microsatellites and SNPs, comparative analysis of synteny, fine-mapping of QTL and the identification of potential candidate genes for growth traits. Results A second generation linkage map of Asian seabass was developed with 790 microsatellite and SNP markers. The map spanned a genetic length of 2411.5 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 3.4 cM or 1.1 Mb. This high density map allowed for comparison of the map with Tetraodon nigroviridis genome, which revealed 16 synteny regions between the two species. Moreover, by employing this map we refined QTL to regions of 1.4 and 0.2 cM (or 400 and 50 kb in linkage groups 2 and 3 in a population containing 380 progeny; potential candidate genes for growth traits in QTL regions were further identified using comparative genome analysis, whose effects on growth traits were investigated. Interestingly, a QTL cluster at Lca371 underlying growth traits of Asian seabass showed similarity to the cathepsin D gene of human, which is related to cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions We constructed a high resolution linkage map, carried out comparative mapping, refined the positions of QTL, identified candidate genes for growth traits and analyzed their effects on growth. Our study developed a framework that will be indispensable for further identification of genes and analysis of molecular variation within the refined QTL to enhance understanding of the molecular basis of growth and speed up genetic

  16. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. PMID:23178500

  17. Coping with sub-optimal water temperature: modifications in fatty acid profile of barramundi as influenced by dietary lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic responses to sub-optimal temperature deplete lipid depots, remodel membrane lipid and alter the fatty acid profile in the whole body and tissues of ectothermic vertebrates including fish. The magnitude of these changes may depend on dietary history including oil sources with different fatty acid compositions. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes, Latidae), a tropical ectothermic fish, was fed on diets either rich in dietary long-chain (≥C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil, rich in stearidonic and γ-linolenic acid (SDA and GLA, respectively) from Echium plantagineum, or rapeseed oil deficient in LC-PUFA. Following 5 weeks at the optimum temperature of 30 °C when growth rates were comparable amongst dietary treatments, water temperature was dropped to 20 °C for 1 week for half of the animals and maintained at 30 °C for the other half. Decreased temperature increased the liver and skeletal muscle content of LC-PUFA in fish fed on echium oil compared with rapeseed oil, while dietary LC-PUFA depots in fish oil fed-fish depleted rapidly in the week of sub-optimal temperature. The lipid unsaturation index of cellular membrane in the liver and muscle increased under low temperature at the same rate regardless of dietary oil. Therefore, rapid exposure of an ectothermic vertebrate to a lower and sub-optimal temperature caused significant modulation in fatty acid composition. We propose that the tolerance of barramundi, a representative of tropical farmed fish, to sub-optimal temperature will be enhanced when fatty acid substrates closer to the LC-PUFA are available in their diet. PMID:23524056

  18. Identification and analysis of a prepro-chicken gonadotropin releasing hormone II (preprocGnRH-II) precursor in the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, based on an EST-based assessment of its brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sik-Loo; Mohd-Adnan, Adura; Mohd-Yusof, Nurul Yuziana; Forstner, Michael R J; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2008-03-31

    Using a novel library of 5637 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the brain tissue of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), we first characterized the brain transcriptome for this economically important species. The ESTs generated from the brain of L. calcarifer yielded 2410 unique transcripts (UTs) which comprise of 982 consensi and 1428 singletons. Based on database similarity, 1005 UTs (41.7%) can be assigned putative functions and were grouped into 12 functional categories related to the brain function. Amongst others, we have identified genes that are putatively involved in energy metabolism, ion pumps and channels, synapse related genes, neurotransmitter and its receptors, stress induced genes and hormone related genes. Subsequently we selected a putative preprocGnRH-II precursor for further characterization. The complete cDNA sequence of the gene obtained was found to code for an 85-amino acid polypeptide that significantly matched preprocGnRH-II precursor sequences from other vertebrates, and possesses structural characteristics that are similar to that of other species, consisting of a signal peptide (23 residues), a GnRH decapeptide (10 residues), an amidation/proteolytic-processing signal (glycine-lysine-argine) and a GnRH associated peptide (GAP) (49 residues). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II sequence is a member of the subcohort Euteleostei and divergent from the sequences of the subcohort Otocephalan. These findings provide compelling evidence that the putative L. calcarifer preprocGnRH-II precursor obtained in this study is orthologous to that of other vertebrates. The functional prediction of this preprocGnRH-II precursor sequence through in silico analyses emphasizes the effectiveness of the EST approach in gene identification in L. calcarifer. PMID:18280674

  19. The use of green pea (Pisum sativum as alternative protein source for fish meal in diets for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of green pea P. sativum asalternative protein source for fish meal on the growth performance, feed utilization and phosphorusexcretion for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Four isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isolipidic(10% lipid diets were prepared with the increasing substitution levels of green pea (GP for fish meal(FM at 0% (P0, 10% (P10, 20% (P20 and 30% (P30 with corresponding dietary protein levels at 0,2.6, 5.2 and 7.8% respectively in a 40% protein diet. The weight gain (WG of fish (19.69 g fed P0 diet(control without GP meal was comparable to fish fed P10 diet (17.75 g but significantly (p 0.05 werefound in the percentage of lipid among the different treatments. The peak time for phosphorus excretionwas observed after the first feeding at the end of 8 hrs. Fish fed P0 diet had the highest phosphorusexcretion which was attributed to its high level of FM component whereas fish fed P30 diet had thelowest. It appears that green pea can replace fish meal at the level of 10% in diets for sea bass withoutadverse effects on growth, feed utilization or body composition and this may also contribute toenvironmental protection as well as reduce feed cost to sustain aquaculture.

  20. Development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeted to the dnaJ gene of Vibrio harveyi, a bacterial pathogen in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwell B. Bautista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequence of the dnaJ gene of Vibrio harveyi, which was isolated from diseased juvenileAsian seabass, Lates calcarifer was identified. The partial sequence of dnaJ gene of V. harveyi was 447 bp and shared at least 77% identity at the nucleotide level with the dnaJ gene of other Vibrios. It was distinct from the dnaJ gene of other Vibrios but was closely related with the dnaJ gene of V. rotiferianus and V. campbellii having at least 90% nucleotide identity. PCR primers targeting this gene were designed to detect the pathogen in Asian seabass. The assay was specific to V. harveyi and the limit of detection was 100 pg of genomic DNA ml-1 or 100 fg of bacterial genomic DNA in a PCR reaction. Thiscorresponded to a sensitivity of approximately 20 genome equivalents (GE of V. harveyi. These resultsindicate that the dnaJ gene is a good candidate to develop primers for the PCR assay in detecting V.harveyi in fish.

  1. Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, S; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

    2003-03-01

    Sensory and microbiological characteristics of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fish raised in a freshwater pond were evaluated during cold storage for 33 days. Whole fish (averaging 400 g each) were stored in a cold storage room at 0 to 2 degrees C. Essential oils of herbs--thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare)--added at 0.05% (vol/vol) were used as preservatives. On the basis of the sensory test results as well as the bacteriological tests, the addition of oregano and thyme essential oils can considerably slow the process of spoilage. The fish treated with these oils were still fit for human consumption after 33 days of storage. The results obtained through sensory tests are corroborated to a great extent by the chemical (hypoxanthine) tests and to a lesser extent by the physical (Cosmos units) tests. The initial total bacteriological counts were 1.7 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and <10(2) CFU/g in the fish flesh, and in the control treatment (without preservatives), these counts rose continuously, reaching around 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and 10(3) CFU/g in the flesh after 33 days of storage at 0 to 2 degrees C. The use of herbal essential oils as preservatives, on the other hand, resulted in a maximal count of 10(5) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface, while the bacterial count in the flesh remained <10(2) CFU/g by the end of the 33-day storage period at 0 to 2 degrees C. PMID:12636293

  2. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in an F1 family of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight and length are economically important traits in foodfish species influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL and environmental factors. It is usually difficult to dissect the genetic and environmental effects. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer is an important marine foodfish species with a compact genome (~700 Mb. The recent construction of a first generation linkage map of Asian seabass with 240 microsatellites provides a good opportunity to determine the number and position of QTL, and the magnitude of QTL effects with a genome scan. Results We conducted a genome scan for QTL affecting body weight, standard length and condition factors in an F1 family containing 380 full-sib individuals from a breeding stock by using 97 microsatellites evenly covering 24 chromosomes. Interval mapping and multiple QTL model mapping detected five significant and 27 suggestive QTL on ten linkage groups (LGs. Among the five significant QTL detected, three (qBW2-a, qTL2-a and qSL2-a controlling body weight, total and standard length respectively, were mapped on the same region near Lca287 on LG2, and explained 28.8, 58.9 and 59.7% of the phenotypic variance. The other two QTL affecting body weight, qBW2-b and qBW3, were located on LG2 and 3, and accounted for 6.4 and 8.8% of the phenotypic variance. Suggestive QTL associated with condition factors are located on six different LGs. Conclusion This study presents the first example of QTL detection for growth-related traits in an F1 family of a marine foodfish species. The results presented here will enable further fine-mapping of these QTL for marker-assisted selection of the Asian seabass, eventually identifying individual genes responsible for growth-related traits.

  3. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus, and green mungbeans (Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  4. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans ((Phaseolus aureus,and green mungbeans ((Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  5. Echium oil is better than rapeseed oil in improving the response of barramundi to a disease challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne E; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-11-15

    Pathogen infection stimulates the fatty acid (FA) metabolism and the production of pro-inflammatory derivatives of FA. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer, was fed on a diet rich in preformed long-chain (⩾C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil (FO), to compare with diets containing high levels of C18 precursors for LC-PUFA - stearidonic (SDA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) - from Echium plantagineum (EO), or rapeseed oil (RO) rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), but a poor source of LC-PUFA and their precursors. After 6weeks, when growth rates were similar amongst the dietary treatments, a sub-lethal dose of Streptococcus iniae was administered to half of the fish, while the other half were maintained unchallenged and were pair-fed with the infected fish. Under a disease challenge situation, the tissue FA depots depleted at 3days post-infection (DPI) and were then restored to their previous concentrations at 7DPI. During the infection period, EO fish had a higher content of n3 and n6 PUFA in their tissues, higher n3:n6 PUFA ratio and reduced levels of the eicosanoids, TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α, in their plasma compared with RO fish. Fish fed on FO and EO had a longer lasting and enduring response in their FA and eicosanoid concentrations, following a week of bacterial infection, compared with those fed on RO. EO, containing SDA and GLA and with a comparatively higher n3:n6 PUFA ratio, proved more effective than RO in compensating for immunity stress. PMID:23790934

  6. Nutrition of the seabass Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzon, Gerard; Chou, R.; Fuchs, Jacques

    1989-01-01

    The Primary Production Department of Singapore (PPD) studies covered the weaning of seabass from fingerlings stage onwards and the dietary protein requirement of early grow-out fish. Dietary protein requirement of early grow-out seabass was demonstrated to be between 40-50%, at dietary lipid level of 12%, using fishmeal protein. Nevertheless fish growth was significantly higher with trashfish feed, but apparent protein retention was significantly better with formulated feed.

  7. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Shubha; Purushothaman, Kathiresan; Gopikrishna, G.; Lau, Doreen; Saju, Jolly M.; Shamsudheen, K. V.; Kumar, K. Vinaya; Basheer, V. S.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod; J.K. JENA; Ponniah, A. G.; Orbán, László

    2014-01-01

    Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing t...

  8. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer)

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoh, Si Yan; Tan, Daniel; Shen, Xueyan; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Jiang, Junhui; Liew, Woei Chang; Thevasagayam, Natascha May; Kwan, Hsiao Yuen; Saju, Jolly M.; Prakki, Sridatta R. S.; Goh, Chin Heng; Wong, Hong Ching; Chan, Tai Teck; Mézes, Miklós; Orbán, László

    2015-01-01

    As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D) in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control) were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g) that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1) to evaluate...

  9. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yan Ngoh

    Full Text Available As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1 to evaluate the effects of different pelleted feeds based on overall physiological changes and nutritional quality of fillets; 2 improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms with transcriptomic analysis; 3 if possible, identify the feed type that supports the growth of these fishes without substantially reducing the nutritional quality of fillet. The growth performance, fatty acid composition of fillet, hepatic histology and transcriptome of the fishes (Groups A-D were analyzed. The majority of fatty acids of the fillets, except γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n6, correlated significantly with the respective diets. Asian seabass fed Feed C showed highest specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion efficiency (FCE with closest histology and transcriptomic profile to control, but their fillet contained the highest n6/n3 ratio. When the liver-based transcriptomes were analyzed, a complex set of differentially expressed genes were detected between groups fed pelleted feeds and controls as well as among the pellet-fed groups themselves. Significant enrichment of genes with growth-related function tallied with the morphological data measured. When compared with control (Group A, 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids' and 'Steroid biosynthesis' pathways were significantly enriched in pellet-fed groups. Reduced goblet cell numbers were observed in the gut of pellet-fed fish compared to controls and fads6 was found to be a suitable candidate gene to separate wild-caught Asian seabass, from pellet-fed ones. These results provide insights for researchers on the various effects of feeds on the biochemistry and global gene expression of the fish and potentially for seabass farms to make more informed feed choices.

  10. Production of killed vaccine from Streptococcus sp. and its application in sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanman, CH.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish with an average length of 3.0-4.0 inches vaccinated with formalin-killed vaccine of Streptococcus sp. either by intraperitoneal injection and immersion methods had a survival rate of 100% indicating that the vaccine is safe to be used with sea bass. The highest efficacy was received when the vaccine containing bacterin at 2.50x1010 CFU/ml. Injection of vaccine together with adjuvant (CFA was highly effective against Streptococcus sp. infection. The relative percent survival (RPS of fish injected with vaccine alone and vaccine plus adjuvant were 100 (10 days post vaccination, 54.06 and 92.29 (20 days post vaccination and 31.58 and 73.68 (30 days post vaccination respectively. The fish which received vaccine by hyperosmotic immersion showed higher resistance to the disease than by direct immersion with the RPS of 30.77 and 71.80 (10 days post vaccination, 9.75 and 70.73 (20 days post vaccination and 7.14 and 16.67 (30 days post vaccination for direct immersion and hyperosmotic immersion, respectively.

  11. Preparation and partial characterization of collagen sheet from fish (Lates calcarifer) scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, S; Sekar, S; Mohan, R; Rani, Sunita; Sundaraseelan, J; Sastry, T P

    2008-01-01

    Fish scales, which are hitherto discarded as waste, were collected and cleaned thoroughly. The scales were hydrolyzed under controlled acidic conditions, neutralized and made in to a sheet, i.e., fish scale collagen sheet (FCS). The FCS was characterized for its infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mechanical properties. The IR study has shown that the sheet contains both organic and inorganic phases revealing that the scales are partially deminaralized. The tensile strength of FCS is enough if it is used as a wound dressing material. The SEM studies have shown that FCS is porous and exhibited fibrous nature. PMID:17936895

  12. Streptococcus iniae infection in cultured Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcal infections are becoming an increasing problem in aquaculture and have been reported worldwide in avariety of fish species. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of Streptococcus iniae from Asian sea bass (Latescalcarifer and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. cultured in southern Thailand. Conventional and rapid identification systems,as well as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, were used to determine that the isolate was S. iniae. The virulence of thisS. iniae was higher in Asian sea bass than in red tilapia, as shown by the 10 day-LD50 in Asian sea bass and red tilapia, being1.08x104 and 1.14x107 CFU, respectively. Histopathological changes in Asian sea bass are more severe than those observedin red tilapia. The changes can be found in several organs including liver, pancreas, heart, eye and brain. Histopathologicalfindings included cellular necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and granuloma formation in the infected organs.

  13. Decision making in a human population living sustainably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John S; Burgman, Mark A; Marewski, Julian N; Fidler, Fiona; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-10-01

    The Tiwi people of northern Australia have managed natural resources continuously for 6000-8000 years. Tiwi management objectives and outcomes may reflect how they gather information about the environment. We qualitatively analyzed Tiwi documents and management techniques to examine the relation between the social and physical environment of decision makers and their decision-making strategies. We hypothesized that principles of bounded rationality, namely, the use of efficient rules to navigate complex decision problems, explain how Tiwi managers use simple decision strategies (i.e., heuristics) to make robust decisions. Tiwi natural resource managers reduced complexity in decision making through a process that gathers incomplete and uncertain information to quickly guide decisions toward effective outcomes. They used management feedback to validate decisions through an information loop that resulted in long-term sustainability of environmental use. We examined the Tiwi decision-making processes relative to management of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fisheries and contrasted their management with the state government's management of barramundi. Decisions that enhanced the status of individual people and their attainment of aspiration levels resulted in reliable resource availability for Tiwi consumers. Different decision processes adopted by the state for management of barramundi may not secure similarly sustainable outcomes. PMID:22891858

  14. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: t.jardine@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Halliday, Ian A. [Sustainable Fisheries Unit, Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 46, Brisbane QLD, 4001 (Australia); Howley, Christina [Howley Environmental Consulting and CYMAG Environmental, Cooktown, QLD (Australia); Sinnamon, Vivian [Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resource Management Office, Kowanyama, QLD (Australia); Bunn, Stuart E. [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. {delta}{sup 15}N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  15. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet–dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 μg L−1 and 0.1 μg g−1, respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. δ15N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. ► Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. ► Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. ► Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  16. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-González, Alejandro; Constantinoiu, Constantin C; Rowe, Richard; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-12-01

    The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) (Latidae), by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia) with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 min, 24, 48 h, four, eight, 12, and 16 days). Fluorescent labelling revealed that parasites attached underneath and on the surface of the scales of host fish. Parasite infection success was 20% within 15 min, and peaked at 93% two days post-exposure, before gradually declining between four and sixteen days. Differences in parasite distribution on L. calcarifer over time provided strong evidence that Neobenedenia sp. larvae settled opportunistically and then migrated to specific microhabitats. Parasites initially attached (sexual maturity, there was a marked aggregation on the fins (22 ± 2.35) compared to the head (4 ± 0.97) and body (9 ± 1.33), indicating that Neobenedenia sp. may form mating aggregations. PMID:26199875

  17. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting in a...... presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  18. Assessment Activity of 210Po and 210Pb in the Edible Tissues of Cultured Seabass (Lates calcariferat Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis levels of 210Po and 210Pb were determined in the edible tissue of sea bass (Lates calcarifer from 14 cages in the west and east coast Peninsular of Malaysia. The concentrations level in fish were found varies from 1.35 ± 0.22 to 6.20 ± 0.99 Bq/kg dry weight210Po and 3.30 ± 2.69 to 51.71 ± 19.26 Bq/kg dry weight 210Pb. The level of this radionuclide was much related to the anthropogenic activities at the sampling locations neighbouring area, differences in metabolisms of fish and food intake pattern for each cage. Then the calculated daily intake value due to fish consumption was to be 7.69 mBq/d/person210Po and 35.90 mBq/d/person210Pb, which lower than those reported in others countries. In addition, the collective doses of210Po and210Pb were estimated to be 0.001mSv/year and 0.009 mSv/year, respectively. This suggests that the dose received by Malaysian due to consumption of fish is rather small, and did not deteriorate human’s health and safe for consumption.

  19. Bacterial vaccines for fish--an update of the current situation worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håstein, T; Gudding, R; Evensen, O

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. According to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (Sparus aurata), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), tilapia (Tilapia spp), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), purplish and gold-striped amberjack (Seriola dumereli), striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The range of bacterial infections for which vaccines are commercially available now comprises classical vibriosis (Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii), furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), cold-water vibriosis (Vibrio salmonicida), yersiniosis (Yersinia ruckeri), pasteurellosis (Photobacterium damselae supsp. piscicida), edwardsiellosis (Edwardsiella ictaluri), winter ulcer (Moritella viscosa), and streptococcosis/lactococcosis (Streptococcus iniae, Lactococcus garviae). Furthermore, experimental vaccines are used against diseases such as infection with Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damsela subsp. damsela in barramundi, piscirickettsiosis and bacterial kidney disease in salmonids, as well as infection with Flexibacter maritimus (now: Tenacibaculum maritimum) in turbot. There was good agreement between the information received from different sources in the same country. Most vaccines are licensed products, but some non-licensed vaccines are also used in commercial fish farms. Most bacterial vaccines are inactivated products and recombinant vaccine technology has so far been used to a very limited extent. Salmonid fish are usually immunised with multivalent vaccines by intraperitoneal injection. In marine fish species vaccination is generally

  20. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  1. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  2. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Trujillo-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch (Latidae, by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 min, 24, 48 h, four, eight, 12, and 16 days. Fluorescent labelling revealed that parasites attached underneath and on the surface of the scales of host fish. Parasite infection success was 20% within 15 min, and peaked at 93% two days post-exposure, before gradually declining between four and sixteen days. Differences in parasite distribution on L. calcarifer over time provided strong evidence that Neobenedenia sp. larvae settled opportunistically and then migrated to specific microhabitats. Parasites initially attached (<24 h in greater mean numbers on the body surface (13 ± 1.5 compared to the fins (4 ± 0.42 and head region (2 ± 0.41. Once larvae recruitment had ceased (48 h, there were significantly higher mean post-larvae counts on the head (5 ± 3.4 and fins (12 ± 3 compared to previous time intervals. Neobenedenia sp. aggregated on the eyes, fins, and dorsal and ventral extremities on the main body. As parasites neared sexual maturity, there was a marked aggregation on the fins (22 ± 2.35 compared to the head (4 ± 0.97 and body (9 ± 1.33, indicating that Neobenedenia sp. may form mating aggregations.

  3. Movements of diadromous fish in large unregulated tropical rivers inferred from geochemical tracers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Walther

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration and habitat use in diadromous fishes can be highly variable among individuals. Most investigations into diadromous movement patterns have been restricted to populations in regulated rivers, and little information exists for those in unregulated catchments. We quantified movements of migratory barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch in two large unregulated rivers in northern Australia using both elemental (Sr/Ba and isotope ((87Sr/(86Sr ratios in aragonitic ear stones, or otoliths. Chemical life history profiles indicated significant individual variation in habitat use, particularly among chemically distinct freshwater habitats within a catchment. A global zoning algorithm was used to quantify distinct changes in chemical signatures across profiles. This algorithm identified between 2 and 6 distinct chemical habitats in individual profiles, indicating variable movement among habitats. Profiles of (87Sr/(86Sr ratios were notably distinct among individuals, with highly radiogenic values recorded in some otoliths. This variation suggested that fish made full use of habitats across the entire catchment basin. Our results show that unrestricted movement among freshwater habitats is an important component of diadromous life histories for populations in unregulated systems.

  4. Barcoding of Asian seabass across its geographic range provides evidence for its bifurcation into two distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha eVij

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asian seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer is an important food fish with commercial value and a wide geographic distribution. Though some reports based on molecular and/or morphological data exist, a comprehensive effort to establish species identity across its range is lacking. In order to address this issue and especially to ascertain whether the wide-spread distribution has resulted in bifurcation of the species, we collected Asian seabass samples from various locations representing the Western and Eastern Coastline of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh and Australia. Samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore were collected as part of a previous study. DNA sequence variations, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI, 16S rDNA and the highly variable D-loop (or control region, were examined to establish species delineation. Data from all the sequences analyzed concordantly point to the existence of at least two distinct species - one representing the Indian subcontinent plus Myanmar, and a second, representing Southeast Asia (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia plus Northern Australia. These data are useful for conservation ecology, aquaculture management, for establishing the extent of genetic diversity in the Asian seabass and implementing selective breeding programs for members of this species complex.

  5. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish. PMID:26033292

  6. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude;

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  7. Late-term abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  8. Late onset endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz AlHadlaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube.

  9. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a bro

  10. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  11. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  12. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late effects are by definition effects that occur at least one year, and in most cases decades, after the time of exposure. The late effects considered in this chapter are limited to latent cancer incidence and mortality, and benign thyroid disease. A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from the radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. It is assumed that exposure to high-LET radiation would be negligible in such an accident, and thus only risks from low-LET exposure are evaluated. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, bone cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. Because the time of death is also important in assessing the impact of an accident, and because the quality of life after the occurrence of cancer will often be reduced, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated

  13. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  14. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in...... broader cultural and social changes: different relations among generations, new ways of relating to technology and media, new ways of being together, and new phenomenologies and sensibilities. After a first outline of the figure of the hipster, I mark out two salient traits to hipster culture: its...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  15. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from low-LET radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, cancers of the bones, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, skin, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. In addition, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated. The model used in the earlier Reactor Safety Study has been modified to reflect additional epidemiological data and these changes are described in detail. 37 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  16. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or ...

  17. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg...

  18. Experimental methods in aquatic respirometry: the importance of mixing devices and accounting for background respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G G; Tenzing, P; Clark, T D

    2016-01-01

    In light of an increasing trend in fish biology towards using static respirometry techniques without the inclusion of a mixing mechanism and without accurately accounting for the influence of microbial (background) respiration, this paper quantifies the effect of these approaches on the oxygen consumption rates (ṀO2 ) measured from juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (mean ± s.e. mass = 20·31 ± 0·81 g) and adult spiny chromis damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (22·03 ± 2·53 g). Background respiration changed consistently and in a sigmoidal manner over time in the treatment with a mixing device (inline recirculation pump), whereas attempts to measure background respiration in the non-mixed treatment yielded highly variable estimates of ṀO2 that were probably artefacts due to the lack of water movement over the oxygen sensor during measurement periods. This had clear consequences when accounting for background respiration in the calculations of fish ṀO2 . Exclusion of a mixing device caused a significantly lower estimate of ṀO2 in both species and reduced the capacity to detect differences between individuals as well as differences within an individual over time. There was evidence to suggest that the magnitude of these effects was dependent on the spontaneous activity levels of the fish, as the difference between mixed and non-mixed treatments was more pronounced for L. calcarifer (sedentary) than for A. polyacanthus (more spontaneously active). It is clear that respirometry set-ups for sedentary species must contain a mixing device to prevent oxygen stratification inside the respirometer. While more active species may provide a higher level of water mixing during respirometry measurements and theoretically reduce the need for a mixing device, the level of mixing cannot be quantified and may change with diurnal cycles in activity. To ensure consistency across studies without relying on fish activity levels, and to enable accurate assessments of

  19. Late onset of Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, R. H.; Sax, D S; Schoenfeld, M; Bird, E D; Wolf, P. A.; Vonsattel, J P; White, R. F.; Martin, J B

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with late-onset Huntington's disease were studied; motor impairment appeared at age 50 years or later. The average age at onset of chorea was 57.5 years, with an average age at diagnosis of 63.1 years. Approximately 25% of persons affected by Huntington's disease exhibit late onset. A preponderance of maternal transmission was noted in late-onset Huntington's disease. The clinical features resembled those of mid-life onset Huntington's disease but progressed more slowly. ...

  20. Late onset startle induced tics

    OpenAIRE

    Tijssen, M.; Brown, P.; Morris, H.; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, but have not been described in late onset Tourette's syndrome. Such tics must be distinguished from psychogenic myoclonus and the culture bound startl...

  1. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  2. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  3. Cage culture of sea bass in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the cage culture practice of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in Malaysia. Problems on feed and seed supply and overcrowding are also discussed. Despite these problems, seabass cage culture still continuously booms.

  4. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  5. Late recurrent uveitis after phacoemulsification.

    OpenAIRE

    Saraf Pradeep

    2004-01-01

    It is now assumed that recurrent late onset uveitis after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) is due to indolent infection. Fifteen such cases were observed after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with-in-the-bag IOL implant. These cases were considered noninfective and treated medically with good visual recovery.

  6. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  7. Late running is not too late against Alzheimer's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Arne; Münster, Yvonne; Metzdorf, Judith; Bolczek, Bastien; Krüssel, Sarah; Krieter, David; Yavuz, Ilkay; Karim, Fro; Roggendorf, Constanze; Stang, Anthony; Wang, Yachao; Hermann, Dirk M; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Keyvani, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade a vast number of animal studies have produced overwhelming evidence that exercise not only compensates for memory loss by increasing brain plasticity and cognitive reserve but also directly counteracts Alzheimer-like pathology when provided before disease onset or in early disease stages. But so far, there is little knowledge about therapeutic effects of training when started in advanced disease stages. In the present study we show that following seven months of sedentary life style five months of wheel running, started four months after disease onset was still able to mitigate at least some aspects of the full-blown Alzheimer's pathology in TgCRND8 mice. Late running had mild but significant effects on structural plasticity by increasing the dendritic complexity. It further reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden and enhanced Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier, along with attenuating microgliosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy deficits, resulting in better memory performance and less agitation. However, unlike early exercise, late running did not affect abnormal amyloid precursor protein metabolism, tau pathology, or angiogenesis. These results allow concluding that it is never too late to counteract Alzheimer's disease with physical training but the earlier the intervention starts, the more pronounced is the therapeutic potential. PMID:27312772

  8. Late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agranulocytosis is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 100/mm 3 in association with infectious disease. The risk of agranulocytosis is 0.38% of all clozapine treated cases and there is a relatively lesser incidence in Indian population. The risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia is highest in the first 6 months and higher in the initial 18 months after the onset of treatment. There have been very few reports of neutropenia and agranulocytosis after this period. There have so far been no reports of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis has been reported from India. A case of late onset clozapine induced agranulocytosis with possible mechanism of the same is reported.

  9. CONTRACT MANUFACTURING IN LATE INDUSTRIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    AN-CHI TUNG; HENRY WAN

    2012-01-01

    Contract manufacturing is the catalyst shaping the world economy under globalization. Affirming the dominance of the open network in organizing worldwide value chains, it transformed Japan and US into trade partners rather than rivals. It allows firms like Apple, Nokia and Sony to outsource production tasks to People's Republic of China, which serves as the world's workplace, and provides a niche for Singapore and Taiwan in late industrialization. Tapping into the economy of scope from the po...

  10. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    Introduction One subgroup among elderly with AUD is the “late-onset” abusers. Late-onset (60+ years) AUD seems to be a milder, more narrowly defined psychiatric problem, than early or midlife onset AUD. This review seeks to expand the description and understanding of late-onset AUD by reviewing the...... studies. The results of this review are generally inconclusive. In spite of the low quality scores, we did find that chronic stress, role/identity loss and friends approval of drinking, was associated with an increased risk for late-onset AUD whereas retirement, death of spouse or close relative does not...... increase the risk for late-onset AUD. However, the data was insufficient to give a reliable quantification of these associations. Discussion A common problem for the studies included (and the ones excluded as well) was the lack of common definitions of late-onset, “stress” and “traumatic life events”. This...

  11. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  12. Modeling Late Cretaceous climate and vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    DeConto, Robert M.; Hay, William W.; Bergengren, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous was much warmer than today. There was no significant ice at high latitudes, meridional thermal gradients were low, and continental interiors remained warm during winter. Late Cretaceous atmospheric C02 concentrations were about four times greater than today and an enhanced "greenhouse" effect contributed to the overall warmth of the Late Cretaceous. However , increases in atmospheric C02 tend to increase temperatures at all latitudes and do not explain th...

  13. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Brasser, R; Werner, S C; Matsumura, S; Ida, S

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal (`rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is th...

  14. Late complications of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are cases in which, although all traces of acute radiation complications seem to have disappeared, late complications may appear months or years to become apparent. Trauma, infection or chemotherapy may sometimes recall radiation damage and irreversible change. There were two cases of breast cancer that received an estimated skin dose in the 6000 cGy range followed by extirpation of the residual tumor. The one (12 y.o.) developed atrophy of the breast and severe teleangiectasis 18 years later radiotherapy. The other one (42 y.o.) developed severe skin necrosis twenty years later radiotherapy after administration of chemotherapy and received skin graft. A case (52 y.o.) of adenoidcystic carcinoma of the trachea received radiation therapy. The field included the thoracic spinal cord which received 6800 cGy. Two years and 8 months after radiation therapy she developed complete paraplegia and died 5 years later. A truly successful therapeutic outcome requires that the patient be alive, cured and free of significant treatment-related morbidity. As such, it is important to assess quality of life in long-term survivors of cancer treatment. (author)

  15. Late Disciform Endotheliitis after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Oruçoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and imaging features of the patient with late herpetic keratouveitis after LASIK were investigated. A 25-year-old male patient applied with a chief complaint of blurred vision and photophobia in the left eye. He had a history of herpetic keratitits and elsewhere underwent LASIK procedure in 2005. Oral and topical acyclovir treatments were started a week ago when his complaints started. His corrected distance visual acuity was 0.2 and intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg on the left eye. Slit-lamp revealed deep central disciform edema, keratic precipitates, and 2 positive cells in the anterior chamber. Although the patient had myopic LASIK ablation, the central corneal thickness was 652 microns. Scheimpflug imaging was drawing attention to the thickening of the posterior cornea and the keratic precipitates. Sagital and anterior elevation maps were not affected, however, posterior elevation map showed marked central flattening. Asphericity value Q was within normal limits anteriorly (Q=-0.14 and it was in oblate appearance posteriorly (Q=+5.24. In addition to the antiviral medications, a topical dexamethasone treatment was started. The vision improved to 0.6, and the edema was markedly reduced after 4 days of treatment. Scheimpflug imaging parameters were significantly improved. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 282-5

  16. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  17. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  18. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  19. LATE VISION: PROCESSES AND EPISTEMIC STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios eRaftopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the processes that occur in late vision and address the problem of whether late vision should be construed as a properly speaking perceptual stage, or as a thought-like discursive stage. Specifically, I argue that late vision, its (partly conceptual nature notwithstanding, neither is constituted by nor does it implicate what I call pure thoughts, that is, propositional structures that are formed in the cognitive areas of the brain through, and participate in, discursive reasoning and inferences. At the same time, the output of late vision, namely an explicit belief concerning the identity and category membership of an object (that is, a recognitional belief or its features, eventually enters into discursive reasoning. Using Jackendoff’s distinction between visual awareness, which characterizes perception, and visual understanding, which characterizes pure thought, I claim that the contents of late vision belong to visual awareness and not to visual understanding and that although late vision implicates beliefs, either implicit or explicit, these beliefs are hybrid visual/conceptual constructs and not pure thoughts. Distinguishing between these hybrid representations and pure thoughts and delineating the nature of the representations of late vision lays the ground for examining, among other things, the process of conceptualization that occurs in visual processing and the way concepts modulate perceptual content affecting either its representational or phenomenal character. I also do not discuss the epistemological relations between the representations of late vision and the perceptual judgments they ‘support’, or ‘guide’ or ‘render possible’ or ‘evidence’ or ‘entitle’. However, the specification of the epistemology of late vision lays the ground for attacking that problem as well.

  20. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  1. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-08-31

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements.

  2. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  3. Hepatic blood flow in late sepsis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Abd El Maqsoud

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Duplex ultrasound assessment was a useful bedside method for predicting mortality in late sepsis patients through estimation of HABF, with a reasonable predictive potential at a definite cutoff level.

  4. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  5. Late Cretaceous Limea (Pseudolimea) species of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Four Limea (Pseudolimea) species [L. (Ps.) composita. L. (Ps.) granulata, L. (Ps.) denticulata, L. (Ps.) geinitzi] which occur frequently in Late Cretaceous strata of Europe, are redescribed. Attention is given to their origin, ecology and palaeobiogeographical distribution.

  6. Late unilateral hematoma after breast augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Walter; Fornasier, Victor; Howarth, David

    2014-01-01

    Incidence data regarding late hematoma following breast augmentation do not exist, nor has its etiology been elucidated. Hematomas have been reported to develop months to decades after augmentation with various types of implants, even in the absence of trauma. This study reviewed the occurrence of late hematoma in five patients who received smooth, round silicone gel implants in a single-surgeon practice over a 30-year period. All patients presented with progressive enlargement of the involve...

  7. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soto Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation.

  8. Very Late Bare Metal Stent Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Herrera, Mariana; Restrepo, José A.; Felipe Buitrago, Andrés; Gómez Mejía, Mabel; Díaz, Jesús H.

    2013-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare and not-well-understood complication after bare metal stent implantation. It usually presents as an ST elevation acute coronary syndrome and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well defined; nevertheless, recent studies have proposed a neoatherosclerotic process as the triggering mechanism. We present the case of a patient with bare metal very late stent thrombosis 12 years after implantation. PMID:24829831

  9. Late clotted haemothorax after blunt chest trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, P; Sarkar, P

    1998-01-01

    A clotted haemothorax can develop any time after blunt chest trauma. Two cases are described in which late clotted haemothoraces developed which were treated by limited thoracotomy and evacuation of clots. Late clotted haemothorax may occur even in the absence of any abnormal initial clinical findings. Early detection and treatment is important to avoid the complications of fibrothorax and empyema with permanent pulmonary dysfunction. After blunt chest trauma patients should be advised to ret...

  10. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law ...

  11. Microbleeds in Late-Life Depression: Comparison of Early- and Late-Onset Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Feng; Min Fang; Yu Xu; Ting Hua; Xue-Yuan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Late-life depression could be classified roughly as early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD). LOD was proved to be associated with cerebral lesions including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), differently from EOD. However, it is unclear whether similar association is present between LOD and microbleeds which are also silent lesions. In this study, 195 patients of late-life depression were evaluated and divided into EOD, presenile-onset...

  12. The late adopter scale: A measure of late adopters of technological innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanmir, Sara F.; Lages, Luís Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion of Innovation is a topic of interest for researchers and practitioners. Although substantial research is conducted on user categories, researchers often focus on the first half of the curve, ignoring the late adopters. We conduct two studies to measure the attributes of late adopters. In our first study of mobile phone users, we develop the Late-Adopter Scale. We then test it on a sample of laptop users. This scale is multi-dimensional, presents nomological and discriminant valid...

  13. LATE TRIASSIC (LATE NORIAN-RHAETIAN RADIOLARIANS FROM THE ANTALYA NAPPES, CENTRAL TAURIDES, SOUTHERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UGUR KAGAN TEKIN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hocaköy section measured from the Alakirçay Nappe (middle nappe of the Antalya Nappes contain rich radiolarian fauna ranging from late Norian (Late Triassic to middle-late Cenomanian (mid Cretaceous. At the basal part of the section, the Late Triassic (late Norian-Rhaetian Gökdere Formation is characterized by gray to beige cherty limestone at the base and pinkish red chert- gray to beige limestone alternation at the top, with moderately to well-preserved radiolarians in the red chert beds. The overlying Jurassic - Middle Cretaceous Hocaköy Radiolarite is mainly represented by chert-mudstone alternations with some limestone interlayers. Radiolarians of the Gökdere Formation can be well correlated with that of the fauna from the Mino Terrane, central Japan and the fauna from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Four radiolarian zones from central Japan are recognized in the fauna obtained from Gökdere Formation such as “Praemesosaturnalis multidentatus Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8A” (late Norian, “Praemesosaturnalis pseudokahleri Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8B” (late Norian, ? “ Skirt F lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8C” (late Norian-Rhaetian and partly “Haeckelicyrtium breviora Taxon Range Zone (TR8D” (Rhaetian. In comparison with the Queen Charlotte fauna, the two zones “Betraccium deweveri Zone” (late Norian and “Proparvicingula moniliformis Zone” (early Rhaetian are also encountered in the Gökdere Formation. Radiolarians of the uppermost part of the Gökdere Formation indicate that “Globolaxtorum tozeri Zone” defined in Queen Charlotte Islands corresponding to the late Rhaetian, is not present in the section. Five new taxa, Capnuchosphaera okayi, Bistarkum rhaeticum, Praemesosaturnalis heilongjiangensis aksekiensis, P. nobleae, Veghicyclia sanfilippoae were determined within the late Norian-Rhaetian radiolarian fauna of the Gökdere Formation in Hocaköy section.   

  14. Pathological review of late cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late cerebral radionecrosis may be considered to be a specific chronic inflammatory response, although it is unknown whether the initial damage by brain irradiation is to an endothelial cell or a glial cell. I discuss the pathological specificity of late cerebral radionecrosis by studying the published literature and a case that I experienced. In late cerebral radionecrosis, there are typical coagulation necrosis areas containing fibrinoid necrosis with occlusion of the lumina and poorly active inflammatory areas with many inflammatory ghost cells, focal perivascular lymphocytes, hyalinized vessels, and telangiectatic vascularization near and in the necrotic tissue, and more active inflammatory areas formed as a partial rim of the reactive zone by perivascular lymphocytes, much vascularization, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the corticomedullary border adjacent to necrotic tissue in the white matter. It is difficult to believe that coagulation necrosis occurs without first disordering the vascular endothelial cells because fibrinoid necrosis is a main feature and a diffusely multiple lesion in late cerebral radionecrosis. Because various histological findings do develop, progress, and extend sporadically at different areas and times in the irradiated field of the brain for a long time after radiation, uncontrolled chronic inflammation containing various cytokine secretions may also play a key role in progression of this radionecrosis. Evaluation of the mechanism of the development/aggravation of late cerebral radionecrosis requires a further study for abnormal cytokine secretions and aberrant inflammatory reactions. (author)

  15. The polyimage poetics in Ibsen's late plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique poetics of polyimage implied in Ibsen’s late plays can be excavated with aesthetic reading. The term polyimage is coined to describe Ibsen’s original design in aesthetic form and ingenious realm in aesthetic reaction in his late plays; that is, beyond an imagery realm, another imagery realm exists, which construct a deep vision of significance. In each of the excellent late plays, what Ibsen creates is one or more veiled holistic imagery realms in addition to an ordinary entire imagery realm perceived by most audiences. The “layers of imagery realm” result from Ibsen’s “double self-examinations”, including self-examination of soul and of art. It is these “double self-examinations” that make polyimage possible in his late plays and generates the attribute of “meta-art” in these works. Compared with polyphony in Dostoevsky’s novels, the polyimage in Ibsen’s late plays contains a unique modernity, which is of great significance to modern artistic creation.

  16. Shedding further light on late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary contex......, are less understood and researched. To stimulate research on late globalization, Nikhilesh essay is a rich source for conceiving research questions. Herein I will try to do that.......In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary context...

  17. Climate predictors of late quaternary extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Ohlemüller, Ralf; Batra, Persaram;

    2010-01-01

    Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary...... extinctions, but global quantitative evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. We test the potential role of global climate change on the extinction of mammals during the Late Quaternary. Our results suggest that continents with the highest climate footprint values, in other words, with climate changes...... of greater magnitudes during the Late Quaternary, witnessed more extinctions than continents with lower climate footprint values, with the exception of South America. Our results are consistent across species with different body masses, reinforcing the view that past climate changes contributed to...

  18. Late effects of thoracic irradiation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to summarize the literature regarding the late effects of radiotherapy to the thorax in childhood and adolescence with special emphasis on cardiac and pulmonary impairment. Material und methods: the literature was critically reviewed using the PubMed registered database with the key words 'late effects', 'late sequelae', 'child', 'childhood', 'adolescence', 'radiation', 'radiotherapy', 'thorax', 'lung', 'heart', and 'pulmonary'. Results: 17 publications dealing with radiation-induced pulmonary and cardiac late sequelae in children could be identified and were analyzed in detail. 29 further publications with additional information were also included in the analysis. Pulmonary function impairment after mediastinal irradiation arose in one third of all pediatric patients, even when treatment was performed with normofractionated lower doses (15-25 Gy). Whole lung irradiation was regularly followed by pulmonary function impairment with differing rates in several reports. However, clinically symptomatic function impairment like dyspnea was less frequent. Irradiation of up to 25 Gy (single doses ≤ 2 Gy) to the heart showed little or no cardiac toxicity in analyses of irradiated children (median follow-up 1.3-14.3 years). Doses of > 25 Gy (single doses ≤ 2-3.3 Gy) led to several cardiac dysfunctions. However, new data from adults with longer follow-up may indicate threshold doses as low as 1 Gy. Impairment of skeletal growth, breast hypoplasia, and secondary malignancy were further potential late sequelae. Conclusion: several retrospective reports described radiation-associated late sequelae in children. However, there is still a lack of sufficient data regarding the characterization of dose-volume effects. (orig.)

  19. Late effects of thoracic irradiation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, T.; Koenemann, S.; Ernst, I.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital of Muenster (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to summarize the literature regarding the late effects of radiotherapy to the thorax in childhood and adolescence with special emphasis on cardiac and pulmonary impairment. Material und methods: the literature was critically reviewed using the PubMed {sup registered} database with the key words 'late effects', 'late sequelae', 'child', 'childhood', 'adolescence', 'radiation', 'radiotherapy', 'thorax', 'lung', 'heart', and 'pulmonary'. Results: 17 publications dealing with radiation-induced pulmonary and cardiac late sequelae in children could be identified and were analyzed in detail. 29 further publications with additional information were also included in the analysis. Pulmonary function impairment after mediastinal irradiation arose in one third of all pediatric patients, even when treatment was performed with normofractionated lower doses (15-25 Gy). Whole lung irradiation was regularly followed by pulmonary function impairment with differing rates in several reports. However, clinically symptomatic function impairment like dyspnea was less frequent. Irradiation of up to 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2 Gy) to the heart showed little or no cardiac toxicity in analyses of irradiated children (median follow-up 1.3-14.3 years). Doses of > 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2-3.3 Gy) led to several cardiac dysfunctions. However, new data from adults with longer follow-up may indicate threshold doses as low as 1 Gy. Impairment of skeletal growth, breast hypoplasia, and secondary malignancy were further potential late sequelae. Conclusion: several retrospective reports described radiation-associated late sequelae in children. However, there is still a lack of sufficient data regarding the characterization of dose-volume effects. (orig.)

  20. Nonavian feathers in a late Triassic archosaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T D; Ruben, J A; Martin, L D; Kurochkin, E N; Feduccia, A; Maderson, P F; Hillenius, W J; Geist, N R; Alifanov, V

    2000-06-23

    Longisquama insignis was an unusual archosaur from the Late Triassic of central Asia. Along its dorsal axis Longisquama bore a series of paired integumentary appendages that resembled avian feathers in many details, especially in the anatomy of the basal region. The latter is sufficiently similar to the calamus of modern feathers that each probably represents the culmination of virtually identical morphogenetic processes. The exact relationship of Longisquama to birds is uncertain. Nevertheless, we interpret Longisquama's elongate integumentary appendages as nonavian feathers and suggest that they are probably homologous with avian feathers. If so, they antedate the feathers of Archaeopteryx, the first known bird from the Late Jurassic. PMID:10864867

  1. Three comments on late antiquity history

    OpenAIRE

    Milin Milena L.

    2003-01-01

    The author suggests corrections in reading the inscription CIL III 4002 lines 3-7 (see pp. 1-2). The formula q(ui vixit) ann(os), lines 3-4, was common in Late Antiquity, unlike the previous reading...ann(orum), which was typical for the Early Empire. L.5 memoria frequently appeared in funerary monuments in Late Antiquity. L. 6 Instead of unlikely collegae, the complement colloc(avit or –erunt) has been suggested, according to analogies sedem conlocasse (Siscia, CIL 3996) sepulcrum (!) colloc...

  2. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  3. Are we ready to predict late effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salz, Talya; Baxi, Shrujal S; Raghunathan, Nirupa;

    2015-01-01

    heart failure and cardiac event after breast cancer; swallowing dysfunction after head and neck cancer; breast cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma and thyroid cancer after childhood cancer. Of these, four late effects are persistent effects of treatment and five appear after a latent period. Two studies were...

  4. The early days of late blight

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Paul RJ; Cooke, David EL

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years.

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  6. Late complication of Boari bladder flap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzeg, Semin; Beyersdorff, Dirk; Kopka, Lars [Department of Radiology, Charite Campus Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgart, Egbert; Lenk, Severin [Department of Urology, Charite Campus Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A very rare late complication of Boari bladder flap repair with development of pseudodiverticulum and recurrent genitourinary tract infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux is presented. Radiologic evaluation of the patient comprised intravenous pyelography (IVP), micturating cystourethrogram, cystoscopy, and multislice computed tomography (MSCT). (orig.)

  7. Late complication of Boari bladder flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very rare late complication of Boari bladder flap repair with development of pseudodiverticulum and recurrent genitourinary tract infection secondary to vesicoureteral reflux is presented. Radiologic evaluation of the patient comprised intravenous pyelography (IVP), micturating cystourethrogram, cystoscopy, and multislice computed tomography (MSCT). (orig.)

  8. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  9. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  10. Dementia caused by radiogenic cerebral late necroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral damage caused by radiation continues to be a hazard in modern radiotherapy. Dementia may develop, among other diseases, due to bilateral late radionecroses of the diencephalon and of mediobasal temporal lobe areas, e.g. after radiotherapy of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  11. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  12. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d− was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  13. Late Bronze Age hoard studied by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni, and Ag has been determined using this ion beam technique. The high tin content alloy and the high purity of the metals from the Freixanda hoard are characteristic of the Portuguese and Spanish Late Bronze Age metallurgy, supporting the idea of a regional production.

  14. Ribbed vaults of late Gothic in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Casu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The late Gothic construction practice, settled in the Spanish Mediterranean area, is based on predetermined geometric rules and is shown in religious buildings with ribbed vaults. The proportion between the sides of the area to cover, tracing plan of the ribs as a succession of corner bisectors, stereotomy problems and volumetric aspects, are just some of the elements that can describe the complex construction of a ribbed vault. The aim of this paper is to analyze the dimensional information of the late gothic ribbed vaults of Sardinia, in order to define the geometric and proportional rules for a correct drawing, establishing a standard procedure for the collection of measures and the construction of the 3D model of vaults.

  15. Mobile ICT Acceptance in Late Adopter Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    and part of the Eurozone. It has advanced telecommunications infrastructure and is subject to the same telecommunications regulations as other EU members. While neighbours have high smartphone penetration, Slovakia is a late majority adopter. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behavior...... to investigate the question: What drives the use of smartphones in late majority countries? By studying the differences between current and potential smartphone users, the study revisits Karahanna et al.’s research question: Do potential adopters and users of IT hold the same behavioral and normative...... beliefs? PLS analysis finds that habit, affect, and perceived social norms explain 66% of the intention to buy a smartphone. Surprisingly, perceived consequences, which measures the instrumental usefulness, is not significant. A comparison of users and non-users find that they differ in almost every...

  16. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, R. M.; L. E. Lisiecki

    2015-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  17. Late Stent Thrombosis Associated with Heavy Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Simsek, Ziya; Arslan, Sakir; Gundogdu, Fuat

    2009-01-01

    Bare-metal stents are commonly used in the treatment of coronary artery disease. Stent thrombosis usually occurs within the first 48 hours after stent deployment. After a week, the incidence of thrombosis is low. Late stent thrombosis (after 30 days) is rarely seen; however, its clinical outcomes are severe 30-day mortality rates of 20% to 48% and myocardial infarction rates of 60% to 70%. Herein, we present the case and discuss the treatment of a patient who, after heavy exercise, experience...

  18. The late results of Hauser's operation

    OpenAIRE

    Cakmak, Mehmet; Domanic, Unsal; Akalin, Yilmaz; Taser, Omer

    2004-01-01

    Attempts have been made to examine the late results obtained from 9 knees in 7 cases, as well as to discuss the place of Hauser's operation today under the light of literature. It has also been stressed that Hausers operation should not be performed before the age of 14 and in cases of habitual patella dislocations and that Blauth-Mann modification should be applied in recurrent patella dislocations ana subluxations.

  19. The Rural Market in Late Imperial China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ren

    2010-01-01

    The rural market was an important constituent of marketing system, and formed an un-vertical congruent relationship with urban market in late imperial China. There were different types of rural fair in the imperial China. Xu, Chang, Ji, Dian, Shi, Hui, all of them were the regular fairs. Their number was huge. They distributed widely, played a distinct role, and became the base of rural market development. During Tang and Song dynasties, county seat, town or village had some regular fairs. Th...

  20. Late diagnosis iniencephaly with spina bifida

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Marangoz Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Herein a rare case of iniencephaly combined with spina bifida is reported, which was diagnosed late because the G6P5 mother had not attended hospital for first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. A woman aged 33 years who was 38 weeks pregnant presented for ante-natal follow-up. Her clinical results were normal but abnormalities including polyhydramnios, retroflexion of the head with absence of neck, acrania, and severe growth retardation were observed in the fetus. The...

  1. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    Late preterm (LPT) neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature ...

  2. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  3. Late toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study is to describe and classify chronic complications due to radiotherapy in breast cancer. Also the impact of radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients is evaluated. Materials and methods: 50 patients with breast cancer at early stages (78% in situ, 22% I and II) treated with radiotherapy in breast volume plus boost (45/50 Gy + 18/20 Gy) with a follow up over 5 years. Acute toxicities were found retrospectively and chronic toxicities were assessed though physical examination and review of complementary studies. To facilitate data collection, pre printed forms were used. Bibliographic searches were made. Results: 10% received chemotherapy and 64% tamoxifen. The predominant chronic toxicity were found in skin (66%), although grade I and II (hyperpigmentation 26%, dryness 22%, telangiectasia 10% fibrosis, 4%, other 4%). A 50% of the patients showed hypoesthesia in ipsilateral upper limb. The other toxicities were presented in low rate and magnitude: mastodynia 16%; actinic pneumonitis 4%, pyrosis 4%, Tachycardia 2%, among others. Of the patients with acute toxicity, only 30% were grade III. The 70% of the patients had a positive impact of radiotherapy on quality of life. Conclusions: We found low rates and degrees of late toxicity. It was noticed a relationship between acute and chronic toxicity, because those who presented adverse effects during treatment developed late effects. It reflects the importance of integrating monitoring as part of radiation treatment. It should be adopted a single score of late toxicity measurement to unify data from different series. (authors)

  4. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx-gt 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies (ΔT/T) approx-lt 10-5 can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of ∼100M pc for large-scale structure as well as ∼1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs

  5. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of 56Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs

  6. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerzendorf, W. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J., E-mail: wkerzendorf@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  7. Very late photometry of SN 2011fe

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzendorf, W E; Seitenzahl, I R; Ruiter, A J

    2014-01-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (> 900 d) of thermonuclear supernovae. These late stages allow for a direct measurement of the decay processes of nuclei synthesized in the core of the explosion. In this paper, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedentedly late epoch of ~ 930 d with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g=23.37+/- 0.25, r=24.03 +/- 0.09, i=23.90 +/- 0.15, and z=23.74 +/- 0.16) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of 56Co. This is in spite of several theoretical predictions that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes wh...

  8. Nile behaviour and Late Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Van Neer, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of the environment and the human population history of the Nile Valley during the Late Pleistocene have received a lot of attention in the literature thus far. There seems to be a consensus that during MIS2 extreme dry conditions prevailed over north-eastern Africa, which was apparently not occupied by humans. The Nile Valley seems to be an exception; numerous field data have been collected suggesting an important population density in Upper Egypt during MIS2. The occupation remains are often stratified in, or at least related to, aeolian and Nile deposits at some elevation above the present-day floodplain. They are rich in lithics and animal bones, mainly fish, illustrating the exploitation of the Nile Valley by the Late Palaeolithic inhabitants. The fluvial processes active during that period have traditionally been interpreted as a continuously rising highly braided river. In this paper we summarize the evidence thus far available for the Late Pleistocene on the population densities in the Nile Valley, and on the models of Nilotic behaviour. In the discussion we include data on the environmental conditions in Eastern Africa, on the aeolian processes in the Western Desert of Egypt derived from satellite images, 14C and OSL dates, in order to formulate a new model that explains the observed high remnants of aeolian and Nilotic deposits and the related Late Palaeolithic sites. This model hypothesizes that, during the Late Pleistocene, and especially the LGM, dunes from the Western Desert invaded the Nile Valley at several places in Upper Egypt. The much reduced activity of the White Nile and the Blue Nile was unable to evacuate incoming aeolian sand and, as a consequence, several dams were created in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley. Behind such dams the created lakes offered ideal conditions for human subsistence. This model explains the occurrence of Late Palaeolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers in a very arid environment with very low Nile flows

  9. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy liver are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ... are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Childhood cancer survivors with liver ... Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ...

  10. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  11. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers. As prescribed in 873.110(a), insert the following provision: Late Offers (JAN 2003) This provision...

  12. 10 CFR 766.106 - Late payment fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payment fees. 766.106 Section 766.106 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.106 Late payment fees. In the case of a late payment by a domestic utility...

  13. 24 CFR 203.554 - Enforcement of late charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on the part of the mortgagor is the failure to pay a late charge or charges (§ 203.25), except as provided in § 203.556. (b) A late charge attributable to a particular installment payment due under the... mortgagor of his obligation to pay a late charge, such a charge may be deducted from any subsequent...

  14. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  15. Late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raashid Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to highlight the clinical profile, misdiagnosis, surgical treatment,and prognosis of late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH cases in a tertiary level hospital. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included all the babies and children >1 month of age with CDH who were admitted in our Hospital (Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, India during the period between January 2008 and December 2013. Babies with age <1 month were excluded from the study. Data regarding clinical profile, operative records, and follow-up was reviewed and analysed statistically. Results: A total of 20 patients were included in this study. The clinical picture ranged from respiratory distress (13 patients to non-specific gastrointestinal complaints (5 patients. In two patients, CDH was misdiagnosed as pneumothorax and had got chest tube inserted in other hospitals before referral to this tertiary care centre. In 14 patients chest, X-ray revealed the diagnosis of CDH and in remaining five patients (including the two patients with misdiagnosis further investigations were undertaken to establish the diagnosis. Age ranged from 45 days to 17 years with an average age of 58.9 months. There were 12 male and 8 female patients. In all the 20 patients, surgical procedures were undertaken with the retrieval of herniated contents from the thoracic cavity and repair of the diaphragmatic defect. There was no mortality in our series. All the 20 patients were followed-up for a period ranging from 6 months to 5 years (median 3.1 years. Conclusions: Late-presenting CDH can have diverse clinical presentation. Late diagnosis and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity and potential mortality if these cases are not managed properly at an appropriate stage. Outcome is favourable if these patients are expeditiously identified and surgically repaired.

  16. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  17. Literacy and Trade in Late Medieval Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hagland, Jan Ragnar

    2011-01-01

    Only faint traces can be observed of literacy connected to domains other than the legal sphere in late medieval Norway. This may be the result of poor archival practices for keeping written material not strictly connected to legal matters, such as the activities carried out by merchants and tradesmen. The present article tries nonetheless to study whether or not it is possible to relate the notion of literacy to trade in this period of time. The lack of evidence written in Roman letters may, ...

  18. Late Termination of Pregnancy. Professional Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester.This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the ...

  19. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: late skin manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Marckmann, Peter; Rossen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    confluent dermal plaques with thickening and hardening. In contrast, 3 patients presented with wrinkled, redundant skin as seen in cutis laxa. Patients with NSF had significantly poorer scores than control patients on the Daily Life Quality Index (mean [SD], 11. 4 [7.4] vs 1.5 [2. 3]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists and...

  20. Late Bronze Age Hoard studied by PIXE

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Neira, P. C.; Zucchiatti, A.; Montero-Ruiz, I.; Vilaça, R.; Bottaini, C.; Gener, M.; Climent-Font, A.

    2011-01-01

    The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising 4 socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni and A...

  1. Educating Citizens in Late Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2011-01-01

    . One is being a loyal subject in state and society affairs, a second is being an informed voter in state elections, a third is being a critical participant in state and society affairs and a forth is being an independent, innovative citizen outside state. The model is inspired by rather comprehensive...... model is based on the fundamental belief that the overall aim of civic education in democratic, late modern and global societies is empowerment of the citizen in order to establish a self governing citizen who simultaneous is capable of managing and keeping together partly contradictory citizens tasks...

  2. Baryogenesis and Late-Decaying Moduli

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver

    2010-01-01

    Late-decaying string moduli dilute the baryon asymmetry of the universe created in any previous era. The reheat temperature for such moduli is below a GeV, thus motivating baryogenesis at very low temperatures. We present an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with TeV-scale colored fields that can yield the correct baryon asymmetry of the universe in this context. Modulus decay, which reheats the universe at a temperature below GeV, produces the visible sector fields and n...

  3. Factors of late radiosensitivity of normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of curative radiotherapy depends mainly on the total dose delivered homogeneously in the targeted volume. Nevertheless, the dose delivered to the surrounding healthy tissues may reduce the therapeutic ratio of many radiation treatments. Two different side effects (acute and late) can occur during and after radiotherapy. Of particular interest are the radiation-induced sequelae due to their irreversibility and the potential impact on daily quality of life. In a same population treated in one centre with the same technique, it appears that individual radiosensitivity clearly exists. In the hypothesis that genetic is involved in this area of research, lymphocytes seem to be the tissue of choice due to easy accessibility. Recently, low percentage of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte apoptosis were shown to be correlated with high grade of sequelae. In addition, recent data suggest that patients with severe radiation-induced late side effects possess four or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes (ATM, SOD2, TGFB1, XRCC1, and XRCC3) and low radiation-induced CD8 lymphocyte apoptosis in vitro. On-going studies are being analyzing the entire genome using a Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis. (authors)

  4. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  5. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  6. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  7. Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosswald, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A considerable portion of Northern Eurasia, and particularly its continental shelf, was glaciated by inland ice during late Weichsel time. This was first inferred from such evidence as glacial striae, submarine troughs, sea-bed diamictons, boulder trains on adjacent land, and patterns of glacioisostatic crustal movements. Subsequently, the inference was confirmed by data on the occurrence and geographic position of late Weichselian end moraines and proglacial lacustrine deposits. The south-facing outer moraines in the northeastern Russian Plain, northern West Siberia, and on Taimyr Peninsula are underlain by sediments containing wood and peat, the radiocarbon dating of which yielded ages of 22,000 to 45,000 yr B.P. The youngest late-glacial moraines are of Holocene age: the double Markhida moraine in the lower Pechora River basin, presumably associated with "degradational" surges of the Barents Ice Dome, is underlain by sediments with wood and peat dated at 9000 to 9900 yr B.P.: this suggests that deglaciation of the Arctic continental shelf of Eurasia was not completed until after 9000 yr B.P. The reconstructed ice-front lines lead to the conclusion that the late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia (proposed name: the Eurasian Ice Sheet) extended without interruptions from southwestern Ireland to the northeastern end of Taimyr Peninsula, a distance of 6000 km: it covered an area of 8,370,000 km 2, half of which lay on the present-day continental shelves and a quarter on lowlands that were depressed isostatically below sea level. Hence, the ice sheet was predominantly marine-based. A contour map of the ice sheet based both on the dependence of the heights of ice domes upon their radii and on factual data concerning the impact of bedrock topography upon ice relief has been constructed. The major features of the ice sheet were the British, Scandinavian, Barents, and Kara Ice Domes that had altitudes of 1.9 to 3.3 km and were separated from one another by ice

  8. How Common are Extrasolar, Late Heavy Bombardments?

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Levison, Harold F

    2009-01-01

    The habitability of planets is strongly affected by impacts from comets and asteroids. Indications from the ages of Moon rocks suggest that the inner Solar System experienced an increased rate of impacts roughly 3.8 Gya known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). Here we develop a model of how the Solar System would have appeared to a distant observer during its history based on the Nice model of Gomes et al. (2005). We compare our results with observed debris discs. We show that the Solar System would have been amongst the brightest of these systems before the LHB. Comparison with the statistics of debris disc evolution shows that such heavy bombardment events must be rare occurring around less than 12% of Sun-like stars.

  9. Possible impact event in the Late Cambrian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The repeated investigation of the Batyrbay section has been done by the authors. Today we see increasing of interest to revising of volumes and boundaries of Stages and Series in the Cambrian and Ordovician,as well as to the events of this time. In this work the description of iron spherules and particles, found in the deep-water limestone layer of the conodont Cordylodus primitivus Zone in the middle Upper Cambrian of the Batyrbay section, Malyi Karatau of South Kazakhstan, and formed during the time of global sea-level changes known as a world-wide Lange Ranch Eustatic event, have been done. From our point of view, finds of iron spherules and particles may evidence about new unknown yet Event of cosmic origin, i.e. falling of a meteorite on Earth in the middle Late Cambrian.

  10. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (<100 ms) and later phases (>200 ms) of rising muscle...... force. Fifteen healthy young males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle...... biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area...

  11. Late Preterm birth and its morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo-Ramos Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: preterm birth is a public health problem due to its high incidence. It canbe extremely preterm, very preterm and late preterm, according to the gestational age.The late preterm birth is the most prevalent subgroup.Objective: identify the early complications and the long-term morbidity that morefrequently have been related with preterm born between 34 and 36 weeks/6 days ofpregnancy.Methods: thematic review. An electronic search was carried out in databases Pubmed,Science direct, EBSCOhost and Scielo. There were considered articles published sinceJanuary, 1997 to December, 2012 in Spanish and English. Obstetric texts also werereviewed.Results: 50 of 300 identified articles achieved the aim of the review. The most commoncomplications that had an early presentation were: hospital re-entry, respiratory problems, suction defects, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia. The most frequent latecomplications were: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, psychological and psychiatricdisorders, mainly schizophrenia and depressive disorders. The late preterm births present10% of the neonatal mortality.Conclusions: late preterm births present higher morbidity than those full-term births.It is not recommended to finish the pregnancy between 34 and 36 weeks without the adequate indication. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2012;4(1: 134-141RESUMEN:Introducción: el parto pretérmino es un problema de salud pública por su elevadaincidencia. Puede ser extremo, muy pretérmino o tardío, dependiendo de la edadgestacional. El parto pretérmino tardío es el subgrupo más prevalente.Objetivo: identificar las complicaciones tempranas y la morbilidad a largo plazo que másfrecuentemente se han relacionado con pretérminos nacidos entre las 34 y 36 semanas/6días de gestación.Metodología: revisión temática. Se realizó búsqueda electrónica en las bases de datosPubMed, Science direct, EBSCOhost y Scielo. Se consideraron artículos publicados desdeenero de 1997 a

  12. Assessing Fatigue in Late-Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieo, Robert A; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lund, Rikke;

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods examining the Multiple Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20) fatigue questionnaire have been limited to classical test theory, for example, factor analytic approaches. We employed modern test theory to further strengthen the construct validity of the MFI-20 fatigue in a sample of healthy...... late-midlife subjects. Five subdimensions of perceived fatigue were examined in n = 7,233 subjects: general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. Fatigue burden was compared across age groups (aged 48-52 vs. 57-63) and gender. Mokken item response theory...... was used to investigate dimensionality, monotonicity, and invariant item ordering (IIO). In both age groups, as well as by gender, the Motivation domain presented with weak scalability, suggesting that caution be exercised when interpreting sum scores. For all groupings, the strongest scaling...

  13. The pathogenesis of late cerebral radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more detailed study of the problem of pathogenesis of late cerebral radiation necrosis a patient after a course of remote radiotherapy for endocellar hypophysis tumor has been observed. Appearance of ''secondary'' necrosis foci is described. Necrotic changes which emerge in various terms after immediate radiation effect are shown. An assumption is made that the developing pathological process occurs by the type of autoallergic reaction. Where the role of the allergen is played by the products of intensive decomposition of myelin which is observed in injury foci. Attention of clinical physicians Ond radiation therapeutists is drawn to the fact that when prescribing radio therapy and particularly repetition courses one should consider a possibility of autoimmune after-effects

  14. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. PMID:24375575

  15. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano;

    2016-01-01

    sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7......Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary...

  16. Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Povlsen, G K

    2011-01-01

    Late cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) carries high morbidity and mortality because of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and subsequent cerebral ischaemia. This is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in cerebral artery smooth muscles via the activation of...... intracellular signalling. In addition, delayed cerebral ischaemia after SAH is associated with inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This article reviews recent evidence concerning the roles of vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation, inflammation and BBB breakdown in delayed cerebral...... ischaemia after SAH. In addition, recent studies investigating the role of various intracellular signalling pathways in these processes and the possibilities of targeting signalling components in SAH treatment are discussed. Studies using a rat SAH model have demonstrated that cerebral arteries increase...

  17. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  18. Late renal function following whole abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty patients treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy who had remained disease-free since completion of treatment participated in a study to assess the late clinical and biochemical effects of bilateral renal irradiation. Minimum follow-up was 5 years with a maximum of 20 years and a median of 9 years. Fifty-two patients in the study group were treated for primary ovarian cancer. Seven had non-Hodgkins lymphoma arising in the gastrointestinal tract and one patient had a carcinoid tumour arising in small bowel. None of the patients received chemotherapy. Abdominal radiation was given using an open beam technique to a mean dose of 22.92 Gy (range 6.68-27.54 Gy) in 1.02 to 1.25 Gy fractions treated once daily. Posterior kidney shields were used in order to limit the renal dose to <20 Gy. Mean radiation dose to both kidneys (retrospectively calculated) was 19.28 Gy (range 6.68-22.99 Gy). Patients ranged in age from 32-81 years with a median of 61 years. No patient had clinical evidence of renal impairment. Nine patients were hypertensive prior to radiotherapy and a further five patients became hypertensive after treatment. Serum creatinine values ranged from 44-123 μmol/l, with a mean of 87 μmol/l. Creatinine clearance ranged from 0.61-2.38 ml/s (mean 1.28 ml/s). Tubular function tests revealed one borderline high 24-h protein excretion and normal 24-h phosphorous and uric acid. Using a multiple linear regression analysis with creatinine clearance as the endpoint, age was the only significant variable (P < 0.00001) and renal dose and interval from treatment were not independently significant. There was no evidence of late renal toxicity more than 5 years after whole abdominal radiotherapy delivered with this technique and dose/fractionation schedule, and using the clinical and biochemical endpoints assessed in this study

  19. Late renal function following whole abdominal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, C; Fyles, A; Wong, C S; Cheung, C M; Zhu, Y

    1996-03-01

    Sixty patients treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy who had remained disease-free since completion of treatment participated in a study to assess the late clinical and biochemical effects of bilateral renal irradiation. Minimum follow-up was 5 years with a maximum of 20 years and a median of 9 years. Fifty-two patients in the study group were treated for primary ovarian cancer. Seven had non-Hodgkins lymphoma arising in the gastrointestinal tract and one patient had a carcinoid tumour arising in small bowel. None of the patients received chemotherapy. Abdominal radiation was given using an open beam technique to a mean dose of 22.92 Gy (range 6.68-27.54 Gy) in 1.02 to 1.25 Gy fractions treated once daily. Posterior kidney shields were used in order to limit the renal dose to creatinine values ranged from 44-123 mumol/l, with a mean of 87 mumol/l. Creatinine clearance ranged from 0.61-2.38 ml/s (mean 1.28 ml/s). Tubular function tests revealed one borderline high 24-h protein excretion and normal 24-h phosphorous and uric acid. Using a multiple linear regression analysis with creatinine clearance as the endpoint, age was the only significant variable (P < 0.00001) and renal dose and interval from treatment were not independently significant. There was no evidence of late renal toxicity more than 5 years after whole abdominal radiotherapy delivered with this technique and dose/fractionation schedule, and using the clinical and biochemical endpoints assessed in this study. PMID:8693108

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 october 2010-30 november 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, C; Agudelo, P.A.; Ba, K.; Barber, P.A.; Bisol, P.M.; Brouat, Carine; Burgess, T.I.; Calves, I.; Avila, M.C.; Chow, S; Cordes, L.; Da Silva, D.; Dalecky, Ambroise; De Meester, L; Doadrio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, ...

  1. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (reptiles (scincids, lacertids, gekkonids, anguids, varanids, colubrids, testudinids, emydids), birds (coliiformes), rodents and lagomorphs (cricetids, glirids, eomyids, sciurids, castorids), insectivores and chiropterans (erinaceids, soricids, talpids), and large mammals (suids, tragulids, moschids, cervids, ?palaeomerycids, equids, chalicotheriids, rhinos, proboscidians, carnivors). Litho- and biostratigraphy (terrestrial gastropods) as well as magnetostratigraphic data and the sequence stratigraphic and geodynamic frame indicate an age of 12-12.2 Ma (early Late Sarmatian s.str., chron 5An.1n) for the locality. Therefore, Gratkorn is one of richest and most complete fauna of the late Middle Miocene of Central Europe and will be confidentially one of the key faunas for a high-resolution continental biostratigraphy and the comprehension of the faunal succession and interchanges near the Middle/Late Miocene transition. Acknowledgements This is a preliminary overview of the Gratkorn vertebrate fauna. Several taxa are still under investigation. We are especially grateful to Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Ursula Göhlich (both Natural History Museum Vienna) and Getrud Rössner (University of Munich) for their comments to the rodents, ruminants, proboscidians and bird remains. References Böhme, M., Ilg, A., Winklhofer, M. 2008. Late Miocene "washhouse" climate in Europe.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 275: 393-401. Gross, M., 2008. A limnic ostracod fauna from the surroundings of the Central

  2. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, P.W. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. FLouis, MO (United States); Russell, A. [Radiological Associates, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bruner, D. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptons, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed. 61 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptoms, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed

  4. Correlates of late HIV diagnosis: implications for testing policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Cuzin, Lise; Marchou, Bruno; Massip, Patrice; Lang, Thierry; Lert, France; Study Group, The Vespa

    2007-01-01

    To develop new strategies aimed to reduce the delay in seeking HIV diagnosis, we proposed to identify correlates of late diagnosis of HIV infection in France. Late testing was studied among the 1077 patients diagnosed from 1996 and enrolled in the ANRS-EN12-VESPA, a representative sample of the French HIV-infected population. Patients were defined as 'late testers' if they had presented either clinical AIDS events or CD4 cell count

  5. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Nacif, Lucas Souto; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; Ducatti, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; Andraus, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were a...

  6. Negotiating Chinese modernity: British imperialism and the late Qing reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dongqing; 王冬青

    2013-01-01

     This thesis offers a critical analysis of the intellectual and institutional transformations in late Qing China. The Western invasion of China in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the making of modern China. Focusing on the late Qing reforms in the fields of law, public rituals, education, and economy, this thesis investigates China’s efforts and strategies to negotiate with British imperialism in its search for modernity. Situating the late Qing reforms in a semi...

  7. Psychiatry - life events and social support in late life depression

    OpenAIRE

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva; Tânia Ferraz Alves; Luís Fernando Tófoli; Yuan-Pang Wang; Laura Helena Andrade

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 ...

  8. Treatment-resistant late-life depression: challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Knöchel, Christian; Alves, Gilberto; Friedrichs, Benedikt; Schneider, Barbara; Schmidt-Rechau, Anna; Wenzlera, Sofia; Schneider, Angelina; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, André F.; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    The current Review article provides a narrative review about the neurobiological underpinnings and treatment of treatment resistant late-life depression (TRLLD). The manuscript focuses on therapeutic targets of late-life depression, which include pharmacological, psychological, biophysical and exercise treatment approaches. Therefore, we summarize available evidences on that kind of therapies for patients suffering from late-life depression. The search for evidences of therapeutic options of ...

  9. Two-stage arterial switch operation: is late ever too late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qethamy, Howaida O; Aizaz, Khawar; Aboelnazar, Saber A R; Hijab, Samina; Al Faraidi, Yahya

    2002-09-01

    Results of the two-stage arterial switch operation in 49 patients with transposition of the great arteries, performed between January 1995 and September 2000, were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-one patients had a ventricular septal defect. Anatomical correction was carried out 21.89 +/- 9.86 months after pulmonary artery banding, with or without a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Hospital mortality was 8% (4 patients). During follow-up of 30.12 +/- 14.38 months, there was 1 late death and 1 patient required reoperation for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta. Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation at 5 years were 90% and 97%, respectively. Late anatomic correction (> 6 months) after the preliminary procedure can be performed with an acceptable mortality and morbidity, but undue delay may lead to left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and new aortic valve regurgitation or subaortic stenosis. PMID:12213747

  10. Pharmacological modulation of late radio-induced side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After normal tissue exposure to radiation therapy, late side effects can occur and may reduce patients' quality of life due to their progressive nature. Late toxicities occurrence is the main limiting factor of radiotherapy. Various biological disorders related to irradiation are involved in the development of late toxicities including fibrosis. The present review will focus on the recent physiopathological and molecular mechanisms described to be involved in the development of late radio-induced toxicities, that provide therapeutic perspective for pharmaco-modulation. (authors)

  11. ExtrapoLATE-ing: External Validity and Overidentification in the LATE Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Angrist; Ivan Fernandez-Val

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a covariate-based approach to the external validity of instrumental variables (IV) estimates. Assuming that differences in observed complier characteristics are what make IV estimates differ from one another and from parameters like the effect of treatment on the treated, we show how to construct estimates for new subpopulations from a given set of covariate-specific LATEs. We also develop a reweighting procedure that uses the traditional overidentification test statistic ...

  12. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei

    2015-08-01

    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  13. North atlantic deepwater temperature change during late pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, G.S.; Cronin, T. M.; Baker, P.A.; Raymo, M.E.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.; Correge, T.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in the deep North Atlantic show that the change in bottom water temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity cycles averaged 1.5??C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) and increased to 2.3??C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, coincidentally with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary, bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5??C. These results show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since 3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively diminished deep-water production in the North Atlantic and of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the North Atlantic during glacial periods. The ostracode Mg/Ca data also allow the direct determination of the temperature component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary. The effects of dissolution on the Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode shells appear to have been minimal.

  14. Late Permian to Early Triassic magnetostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Maja; Heller, Friedrich

    1991-10-01

    A Late Permian to Early Triassic magnetostratigraphic reference section is presented. The Lower Triassic part is based on results from marine limestone sections in South China published earlier [1,2]. Reliable new Permian data are added here which have been collected in the Nammal gorge (Salt Range, Northwest Pakistan) where marine sediments have been deposited quasi-continuously with occasional minor hiatuses during the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic. About 50% of the Permian samples from the Nammal section contain, hidden beneath a strong recent or Tertiary overprint, a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) which is very likely of Permian age. This component, which was imprinted on the southern hemisphere, has normal as well as reversed polarity with a normal mean direction (Decl. = 289.3°, Incl. = -50.3°, α 95 = 4.3° , N = 113) which is in close agreement with the palaeofield direction expected for a site belonging to the Indian plate as part of Gondwanaland during the Permian. In the lower Upper Permian several normal polarity zones are recognized. This contradicts the current assumption that rocks of this age belong to the long, reversely polarized Kiaman hyperzone. The Kiaman interval must end and the Illawarra hyperzone of mixed polarity must begin in or prior to the lowermost Upper Permian. The Permian/Triassic boundary at Nammal as well as in the Chinese sections is situated very close to a transition from a reversed to a normal polarity zone. The Upper Permian at Nammal together with the Lower Triassic South China sections is estimated to cover about 20 Ma. Nearly 30 polarity changes are observed which result in an average reversal frequency very similar to that observed during the early Tertiary. The reversal rate after the end of the long-lasting reversed Kiaman hyperchron apparently increases in a manner similar to that after the end of the Cretaceous Long Normal Superchron. Only a few polarity zones are found in the lower Upper Permian

  15. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  16. Identification of a novel downstream binding protein implicated in late-phase-specific activation of the adenovirus major late promotor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mondesert, G; Tribouley, C; Kedinger, C

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus major late promotor (MLP) is induced to very high levels after the onset of the viral DNA replication. Previous studies have identified sequence elements located downstream of the MLP startsite (DE1, between +85 and +98; DE2, between +100 and +120) implicated, together with the upstream promoter element, in this late-phase-specific transcriptional activation. One protein (DEF, now renamed DEF-A), induced during the late phase of viral infection, has been identified and shown to...

  17. High-level transcription from the adenovirus major late promoter requires downstream binding sites for late-phase-specific factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, K; Lee, W.; Berk, A J

    1990-01-01

    The adenovirus major late promoter (MLP) is active during both the early and late phases of infection. During the early phase the activity of the MLP is similar to those of the other early viral promoters, but during the late phase the rate of transcription from the MLP becomes much greater by comparison. We report here that sequence-specific binding proteins are induced during the late phase which interact with three regions in the first intron of the MLP transcription unit from positions +3...

  18. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  19. History of Late-Notice HIEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, P.

    2016-01-01

    Question was raised: are we seeing more late-notice events in recent months? Two definitions oflate-notice used to compare data: Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 days where the Pcwas below 1E-7, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data point between TCA-2days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4Event has at least one data point between TCA-4 days and TCA-2 dayswhere the Pc was below 1E-5, OR there were no data points in that timeframe. Event has at least one data pointbetween TCA-2 days and TCA where the Pc was at least 1E-4. The case studies that were examined all fall within criteriafor both definitions Terra vs 38192; TCA 24 JUN 2015Aura vs 89477; TCA 29 AUG 2015Terra vs 37131; TCA 19 DEC2015GPM vs 28685; TCA 5 SEP 2015.

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBattaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirms the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions.

  1. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  2. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  3. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  4. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve

  5. [Medical statistics in the late Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    Chinese medical statistics basically went through three stages in the Late Qing Dynasty. The early stage was individual behavior of missionary doctors. In the early 16(th) century, western countries began to collect materials about medicine and public health in China. After the Opium War in 1840, more missionaries came to China and more doctors engaged in medical information collection and statistics. In 1860s, the western countries stole the customs power control from the Qing's government and the systematization process of statistics began. The process, content, method and time of statistics were improved. In the 20(th) century, modernity of medicine became the scale for a country's self-management qualification. Statistics was needed by the Qing government and relevant medical administration was established. During this process, they carried out this activity with different purposes according to the different participants. But from the point of influence, medical statistics promoted the spread and development of western medicine in China. They were also helpful to the perfection of medical research and public health system in China. PMID:23879982

  6. Late diagnosis iniencephaly with spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Marangoz Chapman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein a rare case of iniencephaly combined with spina bifida is reported, which was diagnosed late because the G6P5 mother had not attended hospital for first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. A woman aged 33 years who was 38 weeks pregnant presented for ante-natal follow-up. Her clinical results were normal but abnormalities including polyhydramnios, retroflexion of the head with absence of neck, acrania, and severe growth retardation were observed in the fetus. The infant was delivered through Cesarean section and died shortly after birth. The results of a gross examination revealed acrania, iniencephaly, spina bifida, and an imperforated anus. Iniencephaly is a rare and fatal neural tube defect characterized by extreme retroflexion of the head and severs distortion of the spine. This case report underlines the importance of first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1543-1545

  7. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  8. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  9. MR imaging of regional late brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports, to complement current knowledge on brain development, late regional brain maturation assessed with quantitative MR imaging. Axial and coronal head spin-echo (SE) images were obtained in 60 healthy individuals aged 5--56 years, with a double-echo, flow compensated imaging sequence obtained with a 1.5-T Magnetom spectroscopy and imaging system. T2-weighted images were calculated from the intensity differences in SE images at echo times (TEs) of 15 and 90 msec (TR = 2.5 second). The mean T2 values were determined at 16 sites in each cerebral hemisphere. T2 values of the six frontal subcortical white matter (FSCWM) sites and of the internal capsule (IC) were evaluated. Mean T2 values in the IC decreased until age 10 years, whereas this decrease continued in the FSCWM past age 15 years before reaching a plateau. Differential age-dependent patterns of mean T2 values emerged between the six FSCWM sites. The spread of T2 values varied at different sites independent of the age of the individuals. T2- values have previously been shown to reflect the status of brain development. The authors' data on the six FSCWM sites and the IC extend these findings to specific substructures of the brain. Interindividual variations and technical issues are responsible for the observed spread of data

  10. Post-Traumatic Late Onset Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artery-to-artery emboli or occlusion of craniocervical arteries mostly due to dissection are the most common causes of ischemia after trauma. A 29 year-old male had been admitted to another hospital with loss of consciousness lasting for about 45 minutes after a hard parachute landing without head trauma three days ago. As his neurological examination and brain CT were normal, he had been discharged after 24 hours of observation. Two days after his discharge, he was admitted to our department with epileptic seizure. His neurological examination revealed left hemianopia. After observing occipital subacute ischemia at right side in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we performed cerebral angiography and no dissection was observed. Excluding the rheumatologic, cardiologic and vascular events, our final diagnosis was late onset cerebral ischemia. Anti-edema and antiepileptic treatment was initiated. He was discharged with left hemianopia and mild cognitive deficit. We suggest that it will be wise to hospitalize patients for at least 72 hours who has a history of unconsciousness following trauma.

  11. Computerized tomography in late onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized tomography was performed on 220 patients (143 males and 77 females) with late onset epilepsy. In these patients seizures were the only symptom with the first attack occurring after the age of 20 years. Most of the patients (76.3%) had had their first attack in the third and fourth decades. One hundred and four of 220 patients (47.3%) showed CT abnormalities with its higher incidence in patients over 50 years of age. Fifty-seven patients showed various degrees of diffuse cortical atrophy and/or ventricular enlargement, and 5 showed focal atrophy. Thirteen cases demonstrated surgically treatable lesions; 9 neoplasms, 2 arteriovenous malformations and 2 subdural hematomas. The remainder of the positive cases consisted of a low density area without contrast enhancement (16 cases) and congenital anomalies (7 cases). Three cases of neoplasms were proved to be meningioma and 6 were low grade glioma. In 5 patients with neoplasm clinical and EEG findings were completely normal. The incidence of focal lesions revealed by CT was higher in cases of the focal motor seizures than in cases of primary generalized seizures. Mild diffuse brain atrophy seemed to be related to aging as well as the severity of seizures, but the mechanism of brain atrophy in epileptic patients is not clear. (author)

  12. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  13. MR imaging of late radiation brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and four patients treated with radiotherapy for intracranial tumors and their related conditions were reviewed to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in demonstrating increased signal intensity areas on T2-weighted images that were considered to be late adverse effects of irradiation of the brain. High signal intensity areas of the white matter were divided into five patterns according to their size and extension. Severity was found to increase with age and irradiation doses of more than 50 Gy. In patients with irradiation doses of more than 60 Gy, the severity of increased with shorter interval after radiotherapy than in those given low irradiation doses. Clinical findings such as mental deterioration, motor abnormality, and visual defect were observed in 12 patients. These findings were closely correlated with the severity of the MR pattern. In most patients, high signal intensity areas were stable or progressive during the course of follow-up. However, these areas were regressive in three patients. Imaging with Gd-DTPA was performed in 36 patients, six of whom showed enhancement. Pathological findings on enhancement included astrocyte proliferation and coalescing vacuoles in neural tissue. MR imaging is an excellent method with which to monitor the adverse effects of radiotherapy of the brain. (author)

  14. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  15. Radiobiological considerations of late effects arising from radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of clinical and experimental data are reviewed to investigate the different factors leading to appearance of late complications. Higher individual doses per fraction are related to an increase in the incidence and severity of late effects and massive dose techniques result in catastrophic late complications. There is no apparent relation between the severity of initial skin reactions and late effects, indicating that matching of acute radiation reactions on skin or mucous membranes cannot be extrapolated to late damage in connective tissues and organs. The probability of late tissue injury increases with the volume of tissue irradiated. Several phenomena, e.g. parenchymal cell depletion, vascular injury and fibrocyte dysfunction, are likely to operate together as well as separately in the pathogenesis of late effects. The late complications of radiotherapy develop in cells with a slow proliferation, and this is consistent with the hypothesis that parenchymal cell killing may be the basis for the injury. The response of cells with a slow proliferation to a course of fractionated irradiation differs from that of rapidly proliferative cells in three biological processes: repair of potentially lethal damage, redistribution and regeneration. (author)

  16. Family and Individual Predictors of Late Adolescents' Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Marchand, Jennifer F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied parent-adolescent conflict and late adolescents' attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms as predictors of late adolescents' romantic relationships. Findings based on questionnaire responses of 256 college students highlight the differential roles of familial and individual attributes in female and male adolescents' romantic relationship…

  17. Differential Parenting between Mothers and Fathers: Implications for Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…

  18. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  19. SPECT and PET in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, Tiago S; Oude Voshaar, Richard; De Deyn, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Late-life late onset depression (i.e., depression with an age of onset above 60 yrs) appears to differ from depression with early onset in its association with cerebral small vessel disease, beta-amyloid and tau deposition, and neurodegenerative processes. Multimodality imaging (SPECT, PET, MRI) sup

  20. Taxonomy of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous aptychi from Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Motchurova; Dekova, N.; Ilcheva, A.; Metodiev, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 265, č. 3 (2012), s. 249-274. ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Late Jurassic * Early Cretaceous * Bulgaria * aptychi * ammonites * parataxonomy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.923, year: 2012 http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/njgpa/detail/265/78431/Taxonomy_of_Late_Jurassic_Early_Cretaceous_aptychi

  1. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  2. Three comments on late antiquity history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Milena L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests corrections in reading the inscription CIL III 4002 lines 3-7 (see pp. 1-2. The formula q(ui vixit ann(os, lines 3-4, was common in Late Antiquity, unlike the previous reading...ann(orum, which was typical for the Early Empire. L.5 memoria frequently appeared in funerary monuments in Late Antiquity. L. 6 Instead of unlikely collegae, the complement colloc(avit or –erunt has been suggested, according to analogies sedem conlocasse (Siscia, CIL 3996 sepulcrum (! collocavit, with the Christogram ( Siscia,CIL 3996a. The inscription can be more precisely dated with regard to the Christogram. In nearby Sirmium, this symbol repeatedly appears in epitaphs, whether unaccompanied, or between the letters a and w. According to a dated inscription with a Christogram from Constantius times the entire group of inscriptions bearing this symbol may be supposed to have originated from mid-, or, at the latest, second half of 4th century (notes 2-4. Durostoranus (Amm. Marc. XXXI 15, 6 In the paragraph referred to above: Verum introire non ausus, qui missus est, per Christianum quendam portatis scriptis et recitatis, utque decebat, contemptatis parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta (ed. W.Seyfarth, Leipzig 1978, the author instead of the reading to date, christianum, suggests the restitution of the Codex lection Vat. lat. 1873 diristanum, which would be the adjective derived from the toponym D(iristra, a variant of Durostorus, cf. Zonara (XVI 12 e/n Dorosto$lw...toy#to d h% Dri$stra e/sti. Further on, (...scriptis et recitatis, utque dicebat, contemptatis, parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta, two differently noted or emendated points are present. The one is ut dicebat, in a later manuscript, and in Seyfarth's critical edition changed into ut decebat. This emendation is not necessary: the emissary said that he had taken the letter and given the message that was ignored by the inhabitants, and not "given the message as was

  3. Glacial onset predated Late Ordovician climate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Alexandre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Le Hir, Guillaume; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Ordovician glaciation represents the acme of one of only three major icehouse periods in Earth's Phanerozoic history and is notorious for setting the scene for one of the "big five" mass extinction events. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that drove ice sheet growth remain poorly understood and the final extent of the ice sheet crudely constrained. Here using an Earth system model with an innovative coupling method between ocean, atmosphere, and land ice accounting for climate and ice sheet feedback processes, we report simulations portraying for the first time the detailed evolution of the Ordovician ice sheet. We show that the emergence of the ice sheet happened in two discrete phases. In a counterintuitive sequence of events, the continental ice sheet appeared suddenly in a warm climate. Only during the second act, and set against a background of decreasing atmospheric CO2, followed steeply dropping temperatures and extending sea ice. The comparison with abundant sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological data suggests that glacial onset may have occurred as early as the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian, in agreement with recent studies reporting third-order glacioeustatic cycles during the same period. The second step in ice sheet growth, typified by a sudden drop in tropical sea surface temperatures by ˜8°C and the further extension of a single, continental-scale ice sheet over Gondwana, marked the onset of the Hirnantian glacial maximum. By suggesting the presence of an ice sheet over Gondwana throughout most of the Middle and Late Ordovician, our models embrace the emerging paradigm of an "early Paleozoic Ice Age."

  4. Eszopiclone for late-life insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Christina S; Ross, Amanda; Stripling, Ashley; Dautovich, Natalie D

    2007-01-01

    Insomnia, the most common sleep disturbance in later life, affects 20%–50% of older adults. Eszopiclone, a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent developed for the treatment of insomnia, has been available in Europe since 1992 and in the US since 2005. Although not yet evaluated for transient insomnia in older adults, eszopiclone has been shown to be safe and efficacious for short-term treatment (2 weeks) of chronic, primary insomnia in older adults (64–91 years). Clinical studies in younger adults (mean = 44 years) have shown eszopiclone can be used for 6–12 months without evidence of problems. Because the oldest participant in these longer-term trials was 69, it not known whether eszopiclone is effective for older adults [particularly the old old (75–84 years) and oldest old (85+)] when used over longer periods. This is unfortunate, because older individuals frequently suffer from chronic insomnia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, which effectively targets the behavioral factors that maintain chronic insomnia, represents an attractive treatment alternative or adjuvant to eszopiclone for older adults. To date, no studies have compared eszopiclone to other hypnotic medications or to nonpharmacological interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, in older adults. All of the clinical trials reported herein were funded by Sepracor. This paper provides an overview of the literature on eszopiclone with special emphasis on its use for the treatment of late-life insomnia. Specific topics covered include pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trial data, adverse events, drug interactions, tolerance/dependence, and economics/cost considerations for older adults. PMID:18044182

  5. Late Oligocene to Late Miocene Antarctic Climate Reconstructions Using Molecular and Isotopic Biomarker Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B.; Mckay, R. M.; Bendle, J. A.; Naish, T.; Levy, R. H.; Ventura, G. T.; Moossen, H. M.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major climate and environmental changes occurred during late Oligocene to the late Miocene when atmospheric CO2 ranged between 500 and 300ppm, indicating threshold response of Antarctic ice sheets and climate to relatively modest CO2 variations. This implies that the southern high latitudes are highly sensitive to feedbacks associated with changes in global ice sheet and sea-ice extent, as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. This study focuses on two key intervals during the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: (1) The Late Oligocene and the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded close to present day volume following an extended period of inferred warmth. (2) The Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO ~17-15 Ma), a period of global warmth and moderately elevated CO2 (350->500 ppm) which was subsequently followed by rapid cooling at 14-13.5 Ma. Reconstructions of climate and ice sheet variability, and thus an understanding of the various feedbacks that occurred during these intervals, are hampered by a lack of temperature and hydroclimate proxy data from the southern high latitudes. We present proxy climate reconstructions using terrestrial and marine organic biomarkers that provide new insights into Antarctica's climate evolution, using Antarctic drill cores and outcrop samples from a range of depositional settings. Bacterial ether-lipids have been analysed to determine terrestrial mean annual temperatures and soil pH (via the methylation and cyclisation indexes of branched tetraethers - MBT and CBT, respectively). Tetraether-lipids of crenarchaeota found in marine sediments sampled from continental shelves around Antarctica have been used to derive sea surface temperatures using the TEX86 index. Compound specific stable isotopes on n-alkanes sourced from terrestrial plants have been analysed to investigate changes in the hydrological and carbon cycles.

  6. Diabetes mellitus: a predictor for late radiation morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Given the high frequency of diabetes, as well as prostate cancer in the elderly population, we sought to determine whether diabetic patients treated with three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy (3DCRT) had an increased risk of late gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) complications. Methods and Materials: Nine-hundred forty-four prostate cancer patients were treated between April 1989 and October 1996 using 3DCRT. Median patient age was 69 years (range 48-89), median center of prostate dose was 7211 cGy (range 6211-8074) and median follow-up was 36 months (range 2-99). Patients were evaluated every 6 months with digital rectal examinations, serum PSAs and symptom questionnaires. Radiation morbidity was quantified using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and modified Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force (LENT) scales. Patients with a preexisting history of either Type I or Type II diabetes mellitus were coded as diabetics. Results: One hundred twenty-one patients had diabetes (13% of total). Rates of acute morbidity did not differ between diabetics and nondiabetics; however, diabetics experienced significantly more late grade 2 GI toxicity (28% vs. 17%, p = 0.011) and late grade 2 GU toxicity (14% vs. 6%, p 0.001). There was a trend toward increased late grade 3 and 4 GI complications in diabetics, but not for late grade 3 and 4 GU complications; however, the total number of recorded events for these categories was small. Examining the onset of late toxicity, diabetics developed GU complications earlier than nondiabetics (median: 10 months vs. 24 months, p = 0.02). Considering age, dose, rectal blocking, field size, and history of diabetes in a stepwise multivariate regression model for late grade 2 GI toxicity, dose (p 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.0110), and rectal blocking (p = 0.0163) emerged independently predictive for complications. For late grade 2 GU toxicity, only the presence of diabetes remained independently significant

  7. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... able to implement this definition (either on its own or alongside their own preferred definition) when reporting surveillance or research data relating to late presentation of HIV infection.......Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition of...

  8. Late Pennsylvanian climate changes and palynomorph extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanke, R.M.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    A major floral change occurs in the Upper Pennsylvanian strata in the Midcontinent, Illinois basin, and in the northern Appalachian basin of eastern United States. Lycospora spp. (derived from arborescent lycopsids) became extinct along with some other palynomorph taxa. This investigation is concerned with the importance of this major floral change. Samples were studied from western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and West Virginia (from a previous study) cover the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Freeport coal bed, uppermost part of the Allegheny Formation, to the Mahoning, Mason, Brush Creek, Wilgus, and Anderson coal beds in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation. The floral change occurs either at or below the accepted Desmoinesian-Missourian boundary in the Midcontinent and Illinois basin, whereas in the northern Appalachians this change occurs in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation, between the Mahoning and Brush Creek coal beds, or when the Mason is present, between the Mahoning and Mason coal beds. With the advent of late Middle Pennsylvanian time, the climate began to change from wet tropical to seasonal tropical. The Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary is the culmination of this drying trend, which was marked by reduction of available water. The peat swamps are interpreted as having changed from the domed type of bog to the planar type under these circumstances. Thus, in general, the coals of the Conemaugh Formation are characteristically much thinner than those of the Allegheny Formation. This was caused by a number of factors including reduced or more seasonal rainfall, decline of arborescent lycopsids, and the increased dominance of herbaceous and fern plants. As a result, there are fewer minable coal beds in the Conemaugh Formation. The first coal bed above the extinction of Lycospora spp. is dominated by the palynomorph taxon Endosporites globiformis which is derived from a heterosporous, herbaceous lycopsid. However, Sigillaria, another

  9. Late post-operative hypoxaemia and organ dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Constant and episodic hypoxaemia are common after major operations in the late post-operative period in the surgical ward. Recent studies have shown that hypoxaemia may be related to the development of myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated...... an adverse effect of tissue hypoxia on wound healing and on resistance to bacterial wound infections. Finally, mental confusion and surgical delirium may be related to inadequate arterial oxygenation during the late post-operative period. Late post-operative constant and episodic hypoxaemia may...... therefore be important surgical risk factors, and further studies on the pathogenesis, prophylaxis and treatment are warranted....

  10. Late endosomal membranes rich in lysobisphosphatidic acid regulate cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Beuchat, M H; Lindsay, M; Frias, S; Palmiter, R D; Sakuraba, H; Parton, R G; Gruenberg, J

    1999-06-01

    The fate of free cholesterol released after endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins remains obscure. Here we report that late endosomes have a pivotal role in intracellular cholesterol transport. We find that in the genetic disease Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), and in drug-treated cells that mimic NPC, cholesterol accumulates in late endosomes and sorting of the lysosomal enzyme receptor is impaired. Our results show that the characteristic network of lysobisphosphatidic acid-rich membranes contained within multivesicular late endosomes regulates cholesterol transport, presumably by acting as a collection and distribution device. The results also suggest that similar endosomal defects accompany the anti-phospholipid syndrome and NPC. PMID:10559883

  11. Late Cretaceous Volcaniclastics in NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Katharina; Wolfgring, Erik; Omer Yilmaz, Ismail; Tüysüz, Okan; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    and the following rifting and opening of the western and eastern Black Sea basin. The existence of a Pontide magmatic arc, as referred to in literature, is not precluded by the back-arc interpretation and should be further looked at, as geochemistry confirms a volcanic arc setting. Correlation of the volcaniclastics with biostratigraphic events and ages from the same outcrops refers to a relative time span between Turonian and Campanian when the magmatic arc was active, at least. Further this correlation contributes to connecting particular outcrops with Dereköy or Cambu Formation. Consequently using these results Cambu Formation can be assigned as less alkaline and acidic then the lower volcanic succession. Furthermore the volcanic series seem to be more tholeiitic in the upper volcanic succession. Generally samples belonging to the Dereköy Formation are enriched in Zr, Th and Nb with respect to samples of Cambu formation. The volcanic arc setting and the chemical characteristics of the volcanism, traced along the southwestern Black Sea coast as distinct tuff layers, are interesting mosaics in understanding paleogeography and paleoenvironmental changes in the Late Cretaceous.

  12. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  13. A Late-Time Flattening of Afterglow Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Berger, E; Kulkarni, S R; Yost, S A

    2004-01-01

    We present a sample of radio afterglow light curves with measured decay slopes which show evidence for a flattening at late times compared to optical and X-ray decay indices. The simplest origin for this behavior is that the change in slope is due to a jet-like outflow making a transition to sub-relativistic expansion. This can explain the late-time radio light curves for many but not all of the bursts in the sample. We investigate several possible modifications to the standard fireball model which can flatten late-time light curves. Changes to the shock microphysics which govern particle acceleration, or energy injection to the shock (either radially or azimuthally) can reproduce the observed behavior. Distinguishing between these different possibilities will require simultaneous optical/radio monitoring of afterglows at late times.

  14. Attention and word learning in toddlers who are late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macroy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel pseudo-words for unfamiliar objects over ten training sessions. The toddlers' attention allocation during the word-learning sessions was measured as well as their comprehension of the newly learned words. Late talkers showed reduced attention allocation to objects during word-training sessions, and also comprehended fewer of the novel words than toddlers with typical language development. Attention allocation was found to be a stronger predictor of word learning as compared to cognition and auditory comprehension. Reduced attention allocation may contribute to the early lexical delay characteristic in late talkers. PMID:27464621

  15. Diversity of raft-like domains in late endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Sobo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Late endosomes, the last sorting station in the endocytic pathway before lysosomes, are pleiomorphic organelles composed of tubular elements as well as vesicular regions with a characteristic multivesicular appearance, which play a crucial role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we have investigated whether, in addition to these morphologically distinguishable regions, late endosomal membranes are additionally sub-compartmentalized into membrane microdomains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using sub-organellar fractionation techniques, both with and without detergents, combined with electron microscopy, we found that both the limiting membrane of the organel and the intraluminal vesicles contain raft-type membrane domains. Interestingly, these differentially localized domains vary in protein composition and physico-chemical properties. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to the multivesicular organization, we find that late endosomes contain cholesterol rich microdomains both on their limiting membrane and their intraluminal vesicles that differ in composition and properties. Implications of these findings for late endosomal functions are discussed.

  16. NIH Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Consensus Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    This day and a half symposium will bring together experts in blood and marrow transplantation, late effects, and health care delivery to discuss current evidence and knowledge gaps, develop consensus guidelines, and inform future research in the BMT survivor population.

  17. Mosasaurs (Reptilia) from the late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of northern Patagonia (Río Negro, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Marta; Martin, James; Casadío, Silvio

    2008-03-01

    A diverse assemblage of mosasaurs was recently recovered from the Jagüel Formation (late Maastrichtian) exposed at three localities of northern Patagonia (Río Negro, Argentina). Four taxa (three mosasaurines and a plioplatecarpine) have been identified, and three of these marine reptiles can be identified at lower taxonomic levels: Mosasaurus sp. aff. M. hoffmanni, Plioplatecarpus sp., and Prognathodon sp. These occurrences are significant because they represent the first diagnostic material at generic level exhumed from Patagonia and include one of the youngest mosasaurs found worldwide. One of the specimens described herein was found only 1.5 m below the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Only mosasaurs from Antarctica found within a meter of the boundary are known to occur higher in the geologic section.

  18. Better Late than Never: Information Retrieval from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstein, Sam; Pirandola, Stefano; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior...

  19. Employment and Retirement Following a Late Career Job Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Sewin; Stevens, Ann Huff

    1999-01-01

    The frequency of job loss among workers in late career has risen disproportionately in recent years. The effects of job loss on these workers are potentially severe: their earnings capacity, savings, and retirement expectations are likely to be dramatically affected and they may take substantially longer to be re-employed. However, despite these reasons for heightened concern, relatively little is known about the economic consequences of late career job loss among recent cohorts of workers. T...

  20. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  1. The clinical features of late onset anorexia nervosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Joughin, N. A.; Crisp, A H; Gowers, S. G.; Bhat, A V

    1991-01-01

    This study examines clinical features of late onset anorexia nervosa. This involved the scrutiny of a large database of patients with anorexia nervosa comprising data gathered at standardized initial assessments over the period 1960-1990. Patients with a late onset were compared to other selected patient samples. The population comprised 12 patients with a first onset of anorexia nervosa at or after the age of 30, 415 patients with an onset after 15 but before 20 and 9 patients with an onset ...

  2. Nomograms to predict late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Romain; Arango, Juan David Ospina; Beckendorf, Véronique; Delobel, Jean-Bernard; Messai, Taha; Chira, Ciprian; Bossi, Alberto; Le Prisé, Elisabeth; Guerif, Stéphane; Simon, Jean-Marc; Dubray, Bernard; Zhu, Jian; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Pommier, Pascal; Gnep, Khemara

    2013-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: To analyze late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT): symptom description and identification of patient characteristics or treatment parameters allowing for the generation of nomograms. METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty-five patients underwent RT in seventeen French centers for localized prostate cancer. Median total dose was 70 Gy (range, 65-80 Gy), using different fractionations (2 or 2.5 Gy/day) and techniques. Late urinary toxicity an...

  3. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia: A Meaningful Clinical Distinction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared ...

  4. Evidence for global cooling in the Late Cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    Linnert, C.; Robinson, S.A.; J.A. Lees; Bown, P.R.; I. Pérez-Rodríguez; Petrizzo, M.R.; F. Falzoni; Littler, K; Arz, J.A.; Russell, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ world witnessed a transition from one of the warmest climates of the past 140 million years to cooler conditions, yet still without significant continental ice. Low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records are a vital piece of evidence required to unravel the cause of Late Cretaceous cooling, but high-quality data remain illusive. Here, using an organic geochemical palaeothermometer (TEX86), we present a record of SSTs for the Campanian–Maastrichtian int...

  5. Prevalence and Nature of Late-Emerging Poor Readers

    OpenAIRE

    Catts, Hugh W.; Compton, Donald; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2012-01-01

    Some children demonstrate adequate or better reading achievement in early school grades, but fall significantly behind their peers in later grades. These children are often referred to as late-emerging poor readers. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and heterogeneity of these poor readers. We also examined the early language and nonverbal cognitive abilities of late-emerging poor readers. Participants were 493 children who were a subsample from an epidemiological study of language...

  6. Late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Becker muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, A; Pennell, D J

    2004-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy is a rare cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. A case of Becker muscular dystrophy is reviewed in which cardiovascular magnetic resonance showed previously unreported findings of extensive mid-myocardial late gadolinium enhancement. Similar detection of late gadolinium enhancement in conjunction with other uses of cardiovascular magnetic resonance may contribute significantly to the diagnosis and management of patients with this unusual and important diagnosis.

  7. Dressler's syndrome demonstrated by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Kovac Jan; Khoo Jeffrey; Steadman Christopher D; McCann Gerry P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A 49-year old patient presented late with an anterolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction and was treated with rescue angioplasty to an occluded left anterior descending artery. Her recovery was complicated by low-grade pyrexia and raised inflammatory markers. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance 5 weeks after the acute presentation showed transmural infarction and global late gadolinium enhancement of the pericardium in keeping with Dressler's syndrome.

  8. Iconography and Costume from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, new ways of interpreting and evaluating costume are introduced through the analysis of iconographic sources, among others gold sheets from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia. These sources provide information about prehistoric attitudes towards body and dress.......In this paper, new ways of interpreting and evaluating costume are introduced through the analysis of iconographic sources, among others gold sheets from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia. These sources provide information about prehistoric attitudes towards body and dress....

  9. Neuromuscular Disease as the Cause of Late Clubfoot Relapses

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Matthew E; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    Following correction with the Ponseti method some idiopathic clubfeet still will relapse even after six years of age. A better understanding of the cause for these late relapses will greatly help in the management of this condition. We evaluated a consecutive case-series from 1948 through December 1984 including 209 patients (321 clubfeet). Patients were treated following the Ponseti method. Initial number of casts, age at relapse, neurological evaluation, and final treatment for the late-rel...

  10. Vascular health late after Kawasaki disease: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yiu-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis that primarily affects young children, is the most common acquired paediatric cardiovascular disease in developed countries. While sequelae of arterial inflammation in the acute phase of KD are well documented, its late effects on vascular health are increasingly unveiled. Late vascular dysfunction is characterized by structural alterations and functional impairment in term of arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction and shown to involve both ...

  11. Influence of social factors on patient-reported late symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Andersen, Elo;

    2016-01-01

    -nine survivors completed questionnaires on late symptoms and functioning. RESULTS: Survivors with short education were more likely to report severe problems than those with medium or long education. In the fully adjusted model, the risk for problems with opening the mouth remained significantly increased (odds...... were more prevalent in survivors with short education and in those living alone, suggesting differences in perception of late symptoms between social groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015....

  12. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  13. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2002-06-01

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  14. Emerging Concepts for Myocardial Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Høyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspect...

  15. Reasons for late presentation to HIV care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hachfeld

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late presentation to HIV care leads to increased morbidity and mortality. We explored risk factors and reasons for late HIV testing and presentation to care in the nationally representative Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. Methods: Adult patients enrolled in the SHCS between July 2009 and June 2012 were included. An initial CD4 count <350 cells/µl or an AIDS-defining illness defined late presentation. Demographic and behavioural characteristics of late presenters (LPs were compared with those of non-late presenters (NLPs. Information on self-reported, individual barriers to HIV testing and care were obtained during face-to-face interviews. Results: Of 1366 patients included, 680 (49.8% were LPs. Seventy-two percent of eligible patients took part in the survey. LPs were more likely to be female (p<0.001 or from sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001 and less likely to be highly educated (p=0.002 or men who have sex with men (p<0.001. LPs were more likely to have their first HIV test following a doctor's suggestion (p=0.01, and NLPs in the context of a regular check-up (p=0.02 or after a specific risk situation (p<0.001. The main reasons for late HIV testing were “did not feel at risk” (72%, “did not feel ill” (65% and “did not know the symptoms of HIV” (51%. Seventy-one percent of the participants were symptomatic during the year preceding HIV diagnosis and the majority consulted a physician for these symptoms. Conclusions: In Switzerland, late presentation to care is driven by late HIV testing due to low risk perception and lack of awareness about HIV. Tailored HIV testing strategies and enhanced provider-initiated testing are urgently needed.

  16. Late Kidney Dysfunction in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Late kidney transplant dysfunction may be a harbinger of graft failure. For many years, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity was felt to be the main cause for graft dysfunction with fibrosis and transplant loss. Recently this idea has come into question. With the observation that peritubular capillary C4d staining in kidney allografts may indicate antibody-mediated injury in conjunction with biopsy study findings, an appreciation for antibody-mediated rejection as a major cause of late graft dysfun...

  17. DIFFERENTIATION PROCESSES in LATE CRETACEOUS ULTRAPOTASSIC VOLCANICS AROUND AMASYA

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLMEZ, Fatma; GENÇ, Ş. Can

    2015-01-01

    Late Cretaceous lithologies around Amasya region are represented by Pontide fore-arc basin units which corresponds a volcanoclastic sequence. This sequence has the products of alkaline ultrapotassic magmatism accompanying calcalkaline lavas which are abundant along Pontide arc. The ultrapotassic rocks which are classified as leucitite, minette and trachyte based on their mineralogical composition, occur as dikes, stocks and rarely lava flows as to be comprised by the Late Cretaceous Volcanocl...

  18. HEARING AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTSAS RISK FACTORS FOR LATE- LIFE DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Roza N. KRSTESKA

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Late-life depression is one of the most frequent disorders among the seniors and often remains unrecognized. One of the reasons why late-life depression often passes unrecognized is the comorbidity. Hearing and visual impairments are very common condition among the elderly. Thus, depression among the elderly is commonly accompanied by hearing and visual impairment. The epidemiology together with the visual and hearing-related problems still remains poorly investigated.Objective:...

  19. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  20. Late effects of radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late effects after radiotherapy for breast cancer include radiation induced malignancy and changes in irradiated tissues leading to e.g. edema of the arm, decreased mobility of the shoulder joint, brachial plexus neuropathy, pulmonary fibrosis, telangiectasia or atrophic ulceration of the skin. While radiation-induced malignancy depends on the volume of tissue irradiated and the total dose, other late effects are also fractionation dependent. Several reports have shown increased rates of such late effects after changes of the fractionation schedule which should be isoeffective according to the mathematical models commonly used to predict early effects. Although knowledge of the relation between total dose, number of fractions and radiation effects in late responding tissues has increased, extrapolations from the models should be used cautiously. The dose-response curve seems to be steeper for late effects than for tumour control. The possibility of late effects should be included in the decision as to when and how to treat breast cancer with radiotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB. PMID:24401535

  2. Late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia and the risk of dementia--a nationwide register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Lauritzen, Lise;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether late and very-late first-contact schizophrenia carry a risk for later development of dementia. METHODS: By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nation-wide registers of all out- and in-patients with hospital contact in Denmark, we identified all patients with...... first ever contact during the period from January 1994 to December 2001 with one of the index main diagnoses: late (age >or=40) and very-late first-contact (age >or=60) schizophrenia. First contact osteoarthritis patients as well as data on the general population were used as controls. The first...... diagnosis of dementia for each individual at discharge or at out-patient contact was established. The probability of getting a dementia diagnosis is estimated using Poisson regression models with dementia as the outcome of interest. RESULTS: Twelve thousand six hundred and sixteen and 7,712 individuals were...

  3. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Judith A.W. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Stacul, Fulvio [Institute of Radiology, Ospedale di Cattinara, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  4. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. (orig.)

  5. Late Cretaceous (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea-surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Nicolas; Harlou, Rikke; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2016-02-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical timescale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Ma). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  6. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian–Maastrichtian sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Thibault

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr sea-surface temperature (SST changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark, tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian–Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr. Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian–Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  7. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, N.; Harlou, R.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    2015-11-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  8. Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684

  9. Seacage aquaculture in a World Heritage Area: The environmental footprint of a Barramundi farm in tropical Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of aquaculture wastes from a seacage farm within a pristine mangrove environment was studied. Seasonal and tidal differences were most important in determining water quality within receiving waters and obscured any nutrient enrichment effect by the farm. Farm wastes added significantly to the N budget status of the creek system, but overall water quality conformed to Queensland EPA Water Quality standards. Mangrove trees throughout the creek system contained 15N signatures traceable to aquaculture feeds, but the footprint of the farm itself was best indicated by the ratio of Zn:Li in sediments. The creek became hypoxic (-1) during wet season low tides. Consequently, we recommended monitoring of water-column oxygen concentrations to warn of hypoxic conditions threatening to fish health, as well as Zn:Li ratios in sediment accumulation zones to determine the area of influence of the farm.

  10. Effect of Vegetation on the Late Miocene Ocean Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Lohmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of the vegetation cover and the associated hydrological cycle on the deep ocean circulation during the Late Miocene (~10 million years ago. In our simulations, an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters leads to a weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean which is consistent with most other modeling studies for this time period. Here, we estimate the effect of a changed vegetation cover on the ocean general circulation using atmospheric circulation model simulations for the late Miocene climate with 353 ppmv CO2 level. The Late Miocene land surface cover reduces the albedo, the net evaporation in the North Atlantic catchment is affected and the North Atlantic water becomes more saline leading to a more vigorous North Atlantic Deep Water circulation. These effects reveal potentially important feedbacks between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  11. Accumulation of rhodopsin in late endosomes triggers photoreceptor cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashodhan Chinchore

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive retinal degeneration is the underlying feature of many human retinal dystrophies. Previous work using Drosophila as a model system and analysis of specific mutations in human rhodopsin have uncovered a connection between rhodopsin endocytosis and retinal degeneration. In these mutants, rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin form stable complexes, and endocytosis of these complexes causes photoreceptor cell death. In this study we show that the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded in the lysosome but instead accumulates in the late endosomes. Using mutants that are defective in late endosome to lysosome trafficking, we were able to show that rhodopsin accumulates in endosomal compartments in these mutants and leads to light-dependent retinal degeneration. Moreover, we also show that in dying photoreceptors the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded but instead shows characteristics of insoluble proteins. Together these data implicate buildup of rhodopsin in the late endosomal system as a novel trigger of death of photoreceptor neurons.

  12. Late endosomes: sorting and partitioning in multivesicular bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, R C; Luzio, J P

    2001-09-01

    Late endosomes, which have the morphological characteristics of multivesicular bodies, have received relatively little attention in comparison with early endosomes and lysosomes. Recent work in mammalian and yeast cells has given insights into their structure and function, including the generation of their multivesicular morphology. Lipid partitioning to create microdomains enriched in specific lipids is observed in late endosomes, with some lumenal vesicles enriched in lysobisphosphatidic acid and others in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Sorting of membrane proteins into the lumenal vesicles may occur because of the properties of their trans-membrane domains, or as a result of tagging with ubiquitin. Yeast class E Vps proteins and their mammalian orthologs are the best candidates to make up the protein machinery that controls inward budding, a process that starts in early endosomes. Late endosomes are able to undergo homotypic fusion events and also heterotypic fusion with lysosomes, a process that delivers endocytosed macromolecules for proteolytic degradation. PMID:11555415

  13. Late Holocene eolian fossilization of Podzols in Northeastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Schneider, Anna; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2016-04-01

    The North European lowland has been formed by glacial and periglacial processes in the Late Pleistocene. Multiple reshaping since the Late Glacial considerably changed the landscape up to and including especially historic times. Sediment sequences and (fossilized) soils can improve our understanding of Late Quaternary landscape development, but mapping of buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. Ongoing archaeological rescue excavations in the pre-field of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord (northeastern Germany) with dense excavation trenches in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area reveal multilayered sediment sequences with fossilized soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. Archaeological findings ranging from Mesolithic flint stones to an about 200 year old ceramics in eolian sediments covering plow horizons and wheel tracks suggest that eolian relocation of sandy material was intensive about 200 years ago. Still unpublished OSL dating underline the intense eolian activity. Recent studies showed that between the 15Th to the 19Th century an iron smelter 5 km to the west of our study site was supplied with charcoal, which was produced in a forest 5 km east to our study site. Our current findings about Late Holocene eolian activity raise the question if this eolian reshaping of the landscape is connected with the operation of the iron smelter either directly by transport or bog iron ore winning or indirectly by population pressure caused by the prospering iron smelter. Our ongoing research indicates, that already for historic land-use off-site effects causing further landscape changes have to be considered.

  14. Late effects of ionizing radiations on vulva, vagina and uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reporting and scoring complications after radiotherapy of gynaecological cancers is difficult because of the variety of treatment techniques involved. Use of an international classification is necessary to compare results obtained in series of patients treated in different institutions. An international group of experts designed in the early nineties the so-called French-Italian glossary. This classification of late effects is now completed with the new LENT SOMA scales. This paper contains details of these late changes, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, potential treatment, and prevention. (authors)

  15. Mobile ICT use in early adopter vs. late majority countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The rapid global diffusion of smartphones has not been uniform. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behaviour to investigate what drives smartphone use in early adopter (USA) versus late majority (Slovakia) countries. By surveying both current and potential owners, we also revisit...... usefulness) and whether people live in an early adopter versus late majority country, are not significant. Comparing users and non-users finds that they differ in almost every attribute measured in the study, and that users intend to continue using a smartphone whereas non-users have more ambivalent...

  16. Computed tomography in late-onset metachromatic leucodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late-onset metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD), early clinical diagnosis is difficult since initial symptoms frequently consist of misleading nonspecific psychopathological alterations. On cranial computed tomography (CT), however, symmetrical attenuation decrease of the white matter and mild cerebral atrophy can already be found in an early stage of the disease, and may even precede clinical symptoms. On the basis of observations in four patients with late-onset MLD who were followed between 1 and 5 years, characteristic CT appearances in different stages of the disease are outlined and compared with the literature. (orig.)

  17. The Expressive Turn of Citizenship in Digital Late Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Svensson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to connect the idea of expressive rationality to current debates on citizenship and political participation online. Socializing, cultural consumption/ production, identity management, information and publication strategies are both different and accentuated in digital, networked and late modern environments. In the paper I argue that the kind of network sociability that is emerging today favours an expressive form of rationality. I also claim that expressive rationality transcends the bipolar instrumental – communicative dimension that has been so important for normative theorizing in Political (and Social Sciences and hence is a more rewarding theoretical concept for understanding political participation in digital late modernity.

  18. Strontium isotope evolution of Late Permian and Triassic seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Christoph; Kozur, Heinz W.; Bruckschen, Peter; Veizer, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The 87Sr/ 86Sr values based on brachiopods and conodonts define a nearly continuous record for the Late Permian and Triassic intervals. Minor gaps in measurements exist only for the uppermost Brahmanian, lower part of the Upper Olenekian, and Middle Norian, and only sparse data are available for the Late Permian. These 219 measurements include 67 brachiopods and 114 conodont samples from the Tethyan realm as well as 37 brachiopods and one conodont sample from the mid-European Middle Triassic Muschelkalk Sea. The Late Permian/Lower Triassic interval is characterized by a steep 1.3 × 10 -3 rise, from 0.7070 at the base of the Dzhulfian to 0.7082 in the late Olenekian, a rate of change comparable to that in the Cenozoic. In the mid-Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian), the isotope values fall to 0.7075, followed again by a rise to 0.7081 in the Middle/Late Norian. The 87Sr/ 86Sr values decline again in the Late Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian to 0.7076. The sharp rise in the 87Sr/ 86Sr values during the Late Permian/Early Triassic was coincident with widespread clastic sedimentation. Because of the paucity of tectonic uplifts, the enhanced erosion may have been due to intermittent humid phases, during mainly an arid interval, coupled with the absence of a dense protective land plant cover following the mass extinction during the latest Permian. The apex of the 87Sr/ 86Sr curve at the Olenekian/Anisian boundary coincides with cessation of the large-scale clastic sedimentation and also marks the final recovery of land vegetation, as indicated by the renewed onset of coal formation in the Middle Triassic. The rising 87Sr/ 86Sr values from the Middle Carnian to the Late Norian coincide with the uplift and erosion of the Cimmeride-Indosinian orogens marking the closure of the Palaeotethys. The subsequent Rhaetian decline that continues into Jurassic (Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary), on the other hand, coincides with the opening of the Vardar Ocean and its eastern continuation

  19. XRF 050406 late time flattening: appearance of an IC component?

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate on the possible evidence for Inverse Compton (IC) emission in the X-ray afterglow of XRF 050406. In the framework of the standard fireball model, we show how the late time flattening observed in the X-ray light curve between ~10^{4} s and ~10^{6} s can be explained in a synchrotron plus IC scenario, when the IC peak frequency crosses the X-ray band. We thus conclude that the appearance of an IC component above the synchrotron one at late times successfully accounts for the X-ray observations.

  20. XRF 050406 late-time flattening: an inverse Compton component?

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, A.; Piro, L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate for possible evidence of inverse Compton (IC) emission in the X-ray afterglow of XRF 050406. In the framework of the standard fireball model, we show how the late-time flattening observed in the X-ray light curve between \\~10^{4} s and ~10^{6} s can be explained in a synchrotron-plus-IC scenario, when the IC peak frequency crosses the X-ray band. We thus conclude that the appearance of an IC component above the synchrotron one at late times successfully accounts for these X-ray...

  1. Late onset endophthalmitis associated with unexposed glaucoma valved drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHadlaq, Abdulaziz; AlMalki, Salem; AlShahwan, Sami

    2016-01-01

    We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube. PMID:27330390

  2. Emerging concepts for myocardial late gadolinium enhancement MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Hoyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspects of gadolinium-based imaging, as well as its applications and anticipated future developments. PMID:23909638

  3. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis;

    2015-01-01

    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East...... and West Greenland sediments in the fraction of minerals (e.g. pyroxene) sourced from the basalt outcrops. We demonstrate the differences in the mineralogy between East and West Greenland marine sediments on three scales: (1) modern day, (2) late Quaternary inputs and (3) detailed down-core variations...

  4. Diagnosis and management of late hepatic allograft dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Jian-min; YU Cong-hui

    2005-01-01

    Late hepatic allograft dysfunction (LHAD) is common after liver transplantation (LT) and can cause graft failure,retransplantation,or even death.A variety of etiologies including rejection,vascular complications,bile duct complications,recurrent diseases,infections,de novo diseases,neoplasms and drug toxicity can result in LHAD.The recurrent diseases have the potential to become the most serious problems facing LT in the future.It is difficult to differentiate late acute rejection from recurrent viral or autoimmune hepatitis.Accurate diagnosis of the cause of LHAD has therapeutic importance.

  5. Late tongue ulcer appeared 23 years after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the case of a 55-year-old woman who had a late tongue ulcer, which appeared 23 years after interstitial irradiation with 6500 rad against a tongue carcinoma in the same area as the ulcer. Inspection, palpation and MR imaging could not distinguish between the radiation-induced ulcer and a second malignancy. However, a histopathological examination diagnosed it as a radiation-induced ulcer. The recent popularity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy instead of low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy may ultimately increase the incidence of late complications after irradiation treatment. (author)

  6. CHINA NATIONAL POLICY IN THE LATE 1950'S TO THE LATE 1970'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Buyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of the national policy of the Chinese government in respect of nonHan peoples. The relevance of this work is due to important national issue for China. Traditionally, China has evolved as a multinational state, which was caused solely as a factor of external influence, for example, the Mongol and Manchu invasion and implementation of foreign policy objectives aimed at expanding the boundaries, resulting in a connection of Xinjiang and Tibet. A key feature of China as a multiethnic state has always been a numerical predominance of one ethnic group - the Han, as a rule, makes up almost all periods of the history of China, about 90% of the population. At the same time, China has always been inhabited by many ethnic minorities, which are not only occasionally something borrowed from Han people, but also constantly subjected Sinification. Sinification it was and remains one of the leading destinations for small nations. With the formation of the PRC in 1949, before the new communist government faced the problem of alignment of the national policy with regard to national minorities. The national policy of the Communist Party of China in its development has passed through three stages. In this article is considered the second period of this policy since the late 1950‟s. When starting to implement policies "Great Leap Forward" and the end of 1970‟s., as a result of the reforms of Deng Xiaoping began to change and the situation of small nations. To date, the Chinese government's policy towards national minorities in general, aims to accelerate the socio-economic and cultural development of ethnic groups on the tightening of national areas to the level of the developed regions of China, which should consolidate the Chinese citizens and prevent separatist actions. Ethnic identity of small nations overshadowed and leveled.

  7. So Close, yet So Far Away: Early vs. Late Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanli; Cragg, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    While some students drop out early in their academic career, others drop out close to completion. What similarities and differences exist between these early and late dropouts? Using a sample 3,520 first-time, full-time (FTFT) students seeking a bachelor's degree at a state university, this study employs multinomial logistic regression to model…

  8. Predictors of future depression in early and late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, Natasia D. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether the possibility to predict future DSM-IV depressive disorder can be increased with recurrent screening for depression in community adolescents, compared to single screening in early or in late adolescence. in addition, it examined which depressive symptoms in

  9. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  10. Pathways to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Pearl A.; Wagner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Via a simultaneous analysis of different life course pathways (marital, occupational, and childbearing histories) and different outcomes, this article addresses the question When does childlessness matter in late life and how? Survey data from Amsterdam (N = 661) and Berlin, Germany (N = 516) are used. Lifelong childlessness results in smaller…

  11. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction

  12. Nitric acid flowsheet with late wash PHA testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Task Technical Plan outlines the activities to be conducted in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) in ongoing support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) utilizing the Nitric Acid Flowsheet in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produced by the Late Wash Flowsheet. The IDMS facility is to be operated over a series of runs (2 to 4) using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet. The PHA will be produced with the Late Wash Flowsheet in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). All operating conditions shall simulate the expected DWPF operating conditions as closely as possible. The task objectives are to perform at least two IDMS runs with as many operating conditions as possible at nominal DWPF conditions. The major purposes of these runs are twofold: verify that the combined Late Wash and Nitric Acid flowsheets produce glass of acceptable quality without additional changes to process equipment, and determine the reproducibility of data from run to run. These runs at nominal conditions will be compared to previous runs made with PHA produced from the Late Wash flowsheet and with the Nitric Acid flowsheet in the SRAT (Purex 4 and Purex 5)

  13. Late-time Spectroscopy of Type Iax Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; Pan, Yen-Chen; Zheng, WeiKang; Bildsten, Lars; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kasen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examine the late-time (t > 200 days after peak brightness) spectra of Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax), a low-luminosity, low-energy class of thermonuclear stellar explosions observationally similar to, but distinct from, Type Ia supernovae. We present new spectra of SN 2014dt, resulting in the most complete published late-time spectral sequence of a SN Iax. At late times, SNe Iax have generally similar spectra, all with a similar continuum shape and strong forbidden-line emission. However, there is also significant diversity where some late-time SN Iax spectra display narrow P-Cygni features and a continuum indicative of a photosphere in addition to strong narrow forbidden lines, while others have no obvious P-Cygni features, strong broad forbidden lines, and weak narrow forbidden lines. Finally, some SNe Iax have spectra intermediate to these two varieties with weak P-Cygni features and broad/narrow forbidden lines of similar strength. We find that SNe Iax with strong broad forbidden lines also tend to be m...

  14. LATE DEVONIAN-CARBONIFEROUS CONODONTS FROM EASTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI YAZDI

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont data from acid-leaching 110 samples from two Late Devonian-Carboniferous areas in the Shotori Range (Tabas region of eastern Iran are presented. At Howz-e-Dorah, a section (88 samples commencing high in the Bahram Formation (Givetian-early Frasnian extended through the Shishtu Formation (Frasnian, Early hassi Zone or older, to latest Tournaisian, anchoralis-latus Zone and the Sardar Formation (earliest Visean, texanus Zone, to late Namurian, sinuatus-corrugatus-sulcatus Zone and into the Jamal Formation (Permian. Four less exhaustively sampled sections (22 samples show the Kale Sardar area to be tectonically more complicated than the Howz-e-Dorah area. Useful marker horizons in the Howz-e-Dorah section, well constrained by conodont data, are: the early Frasnian (no older than Early hassi Zone biostromal beds of the Shishtu Formation, an early Famennian (Late triangularis to Early crepida interval of oolitic limestone, a cyclothem sequence straddling the Early Carboniferous-Late Carboniferous boundary, and an Early Permian interval of siliceous sand ("the white quartzite" of previous authors. Additionally, several iron-rich horizons, readily traceable from locality to locality, are well constrained by conodont ages. Eighty-five conodont species/subspecies are documented representing 24 genera.. Two new species, Polygnathus capollocki and Polygnathus ratebi and one new subspecies, Icriodus alternatus mawsonae are described. 

  15. Pedagogical Technology Experiences of Successful Late-Career Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    A small-scale phenomenological study reveals interesting and suggestive insights into the pedagogical technology experiences of late-career faculty with institutional recognition as successful instructors. Referred to in much of the literature as "resistant" and assumed to lack training in pedagogical technology and/or to adhere to…

  16. Late-Onset Startle Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset sporadic startle syndrome in a patient with a right posterior fossa brain tumour is reported. The exaggerated startle response did not respond to treatment with clonazepam. In addition to anxiety and depression, the patient developed obsessive- compulsive symptoms which responded to behavioural therapy. The possible mechanisms for this unique pattern of symptoms are discussed.

  17. Late radiation injury to muscle and peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late radiation injury to muscles and peripheral nerves is infrequently observed. However, the success of radiation oncology has led to longer patient survival, providing a greater opportunity for late effects to develop, increase in severity and, possibly, impact the quality of life of the patient. In addition, when radiation therapy is combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy, the risk of late complications is likely to increase. It is clear that the incidence of complications involving muscles and nerves increases with time following radiation. The influence of volume has yet to be determined; however, an increased volume is likely to increase the risk of injury to muscles and nerves. Experimental and clinical studies have indicated that the (α(β)) ratio for muscle is approximately 4 Gy and, possibly, 2 Gy for peripheral nerve, indicating the great influence of fractionation on response of these tissues. This is of concern for intraoperative radiation therapy, and for high dose rate brachytherapy. This review of clinical and experimental data discusses the response of muscle and nerves late after radiation therapy. A grading system has been proposed and endpoints suggested

  18. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  19. Late-Night Stress on the IT Help Desk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    With more and more students--especially those taking online courses--demanding access to technology help at all hours of the day and night, colleges are responding by extending help-desk hours. More than half are open late into the evening, according to a recent survey by Educause, the educational technology consortium, and a few are available…

  20. Out of Weakness: The "Educational Good" in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the educational good as it appears in late antiquity, arguing that the "good" variously promised by education is in a state of perpetual deferral. This extends the tradition of ancient Greek philosophy where wisdom is to be forever approached but never realised. Three exemplary cases are considered: the…

  1. Late Neogene, Seismic stratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, Mollusca, Evolution, Pannonian basin

    OpenAIRE

    Velić, I.; Durn, G.

    1993-01-01

    The combined use of seismic stratigraphy and mollusc biostratigraphy in Late Neogene lacustrine deposits of the Pannonian basin offers three new approaches: First, the comparison of seismic facies and biofacies facilitates to make a distinction between biostratigraphic units and biofacies. Second, seismic datum levels permit crosschecking of discrete (magnetic, radiometric, and biostratigraphic) data, thus dating evolutionary events. Third, seismic monitoring of the sedimentary hi...

  2. Late-onset drug fever associated with minocycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, D A

    1990-01-01

    A patient presenting with a pyrexial illness and transiently deranged liver function tests is described. He had been taking minocycline for 12 months. The causal association with this drug was demonstrated by withholding and then rechallenging with minocycline. This report documents drug fever as an adverse reaction to minocycline, and its late onset is of added interest.

  3. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  4. Operative treatment in patella fractures and its late results

    OpenAIRE

    Domanic, U.; Durmaz, H.; Cakmak, M.; Taser, O.; Akalin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    78 cases with patella fractures which have been treated operatively between 1970-1983 are assesed for the type of treatment and late results. The results and the affecting factors are discussed under the light of literature knowledge and our experiences.

  5. Overcoming obstacles to late presentation for HIV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jürgens, R; Weait, M;

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of the HIV in Europe Initiative is to promote testing and treatment throughout Europe and Central Asia in order to decrease the number of people living with HIV presenting late for care. This article summarizes the results from the HIV in Europe 2009 Conference and the early resu...

  6. Biotechnology Symposium - In Memoriam, the Late Dr. Allan Zipf

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-day biotechnology symposium was held at Alabama A&M University (AAMU), Normal, AL on June 4, 2004 in memory of the late Dr. Allan Zipf (Sept 1953-Jan 2004). Dr. Zipf was a Research Associate Professor at the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, AAMU, who collaborated extensively with ARS/MS...

  7. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  8. Survival rates of Lates niloticus in Lake Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Asila, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Survival rates of Lates niloticus in Lake Victoria, Kenya were adduced from length derived age specific lifetables. Nature of the populations were inferred from calculated parameters. Unstable populations were observed between 1989 and 1992, which would subsequently lead to decreased catches between 1990 and 1994.

  9. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in Late Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Cançado, Guilherme Grossi Lopes; Freitas, Guilherme Gomes; Faria, Flavia Helena Fidelis; Vaz de Macedo, Antonio; Nobre, Vandack

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis related to visceral leishmaniasis in late adulthood. Because clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis can mimic those of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, diagnosing leishmaniasis as the underlying etiology can be quite challenging. In our case, treatment with amphotericin B resulted in a dramatic resolution of clinical abnormalities.

  10. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late-planted acreage. 1437.103 Section 1437.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE...

  11. Late post-traumatic spinal stenotic progressive myelo-radiculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of late progressive myelo-radiculopathy associated with severe canal stenosis secondary to post-traumatic hypertrophy of thoracic laminae and ossification of spinal ligaments viz. ligamentum flavum and posterior longitudinal ligament in the absence of developmental spinal stenosis or post-traumatic deformity, is presented with a brief critical review of the relevant literature.

  12. Dynamics of Perceived Parenting and Identity Formation in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Identity formation is a dynamic process of person-context interactions, and part of this context are parents, even in late adolescence. Several theories on parent-adolescent relationships share the idea that parents influence the process of identity formation. However, up to now, empirical evidence, particularly longitudinal evidence for this link…

  13. Treatment of late radiation ulcers of the skin with baliz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of the new drug baliz, a biologically active substance obtained under the conditions of directional antagonism of active strains of yeast and actinomycetes and used in the treatment of experimental skin ulcers and late radiation injuries of the skin was studied. Baliz is especially effective in the treatment of marked inflammation in radiation ulcer

  14. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

  15. Late presentation of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gul, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: A neonatal screening programme for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is ongoing in Cork. Despite early screening, infants continue to present at later ages with DDH. The impact of late diagnosis is significant. Established DDH causes significant morbidity and may have major medicolegal implications. AIM: To identify the reasons for the late presentation of DDH in the presence of a screening programme. METHODS: In a retrospective study all cases of late DDH presenting from 1988 to 2000 were identified using inpatient database. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases of DDH were diagnosed. The mean age of diagnosis was 14.8 months (range 6-47). Multiple risk factors were identified in four patients only. More than one risk factor was identified in 10 patients. CONCLUSION: Despite screening, children continue to present with late DDH. In this study, only 14 patients had multiple risk factors and only four patients had more than two risk factors, highlighting the low incidence of suspicion in this patient group.

  16. Late-onset CMV disease following CMV prophylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection after solid-organ transplantation, increasing morbidity and mortality. Three months of oral valganciclovir have been shown to provide effective prophylaxis. Late-onset CMV disease, occurring after the discontinuation of prophylaxis, is now increasingly recognised. AIMS: To investigate the incidence and the time of detection of CMV infections in liver transplant recipients who received CMV prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective review of 64 high- and moderate-risk patients with 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: The incidence of CMV infection was 12.5%, with 4.7% disease. All cases of symptomatic CMV disease were of late-onset. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMV infections in this study was low compared with literature reports; however, the late-onset disease is an emerging problem. Detection of late-onset disease may be delayed because of less frequent clinic follow-up visits. Increased regular laboratory monitoring may allow earlier detection at the asymptomatic infection stage.

  17. Julius Caesar's late onset epilepsy: a case of historic proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Richard S

    2010-09-01

    This is a case report of Julius Caesar's epilepsy that onset when he was 54-years-old. The differential diagnosis of late onset epilepsy is discussed and the rationale presented for concluding from the clinical presentation that the cause was neurocysticercosis. That this man's disease and its consequences altered the course of history is a very real possibility. PMID:21059498

  18. Late effects of radiation on the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes experiments concerned with the mechanisms of the development of late radiation damage in the spinal cord. Male rats were used in most of the experiments. The effects of 300 kV X-rays or 15 MeV neutrons were evaluated for different regions of the spinal cord. (Auth.)

  19. Reconstructing Virgil in the Classroom in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Frances

    2014-01-01

    This essay considers how teaching and learning may have functioned in late antique Roman classrooms by examining two texts: one is from the teacher's perspective, the other--which, until recently, was unedited--provides some access to the student's perspective. Despite much recent scholarly work on education in antiquity, there has been…

  20. Radioactive demonstration of the ''late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ''late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests

  1. Noble Women and Broken Alliances in Late Byzantium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melichar, Petra

    2015. [International Congress on Medieval Studies. Kalamazoo (US), 14.05.2015 - 17.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-08304P Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : empresses * late Byzantium * alliance Subject RIV: AB - History

  2. It's Not Too Late to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicare & Medicaid Services HealthSense Alternate Language URL Español It’s Not Too Late to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes ... a greater chance of getting type 2 diabetes? It’s true. You have a greater chance of getting ...

  3. Divorce Counseling Guidelines for the Late Divorced Female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Regis; Deckert, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    Offers divorce counseling guidelines for the female who divorces after 20 years or more of marriage, based on a 1977 study of late divorced female Canadians. Research emphasizes six major life adjustment areas: emotions; divorce grounds; finances and budgeting; children; life-style change; and independence. (Author)

  4. Late glacial and holocene landscapes of central Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Anderson, Patricia; Eisner, Wendy R.; Solomatkina, Tatiana B.

    2011-11-01

    New palynological and sedimentological data from St. Lawrence Island present a rare view into late-glacial and Holocene environments of the central Bering Land Bridge. The late glaciation was a time of dynamic landscape changes in south-central Beringia, with active thermokarst processes, including the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. The presence of such a wet, unstable substrate, if widespread, probably would have had an adverse impact on food sources and mobility for many of the large mammal populations. The establishment of Betula shrub tundra on the island suggests late-glacial summers that were warmer than present, consistent with regional paleoclimatic interpretations. However, the increasing proximity to the Bering Sea, as postglacial sea levels rose, modified the intensity of warming and prevented the establishment of deciduous forest as found in other areas of Beringia at this time. The mid- to late Holocene is marked by more stable land surfaces and development of Sphagnum and Cyperaceae peat deposits. The accumulation of organic deposits, decline of shrub Betula, and decrease in thermokarst disturbance suggest that conditions were cooler than the previous. A recent decline in peat accumulation at the study sites may relate to local geomorphology, but similar decreases have been noted for other arctic regions.

  5. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1

  6. Bilateral Very Late Onset Cystoid Macular Edema after Uncomplicated Phacoemulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the occurrence of a very rare type of bilateral pseudophakic cystoids macular edema 16 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in a 55 year old patient. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a bilateral very late onset cystoids macular edema following uncomplicated phacomulsification with posterior intraocular lens implantation. (author)

  7. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  8. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (∼1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and su

  9. Perspective Taking, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Late Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Hans; Johnson, Lena

    1992-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perspective taking in response to another's distress and prosocial behavior and dispositional affective empathy in late childhood. The tendency to reflect spontaneously on the inner experience of others who are unfortunate was positively related to prosocial behavior in boys and to affective empathy in both sexes.…

  10. The Leporid Datum: a late Miocene biotic marker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flynn, L. J.; Winkler, A. J.; Erbaeva, M.; Alexeeva, N.; Anders, U.; Angelone, Ch.; Čermák, Stanislav; Fladerer, F. A.; Kraatz, B.; Ruedas, L. A.; Ruf, I.; Tomida, Y.; Veitschegger, K.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, 3/4 (2014), s. 164-176. ISSN 0305-1838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dispersal * immigration * late Neogene * molecular tree * palaeoecology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.256, year: 2014

  11. Relational Trauma and Its Impact on Late-Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes work with two children, placed for late adoption who have suffered relational trauma. The paper explores the long-term consequences of such trauma, which includes problems with affect regulation, difficulties in generalising from one experience to another and shifts between phantasies of omnipotent control and sudden…

  12. Some Consequences of Limited Literacy in Late Antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaster, Robert A.

    This examination of education in late antiquity looks at the variable definitions of literacy, the function of elite literacy as a scarce and highly valued commodity, and the nature of the relationship between the cultural elite and Christianity. A basic definition of a literate person is one who can read and write in his or her society's standard…

  13. Late toxicity and cancerogenesis after large-field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oncological practice may lead to somatic and genetic consequences. The most serious somatic consequence is the malignant tumor induction. Various assessment scales have been developed and applied in a chronological order for evaluating the early and late toxicity ensuing from the applied therapeutic approaches. These effects are the object of numerous and detailed investigations because of the considerable professional and public interest in late toxicity and cancerogenesis due to ionizing irradiation and chemotherapy performance. The objective of the present review is to present the accumulated experience in the area of late consequences, developed after application of the four basic forms of large-field radiotherapy - total body, half body, whole abdomen and total and/or partial irradiation of the lymphatic system, and representing most often a part of a complex therapeutic protocol in aggressive malignant diseases. We have focused our attention on the basic forms of the large-field radiotherapy - hypo-fractionated large-field radiotherapy with representatives the total body and half body irradiation and on normal-fractionated large-field radiotherapy in the form of partial body irradiation with models whole abdomen and total or partial lymphoid irradiation. The most frequently observed late reactions and sequelae after total body and half body irradiation are considered in detail. They include organ damages, endocrine complications, disturbances in growth and development, dental and psychosocial problems. The developed late radiation reactions after the performed partial body irradiation, including whole abdomen and total and/or partial lymphoid irradiation are also the object of analysis. Special attention is paid to late toxicity after treatment of Hodgkin's disease in pediatric patients. Radiotherapy leads to genetic changes with possibilities for developing secondary neoplasms, which

  14. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacob Hayden; Michelle Williams; Ann Granich; Hyoeun Ahn; Brandon Tenay; Joshua Lukehart; Chad Highfill; Sarah Dobard; Kyoungtae Kim

    2013-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT) cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1’s implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole.

  15. Late side effects of Ruthenium 106 therapy for uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When effectiveness is evaluated in brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 special emphasis has to be put on tumor destruction and late side effects responsible for the definite functional results. We evaluated the late side effects of 22 uveal melanomas, which had been treated with 106 Ruthenium plaques. The tumor prominences ranged from 3 to 10 mm, the diameter from 4 to 9 disc diameters. In 4 patients the tumor involved the posterior pole, 14 melanomas were located in the midperiphery of the fundus, 4 tumors were ciliary body melanomas. The total radiation dose of the apex ranged from 100 to 240 Gy with a corresponding dose to the sclera between 540 to 1000 Gy. Because of the short half life of the plaque we have been using different dose rates (1.6-11 Gy/h). In 17/22 eyes adequate regression could be achieved by Ruthenium therapy alone. In one case additional laser treatment of the macular part of the melanoma had to be performed, Gamma Knife therapy was necessary in another melanoma with 10 mm tumor prominence. 3 recurrences led to enucleation. The mean follow up was 4.8 years ranging from 1 to 7 years. In 2/22 patients opticopathy caused severe visual impairment, in another 2 patients radiation maculopathy and opticopathy was observed. 7/22 developed vasculopathy with neovascularization treated by photocoagulation. In one case of focal radiation maculopathy laser treatment could prevent further visual impairment. The following factors are responsible for a higher incidence of late side effects: 1. High dose rate of the plaques in combination with a high radiation dose to the sclera 2. Location of the tumor within a minimum distance of 2 disc diameters to the optic nerve or macula 3. Tumor location at the ciliary body Laser treatment in case of neovascularization and focal radiation maculopathy is the only effective treatment with regard to late side effects. Ischemic maculopathy and radiation opticopathy are responsible for late visual impairment. (authors)

  16. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jacob; Williams, Michelle; Granich, Ann; Ahn, Hyoeun; Tenay, Brandon; Lukehart, Joshua; Highfill, Chad; Dobard, Sarah; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2013-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 delta cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT))cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1's implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole. PMID:23385815

  17. Late Language Emergence in 24-Month-Old Twins: Heritable and Increased Risk for Late Language Emergence in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Gayán, Javier; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the etiology of late language emergence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins, considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. Method: A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modeling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and…

  18. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  19. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhu, Jiang [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ozaki, Toshinori [Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuohku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Bu, Youquan, E-mail: buyqcn@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2015-03-13

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited

  20. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited

  1. HEARING AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTSAS RISK FACTORS FOR LATE- LIFE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza N. KRSTESKA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late-life depression is one of the most frequent disorders among the seniors and often remains unrecognized. One of the reasons why late-life depression often passes unrecognized is the comorbidity. Hearing and visual impairments are very common condition among the elderly. Thus, depression among the elderly is commonly accompanied by hearing and visual impairment. The epidemiology together with the visual and hearing-related problems still remains poorly investigated.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hearing and visual function and the late-life depression.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 120 participants, 60 patients with late-life depression and 60 community-dwelling older adults aged over 60 and without the symptoms of depression. All participants were examined using a questionnaire designed for the aim of the study to measure the severity of the symptoms (scale with scores from 1 to 3 - from mild to profound degree of self-reported hearing and visual impairment. In addition, existing medical records and the Geriatric Depression Scale were used as well.Results: The patients with late-life depression in larger number suffered from hearing and visual impairment compared to the non - depressed elderly people: hearing impairments (χ2=6.97, df=1, p=0.0083 and visual impairments (χ2=4.37, df=2, p=0.012.Conclusion: These data suggest that the risk of late-life depression is higher among elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment. A comprehensive annual eye exam is the most important step that can be undertaken to help monitor and protect normal visual function in the elderly. It is necessary to conduct routine screening and early treatment of depression in elderly patients with hearing and visual impairment within the primary care practice. Ophthalmologists and otologists should be aware of the need for routine screening for geriatric syndromes in the

  2. Late-Time Spectral Observations of Type IIP Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Pickett, Stephanie; Wheeler, J. Craig; Filippenko, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe IIP) are H-rich explosions that come from red supergiant (RSG) progenitors. Despite the fact that they are the most common subtype of SN, little work has been done on late-time observations of SNe IIP owing to their relative faintness at these epochs. We analyze 91 late-time (older than about 100 days past explosion) optical spectra of 38 SNe IIP, making this the largest sample of SN IIP nebular spectra ever studied. Quantitative criteria from the spectra themselves are employed to determine if an observation is truly nebular, and thus should be included in the study. We measure the fluxes, shapes, and velocities of various emission lines and investigate their temporal evolution. These values are also compared to photometric data in order to search for correlations that may allow us to gain insight into the RSG progenitors of SNe IIP and learn more about the details of the explosion itself.

  3. A late-time transition in the cosmic dark energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Bassett, B A; Silk, J; Ungarelli, C; Bassett, Bruce A.; Kunz, Martin; Silk, Joseph; Ungarelli, Carlo

    2002-01-01

    We study constraints from the latest CMB, large scale structure (2dF, Abell/ACO, PSCz) and SN1a data on dark energy models with a sharp transition in their equation of state, w(z). Such a transition is motivated by models like vacuum metamorphosis where non-perturbative quantum effects are important at late times. We allow the transition to occur at a specific redshift, z_t, to a final negative pressure -1 < w_f < -1/3. We find that the CMB and supernovae data, in particular, prefer a late-time transition due to the associated delay in cosmic acceleration. The best fits (with 1 sigma errors) to all the data are z_t = 2.0^{+2.2}_{-0.76}, \\Omega_Q = 0.73^{+0.02}_{-0.04} and w_f = -1^{+0.2}.

  4. Domain-wall formation in late-time phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate domain-wall formation in late-time phase transitions. We find that, as in the invisible-axion--domain-wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different regions of the Universe to different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low-temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some nonthermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact that domain-wall production is not a robust prediction of late-time transitions may suggest future directions in model building

  5. Late archaic settlement systems in the northern Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierra, Bradley J.

    2003-01-01

    Last year at these meetings I proposed a possible seasonal transhumance pattern for the Late Archaic in the northern Rio Grande region. This pattern involved the movement of groups from the lowland juniper-savanna grasslands in the early summer, to the upland ponderosa pindmixed conifer forests in the mid to late summer, and then back down to the piiion-juniper woodlands during the fall. The Rio Grande Valley was also used for winter habitation sites. Following on this research, I take the next step by studying the inter-assemblage variability represented in a sample of open-air sites located within each of these vegetation communities. The results indicate that there are significant differences in reduction tactics represented between valley habitation vs., upland campsites, and that these site sites are linked together by obsidian procurement patterns.

  6. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysis method. The findings revealed that aassertiveness predicts separation anxiety in a meaningful way. Furthermore, the assertiveness predicts engulfment anxiety, peer enmeshment, need denial, practicing-mirroring, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. These findings suggest that psycho-educational studies improving assertiveness can be carried out for the late adolescents who experience separation-individuation problems.

  7. Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A

    2006-01-01

    The transformations taking place in late-type galaxies in the environment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From the handful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether they were formed in-situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation or even destruction or if they are newcomers that recently infall from outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario, covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the gas tracers, the star formation tracers, the old star tracers and the dust. Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well studied clusters Virgo, A1367 and Coma, representative of different evolutionary stages, from unrelaxed, spiral rich (Virgo) to relaxed, spiral poor clusters (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models of galaxy interactions relevant to clusters of galaxies. Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed and their ty...

  8. Representations of Late-Ottoman Thessaloniki in Contemporary Greek Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Trine Stauning

    In the late 1990s and 2000s there was an increasing historiographic as well as cultural interest in more nuanced accounts of Greek and Christian experiences during the Ottoman period. The increasing contemporary cultural plurality in Greece, that was a consequence of globalization processes and...... religious homogeneity. The historiographic interest, along with an opening towards Turkish cultural products, in particular soap operas, has been followed up by a wave of popular Greek historical novels situated in the Ottoman period (i.e. Kalpouzos, Zourgos, Themelis, Kakouri and others). The current...... on the Ottoman period, this paper will present an analysis of representations of late Ottoman Thessaloniki in a number of Greek novels published between 2005 and 2012. The paper examines the ways in which these novels represent cross-cultural and cross-religious relations in pre-national Thessaloniki...

  9. Late Adverse Events after Enhanced and Unenhanced MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2014-01-01

    Prospective evaluation of frequency of late and very late adverse events in patients undergoing enhanced or unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). The imaging procedure was performed according to the protocols of the department. All patients were contacted three...... of LAEs was significantly higher in the enhanced MRI (38%) and CT (27%) groups than unenhanced MRI (20%) and CT (16%) groups. The frequency of nausea, dizziness, abdominal pain and diarrhoea was significantly higher in the enhanced MRI group than in the MRI control group, while taste sensation...... was reported more frequent in the enhanced CT group than in the CT control group. The incidence of VLAEs was significantly higher in the enhanced CT (21%) than unenhanced CT group (13%). The same LAEs and VLAEs were reported in all four groups. LAEs and VLAEs were reported more often in patients with allergy...

  10. Radiologic findings in late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus in the elderly has a different clinical and serologic course from that in young patients. Radiographic findings in patients in whom the diagnosis was made after age 50 were compared with findings in younger patients to see if the radiologic patterns are also different. The only significant radiographic difference between the two groups was that the older group had a greater incidence of soft-tissue swelling of the hands and wrists (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in osteopenia, erosion, soft-tissue calcification, alignment abnormalities, or intrathoracic findings. Of 24 patients over age 50, two developed lymphoma and another developed multiple myeloma. The data agree with clinical observations that there is a higher incidence of arthritis in late-onset lupus, but clinical findings of increased incidence of pleuropericardial disease are not confirmed radiographically. The coincidence of hematologic malignancy with late-onset lupus in this series is noteworthy

  11. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-01

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory. PMID:23521247

  12. Disposition of firocoxib in late pregnant and early postpartum mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, S; Macpherson, M L; Benson, S M; Cox, S; McNaughten, J W; Pozor, M A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces several physiologic changes that might impact the bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on the disposition of oral firocoxib in mares. Seven pony mares received oral firocoxib paste at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg during late pregnancy and again 12 to 33 days postpartum. Firocoxib concentrations were measured in plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Maximum plasma concentrations were significantly lower in pregnant (50.0 ± 21.8 ng/mL) than in postpartum (73.7 ± 25.6 ng/mL) mares. Plasma concentrations 24 h after administration, time to maximum plasma concentrations, and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve were not significantly different between late pregnancy and the postpartum period in mares. PMID:26202842

  13. Late-time dynamics of rapidly rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the late-time behaviour of a dynamically perturbed rapidly rotating black hole. Considering an extreme Kerr black hole, we show that the large number of virtually undamped quasinormal modes (that exist for nonzero values of the azimuthal eigenvalue m) combine in such a way that the field (as observed at infinity) oscillates with an amplitude that decays as 1/t at late times. For a near extreme black hole, these modes, collectively, give rise to an exponentially decaying field which, however, is considerably 'long-lived'. Our analytic results are verified using numerical time-evolutions of the Teukolsky equation. Moreover, we argue that the physical mechanism behind the observed behaviour is the presence of a 'superradiance resonance cavity' immediately outside the black hole. We present this new feature in detail, and discuss whether it may be relevant for astrophysical black holes. (author)

  14. Late Miocene biogeography and paleoclimatology of the central North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, R.Z.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Holes 334 and 410 demonstrate that subpolar and subtropical faunal provinces existed in the North Atlantic during the late Miocene. Climatic oscillations are clearly recorded in Hole 410 by variations in abundance of the Neogloboquadrina subpolar assemblage. These climatic oscillations have a period of about 1 m.y. Higher frequency oscillations with a periodicity of one to several hundred thousand years are evident from about 6.5 to 7.5 m.y. and are probably present throughout the entire late Miocene. A revised age of 7.0 m.y. is proposed for the first occurrence of the calcareous nannofossil Amaurolithus primus (the Amaurolithus datum). ?? 1981.

  15. Separation and characterization of late endosomal membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihide; Beuchat, Marie-Hélène; Chevallier, Julien; Makino, Asami; Mayran, Nathalie; Escola, Jean-Michel; Lebrand, Cecile; Cosson, Pierre; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Gruenberg, Jean

    2002-08-30

    Very little is known about the biophysical properties and the lipid or protein composition of membrane domains presumably present in endocytic and biosynthetic organelles. Here we analyzed the membrane composition of late endosomes by suborganellar fractionation in the absence of detergent. We found that the internal membranes of this multivesicular organelle can be separated from the limiting membrane and that each membrane population exhibited a defined composition. Our data also indicated that internal membranes may consist of at least two populations, containing primarily phosphatidylcholine or lysobisphosphatidic acid as major phospholipid, arguing for the existence of significant microheterogeneity within late endosomal membranes. We also found that lysobisphosphatidic acid exhibited unique pH-dependent fusogenic properties, and we speculated that this lipid is an ideal candidate to regulate the dynamic properties of this internal membrane mosaic. PMID:12065580

  16. Late Forming Dark Matter in Theories of Neutrino Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subinoy; Weiner, Neal

    2006-01-01

    We study the possibility of Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM), where a scalar field, previously trapped in a metastable state by thermal or finite density effects, begins to oscillate near the era matter-radiation equality about its true minimum. Such a theory is motivated generally if the dark energy is of a similar form, but has not yet made the transition to dark matter, and, in particular, arises automatically in recently considered theories of neutrino dark energy. If such a field comprise...

  17. Late Responses in the Electrodiagnosis of Cervical Radiculopathies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Backround and aim This paper aims to assess the parameters of late responses and then determine their usefulness in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Patients and methods We studied a total of 114 patients with bilateral assessment of median and ulnar nerves and of F and A waves parameters. Results We draw attention to the need of bilateral electrodiagnostic examination due to changes occurring in a third of cases also in the asymptomatic limb. Pluriradicular injuries occurred in one thir...

  18. Impact of multiple births on late and moderate prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S

    2012-06-01

    Multiple gestations have an increased risk of pregnancy complications compared with singletons. Delay in childbearing and assisted reproductive techniques have remained common reasons for the increase in multiple gestations over the last few decades. Higher rates of both spontaneous and indicated preterm birth in twins and triplets lead to a significant proportion of the moderate preterm birth and late preterm birth rates. The article is a review of the causes of preterm birth and morbidities associated with these pregnancies. PMID:22364678

  19. Pathways to Childlessness and Late-Life Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dykstra, Pearl A.; WAGNER, MICHAEL

    2007-01-01

    Via a simultaneous analysis of different life course pathways (marital, occupational, and childbearing histories) and different outcomes, this article addresses the question When does childlessness matter in late life and how? Survey data from Amsterdam (N = 661) and Berlin, Germany (N = 516) are used. Lifelong childlessness results in smaller networks among men and women in Amsterdam and Berlin, and in the Dutch sample it leads to higher income levels. Dutch men who have never had children a...

  20. Cognitive functioning in late senescence : influences of age and health

    OpenAIRE

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita

    1999-01-01

    The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate potential age-related differences between groups of healthy very old adults from 75 to 96 years of age in various cognitive functions. An additional objective was to examine the influence of individual-difference variables within demographic (e.g., education, gender), psychometric (e.g., general cognitive status; MMSE) and biological (e.g., vitamin B12, folic acid [FA]) domains on cognitive functioning in late life. ...

  1. Late presentation of upper airway obstruction in Pierre Robin sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A.; Moore, D; Moore, M.; Martin, A.; Staugas, R; Kennedy, J.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective review was carried out of 11 consecutive patients with the Pierre Robin sequence referred to a tertiary paediatric referral centre over a five year period from 1993 to 1998. Ten patients were diagnosed with significant upper airway obstruction; seven of these presented late at between 24 and 51 days of age. Failure to thrive occured in six of these seven infants at the time of presentation, and was a strong indicator of the severity of upper airway obstruction. ...

  2. Session Introduction: Global correlation on late Quaternary paleovalley systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, K.M.; Amorosi, A; Busschers, F.S.; Hori, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2015-01-01

    All around the world, paleovalley systems have trapped great amounts of deposits and hold a quite complete Late Quaternary record. Uniquely, these records directly interlink the shelf marine with the hinterland fluvial realms. In the vicinity of ice sheets, in similar ways, paleovalleys interlink the glacial record with the non-glacial domain. Considerable advances have been made in their study over the past decades, and many case well-dated and well-mapped case studies are now available. The...

  3. Personalizing behavioral interventions: the case of late-life depression

    OpenAIRE

    Arean, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the potential utility of behavioral interventions in personalized depression treatment. The paper begins with a definition of personalized treatment, moves to current thinking regarding the various causes of depression, and proposes how those causes can be used to inform the selection of behavioral interventions. Two examples from the late-life depression field will illustrate how a team of researchers at Cornell University (NY, USA) and University of California, San Fran...

  4. Early and Late Demographic Transitions: the Role of Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Cuberes, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses new estimates of the dates on which different countries have experienced their demographic transition to address two empirical questions. First, I study the importance of different socioeconomic variables on the timing of these transitions. Second, I distinguish between countries that have experienced early and late demographic transitions and compare their relative income around the transition date. My results indicate that the size of a country’s urban population plays a cru...

  5. Bone Traumas in Late Antique Populations from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Mario; Šlaus, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of the analyses of traumatic bone injuries in two Late Antique (3rd to 5th century AD) skeletal samples from Croatia: Zadar – located on the eastern Adriatic coast, and a composite skeletal series from continental Croatia consisting of skeletons from Osijek, Vinkovci, [trbinci, and Zmajevac. The osteological series from continental Croatia are related to settlements located on, or near the Danubian military border, while Zadar – 350 km to the west, is located deep in th...

  6. Late antique field archaeology’:a legitimate aim?

    OpenAIRE

    Roskams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some issues raised by Lavan et al. (2007) in relation to the study of everyday life: that is, do we need a distinctive set of fieldwork practices to investigate late antique sites. This paper argues that such an objective is both unnecessary and unhelpful. Instead, we should invest in reconnaissance and evaluation by using non-invasive techniques in advance of destructive excavation, then develop a more focused strategy by enhanced deposit modelling, involving a considera...

  7. Friedman—Robertson—Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman—Robertson—Walker (FRW) FRW models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  8. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Donald E Canfield

    2011-01-01

    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We inter...

  9. Late Onset Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Olanzapine: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Santonastaso; Arianna Camporese; Lorenza Caregaro; Angela Favaro

    2008-01-01

    A case of late onset anorexia nervosa (AN) treated with olanzapine is reported. The patient suffered AN onset at the age of 53 and was brought to our attention four years later in a very poor state of health due to extreme starvation and laxative abuse. She presented severe obsessions about food, a very disturbed body image, and “ascetic” rituals of self-punishment. There was no improvement of her symptoms with cognitive behavioural therapy, antidepressant drugs and inpatient nutritional ther...

  10. Deciphering the Late Biosynthetic Steps of Antimalarial Compound FR-900098

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes, Tyler W.; DeSieno, Matthew A.; Griffin, Benjamin M.; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Metcalf, William W.; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    FR-900098 is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of malaria. Here we report the heterologous production of this compound in E. coli by re-constructing the entire biosynthetic pathway using a three plasmid system. Based on this system, whole cell feeding assays in combination with in vitro enzymatic activity assays reveal an unprecedented functional role of nucleotide conjugation and lead to the complete elucidation of the previously unassigned late biosynthetic steps. These stud...

  11. Stellar Halo Constraints on Simulated Late Type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris

    2003-01-01

    How do late type spiral galaxies form within the context of a CDM cosmology? We contrast N-body, smoothed particle hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation which employ two different supernova feedback mechanisms. Observed mass and metallicity distributions of the stellar halos of the Milky Way and M31 provide constraints on these models. A strong feedback model, incorporating an adiabatic phase in star burst regions, better reproduces these observational properties than our comparative...

  12. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysi...

  13. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread,...

  14. The Expressive Turn of Citizenship in Digital Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to connect the idea of expressive rationality to current debates on citizenship and political participation online. Socializing, cultural consumption/ production, identity management, information and publication strategies are both different and accentuated in digital, networked and late modern environments. In the paper I argue that the kind of network sociability that is emerging today favours an expressive form of rationality. I also claim that expressive ratio...

  15. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Models with Late-Time Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Abdussattar,

    2016-01-01

    In order to account for the observed cosmic acceleration, a modification of the ansatz for the variation of density in Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models given by Islam is proposed. The modified ansatz leads to an equation of state which corresponds to that of a variable Chaplygin gas, which in the course of evolution reduces to that of a modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) and a Chaplygin gas (CG), exhibiting late-time acceleration.

  16. A possible chelonian egg from the Brazilian late cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a possible fossil egg proceeding from the Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of Paraná Basin, Brazil. External morphology, dimensions, texture and shell ornamentation examined under electron microscopy show close resemblance to the Recent podocnemidid chelonian eggs. Association with bony material in the outcrop suggests that it is related to a species of Podocnemis. Computerized tomography reveals a high density outer region corresponding to the shell component layers, and suc...

  17. Dissipative Fluid in Brans Dicke theory and late time acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, A A; Sethi, S K

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of having a late time accelerated expansion phase for the universe. We have used a dissipative fluid in Brans-Dicke(BD) theory for this purpose. The model does not involve any potential for the BD scalar field. We have obtained the best fit values for the different parameters in our model by comparing our model predictions with SNIa data and the also with the data from the ultra-compact radio sources.

  18. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi; Rakesh Behman; Raj Kumar; Dharmender Kumar Nehra; Naresh Kuma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200) adolescents were select...

  19. Late-onset myasthenia not on the increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, E G; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, K; Jensen, P E H; Gaist, D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increase in late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG) has been reported. There are few large population-based studies over longer periods of time reflecting recent developments in MG incidence. METHODS: We identified a nationwide cohort of patients with incident myasthenia in Denmark in 1996......-2009. We used a validated algorithm to track subjects based on a combination of diagnosis and prescription (pyridostigmine) data from nationwide registers. Patients with myasthenia were classified into early onset (...

  20. Late-life work and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Carol.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work time and retirement options are a potential solution for the challenges of unemployment, aging populations, and unsustainable pensions systems around the world. Voluntary part-time workers in Europe and the US are happier, experience less stress and anger, and are more satisfied with their jobs than other employees. Late-life workers, meanwhile, have higher levels of well-being than retirees. The feasibility of a policy that is based on more flexible work arrangements will vary ...

  1. The late stage of autophagy: cellular events and molecular regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Jingjing; Yan, Xianghua; Yu, Li

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic contents to the lysosome for degradation. It is a “self-eating” process and plays a “house-cleaner” role in cells. The complex process consists of several sequential steps—induction, autophagosome formation, fusion of lysosome and autophagosome, degradation, efflux transportation of degradation products, and autophagic lysosome reformation. In this review, the cellular and molecular regulations of late stage of autopha...

  2. Differences between early and late onset adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj;

    2011-01-01

    episode depression were systematically recruited. Characteristics including psychiatric co-morbidity, personality disorders and traits, stressful life events prior to onset, family history, and treatment outcome were assessed by structured interviews and compared by chi-square tests for categorical data...... illness. Conclusion: Early adult onset of depression is associated with co-morbid personality deviances, whereas late onset is associated with environmental risk factors....

  3. A Sequential Detection Method for Late Auditory Evoked Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, U; Eysholdt, U; Weiss, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents a novel mechanism for detection of late auditory evoked potentials (AEP). AEPs, which are an important diagnostic tool to detect hearing deficiencies, are contained within the electroencephalogram (EEG) at a very low SNR. Our proposed automatic detection of AEPs is based on the Wavelet-Transform of EEG data for feature extraction. Several transform coefficients are then used for a classification by a neural network; its decisions on successive EEG segments are judged by a s...

  4. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Late Adolescence with Online Gaming Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; DONG, tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education...

  5. Biogeography of late Silurian and devonian rugose corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, W.A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three marine benthic faunal realms can be recognized in the Early and Middle Devonian. The Eastern Americas Realm consisted of most of the eastern half of North America and South America north of the Amazon. This realm extended in a southwest direction from the Devonian equator to approximately 35??S and was an isolated epicontinental sea during much of its history. The Eastern Americas Realm was bounded on the west by the Transcontinental Arch, on the north by the Canadian Shield and on the east and southeast by a peninsular extension of the Old Red Continent. These barriers were emergent during much, but not all, of Devonian time. Seaways beyond these barriers belonged to the Old World Realm. The Malvinokaffric Realm that was farther south was apparently temperate to arctic in climate and latitudinal position and contained few corals. Rugose corals in the Eastern Americas Realm show increasing generic-level endemism from the Late Silurian through the Early Devonian; during the late Early Devonian, 92% of the rugosan genera are not known anywhere else in the world. Endemism decreased through the Middle Devonian to zero in the early Late Devonian. The Early Devonian increase in endemism paralleled, and was probably related to, the development of the Old Red Continent as a barrier between America and Africa-Europe. The waning of endemism in the Middle Devonian reflects the breaching of the land barriers. This permitted some migration in and out of the realm in early Middle Devonian time but greatest movements were in late Middle Devonian time. Principal migration directions were from western or Arctic North America into the Michigan-Hudson Bay area and from the southern Appalachian area into Africa. ?? 1977.

  6. Frailty & late-life depression: a delicate balance

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disease worldwide. With demographic balance shifting towards an older population, the number of older adults with a lifetime history of depression or subthreshold depression will be significant over the next decades. Depression is a serious psychiatric disease that affects not only the person suffering from depression, but also the social environment oft he person. The course of late-life depression is characterized by high recurrence and relapse rate...

  7. Dementia with impaired glucose metabolism in late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Ehlers, L.; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2001-01-01

    An unusual case of very-late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) with dementia was studied. The patient was a 41-year-old male who presented with mild dementia and a single generalized tonic clonic seizure. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated mild amnesia, visuospatial dysfunction and...... observed using positron emission tomography and fluor-18-labeled fluorodesoxyglucose. The neuropsychological deficits are related to the location of deficits in glucose metabolism....

  8. Nutrition and late-life depression: etiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental disorder that frequently occurs in older adults, especially in those with vascular diseases. Nutritional factors have the potential to decrease the occurrence of late-life depression but have not been adequately studied. Low folate levels, disturbed omega-3 fatty acid metabolism and obesity have been associated with depression, and may be causal factors. Longitudinal studies are urgently needed in order to examine the potential of dietary factors to prevent...

  9. Thermoluminescence dating of late-glacial sand sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Late-Glacial sediments were dated by the regeneration method combined with the plateau criteria. The thermoluminescence (TL) dates were compared with independent dates assessed indirectly by radiocarbon dating or varve chronology. For comparison, the 14C dates were calibrated by adding 1000 yr to the conventional results. Eight TL dates agreed with the 14C dates within the uncertainty of the TL dates (± 1 ka), one was overestimated and one underestimated. (author)

  10. Early- versus late-onset bipolar II disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzi, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features and the outcome between patients with early- and late-onset bipolar II disorder. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Outpatient private practice. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with bipolar II disorder presenting for treatment of a major depressive episode. OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of illness, severity of depression, recurrences, psychosis, chronicity, atypical features and comorbidity. RESULTS: Patients with early-onset ...

  11. Identity processes and experience of being alone during late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Musetti; Paola Corsano; Marinella Majorano; Tiziana Mancini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the experience of being alone and identity processes analysing the mediation role of adolescents’ age and gender. The Ego Identity Process Questionnaire – EIPQ (Balistrieri, Busch-Rossnagel, & Geisinger, 1995) and the Louvain Loneliness Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents – LLCA (Marcoen, Goossens, & Caes, 1987) were administered to 181 high school adolescents and 141 university students, classed as late adolescents. Data...

  12. Inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis with late-decaying massive particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Suarez, J.; Canal, R.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of accounting for the currently inferred primordial abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li by big bang nucleosynthesis in the presence of baryon density inhomogeneities plus the effects of late-decaying massive particles (X), and we explore the allowed range of baryonic fraction of the closure density Omega_b in such context. We find that, depending on the parameters of this composite model (characteristic size and density contrast of the inhomogeneities; mass-densi...

  13. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from...

  14. Surface-Induced Modification of Supported Late Transition Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Snezhkova, Olesia

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis addresses the investigation of the electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of late transition metal complexes supported on various surfaces. The research is aimed at studying the interaction between the molecules and the support, together with the intermolecular interaction. This knowledge is essential e.g. for the development of organic molecule-based devices and the creation of active and stable catalysts. In this work, the modification of th...

  15. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Natile, Miria; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Colombo, Marco; Bernasconi, Davide; Locatelli, Anna; Plevani, Cristina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Tagliabue, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive air...

  16. Psychoanalysis, Sexuality, and Nationality in Late Habsburg Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    How does one grasp, historically and conceptually, the relatively recent phenomenon that gay identity politics is systematically mobilized to support racism and imperialism, a phenomenon theorized as "homonationalism" (Puar) and "gay imperialism" (Haritaworn, Erdem & Tauqir)? This dissertation examines psychoanalysis, sexuality, and nationality in late Habsburg Austria in the light of recent analyses of homonationalism and gay imperialism in order to contribute to a better understanding of th...

  17. Dimensions of Parenting and Identity Development in Late Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Jennifer Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Previous research examining the link between parenting and identity have either indirectly assessed a single dimension of parenting or explored the degree of achievement rather than the process of identity development. The present study examines the influence of maternal and paternal parenting behaviors on the identity formation process in late adolescence. Participants (N = 1134), ranging in age from 18 to 25, completed questionnaires to assess their perceptions of parental behaviors and the...

  18. Late Quaternary sea-level changes of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Bateman, Mark D.; Larkin, Nigel R.; Rye, Philip; Stewart, John R.

    2015-07-01

    Late Quaternary reflooding of the Persian Gulf climaxed with the mid-Holocene highstand previously variously dated between 6 and 3.4 ka. Examination of the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context of a mid-Holocene whale beaching allows us to accurately constrain the timing of the transgressive, highstand and regressive phases of the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand in the Persian Gulf. Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100-6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of > 1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290-4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440-1170 cal yr BP. The cetacean beached into an intertidal hardground pond during the transgressive phase (5300-4960 cal yr BP) with continued transgression interring the skeleton in shallow-subtidal sediments. Subsequent relative sea-level fall produced a forced regression with consequent progradation of the coastal system. These new ages refine previously reported timings for the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand published for other regions. By so doing, they allow us to constrain the timing of this correlatable global eustatic event more accurately.

  19. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created. PMID:23967146

  20. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaniewski

    Full Text Available The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  1. Hypoxia expression in radiation-induced late rectal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis have been studied extensively. However, the relation between normal tissue injury and hypoxia is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on radiation-induced late rectal injury in mice. The rectum of C57BL/6N mice was irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy and the following experiments were performed including hematoxylin-eosin (H.E.) staining, azan staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Radiation-induced fibrotic changes were observed from 14 days and reached the peak 30 days after irradiation. The expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial cell marker CD31 increased significantly with the formation of fibrosis induced by irradiation compared with unirradiated control. In addition, the maximum expression of TGF-β1, HIF-1α and VEGF was found at 14, 30 and 90 days after irradiation, respectively. The temporal changes of cytokines were consistent with the dynamic change of fibrosis. Our data suggests that late normal tissue injury involved various cytokines including hypoxia-induced angiogenic cytokines. These results may have important implications in the understanding of radiation-induced late normal tissue injury. (author)

  2. Early and late vulval cancer recurrences: Are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Kalpana; Grandidge, Lisa; Strelley, Katie; Wang, Huan; Tidy, John

    2016-05-01

    Vulval cancers are rare, but after primary treatment, known to recur with a high frequency (30%). Clinico-pathological predictors of recurrence have been established to a great extent. However, there is paucity of literature on predictors of early versus late recurrence. We sought to identify such predictors through a retrospective study of vulval cancer recurrences in a single cancer centre over 11 years. Age of women, depth of invasion/site of primary tumour and presence of background VIN/lichen sclerosus do not appear to affect timing of recurrence. However, vulval cancers that recur after 2 years of primary tumour recognition are more likely to be well-differentiated tumours, have undergone radical surgery and have had a closest disease-free margin >1 cm. Late recurrences are entirely local rather than distant metastases and this translates into a better survival as shown in our study (40 months median survival in the early group versus 112 in the late recurrence group). PMID:26800292

  3. Thecamoebians from Late Permian Gondwana sediments of peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Anjum; Aggarwal, Neha; Jha, Neerja

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary history of thecamoebians (testate amoebae) extends back to the Neoproterozoic Era. However, until now, these have had a restricted, discontinuous and modest record across the world. The studied sediment of Raniganj Formation (Godavari Graben), Andhra Pradesh, India has been assigned as Late Permian on the basis of co-occurring age-diagnostic Late Permian palynomorphs. About sixteen thecamoebian species and one taxon incertae sedis have been recorded here in the palynological slides on the basis of shell morphology and morphometry. Out of these, five belong to the family Arcellidae, seven to Centropyxidae, two to Trigonopyxidae, one to Difflugiidae, one to Plagiopyxidae, and one is regarded incertae sedis. The morphometric characteristics of fossil forms resemble their corresponding extant species studied from ecologically diverse fresh water wetlands in India. In general, the ratio of shell diameter and aperture diameter of Late Permian fossil and extant specimens show significant correlation in all the studied species. Except that, the ratio of shell length and breadth is the distinguishing feature between Centropyxis aerophila and C. aerophila 'sylvatica', rather than the ratio of shell length and longest diameter of the shell aperture in both fossil and extant forms. The study elucidates the minimal morphological evolution in thecamoebians and their survival during mass extinction periods and stressful environmental conditions over the geological timescale. PMID:23876495

  4. Late Bilateral Renal Metastasis of Choriocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahmasebi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late bilateral renal metastasis of chori-ocarcinoma is a rare condition. Herein we report a case of late renal metastasis of choriocarcinoma."nCase Presentation: A 28 years old woman presented with gross hematuria since three months ago. A mo-bile palpable mass in her right flank was detected. She was not pregnant but had a history of abortion at six weeks of gestation in seven years age. Her gyneco-logic examination was normal. She had severe anemia (Hb=7.2, elevated ESR (52 with normal renal and liver function testes. Ultrasonography showed bilat-eral large kidney masses by solid-cystic components, with predominant solid parts. Bilateral lobulated het-erogeneous renal masses were found at non-enhancing axial CT-Scan, with notable enhancement of solid parts after administration of contrast agent. Angiography revealed bilateral hypovascular renal masses. Right radical nephrectomy performed for the patient and pathology reported choriocarcinoma of kidney. Finally, she was referred for chemotherapy of contralateral renal mass, but she delayed that for three months. She died following a seizure attack and cardiopulmonary arrest without response to prompt cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. Autopsy not permit-ted by relevants. "nConclusion: Late metastases of choriocarcinoma may appear in kidney or brain after a long time following the primary source of malignancy, when the primary lesion has disappeared.

  5. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Late core collapse in star clusters and the gravothermal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical Fokker-Planck computations of core collapse in a one-component star cluster are presented. The evolution of the cluster has been followed to the point where the central density has increased by a factor of 1020. During the late stages of the core collapse, nonisothermal self-similar structure develops in the region which lies between the rapidly shrinking isothermal core and the halo. In this region, the radial profiles of the stellar density, the gravitational potential, and the velocity dispersion are characterized by the power laws rhoproportionalr/sup -2.23/, phiproportionalr/sup -0.23/, and v/sub m/2proportionalr/sup -0.23/. Late core collapse proceeds at a rate d ln rho(0)/dt=3.6 x 10-3t/sub r/(0)-1. The central velocity dispersion increases with the central density according to v/sub m/2(0)proportionalrho(0)/sup 0.10/. These results provide strong new evidence for the identification of the late phase of core collapse with the gravothermal instability of Lynden-Bell and Wood

  7. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Glasspool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2 that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2, increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2 rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can therefore be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2 played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  8. Late-quaternary vegetational dynamics and community stability reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.

    1983-03-01

    Defining the spatial and temporal limits of vegetational processes such as migration and invasion of established communities is a prerequisite to evaluating the degree of stability in plant communities through the late Quaternary. The interpretation of changes in boundaries of major vegetation types over the past 20,000 yr offers a complementary view to that provided by migration maps for particular plant taxa. North of approximately 43°N in eastern North America, continual vegetational disequilibrium has resulted from climatic change, soil development, and species migrations during postglacial times. Between 33° and 39°N, stable full-glacial vegetation was replaced by a relatively unstable vegetation during late-glacial climatic amelioration; stable interglacial vegetation developed there after about 9000 yr B.P. Late-Quaternary vegetation has been in dynamic equilibrium, with a relatively constant flora, south of 33°N on upland interfluves along the northern Gulf Coastal Plain, peninsular Florida, and west-central Mexico.

  9. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H

    2016-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches. PMID:27284970

  10. Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.

  11. Comorbidities and the Risk of Late-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which comorbidities affect the diagnosis of prostate cancer is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine how comorbidities affect the stage at which prostate cancer is diagnosed in elderly white and black men. We obtained data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute merged with Medicare claims data. For each patient, we estimated associations between stage of disease at diagnosis and each of the 27 comorbidities. The sample included 2,489 black and 2,587 white men with staged prostate cancer. Coronary artery disease, benign hypertension, and dyslipidemia reduced the odds of late-stage prostate cancer. A prior diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease, severe renal disease, or substance abuse increased the odds of being diagnosed with late-stage disease. The study shows some effect modification by race, particularly among white men with substance abuse, cardiac conduction disorders, and other neurologic conditions. The strongest predictors of late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis for both white and black men were age at diagnosis of at least 80 years and lack of PSA screening. Comorbidities do affect stage at diagnosis, although in different ways. Four hypotheses are discussed to explain these findings.

  12. Analysis of effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization during high pressure severe accident sequence in a typical PWR was analyzed. As the results shown, late water injection could increase RCS pressure when RPV failed without RCS passive depressurization. Especially in the condition of opening one PORV, RCS pressure could reach high pressure limit when RPV failed and the risk of HPME and DCH was dramatically increased. Integrity of containment could be threatened. However, in the condition of RCS passive depressurization induced by pressurizer surge line creep failure, RCS pressure could be decreased to very low level even only one PORV was opened and two trains of emergency core cooling were implemented. The risk of HPME and DCH was eliminated. The more PORVs were opened, the faster accident progression was and the earlier RPV failed. RCS pressure was a little higher when PRV failed if two trains of emergency core cooling was implemented comparing with the condition with only one train of emergency core cooling. However the time of RPV failure was obviously delayed. From the point of delaying RPV failure and preventing containment early failure of view, the optimized late water injection was opening three PORVs and implementing two trains of emergency core cooling. (authors)

  13. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.)

  14. Late Chachapoya population structure prior to Inka conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Kenneth C

    2006-11-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical documents suggest that the Chachapoya region was inhabited by a number of distinct sociopolitical groups that only united in the face of their common enemy, the Inka. The purpose of this research is to quantify the amount of internal genetic differentiation and levels of extraregional gene flow during the Late Chachapoya period, in order to obtain a better understanding of the genetic relationship between these presumed ethnic groups. Craniometric data were collected from three Late Chachapoya samples (Laguna Huayabamba, Kuelap, and Laguna de los Cóndores), in order to understand the genetic relationships between the groups and facilitate our understanding of Late Chachapoya population structure. Genetic differentiation among these series ranged from 0.047 (heritability = 1.0) to 0.090 (heritability = 0.55). The Relethford-Blangero residuals indicate that the Laguna Huayabamba and Laguna de los Cóndores populations were receiving greater than average external gene flow, while Kuelap was receiving less than average external gene flow. The correspondence between biological and archaeological data in the investigation of prehistoric ethnic identity is discussed. PMID:16617430

  15. Late Viséan pelagic chondrichthyans from northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ginter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively rich assemblages of shark teeth from pelagic limestone (Mississippian, late Viséan, late Asbian–middle Brigantian of three northern European regions: the Rhenish Mountains (Westenfeld Quarry, Germany, the Holy Cross Mountains (Todowa Grząba at the edge of Ostrówka Quarry, Poland, and Derbyshire (Cawdor Quarry, Matlock, England, UK display certain similarities, with the absolute predominance of the teeth of Falcatidae (small Symmoriiformes and the constant presence of Thrinacodus spp. The largest and most diverse assemblage from Todowa Grząba contains at least three species of a falcatid Denaea, a xenacanthimorph Bransonella nebraskensis, a newly described phoebodontid Thrinacodus dziki sp. nov., a few ctenacanthiform and euselachian teeth, and two abraded euchondrocephalan dental elements. Anachronistidae, common in the most of late Viséan pelagic faunas, are absent from Todowa Grząba and Westenfeld. The material under study differs from the shallow-water chondrichthyan fauna, hitherto described from the Mississippian carbonate platform facies, by its taxonomic content (particularly almost total absence of Euchondrocephali, generally lower diversity, and higher frequency of small teeth.

  16. Dietary control of late trypsin gene transcription in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, F G; Barillas-Mury, C; Wells, M A

    1994-06-01

    In Aedes aegypti the levels of midgut trypsin activity after feeding are directly proportional to the protein concentration in the meal. The mechanisms of this up-regulatory event were investigated by analyzing the expression of the late trypsin gene under different dietary conditions. Transcription of the gene was dependent on both the quality and quantity of protein in the meal. As measured by Northern blot analysis, the levels of late trypsin gene expression increased up to 100-fold 24 h after feeding on gamma-globulin, hemoglobin or albumin (100 mg/ml). In contrast, gelatin, histone, amino acids, saline or agarose were very poor inducers of transcription. The rates of late trypsin transcription induced during the first 24 h were directly proportional to the concentration of protein in the meal. These data further support the suggestion that the primary mechanism that regulates the synthesis of trypsin in the mosquito midgut is transcriptional regulation of the gene. This regulatory mechanism enables the midgut to maintain the appropriate balance between protease synthesis and the protein content of the meal. PMID:7519098

  17. Ecological impacts of the late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jacquelyn L

    2014-03-01

    As a result of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions (50,000-10,000 before present (BP)), most continents today are depauperate of megaherbivores. These extinctions were time-transgressive, size- and taxonomically selective, and were caused by climate change, human hunting, or both. The surviving megaherbivores often act as ecological keystones, which was likely true in the past. In spite of this and extensive research on the causes of the Late Quaternary Extinctions, the long-term ecological consequences of the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna remained unknown until recently, due to difficulties in linking changes in flora and fauna in paleorecords. The quantification of Sporormiella and other dung fungi have recently allowed for explicit tests of the ecological consequences of megafaunal extirpations in the fossil pollen record. In this paper, I review the impacts of the loss of keystone megaherbivores on vegetation in several paleorecords. A growing number of studies support the hypothesis that the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna resulted in cascading effects on plant community composition, vegetation structure and ecosystem function, including increased fire activity, novel communities and shifts in biomes. Holocene biota thus exist outside the broader evolutionary context of the Cenozoic, and the Late Quaternary Extinctions represent a regime shift for surviving plant and animal species. PMID:24649488

  18. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Archibald, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians ( Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  19. Late time solution for interacting scalar in accelerating spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    We consider stochastic inflation in an interacting scalar field in spatially homogeneous accelerating space-times with a constant principal slow roll parameter $\\epsilon$. We show that, if the scalar potential is scale invariant (which is the case when scalar contains quartic self-interaction and couples non-minimally to gravity), the late-time solution on accelerating FLRW spaces can be described by a probability distribution function (PDF) $\\rho$ which is a function of $\\varphi/H$ only, where $\\varphi=\\varphi(\\vec x)$ is the scalar field and $H=H(t)$ denotes the Hubble parameter. We give explicit late-time solutions for $\\rho\\rightarrow \\rho_\\infty(\\varphi/H)$, and thereby find the order $\\epsilon$ corrections to the Starobinsky-Yokoyama result. This PDF can then be used to calculate e.g. various $n-$point functions of the (self-interacting) scalar field, which are valid at late times in arbitrary accelerating space-times with $\\epsilon=$ constant.

  20. Formation of Late Quaternary paleoshorelines in Crete, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Begg, John; Nicol, Andrew; Oncken, Onno; Prior, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Paleoshorelines of Late Quaternary age in western Crete do not exclusively increase in age with rising altitude as is generally observed worldwide. At numerous sites, for example, Late-Holocene paleoshorelines decrease in age with increasing altitude while in other cases paleoshorelines at similar altitude vary in age by tens of thousands of years. We propose that the observed paleoshoreline altitude-age relationships can be accounted for by eustatic sea-level changes and tectonic rock uplift without requiring substantial errors on radiocarbon ages or tectonic subsidence, as has been previously proposed. To test this model we use a dataset consisting of altitude and age data for 71 individual paleoshorelines sampled from 21 sites distributed along the entire Cretan coastline. These data include radiocarbon ages of marine biota (40 new dates) within beachrock resting on paleoshorelines ranging up to 48 kyr BP in age and ≤20 m above present sea-level. We find that paleoshoreline formation reflects Late Holocene tectonic rock uplift in western Crete, preceded by eustatic sea-level rise and by >10 kyr BP rock uplift along the entire island. Our observations contravene existing models as they suggest that some paleoshorelines, and their associated lithified beachrock, survived passage through the wave-zone multiple times and formed throughout the sea-level cycle (i.e., preservation is not restricted to highstand deposits). These results may have application globally in regions where erosion-resistant carbonate beachrock mantles paleoshorelines.

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  2. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early ... more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer than those who are slightly older, a new ...

  3. Was there more space in the late Early Devonian for marine biodiversity to peak than in the early Late Ordovician?: A brief note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the so-called “Cambrian explosion”, marine biodiversity peaked either in the early Late Ordovician (as shown by the “classical” curves based on the extensive palaeontological data compilation or in the late Early Devonian (as shown by the “innovative” curve based on the sampling standardization. The brief review of the modern plate tectonic, palaeoclimatic, and eustatic reconstructions demonstrates that shelves, which likely provided the main space for biotic radiation, shrank, concentrated in the tropics, and were better connected in the late Early Devonian than in the early Late Ordovician. The results of the present analysis permit to hypothesize that there was more (or the same space for marine organisms to reach their maximum in their number in the early Late Ordovician relatively to the late Early Devonian. This is the only particular hypothesis, and the other extrinsic and intrinsic factors should be considered in further discussions.

  4. Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma in the absence of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Broholm, Helle;

    2016-01-01

    Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) following irradiation has previously been reported 29 times in the literature. Here, the authors report the first late malignant transformation of VS unrelated to neurofibromatosis or radiation exposure. After undergoing a near-total exc......Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) following irradiation has previously been reported 29 times in the literature. Here, the authors report the first late malignant transformation of VS unrelated to neurofibromatosis or radiation exposure. After undergoing a near...

  5. Fusions of bacteriophage P22 late genes to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, P D; Botstein, D

    1987-01-01

    The late genes of bacteriophage P22 were fused to lacZ to study their differential expression from the late operon transcript. No instances of posttranscriptional regulation were uncovered, thus supporting the model that the late genes are expressed, by and large, in fixed ratios based on their translational efficiency and message stability.

  6. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 Input control Embryo Late embryo SRX146413,SRX331...31245,SRX529219 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 All antigens Embryo Late embryo SRX146416,SRX3313...X043867 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 All antigens Embryo Late embryo SRX331302,SRX3313...X494828 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 RNA polymerase Embryo Late embryo SRX043868,SRX04...3870,SRX043867,SRX043869 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 Input control Embryo Late embryo SRX146413,SRX331...29219,SRX494828 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 RNA polymerase Embryo Late embryo SRX043868,SRX04...3870,SRX043869,SRX043867 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 RNA polymerase Embryo Late embryo SRX043868,SRX04...3870,SRX043869,SRX043867 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Late_embryo [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Late_embryo ce10 Input control Embryo Late embryo SRX331247,SRX146...31245,SRX529219 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Late_embryo.bed ...

  14. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  15. Fish scales patterning guiding hASC growth

    OpenAIRE

    Joana M Silva; Afonso, David Losa de Areia; Silva, Tiago H.; Volpato, F.; Motta, A.; Marques, A.P.; Mano, J. F.; Reis, R. L.; Migliaresi, C

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms and materials exhibit interesting properties for their use in biomedical applications, following biomimetic approaches [1,2]. For instance, the white seabass (Lates Calcarifer) scales exhibit a very interesting pattern, which inspire their use as a guiding platform for cellular growth, in a tissue regeneration approach. Moreover, fish scales are composed of hydroxyapatite and type I collagen fibrils, equivalent to the materials that one can find in human bon...

  16. Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Sarah

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT. SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for

  17. Treatment of Late-Life Depression Alleviates Caregiver Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Whyte, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the burden experienced by family caregivers of older adults with depression and to examine the positive effects on caregivers of treating late-life depression. Design Two-phase treatment study for major depressive disorder (MDD) that included 6 weeks of open treatment with antidepressant medication for all older patients followed by 16 weeks of randomized treatment for patients who were partial responders, comparing a combination of medication and interpersonal psychotherapy with medication alone. Setting Primary care and university late-life mental health research clinic. Participants Adults aged 60 and older participating in a randomized trial for treatment of MDD who enrolled in a family caregiver study and their caregiver (N = 244 dyads). Measurements Improvement in patient symptoms during open treatment (lower scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)) and remission of depression during randomized treatment (3 consecutive weekly HRSD scores of ≤7) were examined as predictors of lower general caregiver burden and burden specific to patient depression. Results Caregivers reported a moderate to high level of general caregiver burden on average. Change in patient depression during open treatment was associated with significantly decreased depression-specific burden (β = −0.22, P =.001) and a trend toward lower general burden (β = − 0.08, P =.08). Caregivers of patients who remitted showed significantly decreased depression-specific burden (F (1,76) = 4.27, P =.04). Conclusion Treatment of late-life depression has benefits that extend to the family members on whom patients depend. Caregiver education and support may strengthen these effects. PMID:19943833

  18. Late onset myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapia Verri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific forms of epilepsy may be found at various ages in Down Syndrome (DS and a sharp increase in the incidence of epilepsy with age has been documented. A specific type of myoclonic epilepsy associated with cognitive decline has been reported as “senile myoclonic epilepsy” or “late onset myoclonic epilepsy in DS” (LOMEDS. We report a new case of LOMEDS, documented by clinical and neurophysiological evaluation and psychometric assessment (DSDS and DMR. MF, male, affected by DS, was referred in 2004 at 40 years of age; he had no personal or familial history of epilepsy. Since one year, the patient presented cognitive deterioration, characterized by regression of language abilities, loss of memory, and loss of sphincters control. A brain TC showed mild brainstem and sub-cortical atrophy. In 2006, myoclonic jerks involving upper limbs occurred mainly after awakening. EEG showed a low voltage 8 Hz background activity with diffuse slow activity, intermingled with spikes or polyspikes, persisting during NREM sleep. MF was initially treated with clonazepam and after with topiramate, resulting in partial seizures control. MRI (2008 demonstrated diffuse brain atrophy, associated with marked ventricular enlargement. At the psychometric evaluation, onset of dementia was evident late in 2004, with transition to the middle stage in 2006. Last assessment (2009 showed the clinical signs of a late stage of deterioration, with loss of verbal abilities and autonomous ambulation. Using levetiracetam till 2,000 mg/die, myoclonic jerks decreased but are still present every day after awakening. On the EEG slow and poorly organized background activity with bilateral polyspike-wave discharges was recorded. Therefore, we documented a parallel progression of dementia and myoclonic epilepsy in a DS subject.

  19. Proton Radiotherapy for Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Late Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome and late side effect profile of proton radiotherapy in the treatment of children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventeen consecutive children with PM-RMS were treated with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2005. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and asked referring physicians to report specific side effects of interest. Results: Median patient age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (range, 0.4–17.6). Embryonal (n = 11), alveolar (n = 4), and undifferentiated (n = 2) histologies were represented. Ten patients (59%) had intracranial extension. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 cobalt gray equivalents (GyRBE) (range, 50.4–56.0 GyRBE) delivered in 1.8–2.0-GyRBE daily fractions. Median follow-up was 5.0 years for survivors. The 5-year failure-free survival estimate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 33–79%), and overall survival estimate was 64% (95% confidence interval, 37–82%). Among the 7 patients who failed, sites of first recurrence were local only (n = 2), regional only (n = 2), distant only (n = 2), and local and distant (n = 1). Late effects related to proton radiotherapy in the 10 recurrence-free patients (median follow-up, 5 years) include failure to maintain height velocity (n = 3), endocrinopathies (n = 2), mild facial hypoplasia (n = 7), failure of permanent tooth eruption (n = 3), dental caries (n = 5), and chronic nasal/sinus congestion (n = 2). Conclusions: Proton radiotherapy for patients with PM-RMS yields tumor control and survival comparable to that in historical controls with similar poor prognostic factors. Furthermore, rates of late effects from proton radiotherapy compare favorably to published reports of photon-treated cohorts.

  20. Palynology, sedimentology and palaeoecology of the late Holocene Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Frank Harald; Kagan, Elisa J.; Schwab, Markus J.; Stein, Mordechai

    2007-06-01

    Palynological and sedimentological studies were performed at two Holocene profiles in erosion gullies (Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha) which dissect the retreating western shore of the Dead Sea. The aim of the project was to analyse possible links between climate, lithology, and vegetation development. The section in Ze'elim shows both lacustrine and fluvial sediments, whereas sedimentation at Ein Feshkha is predominantly lacustrine. The Ze'elim profile, previously used for paleo-lake reconstruction provides an opportunity to compare climate triggered lake levels as paleo-hydrological indicators and vegetation history by use of palynology. The vegetation development in Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha is influenced by both climate and human impact. The pollen record of Ze'elim begins in the Pottery Neolithic, the section of Ein Feshkha in the Late Bronze Age, both records end in the Middle Ages. The Ze'elim section is characterized by sedimentary hiati between the beginning of the Chalcolithic Period until the Middle Bronze Age and within the Late Bronze Age. Settlement periods during the Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age and Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine Period are indicated by high values of anthropogenic indicators and/or Mediterranean trees. Collapses of agriculture, which can be related to climate effects, are evident during the Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age and at the end of the Byzantine Period when the lake level curve indicates arid conditions. A comparison of the two pollen records, from different environments, illustrates a more prominent influence of Mediterranean vegetation and cultivated plants in the pollen diagram of Ein Feshkha. The southern Dead Sea region (at the desert fringe) is more vulnerable to regional climate change.

  1. Proton Radiotherapy for Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Stephanie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Cancer Center Johnson Creek, Madison, WI (United States); Friedmann, Alison M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Adams, Judith; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: tyock@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome and late side effect profile of proton radiotherapy in the treatment of children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventeen consecutive children with PM-RMS were treated with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2005. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and asked referring physicians to report specific side effects of interest. Results: Median patient age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (range, 0.4-17.6). Embryonal (n = 11), alveolar (n = 4), and undifferentiated (n = 2) histologies were represented. Ten patients (59%) had intracranial extension. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 cobalt gray equivalents (GyRBE) (range, 50.4-56.0 GyRBE) delivered in 1.8-2.0-GyRBE daily fractions. Median follow-up was 5.0 years for survivors. The 5-year failure-free survival estimate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 33-79%), and overall survival estimate was 64% (95% confidence interval, 37-82%). Among the 7 patients who failed, sites of first recurrence were local only (n = 2), regional only (n = 2), distant only (n = 2), and local and distant (n = 1). Late effects related to proton radiotherapy in the 10 recurrence-free patients (median follow-up, 5 years) include failure to maintain height velocity (n = 3), endocrinopathies (n = 2), mild facial hypoplasia (n = 7), failure of permanent tooth eruption (n = 3), dental caries (n = 5), and chronic nasal/sinus congestion (n = 2). Conclusions: Proton radiotherapy for patients with PM-RMS yields tumor control and survival comparable to that in historical controls with similar poor prognostic factors. Furthermore, rates of late effects from proton radiotherapy compare favorably to published reports of photon-treated cohorts.

  2. (Very) long wavelength deformations of Africa since late Cretaceous times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, Francois; The Topoafrica Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The African continent is characterized by a bimodal topography. The 900-1100m elevation peak mainly corresponds to the Southern African (Kalahari Plateau) and the East African Domes, whereas the 300-400 m peak is the mean elevation of the Sahara. Those reliefs are characterized by very long wavelength (x1000 km), similar to the scale of mantle dynamics. The origin of this relief, dynamic topography or more local controls (e.g. old lithospheric inheritance), are highly debated and more geological controls are required. To answer those questions - in the frame of the TopoAfrica project - we performed a geomorphical study of Africa coupled with the tectono-sedimentary study of the sedimentary basins or the magmatism. (1) Most of the African reliefs are younger than the Early-Middle Eocene (55-40 Ma). (2) The only significative old relief of Africa is the Southern African Plateau that experienced a two steps evolution, a first uplift during Late Cretaceous contemporaneous with high erosion under humid climatic conditions, followed by a second uplift during Late Eocene - Early Oligocene. The present-day arid to semi-arid climate could explain its preservation. (3) Most of Africa is uplifted during Miocene times (20-10 Ma), age of most of the present-day reliefs. (4) The African magmatic provinces (Virunga-Kivu, Cameroon Volcanic Line, Hoggar, Aïr…) are associated with local uplifts that started around Late Eocene times (40-35 Ma). The relationships of those reliefs with the migration of the African plate over the African superswell will be discussed.

  3. Late Devonian conodonts of western Mongolia: preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušková, Aneta; Suttner, T. J.; Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Liao, J.-Ch.; Gatovsky, Y. A.; Ariunchimeg, Y.; Kido, E.; Gonchigdorj, S.; Waters, J. A.; Carmichael, S. K.; Batchelor, C.

    Toulouse: Laboratoire de Géologie Sédimentaire et Paléontologie de Université Paul Sabatier, 2015 - (Mottequin, B.; Denayer, J.; Königshof, P.; Prestiani, C.; Olive, S.). s. 70-70 ISBN 978-2-9548452-4-1. ISSN 0761-2443. [IGCP 596 - SDS Symposium : Climate change and Biodiversity patterns in the Mid-Palaeozoic. 20.09.2015-22.09.2015, Brussels] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : conodonts * Late Devonian * Devonian (western Mongolia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://strata.fr/pdf/Strata2015-1.16-midpaleozoic-climate.pdf

  4. The nature of plague in late eighteenth-century Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069

  5. Kinematics of late Paleozoic continental collision between Laurentia and Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In the Appalachians, late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogenesis is widely regarded as resulting from dextral oblique collision between irregular margins of Gondwana and Laurentia. However, this relative plate motion cannot account for coeval convergence in the Ouachitas and Variscides and is incompatible with some tectonic transport indicators in the Appalachians. An alternative kinematic model is proposed in which early sinistral transpression in the Appalachians is followed by counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana and the development of a system of dextral strike-slip faults extending from southern Europe to Alabama.

  6. Composition and production of late antique glass bowls type Helle

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, T.; Brüggler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Helle bowls are a particular type of late antique glass vessels found exclusively in continental northern Europe, both within and outside the Roman Empire. We analysed about one quarter of all known finds of this type using LA-ICP-MS, and several also using EPMA. The majority of the analysed bowls are made of HIMT glass, with a few consisting of Roman blue/green glass. Several bowls were found to be likely production pairs, defined as those produced from a single batch; most of these were fou...

  7. STUDY OF PEER PRESSURE AND SOCIAL MATURITY AMONG LATE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are the energy of today and the bright hope of the future. Peer pressure plays a vital role in the lives and social adjustment of adolescents as it is a time of experimentation with new identities, attitudes and experiences. The purpose of the present study was to provide an examination of the peer pressure and social maturity in late adolescence. Material and methods: It is a cross sectional study, in which Two Hundred (200 adolescents were selected by purposive sampling. Assessment was done by using Peer Pressure Scale and Social Maturity Scale.

  8. Residual and late complications of conservative management of condylar fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increased incidence of road traffic accidents, fractures of the facial skeleton are on the rise with condylar fracture being almost 50% in some societies. The latter is usually treated either surgically or conservatively. Advocates of the conservative approach believe that the only indication for surgical intervention is displacement of the fractured condyle with a magnitude and direction such that occlusion is impossible and function is deranged. This paper presents findings in eight patients with history of fractured condyle, who were managed conservatively but presented later with serious and late complications. (author)

  9. 9. Judith in Late Anglo-Saxon England

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Tracey-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Judith makes two spectacular appearances in the Old English corpus: she is the brave heroine of a poem which is included in one of the most famous manuscripts of the late Anglo-Saxon period, the Nowell Codex, which also contains the heroic epic, Beowulf. Judith is the subject also of a homily by Ælfric, the most prolific and highly-regarded homilist of the age, who rendered her as an appropriate subject for the contemplation of clænnysse (chastity) for the benefit of nuns. Thus, even at our f...

  10. Late Holocene human impacts to the Morava River floodplain development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Stehlík, Filip; Kalicki, T.; Krupa, J.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Beneš, V.; Světlík, Ivo; Rybníček, M.

    Kielce : Institute of Geography of the Jan Kochanowski University Kielce, 2013 - (Kalicki, T.; Krupa, J.). s. 60-61 ISBN 978-83-64038-05-1. [Geoarchaeology of the river valleys. 13.05.2013-15.05.2013, Kielce-Suchedniów] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Late Holocene * floodplain * Morava River Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the late antique period)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesařová, Drahomíra

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological literature in the Late Antique period followed the Roman tradition and widely used Scribonius Largus and excerpts from the writings of Pliny the Elder. Literature was created both in the western part of the Roman Empire and in North Africa in Carthage. Manuals have been written about medicinal plants (Herbarius of Pseudo-Apuleius, De herba vettonica of Pseudo-Musa), for drugs obtained from the animal kingdom (Liber medicinae of Sextus Placitus) or documents containing both (De medicina of Cassius Felix, De medicamentis of Marcellus Empiricus). The contribution of this literature is the mediation of ancient knowledge into the Middle Ages. PMID:25994825

  12. The ultraviolet energy distributions of late A stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Observed late A star energy distributions for the wavelength range 1400-2500 A are compared. No difference is found between energy distributions of Am stars and those of normal slowly rotating A stars. The fluxes of rapidly rotating stars, however, appear to be increased for wavelengths smaller than 1530 A; this cannot be understood as an effect of pole heating or reduced gravity. In addition, the comparison of the UV energy distributions with model atmosphere energy distributions of Kurucz indicates some problems with the theoretical Si I absorption edges at 1530 A.

  13. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W;

    2011-01-01

    or delayed reading intradermal). The main risk factors for LAR are a previous reaction to contrast medium, a history of allergy, and interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are mild or moderate and self-limiting. MANAGEMENT: Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug......DEFINITION: Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. NEED FOR REVIEW: In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society...

  14. Late-Onset Psychogenic Chronic Phonic-Tics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Pedroso, José Luiz; Knobel, Marcos; Knobel, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background Tics beginning in late adulthood often have an identifiable etiology. Psychogenic tics with onset around 60 years of age are rarely described in the literature. Case report A 67-year-old female had experienced phonic tics for 8 years. Episodes occurred without premonitory sensations and precipitant factors, and she could not suppress them. She had no history of childhood tic disorder, and secondary causes of tics were excluded. She was diagnosed with psychogenic tics and treated with quetiapine with mild improvement. Discussion When physicians are faced with no identifiable cause of tics combined with certain clinical clues, a psychogenic disorder must be suspected. PMID:27375961

  15. Late Quaternary record of pteropod preservation from the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sijinkumar, A.V.; Nath, B.N.; Guptha, M.V.S

    ., vol.275(1-4); 2010; 221-229 Late Quaternary record of pteropod preservation from the Andaman Sea A.V.Sijinkumar a,b , *, B. Nagender Nath a , M.V.S. Guptha a,c a National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research... to the western 3 part. Aragonite preservation in the eastern part of the northern Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal (BOB) and the Andaman Sea, and changes therein through time, are virtually unknown. The world’s highest physical and chemical erosion rates...

  16. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  17. Structural relationships in complex hydrides of the late transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data on complex hydrides of the late transition metals (groups 7-10), such as the hydrogen storage material Mg2NiH4, are reviewed with respect to order-disorder phase transitions and structural relationships. They are analysed in terms of crystallographic group-subgroup trees and their use in understanding the different crystal structures from a symmetry point of view is demonstrated. New data are presented on the low temperature behaviour of magnesium iridium hydrides and strontium rhodium hydrides studied by powder X-ray diffraction. (orig.)

  18. Evaluating late detection capability against diverse insider adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a model for evaluating the late (after-the-fact) detection capability of material control and accountability (MCandA) systems against insider theft or diversion of special nuclear material. Potential insider cover-up strategies to defeat activities providing detection (e.g., inventories) are addressed by the model in a tractable manner. For each potential adversary and detection activity, two probabilities are assessed and used to fit the model. The model then computes the probability of detection for activities occurring periodically over time. The model provides insight into MCandA effectiveness and helps identify areas for safeguards improvement. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Late effects of treatment of cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, owing to advances in surgical techniques, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, there has been dramatic improvement in the survival of children with malignancies. Children cured of cancer will soon form a significant fraction of our adult population. As we follow such survivors, we have become more aware of long-term side effects of treatment. Therapy should not be withheld. Instead, careful follow-up of oncology patients is needed to document the adverse late effects, to identify the etiologic agents, and to alter treatment to give the least toxic therapy without sacrificing the quality or duration of survival. 229 references

  20. Late Onset Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Olanzapine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Santonastaso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of late onset anorexia nervosa (AN treated with olanzapine is reported. The patient suffered AN onset at the age of 53 and was brought to our attention four years later in a very poor state of health due to extreme starvation and laxative abuse. She presented severe obsessions about food, a very disturbed body image, and “ascetic” rituals of self-punishment. There was no improvement of her symptoms with cognitive behavioural therapy, antidepressant drugs and inpatient nutritional therapy. After the prescription of olanzapine, the patient was more cooperative and able to maintain a stable acceptable weight, although her psychiatric and anorexic symptoms only improved partially.

  1. Alcohol abuse: medical effects of heavy drinking in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambert, S R

    1997-06-01

    As many as 15% of community-dwelling older persons are heavy drinkers, but their alcoholism is often hidden from their physicians. Depression, loneliness, and lack of social support are the most frequently cited antecedents to drinking for older alcoholics. Clinically, the same amount of alcohol once consumed with impunity may cause clinical symptoms in late life. Physiologic changes in volume of distribution make older patients susceptible to acute alcohol toxicity, with its CNS effects and metabolic disturbances. Liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, and impotence are consequences of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:9194788

  2. Late complications of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement on the treatment of malignant lymphoma have led to prolonged survival for many patients. However, they are at risk of late complications of the disease and treatment. Impaired function due to radiation-induced injury of normal tissues, such as cardiac, pulmonary, or thyroid dysfunction, becoming manifest at few months to years after treatment. Fortunately, only a small portion of these are major complications, causing severe, or permanent disability. The frequency of secondary leukemia (AML) occurring in patients treated for malignant lymphoma is highest in those patients receiving many courses of combination chemotherapy and is low in those receiving radiation therapy alone. (author) 47 refs

  3. Effect of vegetation on the Late Miocene ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is related to an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters. We estimate the effect of vegetation on the ocean general circulation using the atmospheric circulation model simulations for the Late Miocene climate. Caused by an increase in net evaporation in the Miocene North Atlantic, the North Atlantic water becomes more saline which enhances the overturning circulation and thus the northward heat transport. This effect reveals a potentially important feedback between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  4. Pulmonary embolus arising from sloughed off myoma in late puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    ERGENOĞLU, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; ULUKUŞ, Murat; Aşkar, Niyazi

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary embolus is a rare and serious complication of myoma uteri in the puerperium that resulted in late postpartum hysterectomy A 38-year-old, multiparous woman with a large myoma located on the left lateral wall of the uterus underwent emergency cesarean section due to fetal distres at 28 weeks. During the operation, a 15 cm sized intramural myoma was left without any intervention. On the 40th day postpartum the patient returned to the clinic with sepsis and pulmonary embolus because of ...

  5. Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A; Pedersen, M H;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90-y...... promising, further studies on the effect of continuous nocturnal postoperative doxapram infusion on levels of arterial oxygen saturation should be postponed until more knowledge about the pharmacokinetics of doxapram in this particular clinical situation has been gathered....

  6. Late Frasnian-Famennian climates based on palynomorph analyses and the question of the Late Devonian glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streel, Maurice; Caputo, Mário V.; Loboziak, Stanislas; Melo, José Henrique G.

    2000-11-01

    Palynomorph distribution in Euramerica and western Gondwana, from the Latest Givetian to the Latest Famennian, may be explained, to some extent, by climatic changes. Detailed miospore stratigraphy dates accurately the successive steps of these changes. Interpretation is built on three postulates which are discussed: Euramerica at slightly lower latitudes than generally accepted by most paleomagnetic reconstructions; a conodont time-scale accepted as the most used available subdivision of time; and Late Devonian sea-level fluctuations mainly governed by glacio-eustasy. The Frasnian-Famennian timescale is also evaluated. The comparison, based on conodont correlations, between Givetian and most of the Frasnian miospore assemblages from, respectively, northern and southern Euramerica demonstrates a high taxonomic diversity in the equatorial belt and much difference between supposed equatorial and (sub) tropical vegetations. On the contrary, a similar vegetation pattern and therefore probably compatible climatic conditions were present from tropical to subpolar areas. A rather hot climate culminated during the Latest Frasnian when equatorial miospore assemblages reached their maximum width. The miospore diversity shows also a rather clear global Late Frasnian minimum which is also recorded during the Early and Middle Famennian but only in low latitude regions while, in high latitude, very cold climates without perennial snow may explain the scarcity of miospores and so, of vegetation. The Early and Middle Famennian conspicuous latitudinal gradient of the vegetation seems to attenuate towards the Late and Latest Famennian but this might be above all the result of the development, of cosmopolitan coastal lowland vegetations (downstream swamps) depending more on the moisture and equable local microclimates than on the probably adverse climates of distant hinterland areas. During that time, periods of cold climate without perennial snow cover and with rare vegetation may

  7. Review article: late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad Aldin, Ehab; Saadeh, Joanna; Ghulmiyyah, Labib; Hitti, Eveline

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis to prevent the increased mortality associated with rupture. Twenty-seven cases of late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancy reported in the English literature since 1918 were reviewed and analysed for presenting symptoms, missed diagnosis rate at initial presentation, location of ectopic and rupture rate at diagnosis. The presenting symptoms were found to be non-specific. The diagnosis in this population is twice more likely to be missed than in women with intact uteri. The rupture rate is 63%, compared with 37% in women with intact uteri. The majority of late post-hysterectomy ectopic pregnancies (62%) were located in the fallopian tubes. Because of the potential risk of mortality, emergency physicians should always consider the possibility of ectopic pregnancy in childbearing women whose surgical history includes hysterectomy without oophorectomy. Evaluation of abdominal pain in this population should include a pregnancy test to ensure prompt diagnosis when the possibility of pregnancy exists clinically. PMID:22672163

  8. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  9. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ouladsaiad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years. Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it.

  10. Late Time Acceleration From Matter-Curvature Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zaregonbadi, Raziyeh

    2015-01-01

    We consider f(R,T) modified theory of gravity, in which, in general, the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We mainly focus on a particular model wherein matter is minimally coupled to the geometry in the metric formalism. In this type of the theory, the coupling energy-momentum tensor is not conserved; it determines the appearance of an extra force acting on the particles, and can cause the late time acceleration in the evolution of the universe. To check such a kind of effect, we obtain the corresponding Raychaudhuri dynamical equation that gives the evolution of the kinematic quantities. Then for the chosen model, we derive the behavior of the deceleration parameter, and show that the coupling term can cover the dynamic of the universe in the late time accelerating phase. On the other hand, the curvature of the universe corresponds with the deviation from parallelism in the geodesic motion. Thus, we also scrutinize the...

  11. Are CPL models compatible with the late inhomogeneous Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Akarsu, Ozgur; Brilenkov, Maxim; Brilenkov, Ruslan; Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We study the late-time evolution of the Universe where dark energy (DE) is presented by a barotropic fluid on top of cold dark matter (CDM). We also take into account the radiation content of the Universe. Here by the late stage of the evolution we refer to the epoch where CDM is already clustered into inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Under this condition the mechanical approach is an adequate tool to study the Universe deep inside the cell of uniformity. More precisely, we study scalar perturbations of the FLRW metric due to inhomogeneities of CDM as well as fluctuations of radiation and DE. For an arbitrary equation of state for DE we obtain a system of equations for the scalar perturbations within the mechanical approach. We apply this approach to different linear parametrizations of the DE equation of state, e.g., the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) perfect fluid model. We reach the conclusion that all these models are incompatible with the theo...

  12. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2016-06-01

    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene (~13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between ~7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  13. Late medical sequelae after therapy for supradiaphragmatic Hodgin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 221 consecutive erarly stage Hodgkin's disease (HD) patients were given mantle field irradiation only or in combination with chemotherapy in 1971-1991. In 1994 these patients responded to a mailed self-report questionnaire covering items on late medical symptoms. Of 200 patients (91%) who reported that their thyroid function had been tested, 110 patients (55% of those tested) had thyroid hypofunction at follow-up in 1994. Ninety-five patients (86% of patients with biochemical hypothyreosis) had started hormonal substitution. In 1993 and 1994, 101 of these patients who had received mantle field irradiation in 1980-1988 were called in for interview, clinical examination and thyroid function tests. Eighteen patients (18%) had started hormonal substitution treatment earlier, but 58 (70%) of the other 83 patients were found to have biochemical hypothyreosis. Of the 221 patients who completed the questionnaire, 66 patients (30%) reported dyspnoea on exertion for more than 3 years after treatment, 8 patients (4%) reported a history of myocardial infarction, 6 patients (3%) reported pericardial disease and 25 patients (11%) heart valve disease. Increased expenses incurred for dental care were reported by 106 patients (48%), increasing to 55% when Waldeyer's ring had been irradiated. The consequences of late sequelae after mantle field irradiation for future treatment are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Late-time Constraints on the Fates of Supernova Impostors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Transients showing circumstellar interactions, low luminosities and low expansion velocities are generally considered to be non-terminal outbursts. Two main classes of such transients are 'supernova impostors', whose progenitors are massive stars (>20 solar masses) and may be extra-galactic analogs of Eta Car's eruptions, and SN 2008S-like transients, which have lower-mass (~10 solar masses), dust-obscured progenitors. We present late-time Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the archetypal 'supernova impostor', SN 1997bs, as well as the prototypes of the SN 2008S class of transients, SN 2008S and NGC 300 2008-OT1. All of these objects have faded below their progenitor luminosities in all bands for which comparisons are possible. We show that it is difficult to reconcile the late-time observations with models where surviving stars are obscured by either ejected shells or thick, dusty winds. Although some supernova impostors, such as SN 1954J, are clearly non-fatal, our results suggest that many of these weak stellar transients with circumstellar interactions may actually be low energy supernovae.

  15. Encephalocele presented in late third trimester: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant G. Deshpande

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In present era, most of the NTDs are diagnosed at quite early gestation, thanks to advancement in imaging technology. So it is rare to see a case of NTD in late gestational age. Encephalocele is still rare type of NTD, when we come across such a case in late gestational period associated with another risk factor (Previous LSCS, it can really present a challenge for management. We had to face such a case requiring skillful management. A 23 year, G2 P1 L1 with previous LSCS was referred to our institution for severe anemia. USG showed 37 weeks single, live fetus with absence of cranial vault and irregular compressed cystic structure attached to vault attached in occipital region. Previous USG done at 12 weeks showed no abnormality, while USG at 27 weeks showed Acrania. Ideal management of this patient could have been done if this anomaly was diagnosed before 20 weeks where option of MTP was clearly available. Though with high resolution technical and instrument and with expert sonologist encephalocele can be diagnosed by 14 weeks. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 460-462

  16. The Late Stage of T Cell Development within Mouse Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifeng Chen

    2004-01-01

    After positive selection and lineage commitment, the TCRαβ+CD4/CD8 SP medullary thymocytes migrate into and reside in thymic medulla, where they undergo an ordered program of late stage of T cell functional maturation and negative selection to delete self-reactive clones by apoptosis. Accomplishment of this final differentiation pathway, a physiological T cell repertoire is formed : T cells acquire immunocompetence to respond to foreign antigens and tolerance to self-antigens, ready for the emigration to homing to the T cell regions of peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In this review, emphases are put on introducing the approaches applied in this area and our own observations. Basically, we have analyzed the late stage of medullary thymocyte phenotypic differentiation pathways of both CD4 SP and CD8 SP medullary thymocytes and the concomitant functional maturation pathway, in particular, of CD4 SP thymocytes. It is to provide a standard to compare the functional capacity of the cells at the developmental stages induced by different conditions. The cellular and molecular basis of this differentiation process has been partially described. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):3-11.

  17. The Late Stage of T Cell Development within Mouse Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeifengChen

    2004-01-01

    After positive selection and lineage commitment, the TCRαβ+CD4/CD8 SP medullary thymocytes migrate into and reside in thymic medulla, where they undergo an ordered program of late stage of T cell functional maturation and negative selection to delete self-reactive clones by apoptosis. Accomplishment of this final differentiation pathway, a physiological T cell repertoire is formed: T cells acquire immunocompetence to respond to foreign antigens and tolerance to self-antigens, ready for the emigration to homing to the T cell regions of peripheral lymphoid organs and tissues. In this review, emphases are put on introducing the approaches applied in this area and our own observations. Basically, we have analyzed the late stage of medullary thymocyte phenotypic differentiation pathways of both CD4 SP and CD8 SP medullary thymocytes and the concomitant functional maturation pathway, in particular, of CD4 SP thymocytes. It is to provide a standard to compare the functional capacity of the cells at the developmental stages induced by different conditions. The cellular and molecular basis of this differentiation process has been partially described. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):3-11.

  18. Evidence for global cooling in the Late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnert, Christian; Robinson, Stuart A.; Lees, Jackie A.; Bown, Paul R.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Irene; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Falzoni, Francesca; Littler, Kate; Arz, José Antonio; Russell, Ernest E.

    2014-06-01

    The Late Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ world witnessed a transition from one of the warmest climates of the past 140 million years to cooler conditions, yet still without significant continental ice. Low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records are a vital piece of evidence required to unravel the cause of Late Cretaceous cooling, but high-quality data remain illusive. Here, using an organic geochemical palaeothermometer (TEX86), we present a record of SSTs for the Campanian-Maastrichtian interval (~83-66 Ma) from hemipelagic sediments deposited on the western North Atlantic shelf. Our record reveals that the North Atlantic at 35 °N was relatively warm in the earliest Campanian, with maximum SSTs of ~35 °C, but experienced significant cooling (~7 °C) after this to <~28 °C during the Maastrichtian. The overall stratigraphic trend is remarkably similar to records of high-latitude SSTs and bottom-water temperatures, suggesting that the cooling pattern was global rather than regional and, therefore, driven predominantly by declining atmospheric pCO2 levels.

  19. Relationship between longest utterances and later MLU in late talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan B; Jackins, Megan

    2014-03-01

    The task of developing prognoses for late-talking children has long been a challenge for speech-language pathologists, developmental psychologists, and pediatricians. Improved predictors would help to assess long-term risk and determine appropriate intervention services. The present study evaluated children's length of longest utterances (LLU) as a predictor of mean length of utterance (MLU) one year later. Relationships between LLU at 30 months, MLU at 30 months and MLU at 42 months were examined in 43 late talkers (LT) and 33 age-matched children whose language was typically developing (TD). LLU was a significant predictor of MLU at 42 months with particularly strong correlations within the LT group. Similar results were obtained when controlling for language sample size, which was positively related to LLU. For the LT group, a regression model combining 30-month LLU and MLU was better at predicting 42-month MLU than 30-month MLU alone. The results are discussed in terms of frequency distributions of utterance lengths within language samples. PMID:24160753

  20. Late effects of radiation on mature and growing bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiopathology of radiation-induced bone damage is no completely elucidated. Ionizing radiation may induce an inhibition or an impairment of growing bone. This fact is of particular importance in children, and represents one of the most important dose-limiting factors in the radiotherapeutic management of children with malignant diseases. Scoliosis, epiphyseal slippage, avascular necrosis, abnormalities of craniofacial growth may be observed after radiation. Child's age at the time of treatment, location of irradiated bone and irradiation characteristics may influence the radiation related observed effects. In adults, pathological analysis of mature bone after ionizing radiation exposure are rare, suggesting that it is difficult to draw a clear feature of the action of radiation on the bone. Osteoporosis, medullary fibrosis and cytotoxicity on bone cells lead to fracture or necrosis. Various factors can influence bone tolerance to radiation such as bone involvement by tumor cells or infection, which is frequent is mandibulary osteoradionecrosis. Technical improvements in radiation techniques have also decreased radio-induced bone complications : the volume, fractionation and total dose are essential to consider. The absence of a consistent radiation-induced late effects evaluation scale has hampered efforts to analyze the influence of various therapeutic maneuvers and the comparison of results from different reported series. The currently proposed evaluation scale may help harmonizing the classification of radiation-induced bone late effects. (author)

  1. Dark Matter from Late Invisible Decays to/of Gravitinos

    CERN Document Server

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Queiroz, Farinaldo S; Strigari, Louis E; Wang, Mei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we sift a simple supersymmetric framework of late invisible decays to/of the gravitino. We investigate two cases where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle or the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. The next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle decays into two dark matter candidates and has a long lifetime due to gravitationally suppressed interactions. However, because of the absence of any hadronic or electromagnetic products, it satisfies the tight bounds set by big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwaved background. One or both of the dark matter candidates produced in invisible decays can contribute to the amount of dark radiation and suppress perturbations at scales that are being probed by the galaxy power spectrum and the Lyman-alpha forest data. We show that these constraints are satisfied in large regions of the parameter space and, as a result, the late invisible decays to/of the gravitino can be responsible for the entire dark matter relic abundance.

  2. Late time cosmic acceleration from natural infrared cutoff?

    CERN Document Server

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the ultraviolet deformation of the Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker geometry in loop quantum cosmology, we formulate an infrared-modified cosmological model. We obtain the associated deformed Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and we show that the late time cosmic acceleration can be addressed by the infrared corrections. As a particular example, we applied the setup to the case of matter dominated universe. This model has the same number of parameters as $\\Lambda$CDM, but a dynamical dark energy generates in the matter dominated era at the late time. According to our model, as the universe expands, the energy density of the cold dark matter dilutes and when the Hubble parameter approaches to its minimum, the infrared effects dominate such that the effective equation of state parameter smoothly changes from $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=0$ to $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=-2$. Interestingly and nontrivially, the unstable de Sitter phase with $w_{_{\\rm eff}}=-1$ is corresponding to $\\Omega_m=\\Omega_d ...

  3. How Late can the Dark Matter form in our universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K

    2014-01-01

    We put constraints on the epoch of dark matter formation for the case of certain non-wimp candidate where dark matter appears in between the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and matter radiation equality. In such class of models, matter power spectra gets a strong suppression even towards linear scale, if dark matter is formed considerably close to the epoch of matter radiation equality and thus subject to strong constraints from linear power spectra measurement from SDSS and Lyman-$\\alpha$ data. Unlike the case of warm dark matter, where mainly mass of the dark matter particle controls the suppression scale, in "Late forming dark matter" scenario, it is the redshift of dark matter formation which determines the free streaming scale in power spectra. We use SDSS and lyman-$\\alpha$ data to directly find the latest epoch of dark matter formation in our universe. If all the observed dark matter is late forming, we find lower bound on redshift of dark matter formation $z_f > 1.08 \\times 10^5 $ at 99.73 $\\%$ C.L ...

  4. Mountain building triggered late cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A Gates

    Full Text Available Prior studies of Mesozoic biodiversity document a diversity peak for dinosaur species in the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, yet have failed to provide explicit causal mechanisms. We provide evidence that a marked increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity can be attributed to dynamic orogenic episodes within the Western Interior Basin (WIB. Detailed fossil occurrences document an association between the shift from Sevier-style, latitudinally arrayed basins to smaller Laramide-style, longitudinally arrayed basins and a well substantiated decreased geographic range/increased taxonomic diversity of megaherbivorous dinosaur species. Dispersal-vicariance analysis demonstrates that the nearly identical biogeographic histories of the megaherbivorous dinosaur clades Ceratopsidae and Hadrosauridae are attributable to rapid diversification events within restricted basins and that isolation events are contemporaneous with known tectonic activity in the region. SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic divergence estimates of fossil clades offer a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone.

  5. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  6. Radiation doses and correlated late effects in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient irradiation in diagnostic radiology was estimated from measurements of absorbed doses in different organs, assessment of the energy imparted and retrospective calculations based on literature data. Possible late biological effects, with special aspects on children, were surveyed. The dose to the lens of the eye and the possibility of shielding in carotid angiography was studied as was the absorbed dose to the thyroid gland at cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography in children. Calculations of the mean bone marrow dose and gonad doses were performed in children with chronic skeletal disease revealing large contributions from examinations of organs other than the skeleton. The dose distribution in the breast in mammography was investigated. Comparison of the energy imparted in common roentgen examinations in 1960 and 1975 showed an unexpected low decrease in spite of technical improvements. Reasons for the failing decrease are discussed. The energy imparted to children in urological examinations was reduced significantly due to introduction of high sensitivity screens and omission of dose demanding projections. Contributions to the possible late effects were estimated on the basis of the organ doses assessed. (author)

  7. Late Cenozoic sedimentary and tectonic history of south Buton, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, A. R.; De Smet, M. E. M.; Hadiwasastra, S.; Van Marle, L. J.; Troelstra, S. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.

    A description and interpretation are given of the Upper Cenozoic sedimentary record of south Buton. Various sections and outcrops were studied and sampled for their microfossil content, to provide age and paleobathymetrical data. Together with information from the literature, these data from the base for a geohistory analysis to evaluate the vertical motions. Deposition started some 11 Ma ago, after the main deformation of the island, which was related to the collision of a microplate carrying Buton, with the southeast arm of Sulawesi. Coarse and fine terrigenous debris accumulated in a rapidly subsiding foreland basin; subsidence may have exceeded 100 cm/ka. When the rate of subsidence decreased a late Miocene-early Pliocene period of quiet pelagic sedimentation followed. From the late Pliocene onwards (around 3.5 Ma BP) an overall uplift took place, with rates between 30-120 cm/ka. This drastic change is explained by the collision of Buton with a submerged microcontinent that presently forms the Tukang Besi platform, situated southeast of Buton, which interaction resulted in wrench type tectonics and a clockwise rotation of over 60° for south Buton.

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction. PMID:23326379

  10. Magnetized dark energy and the late time acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Ray, Saibal; Goswami, G K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the Universe. The matter source that is responsible for the late time acceleration of the Universe consists of cosmic fluid with the equation of state parameter $\\omega =\\frac{p}{\\rho}$ and uniform magnetic field of energy density $\\rho_{B}$. The study is done here under the framework of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi-I cosmological model in the presence of magnetized dark energy. To get the deterministic model of the Universe, we assume that the shear scalar $(\\sigma)$ in the model is proportional to expansion scalar $(\\theta)$. This condition leads to $A=B^{n}$, where $A$ and $B$ are metric functions and $n$ is a positive constant giving the proportionality condition between shear and expansion scalar. It has been found that the isotropic distribution of magnetized dark energy leads to the present accelerated expansion of the Universe and the derived model is in good agreem...

  11. Protein complexes and cholesterol in the control of late endosomal dynamicsCholesterol and multi-protein complexes in the control of late endosomal dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Rik Henricus Nicolaas van der

    2013-01-01

    Late endosomal transport is disrupted in several diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C, ARC syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis describes the regulation of late endosomal dynamics by cholesterol and multi-protein complexes. We find that cholesterol acts as a cellular tomtom that steers the

  12. Geological Evidences For Late Paleozoic Intra-pangea Dextral Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, G.; Kent, D. V.; Abrahamsen, N.; Brack, P.

    The Wegenerian configuration of Pangea at Jurassic times, also known as Pangea A, is not questioned among Earth scientists. Debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configu- ration since Ted Irving (1977 Nature) introduced twenty-five years ago Pangea B by placing Gondwana to the East by 2500km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. Pangea B is mainly necessitated by paleolatitude discrepancy be- tween Africa (Gondwana) and North America (Laurasia), which would overlap by about 1700km if reconstructed in a Pangea A configuration at Early Perian times. West Gondwana/Adria poles support Pangea B in the Early Permian, but allow transi- tion to Pangea A by the end of the Permian in the late stages of the Variscan/Hercynian orogeny (Muttoni et al., 1996 EPSL). Importantly, some of the Early Permian pale- opoles are in igneous rocks and/or from low paleolatitude sites (e.g., Adria), hence making inclination error less likely as an explanation for Pangea B as envisaged by Rochette and Vandamme (2001 Annali di Geofisica). A few Earth scientists tried to seek geological evidence for the pre-Jurassic dextral mega-shear between Gondwana and Laurasia necessary to go from Pangea B or similar configuration to the Pangea A configuration at the time of Atlantic opening in the Jurassic (e.g., Ricou, The Ocean Basins and Margins, Vol. 8, Plenum Press, 1996). Nevertheless, it is fair to say that Pangea B and its tectonic implications have not been broadly accepted but this leaves the problem of the supportive paleomagnetic data unresolved. The ultimate option is to abandon the geocentral axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis by introducing a non-dipole component in the Late Paleozoic paleomagnetic field to explain the paleolatitude dis- crepancy between Africa and North America (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001 EPSL). We are not so distressed by the geological consequences of Pangea B to abandon the GAD hypothesis which has been the basis for virtually all tectonic

  13. Late Paleogene reticulate Nummulites of the Western Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, G.; Kertész, B.; Özcan, E.

    2012-04-01

    positions. The inner cross-diameter of the proloculus has been proven to be the most reliable evolutionary parameter. Beside, the evolution of surface characteristics (not detailed here) is also usable in this sense, although it shows great intrapopulational variation partly because of the ontogeny. The increase of the average length of chambers (accompanied by general flattening) in the third whorl is of secondary importance in recognizing the evolution of the group because it is affected also by ecological factors. Finally, the tightness/laxity of the spire and the relative width of the spiral cord in the third whorl are clearly the functions of the actual paleoenvironment. As a result, the Nummulites fabianii-fichteli group is proven to form a single but rather variable evolutionary lineage within the early Bartonian to early Chattian development of which six evolutionary stages (considered as species) could be recognized (we could not study the middle-late Lutetian precursor forms). The safety of identification of these evolutionary stages with particular species names is of different degree. The six species are defined primarily on the basis of the average inner cross-diameter of the proloculus (Pmean) and secondarily by the surface characteristics as follows: - Nummulites bullatus (late Lutetian to basal Bartonian, SBZ 16 to early SBZ 17 zone): Pmean = 65-100 µm; granules, no reticulation. - N. garganicus (early to middle late Bartonian, late SBZ 17 to SBZ 18B): Pmean = 100-140 µm; heavy granules + reticulation. - N. hormoensis (late Bartonian, SBZ 18): Pmean = 140-200 µm; heavy granules + umbo + reticulation. - N. fabianii (Priabonian to early Rupelian, SBZ 19-21): Pmean = 200-320 µm; heavy reticulation + umbo + weak granules. - N. fichteli (late Priabonian to early Rupelian, SBZ 20-21): Pmean = 200-300 µm, weak reticulation to irregular mesh. - N. bormidiensis (late Rupelian, SBZ 22A): Pmean = 300-450 µm; irregular mesh. This research was supported by the

  14. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  15. Wilms tumour: prognostic factors, staging, therapy and late effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada); Graf, Norbert M. [University Hospital of the Saarland, Clinic for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Homburg (Germany); Grundy, Paul [University of Alberta, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, and Northern Alberta Children' s Cancer Program, Edmonton (Canada); Godzinski, Jan [Mother and Child Institute, Department of Oncological Surgery for Children and Adolescents, Warsaw (Poland); Levitt, Gill A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children NHS Trust, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Jenkinson, Helen [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Trust, Oncology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is the most common malignant renal tumour in children. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as the result of advances in anaesthetic and surgical management, irradiation and chemotherapy. Current therapies are based on trials and studies primarily conducted by large multi-institutional cooperatives including the Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique (SIOP) and the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The primary goals are to treat patients according to well-defined risk groups in order to achieve the highest cure rates, to decrease the frequency and intensity of acute and late toxicity and to minimize the cost of therapy. The SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy, whereas the COG trials and studies start with primary surgery. This paper reviews prognostic factors and staging systems for Wilms tumour and its current treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery remains a crucial part of treatment for nephroblastoma, providing local primary tumour control and adequate staging and possibly controlling the metastatic spread and central vascular extension of the disease. Partial nephrectomy, when technically feasible, seems reasonable not only in those with bilateral disease but also in those with unilateral disease where the patient has urological disorders or syndromes predisposing to malignancy. Partial nephrectomy, however, is frequently not sufficient for an anaplastic variant of tumour. The late effects for Wilms tumour and its treatment are also reviewed. The treatment of Wilms tumour has been a success story, and currently in excess of 80% of children diagnosed with Wilms tumour can look forward to long-term survival, with less than 20% experiencing serious morbidity at 20 years from diagnosis. The late complications are a consequence of the type and intensity of treatment required, which in turn reflects the nature and extent of the original tumour. Continual international trial

  16. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plafki, C. [Center for Hyperbaric Medicine, Luebeck (Germany); Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A. [Department for Radiotherapy, University Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Radiogene Spaeteffekte koennen die Lebensqualitaet der betroffenen Patienten erheblich beeintraechtigen. Bei vielen Erscheinungsformen fehlen standardisierte Therapieschemata. Die hyperbare Sauerstofftherapie (HBO) hat sich als hilfreiche Methode in der Behandlung radiogener Spaeteffekte erwiesen. Material und Methode: Die wesentlichen Grundlagen und klinischen

  17. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinab Mousavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  18. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the late Cenozoic Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, X.; Deng, T.; Tseng, Z. J.; Takeuchi, G.; Xie, G.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reconstruction of paleoenvironments in the Tibetan region is important to understanding the linkage between tectonic force and climate change. Here we report new isotope data from the Qaidam Basin, China, which is located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, including stable C and O isotope analyses of a wide variety of late Cenozoic mammalian tooth enamel samples (including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant), and O isotope compositions of phosphate (δ18Op) in fish bone samples. Mammalian tooth enamel δ13C values, when combined with fossil assemblage and other geological evidence, indicate that the Qaidam Basin was warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene, and that there was lush C3 vegetation with significant C4 components at that time, although the C4 plants were not consistently utilized. In contrast, the modern Qaidam Basin is dominated by C3 plants. Fish bone δ18Op values showed statistically significant enrichment from the Tuxi-Shengou-Naoge interval (late Miocene) to the Yahu interval (early Pliocene) and from the Yahu interval to the present day. This most likely reflects increases in the δ18O of lake water over time, as a result of increased aridification of the Qaidam Basin. Assuming that mammals drank exclusively from the lake, temperatures were calculated from average δ18Op values and average δ18Ow derived from large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. Temperatures were also estimated from δ18Op and δ18Ow estimated from co-ocurring large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. The temperature estimates were all lower than the average temperature of the modern Qinghai Lake surface water during the summer, and mostly too low to be reasonable, indicating that the fish and the large mammals were not in equilibrium with the same water. Assuming the relationship between salinity and δ18Ow observed for the modern Qinghai Lake and its surrounding lakes and ponds applied in the past, we calculated the paleosalinities of lake waters to be ~0 to

  19. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  20. Late diagnosis among our ageing HIV population: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mensforth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, more people infected with HIV are living into older age; 22% of adults receiving care in the UK are aged over 50 years [1]. Age influences HIV infection; the likelihood of seroconversion illness, mean CD4 count and time from infection to development of AIDs defining illnesses decreases with increasing age. A UK study estimates that half of HIV infections in persons over 50 years are acquired at an age over 50 [2]. Studies exploring sexual practices in older persons have repeatedly shown that we cannot assume there is no risk of STI and HIV infection [3,4]. Physicians should be alert to risk of HIV even in the older cohort, where nearly half diagnoses are made late [2]. Local audit has demonstrated poor testing rates in the over 50's on the Acute Medical Unit. Late diagnosis (CD4<350 results in poorer outcomes and age confounds further; older late presenters are 2.4 times more likely to die within the first year of diagnosis than younger counterparts [2]. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case notes review was conducted of all patients aged 60 years and over attending HIV clinic in the last 2 years. Outcomes audited included features around diagnosis; age, presentation, missed testing opportunities and CD4 count at diagnosis. Results: Of the current cohort of 442 patients, 34 were over 60 years old (8%. Age at diagnosis in this group ranged from 36 to 80 years, mean 56.6 years. Presentation triggers included opportunistic infections or malignancies (n=10, constitutional symptoms (n=6, diagnosis of another STI (n=4, seroconversion illness (n=2, partner status (n=3. Eight patients were diagnosed through asymptomatic screening at Sexual Health. We identified missed opportunities in five patients who were not tested despite diagnoses or symptoms defined as clinical indicators for HIV. Half of older patients had a CD4 count of <200 at diagnosis. Conclusions: It is imperative