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Sample records for barley yellow dwarf

  1. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus.

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    Wen, F; Lister, R M; Fattouh, F A

    1991-04-01

    ELISA, cDNA dot blot hybridization and transmission by vector aphids were used to investigate the occurrence and degree of cross-protection produced in oat plants by virus isolates representing five strains or serotypes of barley yellow dwarf virus, namely PAV, MAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. Generally, the degree of cross-protection was positively correlated with the serological relatedness between the isolates. A high degree of cross-protection occurred between NY-MAV and MAV-PS1, two isolates of the MAV serotype; cross-protection was moderate between MAV-PS1 and either P-PAV (a Purdue isolate of the PAV serotype) or NY-SGV; cross-protection between P-PAV and NY-SGV was low. Cross-protection did not occur in other paired inoculations and did not persist in some plants, the challenge virus eventually becoming detectable. The persistence of cross-protection depended on the interval between inoculations with protecting and challenge viruses; longer inoculation intervals enhanced the persistence of cross-protection. Results obtained by ELISA and dot blot hybridization were usually consistent, indicating that cross-protection affected both viral capsid and RNA synthesis. PMID:2016594

  2. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

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    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  3. Barley yellow dwarf disease as a target of breeding for resistance (short review

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    Katarzyna Golnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to give a brief review of some points of wide knowledge of barley yellow dwarf (BYD disease and its breeding for resistance program.Yd2 gene has been shortly characterised. Current situation in Poland has been underlined.

  4. Species composition of aphid vectors (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of barley yellow dwarf virus and cereal yellow dwarf virus in Alabama and western Florida.

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    Hadi, Buyung A R; Flanders, Kathy L; Bowen, Kira I; Murphy, John F; Halbert, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Yellow dwarf is a major disease problem of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in Alabama and is estimated to cause yield loss of 21-42 bu/acre. The disease is caused by a complex of viruses comprising several virus species, including Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV. Several other strains have not yet been classified into a specific species. The viruses are transmitted exclusively by aphids (Hemiptera:Aphididae). Between the 2005 and 2008 winter wheat seasons, aphids were surveyed in the beginning of each planting season in several wheat plots in Alabama and western Florida Collected aphids were identified and bioassayed for their yellow dwarf virus infectivity. This survey program was designed to identify the aphid species that serve as fall vectors of yellow dwarf virus into winter wheat plantings. From 2005 to 2008, bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.); rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale (Sasaki); and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were found consistently between October and December. The species of aphids and their timing of appearance in wheat plots were consistent with flight data collected in North Alabama between 1996 and 1999. Both R. padi and R. rufiabdominale were found to carry and transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV. The number of collected aphids and proportion of viruliferous aphids were low. Although this study has shown that both aphids are involved with introduction of yellow dwarf virus to winter wheat in Alabama and western Florida, no conclusions can be made as to which species may be the most important vector of yellow dwarf virus in the region. PMID:21882679

  5. In vitro interactions of the aphid endosymbiotic SymL chaperonin with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Filichkin, S A; Brumfield, S; Filichkin, T P; Young, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-vector relationships suggest that there are specific interactions between BYDV virions and the aphid's cellular components. However, little is known about vector factors that mediate virion recognition, cellular trafficking, and accumulation within the aphid. Symbionins are molecular chaperonins produced by intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria and are the most abundant proteins found in aphids. To elucidate the potential role of symbionins in BYDV transmission...

  6. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

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    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  7. Development and characterization of a new barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-resistant wheat germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂道泰; 贾旭; 胡适全; 朱立煌; 胡含; 胡含; 周广和; 钱幼亭; 庄家骏

    1996-01-01

    A barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-resistant line HG295 was selected from a cross between cv. 77-5433 and Zhong 5 after extensive investigation in field, greenhouse and ELISA. Cytological analysis revealed that it was an euploid line and genetically stable. The existence of alien DNA in HG295 was identified by RAPD and Southern hybridization analyses showed that the alien DNAs came from Zhong 5 or Th. intermedium. The differences of BYDV resistance between L1 and HG295 are discussed.

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

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    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV). PMID:23888156

  9. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

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    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  10. Interactions between Metopolophium festucae cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV).

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    Sadeghi, S E; Bjur, J; Ingwell, L; Unger, L; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between an invasive aphid, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium, and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV) were studied under laboratory conditions. M. festucae cerealium is an economic pest of wheat and barley that has recently been found in high population densities in wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. BYDV-PAV is the most prevalent and injurious species of BYDV worldwide and in the Pacific Northwest. Although M. festucae sensu stricto (Theobald 1917) has been reported previously as a vector of some BYDV isolates, there is no confirmed transmission of BYDV by M. festucae cerealium. Two experiments examined the ability of M. festucae cerealium to transmit BYDV-PAV. The first used single aphids caged to indicator plants of a BYDV-susceptible winter wheat cultivar and the second used multiple aphids on each test plant. M. festucae cerealium did not transmit BYDV-PAV in either experiment, whereas transmission by a known BYDV vector, Rhopalosiphum padi L., was consistently high (≥ 93%). A third experiment compared the intrinsic growth rate, days until first reproduction and daily reproduction by M. festucae cerealium on sham-inoculated and BYDV-PAV-infected wheat, but detected no differences. The findings are reviewed in light published data on M. festucae species, BYDV transmission, and the potential pest status of this new invading aphid. PMID:26896673

  11. Brachypodium distachyon is a suitable host plant for study of Barley yellow dwarf virus.

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    Tao, Ye; Nadege, Soumou Wansim; Huang, Caiping; Zhang, Penghui; Song, Shuang; Sun, Liying; Wu, Yunfeng

    2016-04-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) belong to the family Luteoviridae and cause disease in cereals. Because of the large and complex genome of cereal plants, it is difficult to study host-virus interactions. In order to establish a model host system for the studies on BYDVs, we examined the susceptibility of a monocot model plant, Brachypodium distachyon, to BYDV-GAV infection. Fourteen days after BYDV-GAV inoculation by aphid transmission, B. distachyon plants (inbred line Bd21-3) showed conspicuous disease symptoms such as leaf reddening, dwarfness and root stunting. Virus accumulation was detected in both shoots and roots using reverse transcription PCR and triple antibody sandwich ELISA. Compared with infected wheat plants, B. distachyon plants developed more severe disease symptoms and accumulated a higher level of BYDV-GAV. Under transmission electron microscope, we observed that virus particles accumulated in companion cells and BYDV-GAV infection was associated with the deformation of chloroplasts in the infected leaves of B. distachyon plants. Our results suggest that B. distachyon is a suitable and promising experimental model plant for the host-BYDV-GAV pathosystem and possibly for other BYDVs. PMID:26814813

  12. Brachypodium distachyon is a suitable host plant for study of Barley yellow dwarf virus.

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    Tao, Ye; Nadege, Soumou Wansim; Huang, Caiping; Zhang, Penghui; Song, Shuang; Sun, Liying; Wu, Yunfeng

    2016-04-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) belong to the family Luteoviridae and cause disease in cereals. Because of the large and complex genome of cereal plants, it is difficult to study host-virus interactions. In order to establish a model host system for the studies on BYDVs, we examined the susceptibility of a monocot model plant, Brachypodium distachyon, to BYDV-GAV infection. Fourteen days after BYDV-GAV inoculation by aphid transmission, B. distachyon plants (inbred line Bd21-3) showed conspicuous disease symptoms such as leaf reddening, dwarfness and root stunting. Virus accumulation was detected in both shoots and roots using reverse transcription PCR and triple antibody sandwich ELISA. Compared with infected wheat plants, B. distachyon plants developed more severe disease symptoms and accumulated a higher level of BYDV-GAV. Under transmission electron microscope, we observed that virus particles accumulated in companion cells and BYDV-GAV infection was associated with the deformation of chloroplasts in the infected leaves of B. distachyon plants. Our results suggest that B. distachyon is a suitable and promising experimental model plant for the host-BYDV-GAV pathosystem and possibly for other BYDVs.

  13. Methodology of rearing of viruliferous population of aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, as a vector of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)

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    Štolcová, Jindra; Červená, Zuzana; Bártová, Šárka; Chrpová, Jana; Kumar, Jiban

    2012-01-01

    The methodology describes innovative procedures of rearing virulent population of Rhopalosiphum padi aphids, as a vector of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), for artificial infections of cereals. The method is a modification of existing procedure used in our laboratory for this purpose. The advantage of present methodology includes more abundance of viruliferous aphids within shorter period and effective control against aphid predators than the earlier used methodology.

  14. Spatiotemporal model of barley and cereal yellow dwarf virus transmission dynamics with seasonality and plant competition.

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    Moore, S M; Manore, C A; Bokil, V A; Borer, E T; Hosseini, P R

    2011-11-01

    Many generalist pathogens are influenced by the spatial distributions and relative abundances of susceptible host species. The spatial structure of host populations can influence patterns of infection incidence (or disease outbreaks), and the effects of a generalist pathogen on host community dynamics in a spatially heterogeneous community may differ from predictions derived via simple models. In this paper, we model the transmission of a generalist pathogen within a patch framework that incorporates the movement of vectors between discrete host patches to investigate the effects of local host community composition and vector movement rates on disease dynamics.We use barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV), a suite of generalist, aphid-vectored pathogens of grasses, and their interactions with a range of host species as our case study. We examine whether B/CYDV can persist locally or in a patch framework across a range of host community configurations. We then determine how pathogen-mediated interactions between perennial and annual competitors are altered at the local and regional scale when the host populations are spatially structured. We find that the spatial configuration of the patch system, host composition within patches, and patch connectivity affect not only the ability of the pathogen to invade a fragmented system, but also determine whether the pathogen facilitates the invasion of a non-native host species. Further, our results suggest that connectivity can interact with arrival time and host infection tolerance to determine the success or failure of establishment for newly arriving species. PMID:21505932

  15. Dynamics of molecular evolution and phylogeography of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV.

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    Wu, Beilei; Blanchard-Letort, Alexandra; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Guanghe; Wang, Xifeng; Elena, Santiago F

    2011-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) species PAV occurs frequently in irrigated wheat fields worldwide and can be efficiently transmitted by aphids. Isolates of BYDV-PAV from different countries show great divergence both in genomic sequences and pathogenicity. Despite its economical importance, the genetic structure of natural BYDV-PAV populations, as well as of the mechanisms maintaining its high diversity, remain poorly explored. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of BYDV-PAV genome evolution utilizing time-structured data sets of complete genomic sequences from 58 isolates from different hosts obtained worldwide. First, we observed that BYDV-PAV exhibits a high frequency of homologous recombination. Second, our analysis revealed that BYDV-PAV genome evolves under purifying selection and at a substitution rate similar to other RNA viruses (3.158×10(-4) nucleotide substitutions/site/year). Phylogeography analyses show that the diversification of BYDV-PAV can be explained by local geographic adaptation as well as by host-driven adaptation. These results increase our understanding of the diversity, molecular evolutionary characteristics and epidemiological properties of an economically important plant RNA virus. PMID:21326861

  16. In vitro interactions of the aphid endosymbiotic SymL chaperonin with barley yellow dwarf virus.

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    Filichkin, S A; Brumfield, S; Filichkin, T P; Young, M J

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-vector relationships suggest that there are specific interactions between BYDV virions and the aphid's cellular components. However, little is known about vector factors that mediate virion recognition, cellular trafficking, and accumulation within the aphid. Symbionins are molecular chaperonins produced by intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria and are the most abundant proteins found in aphids. To elucidate the potential role of symbionins in BYDV transmission, we have isolated and characterized two new symbionin symL genes encoded by the endosymbionts which are harbored by the BYDV aphid vectors Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae. Endosymbiont symL-encoded proteins have extensive homology with the pea aphid SymL and Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin. Recombinant and native SymL proteins can be assembled into oligomeric complexes which are similar to the GroEL oligomer. R. padi SymL protein demonstrates an in vitro binding affinity for BYDV and its recombinant readthrough polypeptide. In contrast to the R. padi SymL, the closely related GroEL does not exhibit a significant binding affinity either for BYDV or for its recombinant readthrough polypeptide. Comparative sequence analysis between SymL and GroEL was used to identify potential SymL-BYDV binding sites. Affinity binding of SymL to BYDV in vitro suggests a potential involvement of endosymbiotic chaperonins in interactions with virions during their trafficking through the aphid. PMID:8985385

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.)

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    Foresman, Bradley J.; Oliver, Rebekah E.; Jackson, Eric W.; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P.; Kolb, Frederic L.

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.).

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    Foresman, Bradley J; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P; Kolb, Frederic L

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel.

  19. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

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    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  20. Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) responses to volatile cues from Barley yellow dwarf virus-infected wheat.

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    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Ngumbi, Esther; Jiménez-Martínez, Edgardo S; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2009-06-01

    In choice bioassays, Rhopalosiphum padi L. nonviruliferous apterae preferentially locate near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-infected wheat plants compared with VOCs from noninfected plants. However, the specific VOCs responsible for R. padi responses are unknown. It is unclear also if R. padi responses to BYDV-infected wheat are caused by arrestment or attraction. Additionally, the responses of viruliferous apterae and nonviruliferous alate to BYDV-infected wheat have not been examined. R. padi responses were studied through emigration, immigration, and settling laboratory bioassays using BYDV-infected and noninfected wheat plants. Two wheat genotypes, virus-susceptible Lambert and virus-resistant Lambert-derived transgenic 103.1J expressing the BYDV-PAV coat protein gene, were evaluated. In a settling bioassay, alates preferentially settled on noninfected 103.1J. Responses of viruliferous and nonviruliferous R. padi to virus-infected, noninfected, and sham-inoculated (exposed to nonviruliferous aphids) Lambert and 103.1J were examined in separate bioassays. A paper leaf model served as a control. Immigration by viruliferous apterae was significantly lower toward the paper leaf model, but no significant differences were observed among plant treatments. Nonviruliferous apterae exhibited no significant differences in emigration among treatments, suggesting no arrestment occurred. Nonviruliferous apterae significantly preferred to immigrate toward BYDV-infected Lambert. Immigration toward the paper leaf model was significantly lower compared with plant treatments. Responses of R. padi to VOCs were tested by applying compounds to paper leaf models at concentrations designed to mimic those present in headspace of wheat plants. Nonviruliferous apterae immigrated in significantly greater numbers toward paper leaf models individually treated with nonanal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, decanal, caryophyllene, and undecane than

  1. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  2. Integrative proteomics to understand the transmission mechanism of Barley yellow dwarf virus-GPV by its insect vector Rhopalosiphum padi.

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    Wang, Hui; Wu, Keke; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-GPV (BYDV-GPV) is transmitted by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a persistent nonpropagative manner. To improve our understanding of its transmission mechanism by aphid vectors, we used two approaches, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and yeast two-hybrid (YTH) system, to identify proteins in R. padi that may interact with or direct the spread of BYDV-GPV along the circulative transmission pathway. Thirty-three differential aphid proteins in viruliferous and nonviruliferous insects were identified using iTRAQ coupled to 2DLC-MS/MS. With the yeast two-hybrid system, 25 prey proteins were identified as interacting with the readthrough protein (RTP) and eight with the coat protein (CP), which are encoded by BYDV-GPV. Among the aphid proteins identified, most were involved in primary energy metabolism, synaptic vesicle cycle, the proteasome pathway and the cell cytoskeleton organization pathway. In a systematic comparison of the two methods, we found that the information generated by the two methods was complementary. Taken together, our findings provide useful information on the interactions between BYDV-GPV and its vector R. padi to further our understanding of the mechanisms regulating circulative transmission in aphid vectors. PMID:26161807

  3. Obtained transgenic wheat expressing pac1 mediated by Agrobacterium is resistant against Barley yellow dwarf virus-GPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fei; ZHENG Yinying; ZHANG Wenwei; XIAO Hong; LI Shifang; CHENG Zhuomin

    2006-01-01

    In fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), pac1 gene was cloned with 99.3% nucleotide sequence similarity with published pac1 in GenBank. In pET-5α expression system, the expression product of cloned pac1 in E. coli showed activity to degrade the double-strand RNA. Harboring the binary vector pBI121, which contains pac1 gene, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was used to transform the wheat immature embryos precultured 7―10 d. After preregeneration, regeneration and selection culture stage, totally 41 G418 resistant plants were obtained, in which 25 lines were proved to integrate with transgene and express transgene normally by PCR, Dot blot, RT-PCR and ELISA detection. Antivirus test carried out on 25 positive lines with high dose of Barley yellow dwarf virus-GPV revealed that 12 lines had resistance to BVDV-GPV in low level, another 12 lines had resistance to BVDV- GPV in middle level, and 1 line showed resistance to BVDV-GPV in high level. However, both low and middle level of resistance plants showed no symptoms when infected by viruses at low dose, which suggested the dose-dependent effect of the resistance mediated by pac1 to BYDV-GPV.

  4. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

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    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

  5. Nucleotide sequence of coat protein gene for GPV isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus and construction of expression plasmid for plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成卓敏; 何小源; 吴茂森; 周广和; Paul Keese; P.M.Waterhouse

    1996-01-01

    GPV is a Chinese serotype isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) that has no reactionwith antiserum of MAV, PAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. The sequence of the coat protein (CP) of GPV isolate of BYDV was identified and its amino acid sequence was deduced. The coding region for the putative GPV CP is 603 bases nucleotides and encodes a Mr 22218 (22 ku) protein. The same as MAV, PAV and RPV, GPV contained a second ORF within the coat protein coding region. This protein of 17024 Mr (17 ku) is thought to correspond to the Virion protein genome linked (Vpg). Sequence comparisons of the CP coding region between the GPV isolate of BYDV and other isolates of BYDV have been done. The nucleotide and ammo acid sequence homology of GPV has a greater identity to the sequence of RPV than those of PAV and MAV. The GPV CP sequence shared 83.7% of nucleotide similarity and 77.5% of deduced amino add similarity, whereas that of the PAV and MAV shared 56.9%. 53.2% and 44.1%. 43.8% respectively. According to BYDV-GPV CP seque

  6. The movement protein of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV self-interacts and forms homodimers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongliang; Cao, Rufei; Sun, Kaile; Zhang, Hua

    2012-07-01

    The 17-kDa movement protein (MP) of the GAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-GAV) can bind the viral RNA and target to the nucleus. However, much less is known about the active form of the MP in planta. In this study, the ability of the MP to self-interact was analyzed by yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The BYDV-GAV MP has a strong potential to self-interact in vitro and in vivo, and self-interaction was mediated by the N-terminal domain spanning the second α-helix (residues 17-39). Chemical cross-linking and heterologous MP expression from a pea early browning virus (PEBV) vector further showed that MP self-interacts to form homodimers in vitro and in planta. Interestingly, the N-terminal domain necessary for MP self-interaction has previously been identified as important for nuclear targeting. Based on these findings, a functional link between MP self-interaction and nuclear targeting is discussed. PMID:22437255

  7. Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and Characterization of Two New Luteovirus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanella-Dumas, Laurence; Candresse, Thierry; Hullé, Maurice; Marais, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    A systematic search for viral infection was performed in the isolated Kerguelen Islands, using a range of polyvalent genus-specific PCR assays. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) was detected in both introduced and native grasses such as Poa cookii. The geographical distribution of BYDV and its prevalence in P. cookii were analyzed using samples collected from various sites of the archipelago. We estimate the average prevalence of BYDV to be 24.9% in P. cookii, with significant variability between sites. BYDV genetic diversity was assessed using sequence information from two genomic regions: the P3 open reading frame (ORF) (encoding the coat protein) and the hypervariable P6 ORF region. The phylogenetic analysis in the P3 region showed that BYDV sequences segregate into three major lineages, the most frequent of which (Ker-I cluster) showed close homology with BYDV-PAV-I isolates and had very low intra-lineage diversity (0.6%). A similarly low diversity was also recorded in the hypervariable P6 region, suggesting that Ker-I isolates derive from the recent introduction of BYDV-PAV-I. Divergence time estimation suggests that BYDV-PAV-I was likely introduced in the Kerguelen environment at the same time frame as its aphid vector, Rhopalosiphum padi, whose distribution shows good overlap with that of BYDV-Ker-I. The two other lineages show more than 22% amino acid divergence in the P3 region with other known species in the BYDV species complex, indicating that they represent distinct BYDV species. Using species-specific amplification primers, the distribution of these novel species was analyzed. The high prevalence of BYDV on native Poaceae and the presence of the vector R. padi, raises the question of its impact on the vulnerable plant communities of this remote ecosystem. PMID:23825645

  8. Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and Characterization of Two New Luteovirus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Svanella-Dumas

    Full Text Available A systematic search for viral infection was performed in the isolated Kerguelen Islands, using a range of polyvalent genus-specific PCR assays. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV was detected in both introduced and native grasses such as Poa cookii. The geographical distribution of BYDV and its prevalence in P. cookii were analyzed using samples collected from various sites of the archipelago. We estimate the average prevalence of BYDV to be 24.9% in P. cookii, with significant variability between sites. BYDV genetic diversity was assessed using sequence information from two genomic regions: the P3 open reading frame (ORF (encoding the coat protein and the hypervariable P6 ORF region. The phylogenetic analysis in the P3 region showed that BYDV sequences segregate into three major lineages, the most frequent of which (Ker-I cluster showed close homology with BYDV-PAV-I isolates and had very low intra-lineage diversity (0.6%. A similarly low diversity was also recorded in the hypervariable P6 region, suggesting that Ker-I isolates derive from the recent introduction of BYDV-PAV-I. Divergence time estimation suggests that BYDV-PAV-I was likely introduced in the Kerguelen environment at the same time frame as its aphid vector, Rhopalosiphum padi, whose distribution shows good overlap with that of BYDV-Ker-I. The two other lineages show more than 22% amino acid divergence in the P3 region with other known species in the BYDV species complex, indicating that they represent distinct BYDV species. Using species-specific amplification primers, the distribution of these novel species was analyzed. The high prevalence of BYDV on native Poaceae and the presence of the vector R. padi, raises the question of its impact on the vulnerable plant communities of this remote ecosystem.

  9. Reação de cultivares e eficiência do controle químico de pulgões vetores do Barley yellow dwarf virus em trigo Cultivars reaction and efficiency of chemical control of aphids vectors of Barley yellow dwarf virus in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos em Cruz Alta, RS, no ano agrícola de 2000, quatro experimentos, em condições de campo, para avaliar a reação de cultivares de trigo e a eficiência de inseticidas, quanto à incidência de pulgões transmissores do Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV e seus danos às plantas. A maioria dos pulgões coletados (75% foi Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus. Outras três espécies de pulgões foram coletadas em número menor (25%. Apenas para a cultivar Fundacep 31, o teste de ELISA confirmou a presença dos vírus BYDV-PAV, BYDV-MAV e BYDV-SGV. As cultivares apresentaram respostas distintas, sendo agrupadas como resistentes (Fundacep 30, Fundacep 36 e Fundacep 37 e suscetível (Fundacep 31. Os inseticidas imidacloprida e tiametoxam na dosagem de 24,5g 100kg de sementes-1, aplicados nas sementes, foram eficazes no controle dos pulgões vetores de BYDV, superando a ação de três aplicações do clorpirifós na parte aérea. Dosagens a partir de 8,5g 100kg de sementes-1 de imidacloprida e tiametoxam evitaram perdas em produtividade de trigo causada pelo complexo pulgões-BYDV.Four experiments were carried out in Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during the 2000 growing season, under field conditions, to evaluate the wheat cultivars reaction and efficiency of inseticides to reduce aphid vectors in the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV incidence and damage. The majority of the aphids collected (75% was Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus. Other three species of aphids were collected in lower numbers (25%. Only the Fundacep 31 cultivar showed positive reaction to sorological test ELISA, confirming the presence of BYDV-PAV, BYDV-MAV and BYDV-SGV viral species. Cultivars showed different responses, being classified as resistant (Fundacep 30, Fundacep 36 and Fundacep 37 and susceptible (Fundacep 31. Seed treatment with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in the dosage of 24.5g 100kg of seed-1, were effective to control BYDV aphid vectors, and these

  10. Pyramiding of Ryd2 and Ryd3 conferring tolerance to a German isolate of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) leads to quantitative resistance against this isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Christine; Habekuss, Antje; Schliephake, Edgar; Niks, Rients; Broer, Inge; Ordon, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e.g. Ryd2, Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of the present study was to get information whether the level of tolerance against this isolate of BYDV in barley can be improved by combining these loci. Therefore, a winter and a spring barley population of doubled haploid (DH) lines were genotyped by molecular markers for the presence of the susceptibility or the resistance encoding allele at respective loci (Ryd2, Ryd3, QTL on chromosome 2H) and were tested for their level of BYDV-tolerance after inoculation with viruliferous (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) aphids in field trials. In DH-lines carrying the combination Ryd2 and Ryd3, a significant reduction of the virus titre was detected as compared to lines carrying only one of these genes. Furthermore, spring barley DH-lines with this allele combination also showed a significantly higher relative grain yield as compared to lines carrying only Ryd2 or Ryd3. The QTL on chromosome 2H had only a small effect on the level of tolerance in those lines carrying only Ryd2, or Ryd3 or a combination of both, but the effect in comparison to lines carrying no tolerance allele was significant. Overall, these results show that the combination of Ryd2 and Ryd3 leads to quantitative resistance against BYDV-PAV instead of tolerance. PMID:21416402

  11. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  12. 我国不同地区麦蚜携带BYDV-GAV比率的差异%Difference in the proportion of aphids carrying Barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV between different areas in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菲; 吴茂森; 陈华民; 田芳; 曲玲; 曹雅忠; 何晨阳

    2012-01-01

    Difference in the proportion of aphids carrying Barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV between different areas in China was studied. The situation of aphids carrying BYDV-GAV was surveyed by using RT-PCR assay. The method was very sensitive and specific, and the virus in only 1/200 of an aphid could be detected. Aphids collected from major wheat-growing regions in China were tested for the proportion of aphids carrying virus. The proportion of aphids carrying virus was ranged from 56% to 91. 5%. They were collected from 11 seriously affected areas in Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and Shaanxi provinces, while 2. 5%-33% from 4 non-seriously affected areas in Henan and Hebei provinces. Our study confirmed that there was difference in the proportion of aphids carrying BYDV-GAV among different areas of China. The proportions of aphids carrying virus were high in seriously-affected areas like Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and Shaanxi provinces, while low in non-seriously affected areas like Henan and Hebei provinces.%为了研究我国不同地区麦蚜携带大麦黄矮病毒麦二叉蚜麦长管蚜非专化性株系(BYDV GAV)比率的差异,采用RT-PCR技术,对BYDV-GAV的传毒介体麦蚜带毒情况进行检测.所用方法具有较高的灵敏度和特异性,测定样本用量可少至1/200头蚜虫;对采自我国主要麦区的蚜虫样本进行分子检测,山西、甘肃、青海、陕西11个小麦黄矮病重病区蚜虫样本带毒率为56%~91.5%,而河北、河南两省4个非重病区蚜虫样本带毒率为2.5%~33%.通过试验证实,我国不同地区麦蚜携带BYDV-GAV比率存在差异,小麦黄矮病重病区山西、甘肃、青海、陕西等地的麦蚜带毒率高,而非重病区河北、河南等地的麦蚜带毒率低.

  13. 大麦黄矮病毒蚜传蛋白中蚜传功能位点分析%Analysis of Functional Sites in Aphid Transmission Protein of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴泉; 陈士华; 张苗青; 刘应举

    2011-01-01

    In order to know the key functional regions in the aphid transmission (AT) protein with which aphids transmit barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), BYDV AT protein was analyzed with many sequence analysis tools. The results showed that there were two highly conservative sequences "VDSS" and "KRFFEY" at the read through protein in AT protein of GAV,MAV and PAV strains,the sequence from "VDSS" to "KRFFEY" varied among different strains, and the O-glycosylation and phosphorylation sites of AT protein were mainly distributed in this region, so it was deduced that the sequence from "VDSS" to "KRFFEY" might be the functional region deciding the difference of aphid transmission characteristics between strains. The AT protein was mainly located at cell nucleus. The coiled-coils were found in the AT proteins of three strains, and the sequences "EYEAA" and the location of the coiled-coils near the 510 aa were highly conservative. Thus, the coiled-coil structure of AT protein could play an important role in the process of gene expression regulation and molecular recognition during the aphid transmission of BYDV.%为探讨大麦黄矮病毒(BYDV)蚜传(AT)蛋白参与介导蚜虫传播BYDV过程的关键功能区,利用Clustal等多种序列分析工具对BYDV AT蛋白进行综合分析.结果显示,在GAV株系、MAV株系和PAV株系的AT蛋白通读蛋白区均具有高度保守序列“VDSS”和“KRFFEY”,两保守区之间的氨基酸序列在株系间存在特异性变异,AT蛋白的主要糖基化和磷酸化位点亦分布在该区,表明该区域可能是决定株系间蚜传特性差异的功能区.另外分析表明,AT蛋白具有卷曲螺旋结构,在动物细胞中主要定位于细胞核内,其第510位氨基酸残基附近的卷曲螺旋结构不但在序列上高度保守(EYEAA)而且位置上也高度相近,说明该结构可能在AT蛋白介导蚜虫传播过程中起调控基因表达或分子识别的作用.

  14. Identification of the Resistance of Oats to Aphid and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Evaluation of Its Utilization%燕麦抗蚜性和抗BYDV病毒病鉴定及利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建国; 郭满库; 郭成; 魏宏玉; 刘永刚; 何苏琴; 赵桂琴

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This objective of this experiment is to study the resistance of different oats to aphid and Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV), and to screen and extend a batch of oat varieties with broad-spectrum resistance so as to ensure production safety. [Method] The experimental materials of oats were planted in the appraisal nursery in the same line spacing by furrower, naturally and artificially inoculated viruliferous aphid. The numbers of aphid and disease severity at filling stage were investigated, the ratio of rating scale infested by aphid and average severity were calculated, and the resistance to aphid and BYDV were appraised. [Result] No materials that were immune to aphid and BYDV in 72 oats materials. Fourteen oats were resistant to aphid, 58 oats were susceptible to aphid. In treatment of naturally infested by aphid, 9 oats were resistant to BYDV, 63 oats were susceptible to BYDV, while in treatment of artificially inoculated by viruliferous aphid, 6 oats were resistant to BYDV, 66 oats were susceptible to BYDV. [Conclusion] Very few materials were resistant to aphid and BYDV, and there were some correlations between resistance to aphid and resistance to BYDV, artificial inoculation increased disease severity than natural infestation, and reduced resource utilization. QO24S-7 and Baiyan 2 were moderately susceptible to aphid, but they were consistently resistant to BYDV. They should be given priority in popularization in large area in future.%[目的]明确燕麦品种对蚜虫和BYDV的抗性水平,筛选和推广一批广谱抗性的品种以确保燕麦生产安全.[方法]用等行距开畦条播方式种植鉴定圃.于灌浆期分别用模糊识别法和目测法调查圃内自然感染蚜虫和人工接种饲毒蚜虫的数量和病叶级数,计算蚜害比值和平均严重度后进行抗蚜性和抗BYDV性评价.[结果]72份燕麦材料中,无免疫蚜虫和BYDV材料.抗蚜性评价结果表明,14份材料抗蚜、58份材料感蚜;

  15. 青海省大麦黄矮病毒的种类鉴定及基于CP基因的分子进化研究%Identification of Barley Yellow Dwarf Viruses (BYDVs) Strains in Qinghai Province and Analysis of Evolution Based on CPGene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟浩; 刘艳

    2011-01-01

    由大麦黄矮病毒(Barley Yellow Dwarf Viruses,BYDVs)引起黄矮病是世界范围的主要的经济危害严重的禾谷类作物病毒病.BYDVs可侵染大麦、小麦、青稞等多种禾谷类作物,2010年该病害在青海省东部麦区中度流行.为了明确青海麦区大麦黄矮病毒株系种类,应用酶联免疫吸附法和核酸斑点杂交方法对采集到的112个麦类黄矮病标样进行检测.结果显示,GAV为当地大麦黄矮病毒的流行株系.测定了12个青海GAV分离物的外壳蛋白基因序列,核苷酸和氨基酸序列间比对分析表明:青海GAV分离物与中国各地GAV分离物外壳蛋白基因相似性非常高,变异很小.掌握青海东部麦区大麦黄矮病毒的株系分布及分子变异情况,对麦类作物的抗病性育种工作提供有价值的参考,同时对指导该地区小麦黄矮病的防治有着非常重要的意义.%The disease caused by Barley Yellow Dwarf Viruses (BYDVs) is a major, economically important that infect cereal crops including barely, wheat and highland barely worldwide. In 2010, BYDVs were moderately popular in the east of Qinghai Province, in China. In order to identify the serotype of BYDVs, 112 samples were collected from the east regions of Qinghai Province and assayed by ELISA and NASH. The results confirmed that the GAV of BYDV was predominant in these areas. Sequences of coat protein gene of BYDV-GAV isolates obtained from Qinghai Province were aligned at amino acid level and compared with those of other luteoviruses. The results of sequence comparisons showed that the CP gene of GAV shared a high degree of sequence conservation between some isolates from Qinghai and the others from different regions of China. The fact that the main strains and molecular variation of BYDV in the east regions of Qinghai Province were obtained, which would afford a valuable reference to work on breeding resist to BYDVs. It is also essential to direct prevention and cure of BYDVs in

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated infection of whole plants by yellow dwarf viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2011-09-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) are only transmitted between host plants by aphid vectors and not by mechanical transmission. This presents a severe limitation for the use of a reverse genetics approach to analyze the effects of mutations in these viruses on plant infection and aphid transmission. Here we describe the use of agroinfection to infect plants with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV. The cDNAs corresponding to the complete RNA genomes of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV were cloned into a binary vector under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase transcription termination signal. The self-cleaving ribozyme from hepatitis virus D was included to produce a transcript in planta with a 3' terminus identical to the natural viral RNA. ELISA and RT-PCR analysis showed that the replicons of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV introduced by Agrobacterium into Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii gave rise to a local infection in the infiltrated mesophyll cells. After several weeks systemic infection of phloem tissue was detected, although no systemic symptoms were observed. Three heterologous virus silencing suppressors increased the efficiency of agroinfection and accumulation of BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV in the two Nicotiana species. The progeny viruses purified from infiltrated tissues were successfully transmitted to oat plants by aphids, and typical yellow dwarf symptoms were observed. This study reports the first agroinfection of eudicot plants using BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPV. PMID:21763366

  17. Functional Analysis of TNBL1 Gene in Wheat Defense Response to Barley yellow dwarf virus Using BSMV-VIGS Technique%利用BSMV-VIGS技术快速分析小麦TNBL1基因的抗黄矮病功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 赵继荣; 黄茜; 李宁; 刘艳; 黄占景; 张增艳

    2011-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), transmitted by at least 25 species of aphids, causes one of the most serious virus diseases of wheat worldwide. Through Cdna-AFLP analysis, we identified a Cdna fragment with 292bp expressing in the BYDV-resistant wheat-Thinopyrun intermedium translocation line YW642, but not in susceptible wheat Zhong8601. The full-length Cdna sequence of the gene, namely TNBL1, was cloned by RACE and RT-PCR methods, which encodes a putative NBS-LRR protein. This study focused on the functional analysis of TNBL1 in wheat defense to BYDV infection using Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-inducing gene silencing method. After the specific fragment of TNBL1 was added with 2 restriction-enzyme sequences by PCR, and digested and ligased with the digested BSMV-γ, the recombinant BSMW-γ:TNBLlas construct was obtained. The three components of the BSMV-VIGS vectors, BSMV-TNBLlas, BSMV-α and BSMV-β were tran-scribed in vitro, and mixed with equal quantity and inoculated onto the first and second leaves of the resistant line YW642 seed-lings at the two-leaf stage. As a result, the TNBL1 expression was obviously repressed (silenced) in YW642 treated by BSMV:TNBL1. These seedlings were further inoculated with BYDV aphids. The BYDV content was much higher in the TNVBL1-silenced YW642 plants than that in the control YW642 plants without BSMV:TNBL1 treatment. Furthermore, the TNVBL1-silenced YW642 plants were susceptible to BYDV infection with the viral symptom. These results indicated that the TNBL1 gene is an important gene positively involved in wheat defense response to BYDV infection.%小麦黄矮病是由蚜虫介导的大麦黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)侵染引起的小麦重要病害之一.利用cDNA-AFLP分析,筛选出在抗黄矮病小麦易位系YW642中特异表达的长度为292 bp的cDNA片段,以此片段为启始序列,利用RACE和RT-PCR技术克隆出该基因的全长cDNA序列,推导该基因编码1个NBS

  18. Inheritance and identification of molecular markers associated with a novel dwarfing gene in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Genlou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dwarfing genes have widely been used in barley breeding program. More than 30 types of dwarfs or semidwarfs have been reported, but a few has been exploited in barley breeding because pleiotropic effects of dwarfing genes cause some undesired traits. The plant architecture of newly discovered dwarfing germplasm "Huaai 11" consisted of desirable agronomic traits such as shortened stature and early maturity. Genetic factor controlling the plant height in dwarf line Huaai 11 was investigated. Results The Huaai 11 was crossed with tall varieties Monker, Mpyt, Zhenongda 3, Zaoshu 3, Advance, Huadamai 1, Huadamai 6, Hyproly and Ris01508. All the F1 plants displayed tall trait. Both tall and dwarf plants appeared in all the F2 populations with a 3:1 segregation ratio, suggesting that dwarfism of Huaai 11 is controlled by a single recessive gene, btwd1. Allelism test indicated that this dwarfing gene in the Huaai 11 is nonallelic with the gene br, uzu, sdw1 and denso. Using a double haploid population derived from a cross of Huadamai 6 and Huaai 11 and SSR markers the novel dwarfing gene was mapped onto the long arm of chromosome 7H, and closely linked to Bmac031 and Bmac167 with genetic distance of 2.2 cM. Conclusion Huaai 11 is a new source of dwarf for broadening the genetic base of dwarfism. This dwarf source was controlled by a recessive dwarfing gene btwd1, was mapped onto the long arm of chromosome 7H.

  19. Molecular Evidence of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Replication/Movement Suppressed by the Resistance Gene Bdv2%抗病基因Bdv2抑制大麦黄矮病毒复制和运动的分子证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 张增艳; 刘艳; 辛志勇

    2005-01-01

    A wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation line YW642 possesses the resistance to GAV serotype of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV),in which the resistance gene Bdv2 is derived from the chromosome 7X of Thinopyrum intermedium group 7.It is interesting to analyze BYDV accumulation content in the resistant and susceptible wheat plants for controlling BYDV disease and understanding the resistance mechanism against BYDV.In the paper,semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect and quantify BYDV-GAV in the resistant and susceptible plants using specific primers for the coat protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes of BYDV-GAV serotype.On the inoculation site,the amount of the virus in the resistant wheat line (YW642) was much lower compared to the susceptible sib line (YW641).There was small amount of the virus could be detected in YW642 at 2-5 days post infestation (dpi),afterwards the amount of virus decreased and no virus could be detected at 14 and 16 dpi.In the uninoculated upper leaves,no BYDV was detected in YW642 from 1 to 14 dpi,while the virus could be detected at 3 dpi and then accumulated rapidly in YW641.These results showed at molecular level that the replication and/or movement of BYDV-GAV were strongly suppressed in YW642,presumably owing to the action of the Bdv2 gene.%小麦-中间偃麦草易位系YW642含有一个源于中间偃麦草7X染色体的抗性基因Bdv2,对大麦黄矮病毒GAV株系具有高度抗性.为有效控制该病毒和阐明抗黄矮病机制,采用半定量RT-PCR的方法,研究了大麦黄矮病毒GAV株系在YW642及其感病姊妹系YW641中积累浓度的差异.分别在接种病毒不同时间、不同部位上取样,用半定量RT-PCR的方法来检测GAV的积累浓度.在接种部位,抗病植株中病毒的浓度远远低于感病植株.在侵染的前5 d,抗病植株YW642中病毒会有一定程度的复制和积累,但随后病毒浓度开始下降,接种14~16 d时没

  20. SNP-based high density genetic map and mapping of btwd1 dwarfing gene in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Liu, Lipan; Sun, Genlou; Li, Chengdao; Luo, Hong; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average of 0.7 cM between adjacent loci. The number of markers within each linkage group ranged from 209 to 396. The new recessive dwarfing gene btwd1 in Huaai 11 was mapped onto the high density linkage maps. The result showed that the btwd1 is positioned between SNP marks 7HL_6335336 and 7_249275418 with a genetic distance of 0.9 cM and 0.7 cM on chromosome 7H, respectively. The SNP-based high-density genetic map developed and the dwarfing gene btwd1 mapped in this study provide critical information for position cloning of the btwd1 gene and molecular breeding of barley. PMID:27530597

  1. Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus VPg Is the Determinant Protein for Breaking eIF4E-Mediated Recessive Resistance in Barley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huangai; Kondo, Hideki; Kühne, Thomas; Shirako, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus) factor(s) responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6) in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10) and rym5-non-breaking (JK05) isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg) is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120, and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants. PMID:27746794

  2. Polycistronic artificial miRNA-mediated resistance to Wheat dwarf virus in barley is highly efficient at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, András; Tholt, Gergely; Ivanics, Milán; Várallyay, Éva; Jenes, Barnabás; Havelda, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Infection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) strains on barley results in dwarf disease, imposing severe economic losses on crop production. As the natural resistance resources against this virus are limited, it is imperative to elaborate a biotechnological approach that will provide effective and safe immunity to a wide range of WDV strains. Because vector insect-mediated WDV infection occurs during cool periods in nature, it is important to identify a technology which is effective at lower temperature. In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) using a barley miRNA precursor backbone, which target different conservative sequence elements of the WDV strains. Potential amiRNA sequences were selected to minimize the off-target effects and were tested in a transient sensor system in order to select the most effective constructs at low temperature. On the basis of the data obtained, a polycistronic amiRNA precursor construct (VirusBuster171) was built expressing three amiRNAs simultaneously. The construct was transformed into barley under the control of a constitutive promoter. The transgenic lines were kept at 12-15 °C to mimic autumn and spring conditions in which major WDV infection and accumulation take place. We were able to establish a stable barley transgenic line displaying resistance to insect-mediated WDV infection. Our study demonstrates that amiRNA technology can be an efficient tool for the introduction of highly efficient resistance in barley against a DNA virus belonging to the Geminiviridae family, and this resistance is effective at low temperature where the natural insect vector mediates the infection process. PMID:26136043

  3. Sequencing and validation of reference genes to analyze endogenous gene expression and quantify yellow dwarf viruses using RT-qPCR in viruliferous Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Wu

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi, an important pest of cereal crops, not only directly sucks sap from plants, but also transmits a number of plant viruses, collectively the yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs. For quantifying changes in gene expression in vector aphids, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a touchstone method, but the selection and validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs as reference genes to normalize the expression level of endogenous genes of the vector and for exogenous genes of the virus in the aphids is critical to obtaining valid results. Such an assessment has not been done, however, for R. padi and YDVs. Here, we tested three algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper to assess the suitability of candidate reference genes (EF-1α, ACT1, GAPDH, 18S rRNA in 6 combinations of YDV and vector aphid morph. EF-1α and ACT1 together or in combination with GAPDH or with GAPDH and 18S rRNA could confidently be used to normalize virus titre and expression levels of endogenous genes in winged or wingless R. padi infected with Barley yellow dwarf virus isolates (BYDV-PAV and BYDV-GAV. The use of only one reference gene, whether the most stably expressed (EF-1α or the least stably expressed (18S rRNA, was not adequate for obtaining valid relative expression data from the RT-qPCR. Because of discrepancies among values for changes in relative expression obtained using 3 regions of the same gene, different regions of an endogenous aphid gene, including each terminus and the middle, should be analyzed at the same time with RT-qPCR. Our results highlight the necessity of choosing the best reference genes to obtain valid experimental data and provide several HKGs for relative quantification of virus titre in YDV-viruliferous aphids.

  4. Sequencing and validation of reference genes to analyze endogenous gene expression and quantify yellow dwarf viruses using RT-qPCR in viruliferous Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keke; Liu, Wenwen; Mar, Thithi; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Xifeng

    2014-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), an important pest of cereal crops, not only directly sucks sap from plants, but also transmits a number of plant viruses, collectively the yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs). For quantifying changes in gene expression in vector aphids, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a touchstone method, but the selection and validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) as reference genes to normalize the expression level of endogenous genes of the vector and for exogenous genes of the virus in the aphids is critical to obtaining valid results. Such an assessment has not been done, however, for R. padi and YDVs. Here, we tested three algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) to assess the suitability of candidate reference genes (EF-1α, ACT1, GAPDH, 18S rRNA) in 6 combinations of YDV and vector aphid morph. EF-1α and ACT1 together or in combination with GAPDH or with GAPDH and 18S rRNA could confidently be used to normalize virus titre and expression levels of endogenous genes in winged or wingless R. padi infected with Barley yellow dwarf virus isolates (BYDV)-PAV and BYDV-GAV. The use of only one reference gene, whether the most stably expressed (EF-1α) or the least stably expressed (18S rRNA), was not adequate for obtaining valid relative expression data from the RT-qPCR. Because of discrepancies among values for changes in relative expression obtained using 3 regions of the same gene, different regions of an endogenous aphid gene, including each terminus and the middle, should be analyzed at the same time with RT-qPCR. Our results highlight the necessity of choosing the best reference genes to obtain valid experimental data and provide several HKGs for relative quantification of virus titre in YDV-viruliferous aphids. PMID:24810421

  5. LBT Discovery of a Yellow Supergiant Eclipsing Binary in the Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg IX

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, J L; Kochanek, C S; Weisz, D R; Baruffolo, A; Bechtold, J; Burwitz, V; DeSantis, C; Gallozzi, S; Garnavich, P M; Giallongo, E; Hill, J M; Pogge, R W; Ragazzoni, R; Speziali, R; Thompson, D J; Wagner, R M

    2007-01-01

    In a variability survey of M81 using the Large Binocular Telescope we have discovered a peculiar eclipsing binary (MV ~ -7.1) in the field of the dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX. It has a period of 272 days and the light curve is well-fit by an overcontact model in which both stars are overflowing their Roche lobes. It is composed by two yellow supergiants (V-I ~ 1 mag, T_eff = 4800 K), rather than the far more common red or blue supergiants. Such systems must be rare. While we failed to find any similar systems in the literature, we did, however note a second example. The SMC F0 supergiant R47 is a bright (MV ~ -7.5) periodic variable whose All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) light curve is well-fit as a contact binary with a 181 day period. We propose that these systems are the progenitors of supernovae like SN 2004et and SN 2006ov, which appeared to have yellow progenitors. The binary interactions (mass transfer, mass loss) limit the size of the supergiant to give it a higher surface temperature than an isolated star...

  6. Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; He, Junyun; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Mason, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of recombinant vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies using plant viral vectors has developed extensively during the past several years. The approach benefits from high yields of recombinant protein obtained within days after transient delivery of viral vectors to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, a tobacco relative. Modified viral genomes of both RNA and DNA viruses have been created. Geminiviruses such as bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) have a small, single stranded DNA genome...

  7. Barley NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 encoding a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) regulates the marginal development of lateral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Masumoto, Yuuki; Nobori, Naoya; Ishii, Hiroto; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Taketa, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world and is mainly utilized as animal feed and malts. Recently barley attracts considerable attentions as healthy food rich in dietary fiber. However, limited knowledge is available about developmental aspects of barley leaves. In the present study, we investigated barley narrow leafed dwarf1 (nld1) mutants, which exhibit thin leaves accompanied by short stature. Detailed histological analysis revealed that leaf marginal tissues, such as sawtooth hairs and sclerenchymatous cells, were lacked in nld1, suggesting that narrowed leaf of nld1 was attributable to the defective development of the marginal regions in the leaves. The defective marginal developments were also appeared in internodes and glumes in spikelets. Map-based cloning revealed that NLD1 encodes a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3), an ortholog of the maize NARROW SHEATH genes. In situ hybridization showed that NLD1 transcripts were localized in the marginal edges of leaf primordia from the initiating stage. From these results, we concluded that NLD1 plays pivotal role in the increase of organ width and in the development of marginal tissues in lateral organs in barley. PMID:27436952

  8. Detection of yellow dwarf virus onion (OYDV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV) in Costa Rican garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viral diseases have been responsible for significant losses in crop yield of garlic in the world. Costa Rican material Garlic has been analyzed to determine the incidence of : onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), the leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), shallot latent virus (SLV) and garlic common latent virus (GLCV). The DAS-ELISA technique has been used for status native plant material. Bulbs field apparently normal (N), normal with yellow tunic (TA) and deformed (D) and normal field sheets (N), symptomatic (S) and possible presence of viral vectors (VT) were used. Vitroplants product have analyzed the introduction of apices of 1,0 and 0,5 cm in length teeth from normal (N) and yellow tunic (TA). The 33% of the bulbs GCLV field were analyzed for positive (TA), whereas OYDV was detected 100% appearance regardless. 100% of the plantlets have presented without infection of GCLV, the OYDV only those introduced in apices of 1,0 cm from bulbs with yellow robes have shown without effect. GCLV is determined for 100% of the samples for both batches OYDV bulb formation in vitro and in only 50%. In the Costa Rican garlic has concluded that are present the viruses of GCLV and OYDV, with a high incidence on local material and differential infection according to the organ analyzed. Various methodologies combined are recommended together with the apexes vitro cultivation, for more effective viral clearance and thus increase the value and boost the local seed crop. (author)

  9. Occurrence and Control of Mulberry Yellow Dwarf Disease%桑黄化型萎缩病的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡在进

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the status of mulberry yellow dwarf disease in Jixi County,analyzed the cause of the disease.Some control measures were put forward,in order to provide references for controlling mulberry yellow dwarf disease.%介绍了桑树黄化型萎缩病在绩溪县发生的状况,分析其发生原因,提出了防治措施,以为桑树黄化型萎缩病的防治提供参考。

  10. Quantitative resistance and its components in 16 barley cultivars to yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandoval-Islas, J.S.; Broers, L.H.M.; Mora-Aguilera, G.; Parlevliet, J.E.; Osada-Kawasoe, S.; Vivar, H.E.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen barley cultivars with a susceptible infection type (IT = 7-8) in the seedling stage to an isolate of race 24 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei were planted at two locations in México. Disease severity (DS) parameters were assessed for the flag leaf and for the upper three leaves. The cul

  11. Genomic and proteomic analysis of Schizaphis graminum reveals cyclophilin proteins are involved in the transmission of cereal yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Bereman, Michael S; DeBlasio, Stacy; Igwe, David; Smith, Dawn M; White, Frank; MacCoss, Michael J; Gray, Stewart M; Cilia, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses cause the most economically important virus diseases of cereal crops worldwide and are transmitted by aphid vectors. The identification of aphid genes and proteins mediating virus transmission is critical to develop agriculturally sustainable virus management practices and to understand viral strategies for circulative movement in all insect vectors. Two cyclophilin B proteins, S28 and S29, were identified previously in populations of Schizaphisgraminum that differed in their ability to transmit the RPV strain of Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV). The presence of S29 was correlated with F2 genotypes that were efficient virus transmitters. The present study revealed the two proteins were isoforms, and a single amino acid change distinguished S28 and S29. The distribution of the two alleles was determined in 12 F2 genotypes segregating for CYDV-RPV transmission capacity and in 11 genetically independent, field-collected S. graminum biotypes. Transmission efficiency for CYDV-RPV was determined in all genotypes and biotypes. The S29 isoform was present in all genotypes or biotypes that efficiently transmit CYDV-RPV and more specifically in genotypes that efficiently transport virus across the hindgut. We confirmed a direct interaction between CYDV-RPV and both S28 and S29 using purified virus and bacterially expressed, his-tagged S28 and S29 proteins. Importantly, S29 failed to interact with a closely related virus that is transported across the aphid midgut. We tested for in vivo interactions using an aphid-virus co-immunoprecipitation strategy coupled with a bottom-up LC-MS/MS analysis using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. This analysis enabled us to identify a third cyclophilin protein, cyclophilin A, interacting directly or in complex with purified CYDV-RPV. Taken together, these data provide evidence that both cyclophilin A and B interact with CYDV-RPV, and these interactions may be important but not sufficient to mediate virus transport

  12. Genomic and proteomic analysis of Schizaphis graminum reveals cyclophilin proteins are involved in the transmission of cereal yellow dwarf virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tamborindeguy

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf viruses cause the most economically important virus diseases of cereal crops worldwide and are transmitted by aphid vectors. The identification of aphid genes and proteins mediating virus transmission is critical to develop agriculturally sustainable virus management practices and to understand viral strategies for circulative movement in all insect vectors. Two cyclophilin B proteins, S28 and S29, were identified previously in populations of Schizaphisgraminum that differed in their ability to transmit the RPV strain of Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV. The presence of S29 was correlated with F2 genotypes that were efficient virus transmitters. The present study revealed the two proteins were isoforms, and a single amino acid change distinguished S28 and S29. The distribution of the two alleles was determined in 12 F2 genotypes segregating for CYDV-RPV transmission capacity and in 11 genetically independent, field-collected S. graminum biotypes. Transmission efficiency for CYDV-RPV was determined in all genotypes and biotypes. The S29 isoform was present in all genotypes or biotypes that efficiently transmit CYDV-RPV and more specifically in genotypes that efficiently transport virus across the hindgut. We confirmed a direct interaction between CYDV-RPV and both S28 and S29 using purified virus and bacterially expressed, his-tagged S28 and S29 proteins. Importantly, S29 failed to interact with a closely related virus that is transported across the aphid midgut. We tested for in vivo interactions using an aphid-virus co-immunoprecipitation strategy coupled with a bottom-up LC-MS/MS analysis using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. This analysis enabled us to identify a third cyclophilin protein, cyclophilin A, interacting directly or in complex with purified CYDV-RPV. Taken together, these data provide evidence that both cyclophilin A and B interact with CYDV-RPV, and these interactions may be important but not sufficient to mediate

  13. Analysis of phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of mulberry yellow dwarf disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ying-Ping; Li, Yi-Qun; Guo, Fang-Yue; Yuan, Chuan-Zhong; Mo, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Hua-Liang; Wang, Hong; Ji, Xian-Ling

    2014-06-01

    The yellow dwarf disease associated with phytoplasmas is one of the most devastating diseases of mulberry and the pathogenesis involved in the disease is poorly understood. To analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating gene expression in mulberry-phytoplasma interaction, the comprehensive sRNA changes of mulberry leaf in response to phytoplasma-infection were examined. A total of 164 conserved miRNAs and 23 novel miRNAs were identified, and 62 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be involved in the response to phytoplasma-infection. Meanwhile, target genes of the responsive miRNAs were identified by sequencing of the degradome library. In addition, the endogenous siRNAs were sequenced, and their expression profiles were characterized. Interestingly, we found that phytoplasma infection induced the accumulation of mul-miR393-5p which was resulted from the increased transcription of MulMIR393A, and mul-miR393-5p most likely initiate the biogenesis of siRNAs from TIR1 transcript. Based on the results, we can conclude that phytoplasma-responsive sRNAs modulate multiple hormone pathways and play crucial roles in the regulation of development and metabolism. These responsive sRNAs may work cooperatively in the response to phytoplasma-infection and be responsible for some symptoms in the infected plants.

  14. Mild and severe cereal yellow dwarf viruses differ in silencing suppressor efficiency of the P0 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Reza; Miller, W Allen; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    Viral pathogenicity has often been correlated to the expression of the viral encoded-RNA silencing suppressor protein (SSP). The silencing suppressor activity of the P0 protein encoded by cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) and -RPS (CYDV-RPS), two poleroviruses differing in their symptomatology was investigated. CYDV-RPV displays milder symptoms in oat and wheat whereas CYDV-RPS is responsible for more severe disease. We showed that both P0 proteins (P0(CY-RPV) and P0(CY-RPS)) were able to suppress local RNA silencing induced by either sense or inverted repeat transgenes in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. P0(CY-RPS) displayed slightly higher activity. Systemic spread of the silencing signal was not impaired. Analysis of short-interfering RNA (siRNA) abundance revealed that accumulation of primary siRNA was not affected, but secondary siRNA levels were reduced by both CYDV P0 proteins, suggesting that they act downstream of siRNA production. Correlated with this finding we showed that both P0 proteins partially destabilized ARGONAUTE1. Finally both P0(CY-RPV) and P0(CY-RPS) interacted in yeast cells with ASK2, a component of an E3-ubiquitin ligase, with distinct affinities.

  15. Variation in the transmission of barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV by different Sitobion avenae clones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjuan; Xu, Zhaohuan; Francis, Frédéric; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Dengfa; Bragard, Claude; Chen, Julian

    2013-12-01

    Fourteen Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae) clonal lines (clones) originating from China were tested for their ability to transmit BYDV-PAV (one isolate from Belgium and another from China) using wheat plants. By sequence analysis, the coat protein gene of BYDV-PAV-BE was distinguishable from BYDV-PAV-CN. All of the clones could transmit BYDV-PAV, and the transmission varied from 24.42% to 66.67% with BYDV-PAV-BE and from 23.55% to 56.18% with BYDV-PAV-CN. These data suggest that S. avenae has no specialty in BYDV-PAV isolate. Significant differences in the transmission frequencies between the clones with BYDV-PAV-BE and BYDV-PAV-CN were observed. The transmission efficiencies of aphid clones from the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River (AH, HD, HDE, HZ, JZ, JY and SJ) and Yunnan province (YH) were similar. Nevertheless, differences in the virus transmission efficiencies of the clones from northern (ST and STA) and northwestern (QX, SB and XS) regions were assessed. The transmission efficiency of S. avenae from northern and northwestern China, where BYDV impact is more important, was higher than that from the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Yunnan province. This work emphasizes the importance of considering aphid vector clonal diversity in addition to virus strain variability when assessing BYDV transmission efficiency. PMID:23911295

  16. The complete nucleotide sequence and its organization of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhibo; WANG; Xifeng; CHANG; Shengjun; ZHOU; Guanghe

    2004-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of genomic RNA of BYDV-GAV was determined. It comprised 5685 nucleotides and contained six open reading frames and four un-translated regions. The size and organization of BYDV-GAV genome were similar to those of BYDV PAV-aus. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the six ORFs were aligned and compared with those of other luteoviruses. The results showed that there was a high degree of identity between BYDV-GAV and MAV-PS1 in all ORFs except ORF5 and ORF6, which had only 87.4% and 70.2% identities respectively. The reported genomic nucleotide sequence of MAV was shorter than that of BYDV-GAV, but the comparison of the genomic nucleotide sequences for MAV-PS1 and GAV showed 90.4% sequence identity for the same region of the genome. According to the level of sequence similarities, BYDV-GAV should be closely related to BYDV-MAV.

  17. Protective effect and economic impact of insecticide application methods on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stoetzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval; T2, just ST; T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL was reached; T4, without insecticide; and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021 - were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.

  18. Luteibacter rhizovicinus gen. nov., sp nov., a yellow-pigmented gammaproteobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jens E.; Binnerup, Svend J.; Kroer, Niels;

    2005-01-01

    at 4-30 degrees C, pH 6-9 and 0-3% (w/v) NaCl. The strains had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence) fingerprint profiles, but could be differentiated by their RAPID (random amplified polymorphic DNA) fingerprint patterns. Strain U96(T...... % to Frateuria aurantia DSM 6220(T) and 96 % to Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T). Using LJ96(T) DNA as probe, DNA-DNA hybridizations documented the relationship of the three strains to a single species (87.4-98.7% relatedness) and showed less than 30% relatedness to Frateuria aurantia DSM 62207 and Fulvimonas soli...... DSM 14263(T). Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus LMG 183857 is not extant and the strain not available from any public strain collections, thus DNA-DNA hybridization could not include this strain. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the three yellow-pigmented strains could also...

  19. Development and validation of DNA markers linked to Sdvy-1, a common bean gene conferring resistance to the yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoko; Takeuchi, Toru; Okuyama, Masataka; Sasaki, Jun; Onodera, Kakumasa; Sato, Mikako; Souma, Chihiro; Ebe, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    The yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV-YS) causes yellowing and yield loss in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The most effective control is achieved through breeding for resistance. An indeterminate climbing cultivar with a white seed coat, 'Oofuku', is resistant to SbDV-YS in inoculation tests. We crossed 'Oofuku' with an elite cultivar, 'Taisho-Kintoki', which is SbDV-YS-susceptible, determinate dwarf with a red-purple seed coat, and performed amplified-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of F3 lines. From nucleotide sequences of the resistant-specific fragments and their flanking regions, we developed five DNA markers, of which DV86, DV386, and DV398 were closely linked to Sdvy-1, a resistance gene. Using the markers, we developed 'Toiku-B79' and 'Toiku-B80', the near-isogenic lines (NILs) incorporating Sdvy-1 in the background of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs had similar growth habit, maturity date and seed shape to those of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The quality of boiled beans was also similar, except that the NILs had more seed coat cracking than 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs showed no SbDV-YS infection in inoculation tests. We suggest that Sdvy-1 is a useful source of SbDV-YS resistance in common bean.

  20. Two virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors, P14 of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 of Rice black streak dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lingdi; WANG Zhaohui; WANG Xianbing; LI Dawei; HAN Chenggui; ZHAI Yafeng; YU Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Functional analysis for gene silencing suppressor of P14 gene of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 gene of Rice black streak dwarf virus was carried out by agro- infiltration with recombinant vectors of Potato virus X. The phenotype observation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and Northern blot showed that the gene silencing of gfp transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana induced by homologous sequence was strongly suppressed by the immixture infiltration of either the P14 or the S6. In the suppressed plants, the gfp mRNA accumulation was higher than that in the non-suppressed controls and the symptoms caused by PVX infection became more severe, especially the gfp DNA methylation of plant genome was significantly inhabited when co-infiltrated with RBSDV S6 gene. These results suggested that these two virus genes were potentially to encode for proteins as RNA silencing suppressors.

  1. Sequence analysis demonstrates that Onion yellow dwarf virus isolates from China contain a P3 region much larger than other potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Adams, M J; Zheng, H-Y; Chen, J-P

    2003-06-01

    The complete sequence of an isolate of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) from Yuhang, Zhejiang province, China, was determined. It was 10538 nts in length and was predicted to encode a polyprotein 3403 amino acids (aa) long with a calculated M(r) of 385.1 kDa. The predicted P3 protein (530 aa) was larger than that of any of the potyviruses sequenced to date (344-378 aa). The additional sequence occurs at the N-terminus of the protein, does not represent a duplication from elsewhere in the OYDV genome and could not be matched to any other sequences in the databases. Similar sequences were found in 4 other Chinese OYDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of the polyprotein showed that OYDV is distantly related to Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and the potyviruses of grasses and cereals. PMID:12756621

  2. Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus Sativus: Causer of barley leaf lesions and root rot in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karov Ilija K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, were noticed in the area of Kumanovo, Bitola, Probistip, Skopje and Kocani, at the beginning of March, 2006. Our investigations were carried out in the period from 2006 to 2009. The plants were highly diseased, probably in the stage of germination, dwarfed with necrotic leaves and with poorly developed root. A rotten root collar was noticed notice in some plants, which could be easily pulled out from the soil. Plants infected in a later developing stage became yellow from the top of the leaf, and many brown-olive, oval shape lesions were noticed. Conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoen., were isolated from symptomatic lesions. Pseudothecia with asci and ascospores from teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus, were found on the barley straw in the same field the previous year.

  3. Gene Analysis of Chinese Barley Dwarf Germplasm Resources II. Location of the Dwarf Genes on Chromosomes%中国大麦矮秆种质资源的基因分析 II. 矮秆基因的染色体定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京

    2001-01-01

    根据连锁遗传原理,利用全套染色体形态性状标记系,对20份中国大麦矮秆种质资源的矮秆基因,进行了染色体定位。结果表明:15份单基因矮秆中,有1份其矮秆基因与宽护颖基因w连锁,位于2(2H)染色体短臂上;10份的矮秆基因与uz基因等位,由3(3H)长臂携带;4份的矮秆基因与钩芒基因K连锁,位于4(4H)长臂上。5份双基因矮秆中,有3份的矮秆基因分别位于2(2H)短臂和4(4H)长臂上;1份的矮秆基因各由其3(3H)和4(4H)长臂携带;其余1份的两对矮秆基因,1对与uz基因等位,由3(3H)长臂携带,另1对则与宽护颖基因w连锁,位于2(2H)短臂之上。%Twenty dwarf sources of Chinese barley were crossed to a set ofmarker stocks. Based on the linkage tests with the marker traits and genes, the dwarfing genes in Chinese dwarf barley were located on different chromosomes. Fifteen of the 20 dwarf sources were recessive mono杔ocus. Among them, BQK carried a pair of dwarfing genes on its short arms of 2(2H) chromosome, linking to the wide outer glume gene w; HZA 77 etc. 10 dwarf sources held dwarfing genes allelic to semi朾rachytic gene uz on their long arms of 3(3H) chromosomes respectively; 91G318, 91D27, 11012.2 and JJ had dwarfing genes on their long arms of 4(4H) chromosomes, which linked with the hooded awn gene K. The remaining five dwarf sources were two杔ocus. Two recessive loci were found to be on 2HS and 4HL respectively in DQQK, ZLL and ZLLQK. A pair of incomplete dominant genes were located on 2HS, and another pair of recessive ones located on 3HL in 1974E. Two recessive loci of Yan 66 were separately located on its 3HL and 4HL.

  4. 西北地区小麦黄矮病流行趋势预测模型%Prediction Models for Prevalent Trends of Wheat Yellow Dwarf Disease in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成萍旎; 单宏英; 胡小敏; 马志远; 冯志珍; 安德荣

    2011-01-01

    为给小麦黄矮病防治适期的确定提供有效手段,利用2001-2010年西北地区小麦黄矮病资料,分析了小麦黄矮病不同年份病害流行动态、品种抗性差异、主麦区流行状况以及病害流行与气象因子的关系。结果表明,不同年份或同一年份不同月份小麦黄矮病发病情况不同,不同品种抗病性存在差异,西北地区主要麦区间该病害流行具有相关性。利用筛选出的8个主要影响因子构建了多因子线性回归预测模型,模型历史拟合率达96.5%,预测效果较好,可用于西北地区小麦黄矮病流行的预测预报。%Wheat yellow dwarf is one of the important viral diseases in the world.The occurrence of wheat yellow dwarf disease has close connection with account of Schizaphis graminum and meteorological factor.Based on the long periods(2001-2010) monitoring of meteorological data and of the occurrence and prevalent tendency of wheat yellow dwarf in the primarily wheat production areas of northwest China,multifactor model of predicting the prevalence of wheat yellow dwarf was constructed after analysis with 23 predicted factors.The model's accuracy detected by regressive test with ten years data was 96.5%.Hence,it can be used for predicting and early warning of disease occurrence level of wheat yellow dwarf disease.

  5. Expression Comparisons of Pathogenesis-Related (PR) Genes in Wheat in Response to Infection/Infestation by Fusarium, Yellow dwarf virus (YDV) Aphid-Transmitted and Hessian Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shi-wen; WANG Hong-wei; YANG Zai-dong; KONG Ling-rang

    2014-01-01

    Expression proifles of ten pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during plant defense against Fusarium, Yellow dwarf virus (YDV) aphid-transmitted and Hessian fly (Hf) were compared temporally in both resistant and susceptible genotypes following pathogen infection or insect infestation. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that PR1, PR2, PR3, PR5, PR6, PR8, PR9, and PR15 appeared to be induced or suppressed independently in response to Fusarium, YDV aphid-transmitted or Hf during the interactions. The PR gene(s) essential to defense against one organism may play little or no role in defense against another pathogen or pest, suggesting the alternative mechanisms may be involved in different interactions of wheat-Fusarium, wheat-YDV aphid-transmitted and wheat-Hf. However, strong up-or down-regulation of PR12 and PR14 encoding low molecular membrane acting protein, defensin and lipid transfer protein (LTP), respectively, had been detected after either pathogen infection or insect infestation, therefore showed broad responses to pathogens and insects. It was postulated that low molecular proteins such as defensins and LTPs might play a role in the early stages of pathogenesis in the signaling process that informs plants about the attack from biotic stresses. In addition, a synergistic action between different PR genes might exist in plants to defense certain pathogens and insects on the basis of comprehensive expression proifling of various pathogenesis-related genes revealed by qRT-PCR in this study.

  6. CP gene cloning and sequence analysis of Liu'an isolates of Leek yellow stripe virus, Onion yellow dwarf virus and Shallot yellow stripe virus%韭葱黄条病毒、洋葱黄矮病毒和胡葱黄条病毒六安分离物CP基因克隆及同源性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦传宝; 华俊雅; 杨宇; 隗洋洋; 史利利

    2012-01-01

    Specific primers were designed to amplify CP genes of Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) , Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and Shallot yellow stripe virus(SYSV)Liu'an isolates. Then the CP genes were cloned into pGEM-T vectors and were sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that CP genes of LYSV;OYDV and SYSV Liu'an isolates consists of 864,771 and 774 nucleotide acids respectively. Multiple aligments showed that CP gene of LYSV Liu'an isolate shared 76. 12% -84. 31% nucleotide acids identities with 68 LYSV CP genes reported on Genbank, CP gene of OYDV Liu'an isolate shared 81. 06%-90. 40% nucleotide acids identities with 86 OYDV CP genes re ported on Genbank and CP gene of SYSV Liu'an isolate shared 88. 63% -94. 32% nucleotide acids identities with 11 SYSV CP genes reported on Genbank. These results indicated that the divergence in LYSV CP among different iso lates was high,whilst divergence of OYDV CP was moderate in different isolates. All the results indicated that the variability of LYSV CP gene among different isolates was high,OYDV CP gene among different isolates was in the middle and SYSV CP gene among different isolates was low. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LYSV CP had little relationship with OYDV CP and SYSV CP and OYDV had closer relationship with SYSV than LYSV.%设计特异性引物PCR扩增了六安大蒜病样中的韭葱黄条病毒(Leek yellow stripe virus,LYSV)、洋葱黄矮病毒(Onion yellow dwarf virus,OYDV)和胡葱黄条病毒(Shallot yellow stripe virus,SYSV)的全长CP基因,插入到pGEM-T载体并测序.分别比较3种病毒CP基因种内变异性和种间亲缘关系.结果表明LYSV六安分离物CP基因由864个碱基组成,与Genbank上已报道的68个LYSV不同分离物CP基因的核苷酸序列同源性为76.12%~84.31%;OYDV的CP基因由771个碱基组成,与Genbank上已报道的86个OYDV不同分离物同源性为81.06%~90.40%;SYSV的CP基因由774个碱基组成,与Genbank上已报道的11个SYSV不

  7. Identification of a protein associated with circulative transmission of Barley yellow dwarf virus from cereal aphids, Schizaphis graminum and Sitobion avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xifeng; ZHOU Guanghe

    2003-01-01

    Using 2-D electrophoresis and virus overlay assay, a 50-kDa protein (P50) exhibiting specific binding to purified virus particles of BYDV-GAV was found in the protein extracts from Schizaphis graminum and Sitobion avenae,two aphid species transmitting BYDV-GAV. P50 in the extracts of S. graminum was isolated by preparation electrophoresis and electro-eluted proteins from the gel slices for antiserum preparation. After feeding the antiserum through membrane, the transmission efficiencies of S. graminun and S. avenae for BYDV-GAV decreased significantly. It was suggested that P50 should be related with transmission process. Location of P50 was found at the plasma membrane surrounding the accessory salivary gland (ASG) in the head tissues of S. graminum by immunogold-labelling experiment.The ascertainment of the protein associated with virus transmission has a significance influence on further understanding the transmission mechanism and genetic engineering for resistant to vector transmission.

  8. Arabidopsis semidwarfs evolved from independent mutations in GA20ox1, ortholog to green revolution dwarf alleles in rice and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luis; Effgen, Sigi; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Kooke, Rik; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Koornneef, Maarten; Alcázar, Rubén

    2013-09-24

    Understanding the genetic bases of natural variation for developmental and stress-related traits is a major goal of current plant biology. Variation in plant hormone levels and signaling might underlie such phenotypic variation occurring even within the same species. Here we report the genetic and molecular basis of semidwarf individuals found in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations. Allelism tests demonstrate that independent loss-of-function mutations at GA locus 5 (GA5), which encodes gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 (GA20ox1) involved in the last steps of gibberellin biosynthesis, are found in different populations from southern, western, and northern Europe; central Asia; and Japan. Sequencing of GA5 identified 21 different loss-of-function alleles causing semidwarfness without any obvious general tradeoff affecting plant performance traits. GA5 shows signatures of purifying selection, whereas GA5 loss-of-function alleles can also exhibit patterns of positive selection in specific populations as shown by Fay and Wu's H statistics. These results suggest that antagonistic pleiotropy might underlie the occurrence of GA5 loss-of-function mutations in nature. Furthermore, because GA5 is the ortholog of rice SD1 and barley Sdw1/Denso green revolution genes, this study illustrates the occurrence of conserved adaptive evolution between wild A.thaliana and domesticated plants. PMID:24023067

  9. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...... conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  10. BARLEY LEAF RUST (PUCCINIA HORDEI OTTH. PATHOGEN IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS: SPREAD AND RASE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilova A. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spread of barley dwarf rust pathogen has been studied in five agro-climatic zones of North Caucasus in 2012-2013. The race composition of the North Caucasian pathogen population was identified

  11. Molecular identification of Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus in Hainan and Henan province%海南省和河南省发生甜瓜褪绿黄化病的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 彭斌; 吴会杰; 柳唐镜; 孔祥义; 施艳; 古勤生

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the pathogenic virus causing muskmelon yellowing in Hainan and Henan province, [Methods]the total RNA was extracted from samples collected from infected plants in Sanya, Hainan province and Zhengzhou, Henan province and the coat protein genes(cp) were amplified using Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus (CCYV) specific primers and cloned. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of those cp genes and all the sequences of cp genes within same species and same genus submitted in the GenBank. [Results]The results showed that the fragments of about 880 bp in size produced by RT-PCR were as expected. The phylogenetic tree showed that the samples belonged to the same branch with Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus whereas Cucuibit yellow stunting disorder virus(CYSDV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BPYV) were in other branches. [Conclusions] Our investigation suggested that the yellowing of muskmelon in Hainan and Henan province was caused by Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus.%[目的]为了探明引起海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化的病因,[方法]提取从海南三亚和河南郑州采集的甜瓜叶片的RNA,用CCYV特异性引物进行外壳蛋白基因的克隆、测序,并与GenBank中同属或同种病毒的cp基因核苷酸序列构建系统进化树.[结果]结果显示,RT-PCR产物经琼脂糖凝胶电泳,所得条带在880 bp左右,与预期的一致;构建cp基因的系统进化树发现,样品与瓜类褪绿黄化病毒(Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus,CCYV)的亲缘关系很近,属于同一个分枝,而与该病毒同属不同种的南瓜黄矮失调病毒(Cuc urb it yellow stunting disorder virus,CYSDV)和大麦黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)的亲缘关系较远,属于不同的分枝.[结论]证实海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化病是由瓜类褪绿黄化病毒引起.

  12. The Effect Analysis of Yellow-feathered Broiler Hybrid with Dwarf Gene%矮小基因用于黄羽肉鸡品系杂交的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 陈兴勇; 胡祖义; 耿照玉

    2015-01-01

    鸡性连锁矮小基因(sex-linked dwarf gene,dw基因)纯合显性时可降低饲料消耗。试验选用A系黄羽肉鸡作为父本,含有dw基因的两系杂交黄羽肉鸡DYJ作为母本,开展三元杂交试验,并以快速型黄羽肉鸡(CON)为对照,评价dw基因用于黄羽肉鸡生产的杂交效果。试验组ADYJ和对照组CON各300只雏鸡同一日龄进舍,在相同饲养管理条件下饲养至7周龄出栏,饲养期间记录各周龄体重和饲料转化效率,出栏后全群称重并随机抽取两组公、母鸡各15只进行屠宰性能测定,并评价dw基因用于黄羽肉鸡杂交的经济效益。结果显示,CON组7周龄体重为1623.3 g,试验组ADYJ为1690.4 g,虽高于CON组,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。CON组7周龄料肉比为2.31,试验组ADYJ组为2.26,低于CON组。屠宰性能比较发现,ADYJ公、母鸡胸肌率分别为23.4%和24.2%,均极显著高于CON组公、母鸡的胸肌率(17.1%和18.3%,P<0.01);ADYJ公、母鸡半净膛率分别为77.6%和77.0%,均显著高于对照组(76.3%和74.9%,P<0.05);ADYJ公、母鸡屠宰率分别为87.4%和87.6%,均显著高于CON组(86.4%和86.0%,P<0.05);对照组与试验组公、母鸡的腹脂率与腿肌率差异均不显著。经济成本核算结果显示, ADYJ为9.65元/只,较CON组低0.33元/只。由此可见,dw基因用于黄羽肉鸡品系杂交可显著提高黄羽肉鸡的生产效益。%Sex-linked dwarf gene (dw gene) of chicken can reduce feed consumption when it is dominant and promote growth when it is recessive. In order to evaluate the hybrid effect of yellow-feathered broiler with dw gene, the hybrid experiment was carried out in this study. The A line yellow-feathered broilers were chosen as male parent, two-line hybrid yellow-feathered broilers with dw gene of DYJ were chosen as female parent and the CON were served as the control group. Three hundred ADYJ chicks and three hundred CON

  13. Molecular detection and sequence analysis on 16S ribosomal DNA of phytoplasma associated with mulberry yellow dwarf disease occurring in Anhui%安徽桑黄花型萎缩病植原体16S rDNA序列分析及分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢全有

    2010-01-01

    @@ 桑黄花型萎缩病(Mulbeny yellow dwarf diSease,MYD)是桑树上的主要病害,属国内植物重要的检疫性病害,曾对我国的蚕桑生产造成重大损 失.桑萎缩病是国际上首先被确定为由植原体引起的病害之一,由菱蚊叶蝉专化性传播[1].

  14. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  15. [Yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2007-06-01

    After the discovery of the New World, yellow fever proved to be an important risk factor of morbidity and mortality for Caribbean populations. In the following centuries epidemic risk, expanded by sea trade and travel, progressively reached the settlements in North America and Brazil as well as the Atlantic seaboard of tropical and equatorial Africa. In the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century epidemics of yellow fever were reported in some coastal towns in the Iberian peninsula, French coast, Great Britain and Italy, where, in 1804 at Leghorn, only one epidemic was documented. Prevention and control programs against yellow fever, developed at the beginning of the twentieth century in Cuba and in Panama, were a major breakthrough in understanding definitively its aetiology and pathogenesis. Subsequently, further advances in knowledge of yellow fever epidemiology were obtained when French scientists, working in West and Central Africa, showed that monkeys were major hosts of the yellow fever virus (the wild yellow fever virus), besides man. In addition, advances in research, contributing to the development of vaccines against the yellow fever virus in the first half of the nineteenth century, are reported in this paper. PMID:17599002

  16. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of a New Wheat Line YW443 with Resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus%抗黄矮病小麦新品系YW443的分子细胞遗传学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增艳; 辛志勇; 陈孝; 林志珊; 徐惠君; 马有志; 钱幼亭

    2000-01-01

    A new wheat line YW443 with BYDV resistance and good traits was developed from the combination of PP9-1/Shan7859//Fengkang 8. The wheat line YW443was identified by BYDV resistance analysis, genomic in situ hybridization(GISH), RFLP and RAPD analysis. The results indicated as follows: (1) YW443 was resistant to GPV and GAV strains of BYDV; (2) YW443 is a homozygous wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation line with a pair of BYDV resistance genes; (3) The 7StL segment of Th. Intermedium carring BYDV resistance gene was transferred onto the distal end of the wheat chromosome 7D long arm, the line YW443 was 7DS.7DL-7StL translocation; (4) A RAPD marker OPR19-900 could detect the DNA of Th.intermedium 7StL in L1 and L1 derivatives including translocation lines YW443, YW642 etc. The markers may be used as a selecting marker for the BYDV resistance breeding program.%以小麦-中间偃麦草二体附加系L1衍生抗病系PP9-1为抗源,与小麦推广品种陕7859、丰抗8号杂交并自交,在F6代中选到农艺性状优良的高抗黄矮病小麦新品系YW443。对YW443及其亲本进行抗病性鉴定。结果表明:YW443高抗大麦黄矮病毒GPV、GAV株系。利用基因组原位杂交、RFLP分析和RAPD分析,研究YW443的遗传构成及其抗病基因染色体归属。结果表明:YW443(2n=42)的遗传构成为40条(20对)小麦染色体和2条(1对)小麦-中间偃麦草易位染色体,易位的中间偃麦草染色体片段较小,属St基因组,小麦染色体7D长臂末端片段被中间偃麦草染色体7St长臂末端片段取代,小麦新品系YW443为小麦中间偃麦草DS.7DL-7StL易位系,其抗病基因位于7StL末端。筛选出的特异RAPD标记OPR19-900,能检测出L1及其衍生抗病系的中间偃麦草染色体7StL片段,可作为鉴定抗黄矮病易位系的1个标记。

  17. 两种麦类土传花叶病毒外壳蛋白叶绿体离体跨膜运输%Analysis on the Import of Coat Proteins of Chinese Wheat Mosaic Virus and Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus into Intact Chloroplasts in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春梅; 程兆榜; 魏利辉; 范永坚; 周益军

    2012-01-01

    根据Banerjees等(1992)的方法,建立了中国小麦花叶病毒(CWMV)和大麦黄花叶病毒(BaYMV)外壳蛋白(CP)叶绿体离体跨膜运输体系,研究了孵育时间、CP浓度对跨膜运输效率的影响。结果表明,CWMV-CP和BaYMV-CP可分别快速进入离体的小麦与大麦叶绿体中,其跨膜运输所需的孵育时间均最低为5min,孵育时间超过15min后进入叶绿体中CP的量不受影响;加入跨膜体系中CP的浓度与跨膜后进入叶绿体的CP浓度呈正相关,能够实现跨膜的最低CWMV-CP和BaYMV-CP浓度分别为4.2和37.8μg.mL^-1。%Referred to Banerjee's method, the systems of importing the coat proteins of Chinese wheat mosaic virus and Barley yellow mosaic virus (CWMV CP and BaYMV-CP) into intact chloroplasts in vitro were established, the effects of incubation duration, the concentration of CWMV-CP and BaYMV-CP on import efficiency were studied. The results showed that both CWMV-CP and BaYMV- CP was able to rapidly import into isolated chloroplasts of wheat and barley. In the test, the lowest incubation duration of CWMV-CP and BaYMV-CP importing into the chloroplasts were both 5 min, the amounts of CWMV-CP and BaYMV-CP imported into the chloroplasts were not increased with the extension of incubation time after 15 min. Besides, the relation between the amounts of CWMV-CP and BaYMV-CP imported into the chloroplasts and the amounts of CWMV-CP and BaYMV-CP added in the import system was significantly positive, the lowest concentrations of CWMV CP and BaYMV- CP in the import system was 4.2 and 37.8 μg. mL^-1 , respectively. The establishment of CWMV-CP and BaYMV-CP importing into intact chloroplasts in vitro could supply foundation for studying the pathogenesis of CWMV and BaYMV.

  18. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Sai Prasad; Salvatore Siano

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

  19. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  20. Genetic mapping of the barley lodging resistance locus Erectoides-k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Skov; Dockter, Christoph; Lundqvist, Udda;

    2016-01-01

    ’ is a semi-dwarf barley cultivar known for its culm stability and resistance to lodging. In total, eight allelic ert-k mutants are known that show different phenotypic strength concerning culm length and spike architecture. They represent alternatives to the widely used, but pleiotropic ‘Green Revolution...

  1. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  2. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of wheat dwarf virus (WDV) isolates from Hungary and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, Istvan; Shevchenko, Oleksiy; Kiss, Balázs; Bysov, Andriy; Snihur, Halina; Polischuk, Valery; Salánki, Katalin; Palkovics, László

    2011-01-01

    Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is the most ubiquitous virus in cereals causing huge losses in both Hungary and Ukraine. The presence of barley-and wheat-adapted strains has been confirmed, suggesting that the barley strain is restricted to barley, while the wheat strain is present in both wheat and barley plants. Five WDV isolates from wheat plants sampled in Hungary and Ukraine were sequenced and compared with known WDV isolates from GenBank. Four WDV isolates belonged to the wheat strain. Our results indicate that WDV-Odessa is an isolate of special interest since it has originated from wheat, but belongs to the barley-adapted strain, providing novel data on WDV biology and raising issues of pathogen epidemiology. PMID:21905629

  3. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  4. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  5. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts ... person to person by direct contact. People with yellow fever disease usually have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever can ...

  6. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  7. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  8. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include 12 papers presented at the Research Co-ordination Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and held in Vienna, 2-6 March 1981. At the meeting, participants reviewed the present status of genetic studies and several aspects of breeding for semi-dwarf plant type in cereals, discussed methods of evaluating semi-dwarfing genes for use in cross-breeding programmes and took decisions regarding future work plans. Nine papers give information on radiation induced semi-dwarf mutants of wheat, barley and rice and are input into INIS

  9. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  10. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  11. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  12. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects....... This was achieved by endosperm-specific overexpression of Solanum tuberosum GWD to generate hyper-phosphorylated (HP) starch and endosperm-specific RNAi suppression of all three starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms to generate amylose-only (AO) starch in barley (cv. Golden Promise). In first and second study......Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...

  13. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  14. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  15. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  16. Effects on plants. [X and gamma radiation, barley, maize, Nicotiana, Saintpaulia, Tradescantia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Results of experiments with plants on the effects of low-dose and low-dose rates of low LET radiation are reported. Experiments were conducted on the effects of x and gamma radiation on the production of yellow-green sectors in maize leaves, growth inhibition in germinating seeds of barley, survival and bud production in Saintpaulia, tumor formation in Nicotiana, and pink mutations in Tradescantia stamen hair cells. (HLW)

  17. 桑树黄化型萎缩病植原体溶血素基因MDPH的克隆及生物信息学分析和原核表达%Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of the Hemolysin Gene MDPH from Mulberry Yellow Dwarf Phytoplasma and Its Prokaryotic Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宝云; 韩雪娟; 袁传忠; 李轶群; 盖英萍; 冀宪领

    2012-01-01

    溶血素为细菌分泌的能够使细胞溶解的毒素,是病原菌重要的毒力因子.利用同源克隆技术得到桑树黄化型萎缩病植原体溶血素全长基因,命名为MDPH(GenBank登录号:HQ891118).MDPH全长717 bp,编码238个氨基酸,预测蛋白质分子质量为27.3 kD,等电点为9.29,氨基酸序列与其它植原体中已分离的溶血素有很高的同源性.蛋白质序列结构预测表明:MDPH的二级结构中富含α-螺旋,其次为β-折叠和无规卷曲,而β-转角仅占5.46%.对蛋白质序列的理化特征预测表明:MDPH有多个亲水和疏水区域,且疏水性强于亲水性;易形成跨膜螺旋,具有7个显著跨膜结构区;蛋白的抗原性较强,不含有明显的信号肽序列,为非经典分泌蛋白.将MDPH的编码区插入原核表达载体pET30a(+),并转化到E.coli BL21中,经过IPTG诱导,MDPH在BL21菌株中成功表达.研究结果为深入探讨MDPH的功能及植原体的致病机制奠定了基础.%Hemolysins are exotoxins secreted by bacteria that can lead to lysis of the host cells, being the major toxicity factor of pathogenic bacteria. A full-length gene encoding hemolysin of mulberry yellow dwarf phytoplasma was cloned and designated as MDPH (GenBank accession No. HQ891118) by homologous cloning. The gene is 717 bp long and encodes a peptide of 238 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 27. 3 kD and an isoelectric point of 9. 29. Sequence comparison analysis showed that the MDPH had high identity to hemolysins isolated from other phytoplasmas. Structure prediction to the protein sequence showed that the secondary structure of MDPH is rich in α-helixes, followed by β-strands and random coils, and only 5. 46% of the amino acids forms β-turns. Prediction to physical and chemical properties of the protein sequence indicated that MDPH possesses multiple hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and the hydrophobicity is stronger than the hydro-philicity, being easy to form

  18. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  19. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  20. Construction and compression of Dwarf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Long-gang; FENG Yu-cai; GUI Hao

    2005-01-01

    There exists an inherent difficulty in the original algorithm for the construction of Dwarf, which prevents it from constructing true Dwarfs. We explained when and why it introduces suffix redundancies into the Dwarf structure. To solve this problem, we proposed a completely new algorithm called PID. It bottom-up computes partitions of a fact table, and inserts them into the Dwarf structure. Ifa partition is an MSV partition, coalesce its sub-Dwarf; otherwise create necessary nodes and cells. Our performance study showed that PID is efficient. For further condensing of Dwarf, we proposed Condensed Dwarf, a more compressed structure, combining the strength of Dwarf and Condensed Cube. By eliminating unnecessary stores of "ALL" cells from the Dwarf structure, Condensed Dwarf could effectively reduce the size of Dwarf, especially for Dwarfs of the real world, which was illustrated by our experiments. Its query processing is still simple and, only two minor modifications to PID are required for the construction of Condensed Dwarf.

  1. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  2. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  3. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  4. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  5. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven; Dahlstrom, Michael

    2000-12-01

    A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience "starquakes"—gentle pulsations that allow astronomers to deduce certain physical qualities of the star, such as its mass, rate of rotation, its structure and the strength of its magnetic field. The authors have been studying the starquakes with a global network of instruments, collectively called the Whole Earth Telescope, which provide around-the-clock observations of a white dwarf's seismic activity. Kawaler and Dahlstrom discuss what we know about white dwarfs and their significance for questions concerning the age of our Galaxy and the composition of dark matter.

  6. Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley. I. Developing techniques and assessing allelopathy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D L; Lovett, J V

    1993-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) were assessed using modified bioassays that reduced other environmental influences. In a Petri dish bioassay, germination of white mustard was delayed and the radicle lengths were significantly inhibited at a density of 0.5 barley seed/cm(2). In a 'siphoning' bioassay apparatus, when the two species were sown together, radicle elongation of white mustard was not inhibited one day after sowing but became increasingly inhibited as bioassay time increased. Barley allelochemicals were released from the roots in a hydroponic system for at least 70 days after commencement of barley germination. Solutions removed from the hydroponic system of growing barley delayed germination and inhibited growth of white mustard. The allelopathic activity of barley was further confirmed at a density of 0.3 barley seed/cm(2) in a modified stairstep apparatus. PMID:24248571

  7. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  8. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  9. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  10. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... YFV transmission is present,” as defined by the World Health Organization, are countries or areas where “yellow ...

  11. M dwarfs: Theoretical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Dermott J.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

  12. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  13. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  14. White dwarf pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DA white dwarfs are those which show only the Stark-broadened lines of hydrogen in their spectra. They comprise about 80% of the total white dwarf population. A subset of the DA dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti stars, form a highly homogeneous class of nonradially pulsating variable stars. In this paper we shall review the observations from which both the physical properties of the stars and the characteristics of the pulsations have been derived. Data obtained since the last review of these variables (Robinson 1979) is stressed, as these data are forcing a somewhat revised understanding of the ZZ Ceti stars and their relationship to investigations of white dwarfs and to pulsating variable stars, in general. (orig.)

  15. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  16. A semidwarf phenotype of barley uzu results from a nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding a putative brassinosteroid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Takatsuto, Suguru; Hoshino, Tsuguhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles throughout plant growth and development. Despite the importance of clarifying the mechanism of BR-related growth regulation in cereal crops, BR-related cereal mutants have been identified only in rice (Oryza sativa). We previously found that semidwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions carrying the "uzu" gene, called "uzu" barley in Japan, are non-responding for brassinolide (BL). We then performed chemical and molecular analyses to clarify the mechanisms of uzu dwarfism using isogenic line pairs of uzu gene. The response of the uzu line to BL was significantly lower than that of its corresponding normal line. Measurement of BRs showed that the uzu line accumulates BRs, similar to known BR-insensitive mutants. The marker synteny of rice and barley chromosomes suggests that the uzu gene may be homologous to rice D61, a rice homolog of Arabidopsis BR-insensitive 1 (BRI1), encoding a BR-receptor protein. A barley homolog of BRI1, HvBRI1, was isolated by using degenerate primers. A comparison of HvBRI1 sequences in uzu and normal barley varieties showed that the uzu phenotype is correlated with a single nucleotide substitution. This substitution results in an amino acid change at a highly conserved residue in the kinase domain of the BR-receptor protein. These results may indicate that uzu dwarfism is caused by the missense mutation in HvBRI1. The uzu gene is being introduced into all hull-less barley cultivars in Japan as an effective dwarf gene for practical use, and this is the first report about an agronomically important mutation related to BRs.

  17. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  18. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  19. Analysis of Transmission Capabilities of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus(BYDV) by Schizaphis graminum and Rhopalosiphum padi in Northwest China%中国西北地区麦二叉蚜与禾谷缢管蚜对小麦黄矮病传毒能力的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亮; 谢芳芹; 相建业; 曹海

    2009-01-01

    Transmission capabilities of BYDV by Schizaphis graminum and Rhopalosiphum padi in northwest China were studied. Under the normal temperature, potted wheat was used for the transmission of BYDV experiment in greenhouse. According to the different inoculated amount, various disposals were designed as one, three, and five adult aphids inoculated in one plant, respectively. Three larvae aphids inoculated in one plant. Each plant inoculated with three aphids was used as check. Three days after inoculation, the aphids in the plants were killed by pesticide. The BYDV infection situations were observed and recorded. The transmission capabilities by Schizaphis graminum and Rhopalosiphum padi were examined. It showed that in northwest China the prominent insect vector of the BYDV was Schizaphis graminum, however, the capability of Rhopalosiphum padi had improved than before. The transmission capability of Rhopalosiphum padi in Guanzhong area was stronger than that in Hexi area. The transmission capabilities of these two adult aphids in three areas examined were higher than that of their larvae. In northwest area, although the difference between the transmission capabilities of these two aphids were not prominent, they had higher capabilities and might present the variation possibility. This would bring more difficulties for preventing and controling the BYDV.%为了研究中国西北地区蚜虫对小麦黄矮病的传毒能力,为西北地区防治小麦黄矮病提供参考依据,常温条件下在温室大棚用盆栽小麦做传毒试验,以接种不同数量有毒蚜的小麦苗作为处理,接无毒蚜的小麦苗作为对照.传毒3 d后,在接种麦苗上喷洒药剂彻底杀死蚜虫,充分发病后观察记录小麦黄矮病的发病情况.结果表明,中国西北地区小麦黄矮病的优势介体是麦二叉蚜,但禾谷缢管蚜的传毒能力比以前有所提高.关中地区禾谷缢管蚜的传毒力高于河西地区禾谷缢管蚜的传毒力;三个地区(关中地区、渭北地区、河西地区)麦二叉蚜的传毒力都较高,差别不明显.三个地区两种麦蚜的成蚜传毒力普遍高于其若蚜的传毒力.

  20. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  1. Taste of Super-Dwarf Rice Cultured in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    The interest of food production for lunar base and manned Mars mission has increased recently. So far, plants cultured long duration in space were leafy vegetables, arabidopsis, wheat, barley and so on. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. Rice symbolizes the rice-eating culture of Japan, is extremely useful as a specific cultured plant candidate of Japan in space. In the previous report, 'Kozo-no-sumika' found from seedlings in raising of seedling was introduced as a super-dwarf rice to culture in space. Considering this rice as food in space, we investigate the taste characteristics of this rice. At present, waxy 'Kozo-no-sumika' and nonwaxy 'Hosetsu dwarf' of super-dwarf rice and 'Nipponbare' of previous standard rice for sensory test are cultured in paddy field. Hereafter, we will harvest rice, investigate yield, evaluate taste.

  2. Eat Healthy, Eat Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy Gu

    2011-01-01

    What comes to mind when you think of yellow? Sunflowers, the school bus or the smiley face? As a food-junkie and a health nut, when I hear the word yellow, savory soy beans, munchy bananas and sweet corn are things that pop into my mind. That's how much I love food. Hopeless? Perhaps.

  3. The yellow Light Offensive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Arevised traffic regulation, seen as the harshest ever by many, took effect on January 1. Accordingly, drivers who run yellow lights will have six points deducted from the 12 allocated on their licenses. Those who have any part of their vehicles crossing the line at the time of change will not be punished.

  4. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  6. Yellow Blotch of Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Alan E.; Kerrigan, R. W.; Jordan, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Yellow blotch disease of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was first observed in a commercial mushroom farm in California in 1983. The disease, caused by Pseudomonas agarici, is characterized by primordia, with yellow droplets on their surface, which become stunted, yellow to orange, and deformed as they mature.

  7. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  8. White dwarf planets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor Amy; Veras Dimitri; Villaver Eva; Mustill Alexander J.; Wyatt Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙...

  9. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  10. Yellow Nail Syndrome (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Haki Sucaklı

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome, usually autosomal dominant transition and occurs with yellow nails, lymph edema and pleural effusion triad. In this article, a girl, 13 months, who was diagnosed as yellow nail syndrome and followed with pericardial effusion and lymph edema from her birth, has been presented. Yellow nail syndrome has been diagnosed lately due to the occurrence of clinical symptoms which are often more obvious after the puberty. However, neonatal or infant period of pericardial effusion in patients with lymphedema and yellow nail syndrome should be kept in mind.

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira; Jorge Fernando Pereira; Caroline Turchetto; Euclydes Minella; Luciano Consoli; Carla Andréa Delatorre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag1...

  12. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  13. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  14. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  15. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    White dwarf and pre-white dwarf atmospheres are one of the best examples for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, due to plasma conditions very favorable for this line broadening mechanism. For example in hot hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarf stars Teff = 75 000 K - 180 000 K and log g = 5.5-8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with typical effective temperatures of 10 000 K - 20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/), containing Stark broadening parameters needed for white dwarf spectra analysis and synthesis, as well as to the new search facilities which will provide the collective effort to develop Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC - http://vamdc.org/).

  16. Solidification of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The internal structure of white dwarfs is discussed. Highly correlated plasmas are reviewed. Implications for phase separation in the core of cooling white dwarfs are considered. The consequences for evolution of white dwarfs are addressed.

  17. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  18. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  19. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  20. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  1. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  2. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  3. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  4. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  5. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  6. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  7. Overview of vectors of cereal viruses in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huusela-Veistola, Erja

    2007-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) are the most serious virus diseases of cereals in Finland. BYDV is transmitted by aphids, mainly by bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. OSDV and WDV are leafhopper transmitted viruses.

  8. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  9. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  10. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bdwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  11. Rhopalosiphum padi Feeding � Attempted Symptomatic Defence Mechanisms in Barley Leaves Include Wound Callose Deposition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefiu Adekilekun SAHEED

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of callose and the damage-related symptoms subsequently expressed by infested plants were investigated after feeding on barley leaves by bird cherry-oat aphid (BCA, Rhopalosiphum padi L. Feeding by this aphid does not result in appearance of visible damage to the plants, provided the feeding population is small. Using aniline blue fluorochrome, we confirmed that whilst low feeding density (5 aphids results in appearance of wound callose in sieve tubes, this only occurs after 14d of feeding, when the feeding population had increased. Continued feeding results in progressively more callose deposition and by 21d, severe damage has been caused. In contrast, feeding by larger populations (50 adult aphids, results in the appearance of wound callose within 72h, in longitudinal and cross veins. We suggest that this wounding response appears to play a role in the appearance of golden yellow streak symptoms reported to occur in leaves where BCA feeding density was high.

  12. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  13. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Horbach, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles ...

  14. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Bi Fu; Carolee Horbach

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative p...

  15. Dissection of Barley Landraces Originated From Twelve Different

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahi, Hülya; Yumurtacı, Ayşen

    2015-01-01

    Landraces, as an important source of genetic diversity, are important for improvement of crop species. Investigating of genetic diversity among landraces is necessary to conserve genetic resources and develop future strategies on barley breeding. In this study, genetic diversity in barley landraces originating from twelve countries was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen SSR markers belong to the seven barley linkage groups revealed high genetic diversity. A total of 9...

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  17. PROPERTIES OF THE COOLEST DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAUMON, DIDIER [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LEGGETT, SANDY K. [NON LANL; FREEDMAN, RICHARD S. [NON LANL; GEBALLE, THOMAS R. [NON LANL; GOLIMOWSKI, DAVID A. [NON LANL; LODIEU, NICOLAS [NON LANL; MARLEY, MARK S. [NON LANL; STEPHENS, DENISE [NON LANL; PINFIELD, DAVID J. [NON LANL; WARREN, STEPHEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-18

    Eleven years after the discovery of the first T dwarf, we have a population of ultracool L and T dwarfs that is large enough to show a range of atmospheric properties, as well as model atmospheres advanced enough to study these properties in detail. Since the last Cool Stars meeting, there have been observational developments which aid in these studies. they present recent mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope which confirms the prevalence of vertical mixing in the atmospheres of L and T dwarfs. Hence, the 700 K to 2200 K L and t dwarf photspheres require a large number of parameters for successful modeling: effective temperature, gravity, metallicity, grain sedimentation and vertical mixing efficiency. They also describe initial results of a search for ultracool dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and present the latest T dwarf found to date. They conclude with a discussion of the definition of the later-than-T spectral type, the Y dwarf.

  18. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  19. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  20. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    Plants produce an impressive variety of bioactive natural products involved in defense, insect attraction and signaling. These compounds enable the plant to defend itself, communicate with the surroundings and survive in an environment with constant challenges and attackers. This study has focused...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits from...... the hydroxynitrile glucosides as recognition factors and nutrition compounds. Above this threshold hydroxynitrile glucosides or their breakdown or turn-over products reach toxic levels which lead to a stunted Bgh phenotype and abortion of colonies. A putative ROS quenching role of hydroxynitrile glucosides...

  1. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  2. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  3. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  4. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  5. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  6. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  7. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    to the cytosol and the nucleus of barley epidermal cells. Furthermore, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 accumulated in the extrahaustorial matrix in Bgh-infected cells. This implies that their virulence targets may localize in the same cellular compartments. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, two barley small heat shock...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...... into the barley cell cytosol, nucleus and/or extrahaustorial matrix to interfere with the function of small heat shock protein machinery and other defence components to suppress plant immunity....

  8. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  9. MOND and the seven dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    1995-01-01

    Gerhard had recently analyzed the data on seven dwarf spheroidals, and concluded that these disagree with the predictions of MOND. We contend that this conclusion is anything but correct. With new data for three of the dwarfs the observations of all dwarfs are in compelling agreement with the predictions of MOND. Gerhard found MOND M/L values that fall around a few solar units, as expected if MOND is a valid alternative to dark matter. His sole cause for complaint was that some of his MOND M/...

  10. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  11. Ankeny - Yellow Flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project aims to inventory and map all existing stands of yellow flag iris within wetland habitats at Ankeny NWR, treat them with herbicide in late spring and...

  12. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  13. Measuring M dwarf Winds with DAZ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Debes, J H

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with metal lines, so-called DAZs, show evidence for ongoing accretion of material onto their surfaces. Some DAZs are known to have unresolved M dwarf companions, which could account for the observed accretion through a stellar wind. I combine observed Ca abundances of the DAZs with information on the orbital separation of their M dwarf companions to infer the mass loss rate of the M dwarfs. I find that for three of the six known DAZs with M dwarf companions, a stellar wind can plausibly explain the observed accretion on the white dwarfs assuming Bondi-Hoyle accretion of solar abundance stellar winds on the order of 10$^{-14}-10^{-16}\\Msun$ yr$^{-1}$. The rest of the sample have companions with orbits $\\gtorder$ 1~AU, and require companion mass loss rates of $> 10^{-11}\\Msun$ yr$^{-1}$. I conclude that there must be an alternative explanation for accretion of material onto DAZs with widely separated companions. The inferred winds for two of the close binaries are orders of magn...

  14. Spectrophotometry of DWARF Novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrophotometry of seven dwarf novae was obtained from lambda lambda3800-5200 A three objects were observed during outburst and four near minimum. The Balmer lines in emission and absorption have similar widths (approx4540 km s-1). RU Peg, SS Cyg and AB Dra show weak C II lambda4227 in emission. EM Cyg shows strong He II lambda 4686 in emission during outburst. CY Lyr and UU Aq1 have, near maximum, equivalent widths comparable with those of a B3 III star. The emission line ratios from optically thin steady state accretion disc models are lower than the observed values. The latter are approx.3 times greater than Case B recombination values. The observed He I/H I flux ratios are consistent with the predicted values by Williams and Ferguson (1982) for models with high helium abundance. (author)

  15. Spectrophotometry of DWARF Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Costero, R.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrophotometry of seven dwarf novae was obtained from lambda lambda3800-5200 A three objects were observed during outburst and four near minimum. The Balmer lines in emission and absorption have similar widths (approx4540 km s/sup -1/). RU Peg, SS Cyg and AB Dra show weak C II lambda4227 in emission. EM Cyg shows strong He II lambda 4686 in emission during outburst. CY Lyr and UU Aq1 have, near maximum, equivalent widths comparable with those of a B3 III star. The emission line ratios from optically thin steady state accretion disc models are lower than the observed values. The latter are approx.3 times greater than Case B recombination values. The observed He I/H I flux ratios are consistent with the predicted values by Williams and Ferguson (1982) for models with high helium abundance.

  16. Dynamical friction in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, X.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    We present a simplified analytic approach to the problem of the spiraling of a massive body orbiting within the dark halo of a dwarf galaxy. This dark halo is treated as the core region of a King distribution of dark matter particles, in consistency with the observational result of dwarf galaxies having solid body rotation curves. Thus we derive a simple formula which provides a reliable and general first order solution to the problem, totally analogous to the one corresponding to the dynamic...

  17. White Dwarf Planets from GAIA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvotti, Roberto; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of high-precision astrometry with GAIA for detection of giant planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs. If one considers that, to date, no confirmed planets around single white dwarfs are known, the results from GAIA will be crucial to study the late-stage evolution of planetary systems and to verify the possibility that 2nd-generation planets are formed.

  18. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  19. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gaensicke, Boris T [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nitta, Atsuko, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.ed [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  20. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  1. Cytological, genetic and agronomic characterization of a barley reciprocal translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré Martinez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations (RT) are one of the most common structural chromosomal rearrangements occurring in plant species. Spontaneous RT are extremely uncommon in cultivated barley. In fact, ‘Albacete’ is the only extensively cultivated barley variety known to carry a RT without any ma

  2. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of Tibetan wild barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-Yun; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-10-01

    One hundred and six accessions of wild barley collected from Tibet, China, including 50 entries of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS), 29 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon (HA), and 27 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme (HL), were analyzed using 30 SSR markers selected from the seven barley linkage groups for studying genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship of the three subspecies of Tibetan wild barley to cultivated barley in China. Over the 30 genetic loci that were studied, 229 alleles were identified among the 106 accessions, of which 70 were common alleles. H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum possesses about thrice more private alleles (2.83 alleles/locus) than HS (0.93 alleles/locus), whereas almost no private alleles were detected in HL. The genetic diversity among-subspecies is much higher than that within-subspecies. Generally, the genetic diversity among the three subspecies is of the order HS > HL > HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the 106 accessions showed that all the accessions of HS and HA was clustered in their own groups, whereas the 27 accessions of HL were separated into two groups (14 entries with group HS and the rest with group HA). This indicated that HL was an intermediate form between HS and HA. Based on this study and previous works, we suggested that Chinese cultivated barley might evolve from HS via HL to HA. PMID:17046592

  4. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  5. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  6. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell......Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  7. White dwarfs, red dwarfs and halo dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Berro, E; Torres, S; Camacho, J [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. del Canal Olimpic, s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Isern, J, E-mail: garcia@fa.upc.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    The nature of the microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the LMC still remains controversial. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than approx 1M{sub o-dot} have been ruled out, while stars of approx 0.5 M{sub o-dot} are the most probable candidates. This means that the microlenses should be either red or white dwarfs. Consequently, we assess jointly the relative contributions of both types of stars to the mass budget of the Galactic halo. We use a Monte Carlo code that incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs as well as detailed descriptions of both our Galaxy and the LMC and we compare the synthetic populations obtained with our simulator with the results obtained by the MACHO and EROS experiments. We find that the contribution of the red dwarf population is not enough to explain the number of events measured by the MACHO team. Even though, the optical depth obtained in our simulations almost doubles that obtained when taking into account the white dwarf population alone. Finally, we also find that the contribution to the halo dark matter of the entire population under study is smaller than 10%, at the 95% confidence level.

  8. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  9. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  10. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... spectrometry (Q-TOF) proved the identity of the HMW proteins and sequencing the digested peptides also revealed possible post translational modifications of the identified HMW hordeins. Our results strongly indicate that the variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins of barley affect both...

  11. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  12. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  13. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  14. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  15. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for White Dwarf Stars with polytropic matter in the weak field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze its stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to be close to the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predicts an average value of brane tension as: $\\langle\\lambda\\rangle\\gtrsim84.818\\;\\rm MeV^4$, with a standard deviation $\\sigma\\simeq82.021\\;\\rm MeV^4$ which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining above of cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  16. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  17. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  18. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  19. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  20. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat.......001) in faeces of barley compared to wheat-fed pigs. Ileal eubacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and Roseburia spp. linearly increased from period 1 to 8 for both cereals (P intestine, with barley increasing...... the Lactobacillus spp.:Enterobacteriaceae ratio, underlining its potential to beneficially manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem....

  1. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  2. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  3. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Fredrik; Carlmark, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with one or more features of the yellow nail syndrome were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Titanium was regularly fou...

  4. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  5. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  6. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  7. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  8. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ5,7-Sterol-Δ7-Reductase (DWARF5) and Δ24-Sterol-Δ24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Daniele; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Schaller, Hubert;

    2013-01-01

    to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map...... of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of ¿(7)-sterol-C(5)-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), ¿(24)-sterol-¿(24)-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) and ¿(5,7)-sterol-¿(7)-reductase (DWARF5) were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient...... in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both ¿(5,7)-sterol-¿(7)-reductase and ¿(24)-sterol-¿(24)-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas ¿(7)-sterol-C(5)-desaturase...

  9. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  10. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were......Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...

  11. Photometric study of DWARF novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Jones, D.

    1983-01-01

    A catalogue of UBVRI photoelectric photometry of dwarf novae available in the literature is presented. A comparison with theoretical colour-colour diagrams from steady state discs is made. A correlation of V magnitude with the depth of the Balmer discontinuity is discussed.

  12. Pulsating Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Judith; Montgomery, Michael H.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Shipman, Harry; Nitta, Atsuko; Whole Earth Telescope Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars currently on the main sequence as well as those from earlier generations will or have ended their stellar lives as white dwarf stars. White dwarfs are rich forensic laboratories linking the history and future evolution of our Galaxy. Their structure and atmospheric composition provide evidence of how the progenitors lived, how they evolved, and how they died. This information reveals details of processes governing the behavior of contemporary main sequence stars. Combined with their distribution in luminosity/temperature, white dwarfs strongly constrain models of galactic and cosmological evolution.GD358 is among the brightest (mv =13.7) and best studied of the pulsating white dwarfs. This helium atmoshere pulsator (DBV) has an extensive photometric database spanning 30 years, including nine multisite Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. GD358 exhibits a range of behaviors, from drastic changes in excited pulsation modes to variable multiplet splittings. We use GD358 as a template for an examination of the DBV class, combining photometric results with recent COS spectroscopy. The results present new questions concerning DB formation and evolution.

  13. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 × faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R☉ (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M☉, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M☉. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R☉ (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%-0.05%+0.10% (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing binary

  14. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  15. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  16. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  17. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  18. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  19. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  20. Faint dwarfs in nearby groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speller, Ryan; Taylor, James E., E-mail: rspeller@uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to Δm{sub r} ≡ (m{sub r,} {sub sat} – m{sub r,} {sub main}) ∼ 6-8, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead, we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down to Δm{sub r} = 12, 4 mag fainter than most recent studies. We detect an overdensity of objects at separations <400 kpc, corresponding to about 4.6 ± 0.5 satellites per central galaxy, consistent with the satellite abundance expected from the Local Group, given our selection function. Although the sample of satellites detected is incomplete by construction, since it excludes the least and most compact dwarfs, this detection provides a lower bound on the average satellite luminosity function, down to luminosities corresponding to the faintest ''classical'' dwarfs of the Local Group.

  1. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  2. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  3. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  4. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  5. The 'Green Revolution' dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, R J; Gosman, N; Burt, C J; Makepeace, J; Steed, A; Corbitt, M; Chandler, E; Brown, J K M; Boulton, M I; Nicholson, P

    2012-02-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding.

  6. Little Dwarf Galaxies survive within Bigger Dwarfs: Why Some Dwarfs Go Dark and Others Stay Luminous

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, George

    2008-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) was the largest galaxy in a group of galaxies that entered the Milky Way (MW) system at late times. Seven of the 11 brightest dwarf galaxies of the MW may have been part of this system. The association of dwarfs with the plane of the LMCs orbit has been used to argue that they are formed from tidal debris from LMC and SMC (Kroupa et al 2005). Instead, we find that they owe to the tidal breakup of the Magellanic Group. The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm suffers from the small-scale structure problem where 500 galaxies as massive as Draco and Ursa Minor are expected, but only 11 are seen. If seven of the 11 observed were part of the LMC group, the substructure in this group is close to CDM predictions. There are other likely nearby dwarf groups, including a second Milky Way group associated with Fornax (Lynden-Bell 1982), great circles of satellites in M31 (Koch & Grebel 2006) and groupings of otherwise isolated dwarfs (Tully et al. 2006). For the first time, we build he ci...

  7. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    using N-15-labelled residues. Field pea fixed 75% of its N requirement and the N-2 fixation almost balanced the N removed with the seeds. The barley crop recovered 80% of the N-15-labelled fertilizer N supplied and the N in the barley grain corresponded to 80% of the fertilizer N taken up by the crop....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  8. Study on the Production Techniques of Highland Barley Sake%青稞清酒酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于军

    2011-01-01

    Based on the production techniques of Moet distilled liquor and sweet fermented grains and by reference of the manufacturing principles of sake and yellow rice wine, the production process of highland barley sake had finally developed as following: high-quality Tibetan barley used as raw materials, Aspergiuus oryzae2146 or 3800 used as saccharifying bacteria, Sake yeast 1296 used as fermenting strains, and then followed the principle of "wine yeast used once, timely starter-adding, feeding gradually, high-concentration ingredients mixing, and multilateral fermentation".%青稞清酒酿造工艺是在酩馏酒和甜醅的酿造基础上,借鉴清酒和喂饭黄酒的酿造原理,选用青藏高原品质优良的青稞为原料,以米曲霉(Aspergiuus oryzae)2146或3800为糖化菌,清酒酵母(sake yeast)1296为发酵茵株,生产工艺为“一次酒母,适时添曲,分次喂饭,高浓配料,多边发酵”。

  9. AR Sco: A White Dwarf Synchronar

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2016-01-01

    The emission of the white dwarf-M dwarf binary AR Sco is driven by the rapid synchronization of its white dwarf, rather than by accretion. This requires a comparatively large magnetic field $\\sim 100$ gauss at the M dwarf and $\\sim 10^8$ gauss on the white dwarf, larger than the fields of most intermediate polars but within the range of fields of known magnetic white dwarfs. The spindown power is dissipated in the atmosphere of the M dwarf by magnetic reconnection, accelerating particles that produce the observed synchrotron radiation. The displacement of the optical maximum from conjunction may be explained either by dissipation in a bow wave as the white dwarf's magnetic field sweeps past the M dwarf or by a misaligned white dwarf's rotation axis and oblique magnetic moment. In the latter case the rotation axis precesses with a period of decades, predicting a drift in the orbital phase of maximum. Binaries whose emission is powered by synchronization may be termed synchronars, in analogy to magnetars.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Italsur srl, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The Panel considers that barley soup “Orzotto”, which is a vegetable mix containing pearled barley, Tuscan Black cabbage, potatoes, “blu savoy” cabbage, purple carrots, “bi coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage.

  11. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  12. [The study of M dwarf spectral classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhen-Ping; Pan, Jing-Chang; Luo, A-Li

    2013-08-01

    As the most common stars in the galaxy, M dwarfs can be used to trace the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. Besides, investigating M dwarfs is important for searching for habitability of extrasolar planets orbiting M dwarfs. Spectral classification of M dwarfs is a fundamental work. The authors used DR7 M dwarf sample of SLOAN to extract important features from the range of 600-900 nm by random forest method. Compared to the features used in Hammer Code, the authors added three new indices. Our test showed that the improved Hammer with new indices is more accurate. Our method has been applied to classify M dwarf spectra of LAMOST. PMID:24159887

  13. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  14. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

  16. Charged Condensate and Helium Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2008-01-01

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen or heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, whi...

  17. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, A B; Almoznino, E; Van Zee, L; Salzer, J J; Heller, Ana B.; Brosch, Noah; Almoznino, Elchanan; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.

    2000-01-01

    We quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angular asymmetry index, and the concentration of star forming regions, as represented by the distribution of the H$\\alpha$ emission, in a sample of 78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies in two groups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution is analysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details in the light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of the underlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations, is relatively small, the H$\\alpha$ emission is very asymmetric and is correlated in position angle with the continuum light. We test a model of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulating HII regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. The implication is that random star formation over the full extent of a galaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf-irregular galaxies but not in BCD galaxies.

  18. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  19. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  20. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  1. Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Saghai Maroof, M A; Biyashev, R M; Yang, G P; Zhang, Q.; Allard, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the extent of genetic variation in barley simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and to study the evolutionary dynamics of SSR alleles. SSR polymorphisms were resolved by the polymerase chain reaction with four pairs of primers. In total, 71 variants were observed in a sample of 207 accessions of wild and cultivated barley. Analyses of wheat-barley addition lines and barley doubled haploids identified these variants (alleles) with four loci, each located on a diffe...

  2. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  3. Rare White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P.; Liebert, James; Fontaine, G.; Behara, N.

    2007-01-01

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 msun and 8-10 msun, where msun is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for ~80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs...

  4. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quality of the theoretical models of evolution of white dwarfs allow to feed the hope that in a near future it will be possible to reconstruct the history of the different Galactic populations.

  5. The Scientific Challenges of Yellow River Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Sun Yangbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Yellow River is famous for its complex and unique physical conditions which give great challenges to the river management. Based on the study and analysis of the existing problems and research progress, this paper indicated that the most significant challenges of Yellow River studies are: long term hydrological and morphological changes; the optimized hydrology and sediment conditions to maintain the healthy life of the River; and simulation of Yellow River through mathematical model and physical models.

  6. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  7. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  8. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  9. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  10. Yellow Krang – A New Cultivar Of Papaya For Green Consumption With Tolerance To Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janthasri Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a papaya cultivar for unripe or green consumption that has resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV began in 2004 by crossing red-fleshed ‘Red Krang’ cultivar with yellow-fleshed Sai Nampeung cultivar. Numerous diverse hybrids that were obtained were selected in a recurrent selection until 2010. The ’Yellow Krang’ line was selected because of the early and high yielding, elongated fruit shape, is yellow and crispy flesh when unripe and suitable for consumption as green papaya, and tolerance to PRSV. From 2010 to 2015 the ‘Yellow Krang’ line was refined through pure line selection. It was evaluated in four growing areas in Thailand for 3 years. The field trial showed that ‘Yellow Krang’ can be classified as dwarf, reaching a height of 110-150 cm, early bearing, with mean 105 days to first flower anthesis; an average of 100 flowers and 206 fruits per plant, mean fruit weight 1.2 kg, mean fruit thickness 2.4 cm, mean fruit firmness 7.15 Newtons; high yielding, with mean fresh weight yield of 134.606 kg/hectare; and 24.86% incidence of PRSV.

  11. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  12. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  13. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  14. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  15. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  16. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-03-01

    Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  20. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  1. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  2. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2'-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption....../ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry peptide analysis identified the P9.3 peroxidase activity as due to Prx7. Tissue and subcellular accumulation of Prx7 was studied using activity-stained isoelectric focusing gels and immunoblotting. The peroxidase activity due to Prx7 accumulated in barley leaves 24 h...... is responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal compounds known as hordatines, which accumulate abundantly in barley coleoptiles....

  3. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  4. Metals and ionizing photons from dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Ferrara, A.; Zaroubi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the potential contribution of M <10(9)M(circle dot) dwarf galaxies to the reionization and early metal enrichment of the Milky Way environment, or circum-Galactic medium. Our approach is to use the observed properties of ancient stars ()under tilde>12 Gyr old) measured in nearby dwarf ga

  5. The Metamorphosis of Tidally Stirred Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, L; Colpi, M; Moore, B; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J; Lake, J S G; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio; Colpi, Monica; Moore, Ben; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James; Lake, Joachim Stadel & George

    2001-01-01

    We present results from high-resolution N-Body/SPH simulations of rotationally supported dwarf irregular galaxies moving on bound orbits in the massive dark matter halo of the Milky Way.The dwarf models span a range in disk surface density and the masses and sizes of their dark halos are consistent with the predictions of cold dark matter cosmogonies. We show that the strong tidal field of the Milky Way determines severe mass loss in their halos and disks and induces bar and bending instabilities that transform low surface brightness dwarfs (LSBs) into dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and high surface brightness dwarfs (HSBs) into dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in less than 10 Gyr. The final central velocity dispersions of the remnants are in the range 8-30 km/s and their final $v/\\sigma$ falls to values $< 0.5$, matching well the kinematics of early-type dwarfs. The transformation requires the orbital time of the dwarf to be $\\simlt 3-4$ Gyr, which implies a halo as massive and extended as predicted by hierarchical mod...

  6. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  7. Disks and Planets Around Massive White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Livio, M.; Pringle, J. E.; Wood, K.

    2005-01-01

    We predict the existence of dusty disks and possibly CO planets around massive white dwarfs. We show that the thermal emission from these disks should be detectable in the infrared. The planets may also be detectable either by direct IR imaging, spectroscopy, or using the pulsations of the white dwarfs.

  8. Magnetic White Dwarfs with Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, François; Jordan, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using our newly developed model atmosphere code appropriate for magnetic white dwarfs with metal lines in the Paschen-Back regime, we study various magnetic white dwarfs and explore the effects of various parameters such as the field geometry and the convective efficiency

  9. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  11. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  12. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  13. Activity cycles of M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.

    2012-09-01

    We have determined activity cycles for coolest M dwarfs using photometry from the ASAS survey. The time scales of brightness variations were determined for the program stars using calculated amplitude power spectra and wavelet spectra. Most of ther program stars display periodicities in their light-curve variations, with periods from hundreds of days to years. Analysis of diagrams plotting P cyc/ P rot versus 1/ P rot in logarithmic coordinates shows that the data for all our program objects fit the general relation quite well. No differences in the activity cycles are found for our sample stars, which have different masses and thus internal structures, some having convective envelopes and others being totally convective. Our analysis indicates that the slope i of this relation is close to unity, regardless of whether it is determined from all data, from data for the shortest cycles, or from data for the longest cycles. This value of i differs from values in the literature for stars of other spectral types. Our analysis of the P cyc- P rot relation indicates that the activity cycles for the studied sample of M dwarfs do not depend on the rotation periods of these objects. The data for the studied objects do not agree with any of the relations for relatively young (active) stars or older (less active) stars. The studied M dwarfs probably form another branch of low-mass stars that display more random, irregular magnetic activity on their surfaces, which is generated and supported by the distributed dynamo mechanism or a small-scale dynamo mechanism.

  14. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs. PMID:27034367

  15. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs.

  16. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  17. White Dwarfs Cosmological and Galactic Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Sion, Edward M; Vennes, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    The emphasis on white dwarf stars and cosmology arises from the most recent advances in cosmological and galactic structure research in which white dwarf stars are playing a very prominent role. Examples are Type Ia supernovae (i.e. white dwarf supernovae), the origin and evolution of the universe, the age of the galactic disk, cosmochronology using white dwarfs in globular clusters and galactic clusters, and the physics of accretion onto compact (very dense) stars. As an assisting guide to the reader, we have included, by invitation, comprehensive review articles in each of the four major areas of the book, white dwarf supernovae, cosmology, accretion physics and galactic structure. The reviews include introductory material that they build upon. The book is suitable and most useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and scientific professionals (e.g. astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, physicists).

  18. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  19. Dwarf elliptical galaxies as ancient tidal dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dabringhausen, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) is triggered by the encounters of already existing galaxies. Their existence is predicted from numerical calculations of encountering galaxies and is also well documented with observations. The numerical calculations on the formation of TDGs furthermore predict that TDGs cannot contain significant amounts of non-baryonic dark matter. In this paper, the first exhaustive sample of TDG-candidates from observations and numerical calculations is gathered from the literature. These stellar systems are gas-rich at the present, but they will probably evolve into gas-poor objects that are indistinguishable from old dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) based on their masses and radii. Indeed, known gas-poor TDGs appear as normal dEs. According to the currently prevailing cosmological paradigm, there should also be a population of primordial galaxies that formed within haloes of dark matter in the same mass range. Due to their different composition and origin, it would be expected...

  20. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  1. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  2. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  3. Highly productive mutant genotypes in barley - direct use in practice and in successive recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three special cases of induced mutations in barley are discussed in this paper. They are denoted here as the Gunilla, the Pallas and the Mari cases, after the three named varieties to which the original mutants gave rise. The original mutants described represent just a small sample of the induced mutants, many of which have been tested in practice and have been further studied in basic genetics and evolutionary research. The three approved varieties have given rise to further recombination families, which also to some extent have been fused. Two of the mutant cases - Pallas and Mari - were directly useful in practice and officially approved. The third case involved a mutant of special appearance - a ''bushy type'' with an intense blue wax coating and with a supreme lodging resistance. The mutant was used in developing the Gunilla variety, which arose by recombination breeding. This variety has been highly satisfactory in further gene recombination work. A similar situation has prevailed with regard to the Pallas and Mari families arising after gene recombination, too. Up to now, the Gunilla, Pallas and Mari families include a long series of released and officially approved varieties. Several of them represent valuable agricultural contributions with wide areas of cultivation. These three mutants - with their recombination families - led to greatly increased straw stiffness and high grain production. Their phenotypic expression often corresponds to a dwarf or semidwarf description. One of the mutants - the Mari genotype - represents a group of genes and alleles which give rise to profound changes in the photoperiod (and partially also in the thermoperiod) behaviour. In fact, often even such small changes have a fundamental influence on adaptation and distribution. Data are presented analysing the property of lodging resistance with the background of plant, tiller and internode structure. A method of partial back-mutation was worked out in separating traits generally

  4. YELLOW AND RED SUPERGIANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their transitionary nature, yellow supergiants (YSGs) provide a critical challenge for evolutionary modeling. Previous studies within M31 and the Small Magellanic Cloud show that the Geneva evolutionary models do a poor job at predicting the lifetimes of these short-lived stars. Here, we extend this study to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) while also investigating the galaxy's red supergiant (RSG) content. This task is complicated by contamination by Galactic foreground stars that color and magnitude criteria alone cannot weed out. Therefore, we use proper-motions and the LMC's large systemic radial velocity (∼278 km s–1) to separate out these foreground dwarfs. After observing nearly 2000 stars, we identified 317 probable YSGs, 6 possible YSGs, and 505 probable RSGs. Foreground contamination of our YSG sample was ∼80%, while that of the RSG sample was only 3%. By placing the YSGs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and comparing them against the evolutionary tracks, we find that new Geneva evolutionary models do an exemplary job at predicting both the locations and the lifetimes of these transitory objects.

  5. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  6. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%).

  7. Formation of ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies and their evolution into nucleated dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf-dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf-dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf-dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z~[0.2-1]Z_sun). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass-densities (10^4 M_sun pc^-3) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40-100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R<100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multi...

  8. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  9. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  10. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore the obje...... modifications of the identified hordein which needs further investigation. Our results strongly indicate genetic variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the amino acid compositions and baking quality.......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the total AA composition and the hordein pattern indicated that there are genetic variations not only in the distributions of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the AA compositions. The free AA composition in the grain may also provide us...

  11. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  12. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  13. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  14. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  15. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially the...

  16. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  17. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing;

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...

  18. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  19. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  20. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    , the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro...

  1. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementa...

  2. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...

  3. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  4. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  5. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  6. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  7. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  8. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  9. White dwarf constraints on a varying $G$

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G; Córsico, Alejandro H; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Romero, Alejandra D; Isern, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    A secular variation of $G$ modifies the structure and evolutionary time scales of white dwarfs. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code, an up-to-date pulsational code, and a detailed population synthesis code we demonstrate that the effects of a running $G$ are obvious both in the properties of individual white dwarfs, and in those of the white dwarf populations in clusters. Specifically, we show that the white dwarf evolutionary sequences depend on both the value of $\\dot G/G$, and on the value of $G$ when the white dwarf was born. We show as well that the pulsational properties of variable white dwarfs can be used to constrain $\\dot G/G$. Finally, we also show that the ensemble properties of of white dwarfs in clusters can also be used to set upper bounds to $\\dot G/G$. Precisely, the tightest bound --- $\\dot G/G \\sim -1.8 10^{-12}$ yr$^{-1}$ --- is obtained studying the population of the old, metal-rich, well populated, open cluster NGC 6791. Less stringent upper limits can be obtained compari...

  10. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  11. The Gobbling Dwarf that Exploded

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A unique set of observations, obtained with ESO's VLT, has allowed astronomers to find direct evidence for the material that surrounded a star before it exploded as a Type Ia supernova. This strongly supports the scenario in which the explosion occurred in a system where a white dwarf is fed by a red giant. ESO PR Photo 31a/07 ESO PR Photo 31a/07 Evolution of SN 2006X Spectrum Because Type Ia supernovae are extremely luminous and quite similar to one another, these exploding events have been used extensively as cosmological reference beacons to trace the expansion of the Universe. However, despite significant recent progress, the nature of the stars that explode and the physics that governs these powerful explosions have remained very poorly understood. In the most widely accepted models of Type Ia supernovae the pre-explosion white dwarf star orbits another star. Due to the close interaction and the strong attraction produced by the very compact object, the companion star continuously loses mass, 'feeding' the white dwarf. When the mass of the white dwarf exceeds a critical value, it explodes. The team of astronomers studied in great detail SN 2006X, a Type Ia supernova that exploded 70 million light-years away from us, in the splendid spiral Galaxy Messier 100 (see ESO 08/06). Their observations led them to discover the signatures of matter lost by the normal star, some of which is transferred to the white dwarf. The observations were made with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted at ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope, on four different occasions, over a time span of four months. A fifth observation at a different time was secured with the Keck telescope in Hawaii. The astronomers also made use of radio data obtained with NRAO's Very Large Array as well as images extracted from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope archive. ESO PR Photo 31b/07 ESO PR Photo 31b/07 SN 2006X, before and after the Type Ia Supernova explosion "No Type Ia

  12. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  13. Simulations of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Patick; Staff, Jan; Marcello, Dominic; Clayton, Geoffrey; Frank, Juhan

    2016-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of double white dwarf mergers initiated by mass transfer instability. In particular, we are interested in the possible connection between such double degenerate mergers and the peculiar irregular variable R Corona Borealis stars. For the merger of a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf with a Helium white dwarf, the degree to which Carbon from the accreting star is dredged up plays a crucial role in the appearance of the rejuvenated, merged object. We explore the amount of dredge up in the accreting star and its influence in stellar evolution models initialized from the merged object resulting from dynamical evolutions.

  14. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  15. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  16. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  17. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  18. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2015-10-10

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z{sub ⊙}). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −3}) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs.

  19. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, J Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) have gotten increasingly tight. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the limits on the companions of SNIa in SNR 0509-67.5 and SN1572 are M dwarfs. M dwarfs have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNIa: they have small but finite magnetic fields, and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SNIa progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide an adequate rate of explosions. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a "magnetic bottle" connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate...

  20. Pluto: Planet or "Dwarf Planet"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; de Araújo, M. S. T.

    2010-09-01

    In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a "dwarf planet". This reclassification of Pluto by the academic community clearly illustrates how dynamic science is and how knowledge of different areas can be changed and evolves through the time, allowing to perceive Science as a human construction in a constant transformation, subject to political, social and historical contexts. These epistemological characteristics of Science and, in this case, of Astronomy, constitute important elements to be discussed in the lessons, so that this work contributes to enable Science and Physics teachers who perform a basic education to be always up to date on this important astronomical fact and, thereby, carry useful information to their teaching.

  1. Magnetars and white dwarf pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, Manuel; Coelho, Jaziel G.

    2016-07-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely B ≳ 1014G, and for that reason are known as magnetars. However, in the last years, some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields B ˜ (1012-1013)G have been detected, challenging the magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on WDs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized WDs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107-1010 G and rotate very fast with frequencies Ω ˜ 1rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods P ˜ (2-12)s.

  2. Dyson Spheres around White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Semiz, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical structure that an advanced civilization might build around a star to intercept all of the star's light for its energy needs. One usually thinks of it as a spherical shell about one astronomical unit (AU) in radius, and surrounding a more or less Sun-like star; and might be detectable as an infrared point source. We point out that Dyson Spheres could also be built around white dwarfs. This type would avoid the need for artificial gravity technology, in contrast to the AU-scale Dyson Spheres. In fact, we show that parameters can be found to build Dyson Spheres suitable --temperature- and gravity-wise-- for human habitation. This type would be much harder to detect.

  3. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  4. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  5. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Yellow Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper...

  6. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Yellow Stained Cotton § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper...

  7. Accumulation of genes for susceptibility to rust fungi for which barley is nearly a nonhost results in two barley lines with extreme multiple susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza, G.A.; Jafary, H.; Niks, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Nonhost resistance is the most common type of resistance in plants. Understanding the factors that make plants susceptible or resistant may help to achieve durably effective resistance in crop plants. Screening of 109 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions in the seedling stage indicated that barley

  8. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  9. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  10. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  11. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  12. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  13. Shell Galaxies, Dynamical Friction, and Dwarf Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrova, Ivana; Canalizo, Gabriela; Bennert, Nicola; Jilkova, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Using N-body simulations of shell galaxies created in nearly radial minor mergers, we investigate the error of collision dating, resulting from the neglect of dynamical friction and of gradual disruption of the cannibalized dwarf.

  14. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris disks

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetism within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. In order to explain this discrepancy we build a model in which the interaction between the magnetosphere of the star and the disk induces angular momentum transfer. Our model predicts that the magnetospheric interaction of magnetic white dwarfs with their disks results in a significant spin down, and we show that the observed rotation period of REJ 0317-853, which is suggested to be a product of a double degenerate merger, can be reproduced.

  15. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  16. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  17. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  18. The Galactic M Dwarf Flare Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Eric J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Holtzman, Jon

    2010-01-01

    M dwarfs are known to flare on timescales from minutes to hours, with flux increases of several magnitudes in the blue/near-UV. These frequent, powerful events, which are caused by magnetic reconnection, will have a strong observational signature in large, time-domain surveys. The radiation and particle fluxes from flares may also exert a significant influence on the atmospheres of orbiting planets, and affect their habitability. We present a statistical model of flaring M dwarfs in the Galax...

  19. The Physics of crystallizing white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Mochkovitch, R.; García--Berro, E.; Hernanz, Margarita

    1997-01-01

    White dwarfs can be used as galactic chronometers and, therefore, provide important information about galactic evolution if good theoretical models of their cooling are available. Consequently, it is natural to wonder if all the sources or sinks of energy are correctly taken into account. One of these sources is partial differentiation of the chemical components of the white dwarf upon crystallization. In this paper we use a new formalism to show that if there is a redistribution of the eleme...

  20. Dwarf Galaxies, MOND, and Relativistic Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Kosowsky

    2010-01-01

    MOND is a phenomenological modification of Newton's law of gravitation which reproduces the dynamics of galaxies, without the need for additional dark matter. This paper reviews the basics of MOND and its application to dwarf galaxies. MOND is generally successful at reproducing stellar velocity dispersions in the Milky Way's classical dwarf ellipticals, for reasonable values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio of the galaxies; two discrepantly high mass-to-light ratios may be explained by tid...

  1. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  2. Resonant stripping as the origin of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onghia, Elena; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most dark matter dominated systems in the nearby Universe and their origin is one of the outstanding puzzles of how galaxies form. Dwarf spheroidals are poor in gas and stars, making them unusually faint, and those known as ultra-faint dwarfs have by far the lowest measured stellar content of any galaxy. Previous theories require that dwarf spheroidals orbit near giant galaxies like the Milky Way, but some dwarfs have been observed in the outskirts of the Local Group. Here we report simulations of encounters between dwarf disk galaxies and somewhat larger objects. We find that the encounters excite a process, which we term ``resonant stripping'', that can transform them into dwarf spheroidals. This effect is distinct from other mechanisms proposed to form dwarf spheroidals, including mergers, galaxy-galaxy harassment, or tidal and ram pressure stripping, because it is driven by gravitational resonances. It may account for the observed properties of dwarf spheroidals in the Lo...

  3. Spectroscopy of Hyades L dwarf candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic follow-up of L dwarf candidates identified in the Hyades cluster by Hogan et al. (2008). We obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio de Canarias for all 12 L dwarf candidates as well as new J-band imaging for a subsample of eight to confirm their proper motion. We also present mid-infrared photometry from the Wise Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the Hyades L and T dwarf candidates and estimate their spectroscopic distances, effective temperatures, and masses. We confirm the cool nature of several L dwarf candidates and confirm astrometrically their membership, bridging the gap between the coolest M dwarfs and the two T dwarfs previously reported in the Hyades cluster. These members represent valuable spectral templates at an age of 625 Myr and slightly super solar metallicity (Fe/H=+0.13). We update the Hyades mass function across the hydrogen-burning limit and in the substel...

  4. A radio pulsing white dwarf binary star

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R; Hümmerich, S; Hambsch, F -J; Bernhard, K; Lloyd, C; Breedt, E; Stanway, E R; Steeghs, D T; Parsons, S G; Toloza, O; Schreiber, M R; Jonker, P G; van Roestel, J; Kupfer, T; Pala, A F; Dhillon, V S; Hardy, L K; Littlefair, S P; Aungwerojwit, A; Arjyotha, S; Koester, D; Bochinski, J J; Haswell, C A; Frank, P; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but ~200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions, and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf / cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a delta-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56 hr period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 min. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco's optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 s, and they are detectable a...

  5. ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C. P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Freytag, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at Uppsala University, Regementsvägen 1, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ludwig, H.-G. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Steffen, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Wedemeyer, S., E-mail: tremblay@stsci.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-10

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-β parameter, the thermal-to-magnetic-pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1–50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1–1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B ≳ 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (T{sub eff}) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection due to the convective coupling between the outer layers and the degenerate reservoir of thermal energy. Since no magnetic white dwarfs are currently known at the low temperatures where this coupling significantly changes the evolution, the effects of magnetism on cooling rates are not expected to be observed. This result contrasts with a recent suggestion that magnetic white dwarfs with T{sub eff} ≲ 10,000 K cool significantly slower than non-magnetic degenerates.

  6. Comparison of theoretical white dwarf cooling timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of white dwarf cooling times is paramount to place white dwarf cosmochronology of Galactic populations on more solid grounds. This issue is particularly relevant in view of the enhanced observational capabilities provided by the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, that will offer more avenues to employ white dwarfs as probes of Galactic evolution and test-beds of fundamental physics. We estimate for the first time the consistency of results obtained from two independent and widely used evolutionary codes (BaSTI and LPCODE) for white dwarf models with fixed mass and chemical stratification, when the same input physics is employed in both codes. We considered 0.55Msun white dwarf models with both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen (50/50 mass fractions) core. We have assessed for the first time the maximum possible accuracy in the current estimates of white dwarf cooling times, resulting only from the different implementations of the stellar evolution equations and homogeneo...

  7. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  8. Inheritance of microsatellite alleles in pedigrees of Latvian barley varieties and related European ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, T G; Rashal, I; Röder, M S

    2003-02-01

    Genetic diversity and inheritance of 65 microsatellite (SSR) loci were studied in a set of 37 barley varieties involved in the pedigrees of seven Latvian barley varieties: Abava, Agra, Balga, Imula, Linga, Priekulu 1 and Stendes. Cluster analysis divided all the varieties into two large groups according to their geographic distribution. Moravian, Swedish and Danish varieties clustered separately from varieties from Norway and Finland. The pattern of subgroups of both European and Latvian varieties was in accordance with their pedigree information. Graphical genotypes of microsatellite alleles of all seven barley chromosomes were determined for all the 37 varieties studied. Parental inheritance and transmission of microsatellite alleles through the generations of the pedigrees were analysed. The results confirmed the importance and informative value of microsatellite markers for genetic studies in barley and their utility for barley breeding and other applications in fundamental and applied barley genetics. PMID:12589555

  9. Barley Yellow Mosaic and Disease- Resistant Breeding%大麦黄花叶病和抗病育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓静; 沈会权

    2001-01-01

    大麦黄花叶病已成为冬大麦区的主要病害.利用引进的一批国外大麦材料,在我国大麦黄花叶病发病面积较大的8个地区进行鉴定,通过田间致病性的鉴定,用免疫及附电镜技术与国内的同源抗血清或国外的异源抗血清的捕获和修饰观察,结果发现:我国大麦黄花叶病毒株与日本的最为相似,但不一致,经比较分析初步得出两大类,6种株系、类型,并且发现AkashinrikAsama Mugi Mihori Hadaka 3 Sehbon Hadaka Shinano 1 Suifi等一批对我国Ba YMV均具有抗性的育种材料.以常规杂交育种为主,结合开展生物技术是选育抗病品种最有效的途径.

  10. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  11. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  12. Local Volume TiNy Titans: gaseous dwarf-dwarf interactions in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sarah; Besla, Gurtina; Putman, Mary E.; Lutz, Katharina A.; Fernández, Ximena; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Patton, David R.; Kim, Jinhyub; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Johnson, Kelsey; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Local Volume TiNy Titans sample (LV-TNT), which is a part of a larger body of work on interacting dwarf galaxies: TNT . This LV-TNT sample consists of 10 dwarf galaxy pairs in the Local Universe (supply channel until accretion by a more massive host.

  13. Dwarf Cepheids in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mateo, M; Nemec, J; Mateo, Mario; Hurley-Keller, Denise; Nemec, James

    1998-01-01

    We have discovered 20 dwarf Cepheids (DC) in the Carina dSph galaxy from the analysis of individual CCD images obtained for a deep photometric study of the system. These short-period pulsating variable stars are by far the most distant (~100 kpc) and faintest (V ~ 23.0) DCs known. The Carina DCs obey a well-defined period-luminosity relation, allowing us to readily distinguish between overtone and fundamental pulsators in nearly every case. Unlike RR Lyr stars, the pulsation mode turns out to be uncorrelated with light-curve shape, nor do the overtone pulsators tend towards shorter periods compared to the fundamental pulsators. Using the period-luminosity (PL) relations from Nemec et al. (1994 AJ, 108, 222) and McNamara (1995, AJ, 109, 1751), we derive (m-M)_0 = 20.06 +/- 0.12, for E(B-V) = 0.025 and [Fe/H] = -2.0, in good agreement with recent, independent estimates of the distance/reddening of Carina. The error reflects the uncertainties in the DC distance scale, and in the metallicity and reddening of Cari...

  14. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... initial decomposition of residues was remineralized later in the barley than in the pea residue treatment. Balances were established for the amounts of barley and mature pea residue N remaining in the 0-10 cm soil layer and taken up in ryegrass after 2 years of decomposition. About 24% of the barley...

  15. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  16. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  17. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  18. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  19. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  20. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  1. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  2. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  3. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  4. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  5. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  6. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio......, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  8. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...... classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI95%: 29–35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI95%: 0–15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model...

  9. Cold Brown Dwarfs with WISE: Y Dwarfs and the Field Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-01-01

    Why study Brown Dwarf stars? They re the lowest mass byproducts of star formation.. They provide time capsules across the age of the Galaxy.. They show what low-T(sub eff) atmospheres look like.. They may be some of our closest neighbors in space..WISE is a 40cm Earth-orbiting telescope. There are 211 stars and only 33 brown dwarfs in this volume.. This means that stars outnumber brown dwarfs by a factor of 6:1 currently.. The number of brown dwarfs will continue to increase if:: (a) more nearby Y dwarf candidates are confirmed, or (b) our distances to known Y s are overestimated, or (c) there are colder BDs invisible to WISE..

  10. Yellow Nails, Lymphedema and Chronic Cough: Yellow Nail Syndrome in an Eight-Year-Old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Siddiq; Daniel Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported.

  11. Yellow Nails, Lymphedema and Chronic Cough: Yellow Nail Syndrome in an Eight-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Siddiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported.

  12. Building an Unusual White-Dwarf Duo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A new study has examined how the puzzling wide binary system HS 2220+2146 which consists of two white dwarfs orbiting each other might have formed. This system may be an example of a new evolutionary pathway for wide white-dwarf binaries.Evolution of a BinaryMore than 100 stellar systems have been discovered consisting of two white dwarfs in a wide orbit around each other. How do these binaries form? In the traditional picture, the system begins as a binary consisting of two main-sequence stars. Due to the large separation between the stars, the stars evolve independently, each passing through the main-sequence and giant branches and ending their lives as white dwarfs.An illustration of a hierarchical triple star system, in which two stars orbit each other, and a third star orbits the pair. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Because more massive stars evolve more quickly, the most massive of the two stars in a binary pair should be the first to evolve into a white dwarf. Consequently, when we observe a double-white-dwarf binary, its usually a safe bet that the more massive of the two white dwarfs will also be the older and cooler of the pair, since it should have formed first.But in the case of the double-white-dwarf binary HS 2220+2146, the opposite is true: the more massive of the two white dwarfs appears to be the younger and hotter of the pair. If it wasnt created in the traditional way, then how did this system form?Two From Three?Led by Jeff Andrews (Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Greece and Columbia University), a team of scientists recently examined this system more carefully, analyzing its spectra to confirm our understanding of the white dwarfs temperatures and masses.Based on their observations, Andrews and collaborators determined that there are no hidden additional companions that could have caused the unusual evolution of this system. Instead, the team proposed that this unusual binary might be an example of an evolutionary channel that involves three

  13. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  14. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  15. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  16. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  17. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...

  18. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  19. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  20. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  1. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry....... Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred....

  2. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  3. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  4. Molecular and structural characterization of barley vernalization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Szucs, Péter; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Yan, Liuling; Francia, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Casas, Ana; Chen, Tony H H; Hayes, Patrick M; Skinner, Jeffrey S

    2005-10-01

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from the vegetative to reproductive state, is an evolutionarily and economically important trait in the Triticeae. The genetic basis of vernalization in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) can be defined using the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model. We analyzed the allelic characteristics of HvBM5A, the candidate gene for VRN-H1, from ten cultivated barley accessions and one wild progenitor accession (subsp. spontaneum), representing the three barley growth habits - winter, facultative, and spring. We present multiple lines of evidence, including sequence, linkage map location, and expression, that support HvBM5A being VRN-H1. While the predicted polypeptides from different growth habits are identical, spring accessions contain a deletion in the first intron of HvBM5A that may be important for regulation. While spring HvBM5A alleles are typified by the intron-localized deletion, in some cases, the promoter may also determine the allele type. The presence/absence of the tightly linked ZCCT-H gene family members on chromosome 4H perfectly correlates with growth habit and we conclude that one of the three ZCCT-H genes is VRN-H2. The VRN-H2 locus is present in winter genotypes and deleted from the facultative and spring genotypes analyzed in this study, suggesting the facultative growth habit (cold tolerant, vernalization unresponsive) is a result of deletion of the VRN-H2 locus and presence of a winter HvBM5A allele. All reported barley vernalization QTLs can be explained by the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model based on the presence/absence of VRN-H2 and a winter vs. spring HvBM5A allele. PMID:16235110

  5. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  6. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  7. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  8. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  9. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  10. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  11. Manganese in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    North, P; Jablonka, P; Hill, V; Shetrone, M; Letarte, B; Lemasle, B; Venn, K A; Battaglia, G; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M J; Primas, F; Francois, P

    2012-01-01

    We provide manganese abundances (corrected for the effect of the hyperfine structure) for a large number of stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Sculptor and Fornax, and for a smaller number in the Carina and Sextans dSph galaxies. Abundances had already been determined for a number of other elements in these galaxies, including alpha and iron-peak ones, which allowed us to build [Mn/Fe] and [Mn/alpha] versus [Fe/H] diagrams. The Mn abundances imply sub-solar [Mn/Fe] ratios for the stars in all four galaxies examined. In Sculptor, [Mn/Fe] stays roughly constant between [Fe/H]\\sim -1.8 and -1.4 and decreases at higher iron abundance. In Fornax, [Mn/Fe] does not vary in any significant way with [Fe/H]. The relation between [Mn/alpha] and [Fe/H] for the dSph galaxies is clearly systematically offset from that for the Milky Way, which reflects the different star formation histories of the respective galaxies. The [Mn/alpha] behavior can be interpreted as a result of the metal-dependent Mn yields of type II and ...

  12. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability.

  13. The Observational Signature of Old White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, B M S

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of microlensing of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud has excited much interest in the nature of the lensing population. Detailed analyses indicate that the mass of these objects ranges from 0.3-0.8 solar masses, suggesting that they might be white dwarfs, the faint remnants of stellar evolution. The confirmation of such an hypothesis would yield profound insights into the early history of our galaxy and the early generations of stars in the universe. Previous attempts have been made to place theoretical constraints on this scenario, but were unduly pessimistic because they relied on inadequate evolutionary models. Here we present the first results from detailed evolutionary models appropriate for the study of white dwarfs of truly cosmological vintage. We find that the commonly held notion that old white dwarfs are red to hold only for helium atmosphere dwarfs and that hydrogen atmosphere dwarfs will be blue, with colours similar to those of the faint point sources found in the Hubble D...

  14. White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P; Liebert, J; Fontaine, G; Behara, N

    2007-11-22

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 and 8-10, where is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for approximately 80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have been traditionally found to belong to one of two categories: those with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere (the DA spectral type) and those with a helium-rich atmosphere (the non-DAs). Here we report the discovery of several white dwarfs with atmospheres primarily composed of carbon, with little or no trace of hydrogen or helium. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric parameters found for these stars do not fit satisfactorily in any of the currently known theories of post-asymptotic giant branch evolution, although these objects might be the cooler counterpart of the unique and extensively studied PG 1159 star H1504+65 (refs 4-7). These stars, together with H1504+65, might accordingly form a new evolutionary sequence that follows the asymptotic giant branch. PMID:18033290

  15. Water Clouds in Y Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Caroline V; Fortney, Jonathan J; Lupu, Roxana; Saumon, Didier; Greene, Tom; Lodders, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The formation of clouds affects brown dwarf and planetary atmospheres of nearly all effective temperatures. Iron and silicate condense in L dwarf atmospheres and dissipate at the L/T transition. Minor species such as sulfides and salts condense in mid-late T dwarfs. For brown dwarfs below Teff=450 K, water condenses in the upper atmosphere to form ice clouds. Currently over a dozen objects in this temperature range have been discovered, and few previous theoretical studies have addressed the effect of water clouds on brown dwarf or exoplanetary spectra. Here we present a new grid of models that include the effect of water cloud opacity. We find that they become optically thick in objects below Teff=350-375 K. Unlike refractory cloud materials, water ice particles are significantly non-gray absorbers; they predominantly scatter at optical wavelengths through J band and absorb in the infrared with prominent features, the strongest of which is at 2.8 microns. H2O, NH3, CH4, and H2 CIA are dominant opacity source...

  16. New cooling sequences for old white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Renedo, Isabel; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Romero, Alejandra D; Corsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero age main sequence, through the core hydrogen burning phase, the helium burning phase and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities: Z=0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z=0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage we compute self-consistently the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, like the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystall...

  17. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bournaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”.

  18. The Potential of White Dwarf Cosmochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Bergeron, P.

    2001-04-01

    In the light of recent significant progress on both the observational and theoretical fronts, we review the status of white dwarf stars as cosmochronometers. These objects represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, can be used to constrain the ages of various populations of evolved stars in the Galaxy. For example, the oldest white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood (the remnants of the very first generation of intermediate-mass stars in the Galactic disk) are still visible and can be used, in conjunction with cooling theory, to estimate the age of the disk. More recent observations suggest the tantalizing possibility that a population of very old white dwarfs inhabits the Galactic halo. Such a population may contribute significantly to baryonic ``dark'' matter in the Milky Way and may be used to obtain an independent estimate of the age of the halo. In addition, white dwarf cosmochronology is likely to play a very significant role in the coming era of giant 8-10 m telescopes when faint white dwarf populations should be routinely discovered and studied in open and globular clusters. Based, in part, on the C. S. Beals Lecture presented by G. Fontaine at the Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Astronomical Society held in Vancouver (2000 May).

  19. Effect of Barleys Having Different Liter Weights on Performance, Economic Value, Ruminal Fermentation of Lambs, and Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Talat; ŞAHİN, Kazım; ÇERÇİ, İ.Halil; ERTAS, O. Nihat

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing barleys having different liter weights (It wt) on average daily gain, feed efficiency, profit margins, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics of lambs and diet digestibility. 16 Akkaraman lambs approximately 8 mo old (averaging 30 kg) were used in a randomized design. Treatment groups consisting of barley grains and barley grains were classified to liter weights as follows: 1. Barley has 643 g lt wt (Grou...

  20. Yellow light dilemma zone researches: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The yellow light dilemma zone is widely known as an area on the high-speed intersection approach, where vehicles neither safely stop before the stop line nor proceed through the intersection during amber interval. Within such an area, a vehicle might be involved in a right-angle crash or rear-end collision. This issue has been extensively discussed over five decades in traffic engineering field, covering from theory to practice. However, few comprehensive review literatures on the amber signal dilemma zone problems can be found. The objective of this paper is to summarize the evolution of yellow light dilemma zone researches. Basic definition and boundary of dilemma zone followed by driver behavior and dilemma zone hazard measurement are depicted. At last, the future directions of yellow light dilemma zone research are discussed.

  1. Red Dwarfs and the End of the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. C.; Graves, G. J. M.; Laughlin, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper celebrates the contributions of Peter Bodenheimer to our understanding of stellar evolution by focusing on the long term development of red dwarf stars. We show that these diminutive stellar objects remain convective over most of their lives, they continue to burn hydrogen for trillions of years, and they do not experience red giant phases in their old age. Instead, red dwarfs turn into blue dwarfs and finally white dwarfs. This work shows (in part) why larger stars do become red giants.

  2. A Search for Fine Wines: Discovering Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Mark; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Like fine wines, stars come in both red and white varieties. Here we present initial results of the Fine Wines Project that targets red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. The two scientific goals of Fine Wines are (1) to develop methods to estimate ages for red dwarfs based on the cooling ages of the white dwarfs, and (2) to identify suitable pairs for dynamical mass determinations of white dwarfs to probe their interior structures. Here we focus on the search for Fine Wines, including sample selection, elimination of false positives, and initial reconnaissance. The sample was extracted via color-color plots from a pool of more than 30,000 proper motion systems examined during the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) and UCAC3 Proper Motion (UPM) surveys. The initial sample of 75 best candidates is being observed for BVRI photometry and 3500-9500 A spectroscopy to confirm whether or not the systems are red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. Early results indicate that roughly 50% of the candidates selected are indeed Fine Wine systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST 09-08402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  3. An observer's guide to the (Local Group) dwarf galaxies: predictions for their own dwarf satellite populations

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Gregory A; Yang, Tianyi; Willman, Beth; Griffen, Brendan F; Frebel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A recent surge in the discovery of new ultrafaint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way has inspired the idea of searching for faint satellites, $10^3\\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}99\\%$ chance that at least one satellite with stellar mass $M_*> 10^5 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ exists around the combined five Local Group field dwarf galaxies with the largest stellar mass. When considering satellites with $M_*> 10^4 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$, we predict a combined $5-25$ satellites for the five largest field dwarfs, and $10-50$ for the whole Local Group field dwarf population. Because of the relatively small number of predicted dwarfs, and their extended spatial distribution, a large fraction each Local Group dwarf's virial volume will need to be surveyed to guarantee discoveries. We compute the predicted number of satellites in a given field of view of specific Local Group galaxies, as a function of minimum satellite luminosity, and explicitly obtain such values for the Solitary Local dwarfs survey. Uncertainties in abundance matc...

  4. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  5. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  6. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  7. Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Bartoo, Shelly; Badrie, Neela

    2005-09-01

    The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein. PMID:16361184

  8. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  9. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates

  10. Understanding dwarf galaxies as galactic building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of a general discussion held during the third EuroConference on galaxy evolution. Various observational features of the stellar populations in present--day dwarf galaxies were presented to introduce the discussion on the possibility that these systems be the main building blocks of spiral and elliptical galaxies. Many people in the audience turned out to think that the inconsistencies among the observed properties of large and dwarf galaxies are too many to believe that the former are built up only by means of successive accretions of the latter. However, theorists of hierarchical galaxy formation suggested that present--day dwarfs are not representative of the galactic building blocks, which may be completely invisible nowadays. Some of them suggested that, contrary to what is usually assumed in hierarchical modelling, the actual building blocks were still fully gaseous systems when their major mergers occurred. If this is the case, then most of the inconsistencies can be overcome, and the ...

  11. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose–Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat—the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures

  12. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nandez, Jose L A; Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double-white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of a $\\sim1.5M_\\odot$ red giant star in a $\\sim 30$ day orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  13. Agronomic effects of a reciprocal translocation in a widely grown Spanish barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Visioni, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    A large spontaneous reciprocal translocation is present in a widely grown Spanish barley cv. ‘Albacete’. It has been hypothesized that high popularity of ‘Albacete’ with farmers, particularly in semi-arid areas where barley is grown under rainfed conditions, may be due to the presence of this transl

  14. Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

  15. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temiraev R. B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  16. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  17. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  18. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  19. Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

  20. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... secreted proteins which may be involved in Fusarium head blight....

  1. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  2. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  3. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.;

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  4. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...

  5. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  6. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  7. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity between Qinghai-Tibetan wild and Chinese landrace barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Westcott, Sharon; Li, Chengdao; Yan, Guijun; Lance, Reg; Sun, Dongfa

    2009-10-01

    Fifty-two SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 33 Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley accessions, 56 landraces collected primarily from other parts of China, and 1 Israeli wild barley accession. At the 52 SSR loci, 206 alleles were detected for the 90 accessions, among which 111 were common alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9, with an average of 4.0. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.856 among all the markers, with an average of 0.547. The PIC value of Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley varied from 0 to 0.813 with an average of 0.543, while in landraces, the markers showed a range of 0 to 0.790 with an average of 0.490. The SSR markers could clearly differentiate the Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley from the landraces. Twenty-four unique alleles were observed in Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley, and the frequency of unique alleles in Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley was about 2.1 times higher than that in the landraces, on average. Five of the 7 chromosomes had more unique alleles in the Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley, but chromosome 2H had more unique alleles in the landraces. The presence of many unique alleles may reflect the adaptation of this barley germplasm to diverse environments and production systems. PMID:19935909

  8. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  9. Genetic characterization of a reciprocal translocation present in a widely grown barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Cuadrado, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Schubert, I.; Comadran, J.; Jansen, J.; Romagosa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously d

  10. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  11. Analysis of diversity in Chinese cultivated barley with simple sequence repeats: differences between eco-geographic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feixue; Chen, Defu; Vallés, María-Pilar; Gao, Zhen; Chen, Xiwen

    2010-02-01

    The genetic diversity of 116 barley accessions, representing five Chinese eco-geographic populations, was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The 21 SSR loci revealed 128 alleles with an average of 6.1 alleles per locus. The highest values of proportion of polymorphic loci (P) and gene diversity index (He) were obtained in the Northern (P = 1.00; He = 0.60) and the Yangtze River reaches and Southern populations (P = 1.00; He = 0.59). The lowest values were in the populations of the Yellow River reaches (P = 0.86; He = 0.44). The highest average number of alleles per locus (4.52) and number of unique alleles (7) were found in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau population. Cluster analysis revealed that together with the row type, strong eco-geographic variables influenced the classification. Associations of SSR and eco-geographic values were established for 11 SSR loci. Four to six markers were found to discriminate among geographic groups, which may serve as tools for diagnosis of the eco-geographic populations and provide evidence for the adaptive nature of SSR markers. PMID:20094841

  12. The 2MASS Wide-Field T Dwarf Search. III. Seven New T Dwarfs and Other Cool Dwarf Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D; McElwain, M W; Reid, I N; Tinney, C G; Burgasser, Adam J.; Elwain, Michael W. Mc; Cruz, Kelle L.; Tinney, Chris G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven new T dwarfs identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Low-resolution (R$\\sim$150) 0.8--2.5 micron spectroscopy obtained with the IRTF SpeX instrument reveal the characteristic H$_2$O and CH$_4$ bands in the spectra of these brown dwarfs. Comparison to spectral standards observed with the same instrument enable us to derive classifications of T3 to T7 for the objects in this sample. Moderate-resolution (R$\\sim$1200) near-infrared spectroscopy for a subset of these discoveries reveal K I line strengths consistent with previously observed trends with spectral type. Follow-up imaging observations provide proper motion measurements for these sources, ranging from $<$ 0$\\farcs$1 to 1$\\farcs$55 yr$^{-1}$. One object, 2MASS 0034+0523, has a spectrophotometric distance placing it within 10 pc of the Sun. This source also exhibits a depressed K-band peak reminiscent of the peculiar T dwarf 2MASS 0937+2931, and may be a metal-poor or old, high-mass brown dwarf. We also present lo...

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  14. Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, S; Igartua, Ernesto; Moralejo, M; Ramsay, L; Molina-Cano, J L; Ciudad, F J; Lasa, J M; Gracia, M P; Casas, A M

    2008-01-01

    The pool of Western Mediterranean landraces has been under-utilised for barley breeding so far. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity in a core collection of inbred lines derived from Spanish barley landraces to establish its relationship to barleys from other origins, and to correlate the distribution of diversity with geographical and climatic factors. To this end, 64 SSR were used to evaluate the polymorphism among 225 barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) genotypes, comprising two-row and six-row types. These included 159 landraces from the Spanish barley core collection (SBCC) plus 66 cultivars, mainly from European countries, as a reference set. Out of the 669 alleles generated, a large proportion of them were unique to the six-row Spanish barleys. An analysis of molecular variance revealed a clear genetic divergence between the six-row Spanish barleys and the reference cultivars, whereas this was not evident for the two-row barleys. A model-based clustering analysis identified an underlying population structure, consisting of four main populations for the whole genotype set, and suggested further possible subdivision within two of these populations. Most of the six-row Spanish landraces clustered into two groups that corresponded to geographic regions with contrasting environmental conditions. The existence of wide genetic diversity in Spanish germplasm, possibly related to adaptation to a broad range of environmental conditions, and its divergence from current European cultivars confirm its potential as a new resource for barley breeders, and make the SBCC a valuable tool for the study of adaptation in barley. PMID:18026712

  15. The Use of Soy Flour in Yellow Maize-Amaranth Gluten-free Bread Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmane Laila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, a protein occurring in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten-free products often have a shorter shelf life, lower quality, and not so pronounced flavour. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new gluten-free products with higher quality and pronounced taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soy flour on the yellow maize-amaranth dough rheological properties and bread quality. To determine the influence of soy flour on gluten-free dough rheological properties and bread quality, soy flour was added at 45%, 50% and 60% to yellow maize flour basis. To study the effect of the amount of water used in the recipe on dough rheological properties and bread quality, each sample (n=7 was prepared in two versions: one with the dough yield 196, and the other with the dough yield 252. The main quality parameters of dough and bread were determined using the following methods: the firmness and resilience of dough, as well as the hardness of bread slice – with a TA.XT.plus Texture Analyser; moisture content of dough – with a thermostat; moisture content of bread crumb – with a Precisa XM 120 at the temperature of 110 °C; and color of bread crumb – in the CIE L*a*b* color system using a ColorTec-PCM/PSM. The best results of dough rheological properties were obtained for samples with dough yield 196, but the best quality of bread – for samples with dough yield 252. It was proved that soy flour improves not only the dough firmness and resilience but also the volume, texture, hardness, moisture content and color of gluten-free bread. No significant differences in the influence of soy flour on dough rheological properties and bread quality were found between the samples with various added amounts of soy flour (45%, 50%, or 60%.

  16. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  17. Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, K. A.

    Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.

  18. Hornets yellow cuticle microstructure : A photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Goldstein, O; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes cuticular structures on the abdomen of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) in the region of the yellow stripes. A cross section in this region reveals the cuticle to resemble a notebook with more than 30 pages, the topmost pages (analogous to layers) be

  19. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  20. Collecting Water From the Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshe rang mtsho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting water from the Rma chu (Yellow River near oM skor Village, Mang ra (Guìnán 贵南 County, Mtsho lho (Hǎinán 海南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qīnghǎi 青海 Province is shown in eleven photographs.

  1. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  2. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report *

    OpenAIRE

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region.

  3. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; West, Andrew A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

    2012-06-01

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and MJHK . Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a "bright" (unresolved binary) and a "faint" (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in MJ where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at MH and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in MK . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 ±100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially "ultra-cloudy" compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in MJH and/or MK compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude polynomial for analysis.

  4. Comparisons of amplitude of pseudoaccommodation with aspheric yellow, spheric yellow, and spheric clear monofocal intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi T.; Taketani F; Ueda T; Ogata N.

    2013-01-01

    Tomo Nishi, Futoshi Taketani, Tetsuo Ueda, Nahoko Ogata Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara City, Nara, Japan Purpose: To determine the amplitude of pseudoaccommodation and higher-order aberrations with three types of implanted monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs): aspheric yellow (IQ); spheric yellow (NT); and spheric clear (AT). Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. Methods: We studied 60 patients who underwent small incision...

  5. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  6. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, T S; Rossnagel, B G; Pozniak, C J; Scoles, G J

    2008-02-01

    Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from the cross CDC Dolly (susceptible)/TR251 (resistant) were screened as seedlings in controlled environments with net-form net blotch (NFNB) isolates WRS858 and WRS1607 and spot-form net blotch (SFNB) isolate WRS857. The population was also screened at the adult-plant stage for NFNB resistance in the field in 2005 and 2006. A high-density genetic linkage map of 90 DH lines was constructed using 457 DArT and 11 SSR markers. A major NFNB seedling resistance QTL, designated QRpt6, was mapped to chromosome 6H for isolates WRS858 and WRS1607. QRpt6 was associated with adult-plant resistance in the 2005 and 2006 field trials. Additional QTL for NFNB seedling resistance to the more virulent isolate WRS858 were identified on chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A seedling resistance QTL (QRpts4) for the SFNB isolate WRS857 was detected on chromosome 4H as was a significant QTL (QRpt7) on chromosome 7H. Three QTL (QRpt6, QRpts4, QRpt7) were associated with resistance to both net blotch forms and lines with one or more of these demonstrated improved resistance. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers tightly linked to QRpt6 and QRpts4 were identified and validated in an unrelated barley population. The major 6H QTL, QRpt6, may provide adequate NFNB field resistance in western Canada and could be routinely selected for using molecular markers in a practical breeding program. PMID:18071668

  8. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  9. The effect of gravitational tides on dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nichols, Matthew; Jablonka, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the local environment on the evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is poorly understood. We have undertaken a suite of simulations to investigate the tidal impact of the Milky Way on the chemodynamical evolution of dwarf spheroidals that resemble present day classical dwarfs using the SPH code GEAR. After simulating the models through a large parameter space of potential orbits the resulting properties are compared with observations from both a dynamical point of view, but also from the, often neglected, chemical point of view. In general, we find that tidal effects quench the star formation even inside gas-endowed dwarfs. Such quenching, may produce the radial distribution of dwarf spheroidals from the orbits seen within large cosmological simulations. We also find that the metallicity gradient within a dwarf is gradually erased through tidal interactions as stellar orbits move to higher radii. The model dwarfs also shift to higher $\\langle$[Fe/H]$\\rangle$/L ratios, but only when losing $>$$20...

  10. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...... were synthesised at 10 d after anthesis and hercafter an increase was observed for all polypeptides. A fivefold increase in total hordein was observed within the N range tested. Hordein-1 increased considerably more than hordein-2 with increased N nutrition, and hordein-1 synthesis exceeded...

  11. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  12. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  13. A precision study of two eclipsing white dwarf plus M dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Gänsicke, B T; Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Dhillon, V S; Littlefair, S P; Copperwheat, C M; Hickman, R D G; Burleigh, M R; Kerry, P; Koester, D; Gómez-Morán, A Nebot; Pyrzas, S; Savoury, C D J; Schreiber, M R; Schmidtobreick, L; Schwope, A D; Steele, P R; Tappert, C

    2011-01-01

    We use a combination of X-shooter spectroscopy, ULTRACAM high-speed photometry and SOFI near-infrared photometry to measure the masses and radii of both components of the eclipsing post common envelope binaries SDSS J1212-0123 and GK Vir. For both systems we measure the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf and combine it with light curve model fits to determine the inclinations, masses and radii. For SDSS J1212-0123 we find a white dwarf mass and radius of 0.439 +/- 0.002 Msun and 0.0168 +/- 0.0003 Rsun, and a secondary star mass and radius of 0.273 +/- 0.002 Msun and 0.306 +/- 0.007 Rsun. For GK Vir we find a white dwarf mass and radius of 0.564 +/- 0.014 Msun and 0.0170 +/- 0.0004 Rsun, and a secondary star mass and radius of 0.116 +/- 0.003 Msun and 0.155 +/- 0.003 Rsun. The mass and radius of the white dwarf in GK Vir are consistent with evolutionary models for a 50,000K carbon-oxygen core white dwarf. Although the mass and radius of the white dwarf in SDSS J1212-0123 are consistent with carbon-oxyge...

  14. The White Dwarf Binary Pathways Survey I: A sample of FGK stars with white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Schreiber, M R; Gansicke, B T; Zorotovic, M; Ren, J J

    2016-01-01

    The number of white dwarf plus main-sequence star binaries has increased rapidly in the last decade, jumping from only ~30 in 2003 to over 3000. However, in the majority of known systems the companion to the white dwarf is a low mass M dwarf, since these are relatively easy to identify from optical colours and spectra. White dwarfs with more massive FGK type companions have remained elusive due to the large difference in optical brightness between the two stars. In this paper we identify 934 main-sequence FGK stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey in the southern hemisphere and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey in the northern hemisphere, that show excess flux at ultraviolet wavelengths which we interpret as the likely presence of a white dwarf companion. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra for nine systems which confirmed that the excess is indeed caused, in all cases, by a hot compact companion, eight being white dwarfs and one ...

  15. The "Living with a Red Dwarf" Program

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F

    2009-01-01

    Red Dwarfs (main-sequence / dwarf M or dM) stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy. These cool, faint, low mass stars comprise over 75% of all stars. Because of their low luminosities (~0.0008-0.06 of the Sun's luminosity), the circumstellar habitable zones (HZs) of dM stars are located within ~0.05-0.4 AU of the host star. Nevertheless, the prospect of life on a planet located within the HZ of a red dwarf is moderately high, based on the longevity of these stars (>50 Gyr), their constant luminosities and high space densities. Here we describe the aims and early results of the "Living with a Red Dwarf" Program - a study of dM stars that we have been carrying out over the last few years. The primary focus of our research on dM stars is the study of their magnetic dynamos and resulting star spots & coronal X-ray and chromospheric UV emissions as a function of age, rotation and spectral type. This program will provide datasets that can be used as inputs for the study of all aspects of dM stars, along w...

  16. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Ravi, V.; Hobbs, G.; Lo, K.; Ward, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 Southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1-2)R*, magnetic field inclination 20°-80°, field strength ˜10-200 G, and power-law electron density ˜104-108 cm-3. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio frequencies to 222. Analysing general trends of the radio emission for this sample of 15 sources, we find that the radio activity increases for later spectral types and more rapidly rotating objects. Furthermore, comparing the ratio of the radio to X-ray luminosities for these sources, we find 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544 violate the Güdel-Benz relation by more than two orders of magnitude.

  17. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, C; Ravi, V; Hobbs, G; Lo, K; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1 - 2)$R_*$, magnetic field inclination 20$^{\\circ}$ - 80$^{\\circ}$, field strength $\\sim$10 - 200 G, and power-law electron density $\\sim$10$^4$ - 10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio freq...

  18. Star formation history in forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.; Kravchuk, S. G.

    The processes of formation and evolution of isolated dwarf galaxies over the Hubble timescale is followed by means of SPH techniques. As an initial protogalaxy perturbation we consider an isolated, uniform, solid -- body rotated sphere involved into the Hubble flow and made of dark and baryonic matter in a 10:1 ratio. The simulations are carried out for the set of models having spin parameters lambda in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 and the total mass of dark matter 1011 M_odot . Our model includes gasdynamics, radiative processes, star formation, supernova feedback and simplified chemistry. The application of modified star formation criterion which accounts for chaotic motions and the time lag between initial development of suitable conditions for star formation and star formation itself (Berczik P.P, Kravchuk S.G. 1997, Ap.Sp.Sci.) provides the realistic description of the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Two parameters: total mass and initial angular momentum of the dwarf protogalaxy play the crucial role in its star formation activity. After the 15 Gyr of the evolution the rapidly rotated dwarf galaxies manifest themselves as an extremly gasrich, heavy element deficient objects showing the initial burst of star formation activity in several spatially separated regions. Slowly rotating objects manifest themselves finally as typical evolved dwarf galaxies.

  19. A photometric study of DWARF novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalogue of UBVRI photoelectric photometry of dwarf novae available in the literature is presented. A comparison with theoretical colour-colour diagrams from steady state discs is made. A correlation of V magnitude with the depth of the Balmer discontinuity is discussed. (author)

  20. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

  1. A dominant semi dwarf mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the winter of 1997, a semi dwarf mutant was found in the F6 population of M9056/ R8018 xuan in Hainan Province. In the spring of 1998, the seeds were sown in Hefei, Anhui Province and the plant height of the population was measured at maturity.

  2. On The Evolution of Magnetic White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, P -E; Freytag, B; Steiner, O; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Wedemeyer, S; Brassard, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-beta parameter, the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1-50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1-1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have then employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B > 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (Teff) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection owing to the convective cou...

  3. The surprising inefficiency of dwarf satellite quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Coral; Cooper, Michael C; Boylan-Kolchin, Mike; Bullock, James S

    2014-01-01

    We study dwarf satellite galaxy quenching using observations from the Geha et al. (2012) NSA/SDSS catalog together with LCDM cosmological simulations to facilitate selection and interpretation. We show that fewer than 30% of dwarfs (M* ~ 10^8.5-10^9.5 Msun) identified as satellites within massive host halos (Mhost ~ 10^12.5-10^14 Msun) are quenched, in spite of the expectation from simulations that half of them should have been accreted more than 6 Gyr ago. We conclude that whatever the action triggering environmental quenching of dwarf satellites, the process must be highly inefficient. We investigate a series of simple, one-parameter quenching models in order understand what is required to explain the low quenched fraction and conclude that either the quenching timescale is very long (> 9.5 Gyr, a "slow starvation" scenario) or that the environmental trigger is not well matched to accretion within the virial volume. We discuss these results in light of the fact that most of the low mass dwarf satellites in ...

  4. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Soeren S

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies can have very high globular cluster specific frequencies, and the GCs are in general significantly more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars. In some dwarfs, such as Fornax, WLM, and IKN, the fraction of metal-poor stars that belong to GCs can be as high as 20%-25%, an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-2% typical of GCs in halos of larger galaxies. Given that chemical abundance anomalies appear to be present also in GCs in dwarf galaxies, this implies severe difficulties for self-enrichment scenarios that require GCs to have lost a large fraction of their initial masses. More generally, the number of metal-poor field stars in these galaxies is today less than what would originally have been present in the form of low-mass clusters if the initial cluster mass function was a power-law extending down to low masses. This may imply that the initial GC mass function in these dwarf galaxies was significantly more top-heavy than typically observed in present-day star forming environments.

  5. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation timescales.

  6. Plant sterol metabolism. Δ(7-Sterol-C5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7, Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase (DWARF5 and Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1 show multiple subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silvestro

    Full Text Available Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of Δ(7-sterol-C(5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7, Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1 and Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase (DWARF5 were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both Δ(5,7-sterol-Δ(7-reductase and Δ(24-sterol-Δ(24-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas Δ(7-sterol-C(5-desaturase was clearly detected in lipid particles. These findings raise new challenging questions about the spatial and dynamic cellular organization of sterol biosynthesis in plants.

  7. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  8. Evolutionary Status of Dwarf ``Transition'' Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia M.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Gallagher, John S., III

    1999-03-01

    We present deep B-band, R-band, and Hα imaging of three dwarf galaxies: NGC 3377A, NGC 4286, and IC 3475. Based on previous broadband imaging and H I studies, these mixed morphology galaxies have been proposed to be, respectively, a gas-rich low surface brightness Im dwarf, a nucleated dwarf that has lost most of its gas and is in transition from Im to dS0, N, and the prototypical example of a gas-poor ``huge low surface brightness'' early-type galaxy. From the combination of our broadband and Hα imaging with the published information on the neutral gas content of these three galaxies, we find that (1) NGC 3377A is a dwarf spiral, similar to those found by Schombert and coworkers and Matthews & Gallagher; (2) both NGC 3377A and NGC 4286 have comparable amounts of ongoing star formation, as indicated by their Hα emission, while IC 3475 has no detected H II regions to a very low limit; (3) the global star formation rates are at least a factor of 20 below those of 30 Doradus for NGC 3377A and NGC 4286; (4) while the amount of star formation is comparable, the distribution of star-forming regions is very different between NGC 3377A and NGC 4286, with Hα emission scattered over most of the optical face of NGC 3377A and all contained within the inner half of the optical disk of NGC 4286; (5) given their current star formation rates and gas contents, both NGC 3377A and NGC 4286 can continue to form stars for more than a Hubble time; (6) both NGC 3377A and NGC 4286 have integrated total B-R colors that are redder than the integrated total B-R color for IC 3475 and thus it is unlikely that either galaxy will ever evolve into an IC 3475 counterpart; and (7) IC 3475 is too blue to be a dE. We thus conclude that we have not identified potential precursors to galaxies such as IC 3475, and unless significant changes occur in the star formation rates, neither NGC 3377A nor NGC 4286 will evolve into a dwarf elliptical or dwarf spheroidal within a Hubble time. Furthermore

  9. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-10-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  12. Radiative Levitation in Hot White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayer, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.

    1994-12-01

    We present the results of detailed calculations of radiative levitation in hot white dwarfs using the extensive and homogeneous atomic data given in TOPBASE. Radiative accelerations and equilibrium abundances have been computed for C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe on grids of pure hydrogen and pure helium stellar envelope models. The DA model grid has log g = 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5, and spans the range of effective temperature 100,000 >= Teff >= 20,000 K in steps of 2,500 K. The DO/DB grid is similar but extends to Teff = 130,000 K. We discuss at some length the input physics used in order to provide a good physical understanding of radiative levitation under white dwarf conditions. We also discuss the depth dependence and the morphology of the reservoirs of levitating elements created by an equilibrium between the radiative acceleration and the local effective gravity in various stellar envelopes. The important role played in the morphology of the reservoirs by dominant ionization states in closed-shell electronic configurations is emphasized. Our central results are presented in the form of figures showing the behavior of the expected photospheric abundance of each element as a function of effective temperature and surface gravity. While only a handful of abundances are available from the few analyses of observations that have been carried out, we are nevertheless able to infer through a detailed comparison that equilibrium radiative levitation theory fails to explain the observed abundance patterns of heavy elements in hot white dwarfs. At least one other mechanism must be competing with radiative levitation and gravitational settling in the atmospheres/envelopes of hot white dwarfs. Finally, we indicate promising avenues for further progress in spectral evolution theory for white dwarfs. This work has been supported by NASA contract NAS5-30180.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  14. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  15. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ri Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  16. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  17. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  18. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  19. [Microsatellite markers and applications in the barley genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-yun; Zhang, Yi-zheng; Ling, Hong-qing

    2002-11-01

    Microsatellites, also called simple sequence repeats (SSR), are simple, tandemly repeated DNA sequences with a repeat length of a few base pairs,and are very ideally used as molecular markers because of their abundance, high level of polymorphism, co-dominance and ease of assay with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by selecting primers as the conserved DNA sequences flanking the SSRs,as well as better stability. The experiments showed that SSRs are randomly distributed throughout the barley genome,and there are 3-18 alleles at a single SSR locus,up to 37 alleles/locus. SSR markers have being widely applied in the construction of molecular genetic map, the study of genetic diversity,the identification of germplasm, gene mapping for important traits and molecular marker-assisted selection. Meanwhile,most of markers are strongly clustered around the centromeric regions of all seven linkage groups. As a result of the clustering,genome coverage with SSRs remains incomplete with an obvious lack of markers on the long arms of chromosomes 1H and 5H and short arm of chromosome 6H. Therefore,it is very potential and necessary to further develop SSR markers in barley. PMID:15979979

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in barley using autoSNPdb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Chris; Appleby, Nikki; Vardy, Megan; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline

    2009-05-01

    Molecular markers are used to provide the link between genotype and phenotype, for the production of molecular genetic maps and to assess genetic diversity within and between related species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant molecular genetic marker. SNPs can be identified in silico, but care must be taken to ensure that the identified SNPs reflect true genetic variation and are not a result of errors associated with DNA sequencing. The SNP detection method autoSNP has been developed to identify SNPs from sequence data for any species. Confidence in the predicted SNPs is based on sequence redundancy, and haplotype co-segregation scores are calculated for a further independent measure of confidence. We have extended the autoSNP method to produce autoSNPdb, which integrates SNP and gene annotation information with a graphical viewer. We have applied this software to public barley expressed sequences, and the resulting database is available over the Internet. SNPs can be viewed and searched by sequence, functional annotation or predicted synteny with a reference genome, in this case rice. The correlation between SNPs and barley cultivar, expressed tissue type and development stage has been collated for ease of exploration. An average of one SNP per 240 bp was identified, with SNPs more prevalent in the 5' regions and simple sequence repeat (SSR) flanking sequences. Overall, autoSNPdb can provide a wealth of genetic polymorphism information for any species for which sequence data are available. PMID:19386041

  1. DIFFERENTIATION OF BARLEY GENOTYPES BASED ON DNA POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Information about the origin of varieties can help farmers in selecting appropriate varieties to specific growing conditions or end use of crops. A set of ten microsatellite markers was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 30 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes. A total of 55 different alleles were amplified using ten SSR markers localized on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, 6H, 7H with an average number of 5.5 alleles per locus. On the basis of allele frequencies we have calculated diversity index, polymorphic information content and index of probability, which have mean values of 0.664; 0.643 and 0.126 respectively. These values indicate high differentiation ability of SSR markers. In the created dendrogram using hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm we were able to differentiate all 30 barley genotypes. The results show that DNA markers are suitable for the identification and differentiation of genotypes and indicated the effectiveness of microsatellite markers to describe genetic diversity.

  2. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  3. Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, D.T.H.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic acid. The accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity is sustained or quickly restored when cordycepin is added simultaneously or some time after abscisic acid, indicating that the response of aleurone layers to abscisic acid depends on the continuous synthesis of a short lived RNA. By analysis of the newly synthesized proteins by gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate, it was observed that the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase is decreased in the presence of abscisic acid while the synthesis of most of the other proteins remains unchanged. From the rate of resumption of ..cap alpha..-amylase production in the presence of cordycepin and abscisic acid, it appears that abscisic acid does not have a measurable effect on the stability of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA.

  4. Competition and dry matter yield in intercrops of barley and legume for forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLLAH JAVANMARD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For increasing land use efficiency intercropping plays a pivotal role. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., vetch (Vicia villosa, and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER,competitive ratio (CR, relative crowding coefficient (RCC, aggressivity (A, actual yield loss (AYL, monetary advantage index (MAI and intercropping advantage (IA.The experimental was arranged asa randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications.The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grass pea75 (5.44 t ha-1 mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1. The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64 than intercropped legumes (K=1.20, indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

  5. High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea

    2014-03-24

    A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL's output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating. PMID:24663985

  6. Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasne É.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the global context of the decline in wild species, modeling the distribution of populations is a crucial aspect of ecological management. This can be a major challenge, especially for species, such as the European eel, that have complex life cycles, exhibit cryptic behavior, or migrate over long distances. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater distribution of eel. We argue that analyses based on small yellow eels (≤ 300 mm along the longitudinal course of rivers could provide a valuable tool for population monitoring. We propose a standardized catchment recruitment index and a colonization index based on the probability of occurrence (presence/absence data using logistic models for different size classes. The model developed here provides a convenient guide for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management of the species.

  7. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.;

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  8. Infection of barley protoplasts with rice hoja blanca tenuivirus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M; Kormelink, R; Goldbach, R; Haenni, A L

    1999-01-01

    A barley protoplast system has been established that supports replication of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV). Following polyethylene glycol-mediated RHBV inoculation of barley protoplasts, newly synthesized viral RNAs and proteins could be detected. Time course analyses revealed de novo synthesis of genome length viral RNA4, as well as subgenomic-sized RNA4 molecules of both polarities. Two proteins, N and NS4, encoded by viral complementary RNA3 and viral RNA4 respectively, were detected by Western immunoblot analysis. The barley protoplast system thus constitutes a promising tool for in vivo studies of the sequential steps involved in the multiplication cycle of RHBV. PMID:10603179

  9. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    -o resistant barley was independent of the powdery mildew culture applied. This supports the hypothesis set forth as to why the ml-o mutants are resistant against all known cultures or races of barley powdery mildew, and why this resistance may be more durable than other powdery mildew resistances....... This is the 1st case where the effect of callose refers to the action of a specific gene. Six susceptible Japanese varieties formed large appositions but they were initiated as late as in other susceptible varieties, and their color was paler than in other barleys. Nine Hordeum spp. [H. capense, H. chilense, H...

  10. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  11. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  12. Yellow light dilemma zone researches: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yaping Zhang; Chuanyun Fu; Liwei Hu

    2014-01-01

    The yellow light dilemma zone is widely known as an area on the high-speed intersection approach, where vehicles neither safely stop before the stop line nor proceed through the intersection during amber interval. Within such an area, a vehicle might be involved in a right-angle crash or rear-end collision. This issue has been extensively discussed over five decades in traffic engineering field, covering from theory to practice. However, few comprehensive review literatures on the amber signa...

  13. Coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma disease in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Bila, João

    2016-01-01

    The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a major cash crop that is widely grown in coastal tropical regions of the world, including Mozambique. Outbreaks of coconut lethal yellowing disease (CLYD) are threatening the industry and the livelihood of a large part of the Mozambican population. The aim of this thesis was to study different epidemiological aspects of CLYD in Mozambique. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and secA genes were performed on plant and insect samples collected from different a...

  14. Multifractal analysis of the Yellow River flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Bao-Jiang; Shang Peng-Jian

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with time series of the Yellow River daily flows at Tongguan hydrological station,from the year 2000 to 2005.Power spectrum analysis and statistical moment scaling function on a range of scales revealed scaling qualities of the data.The partition function,which displayed a convex curvature,and the generalized dimension function showed that multifractality is presented.The singularity spectrum,which is single-humped,has shown strong multifractality degree.

  15. Screening for Barley Waterlogging Tolerance in Nordic Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence on Hydroponically-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging can reduce crop yield by 20%–50% or more, and lack of efficient selection methods is an obstacle in plant breeding. The methods currently used are mainly indices based on germination ability in Petri dishes and leaf chlorosis in plants grown in waterlogged soils. Cultivation in oxygen-depleted nutrient solution is the ultimate waterlogging system. Therefore methods based on root growth inhibition and on fluorescence in plant material hydroponically grown in oxygen-depleted solution were evaluated against data on biomass accumulation in waterlogged soils. Both traits were correlated with waterlogging tolerance in soil, but since it was easier to measure fluorescence, this method was further evaluated. A selection of F2 plants with high and low fluorescence revealed a small but significant screening effect in F3 plants. A test of 175 Nordic cultivars showed large variations in chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves from oxygen-stressed seedlings, indicating that adaptation to waterlogging has gradually improved over the past 40–50 years with the introduction of new cultivars onto the market. However, precipitation also increased during the period and new cultivars may have inadvertently been adapted to this while breeding barley for grain yield. The results suggest that the hydroponic method can be used for screening barley populations, breeding lines or phenotyping of populations in developing markers for quantitative trait loci.

  16. [Yellow fever: study of an outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mirtes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    This study had the aim of describing an outbreak of yellow fever that occurred in the municipalities under the jurisdiction of the Regional Healthcare Administration of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, between 2002 and 2003, in which 36 cases were notified. This was an autochthonous outbreak of wild-type yellow fever. Failure of vaccinal coverage and low levels of detection of mild cases were found. Among the cases, 33 (91.7%) were male and the age range was from 16 to 67 years. Nineteen (52.8%) of the cases were classified as severe and 12 men (33.3%) died of the disease. All of the cases came from rural areas and presented fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, myalgia, oliguria and signs of hemorrhage. Surveillance through laboratory tests was the determining factor in diagnosing the outbreak. By describing the epidemiological and clinic findings, this study contributes towards diagnosing and classifying this disease. It was deduced that there is a relationship between deforestation, and outbreaks, and that there is a potential regional risk of yellow fever because of the local development of tourism. PMID:19967234

  17. The identification of protein biomarkers distinguishing virus transmission competent and refractive insect populations by coupling genetics with quantitative intact proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of insects that vector pathogens is a massive challenge to human health and agriculture. Yellow dwarf viruses (YDV) cause economically significant disease in cereal crops (barley, wheat, rye, maize) worldwide and are vectored by aphids. The identification of vector proteins mediating virus ...

  18. Selection procedures for durable resistance in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    A wheat breeding programme for durable resistance to all locally important pathogens: leaf rust, stem rust, powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum, Septoria tritici, Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium graminearum, Common Root Rot, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Soil Borne Mosaic Virus was conducted in Brazil.

  19. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  20. OGLE-2014-BLG-0257L: A Microlensing Brown Dwarf Orbiting a Low-mass M Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the discovery of a binary composed of a brown dwarf and a low-mass M dwarf from the observation of the microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-0257. Resolution of the very short-lasting caustic crossing combined with the detection of subtle continuous deviation in the lensing light curve induced by the Earth's orbital motion enable us to precisely measure both the Einstein radius \\theta_E and the lens parallax pi_E, which are the two quantities needed to unambiguously determine the mass and distance to the lens. It is found that the companion is a substellar brown dwarf with a mass 0.036 +/- 0.005 Msun (37.7 +/- 5.2\\ M_J) and it is orbiting an M dwarf with a mass 0.19 +/- 0.02 Msun. The binary is located at a distance 1.25 +/- 0.13 kpc toward the Galactic bulge and the projected separation between the binary components is 0.61 +/- 0.07 AU. The separation scaled by the mass of the host is 3.2 AU/Msun. Under the assumption that separations scale with masses, then, the discovered brown dwarf is...