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Sample records for barley seed tissue

  1. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during......Barley is a major cereal crop grown mainly for feed and malting. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to analyse barley proteins for over 20 years and more recently, mass spectrometry was applied. In the absence of a genome sequence, barley gene and EST sequences combined with...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...

  2. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  3. Proteome analysis of dissected barley seed tissue during germination and radicle elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine

    2007-01-01

    Cereal grains are vital components of our diet, and therefore understanding of the biology of breakage of dormancy and initiation of germination very important. These processes are far from fully understood, despite extensive studies, and no specific markers for germination have been identified...... stress, storage breakdown, folding, and housekeeping were identified and tracked through 72 h PI. APX and the other enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase) were thought to have an important function during....... The APX mRNA of both isoforms were present in the dry mature seed, whereas increasing activity was only observed after 36 h, which supports that the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is not functioning in the desiccated seed, but that the mRNA is ready for translation. Both APX and DHAR are suggested targets...

  4. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  5. Radiostimulation of protein synthesis in barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds were irradiated with 10 gy of gamma-radiation and protein synthesis was measured in terms of incorporation of (3H) leucine at varying periods after the onset of germination. It is found that the process of translation of long-life mRNA is accentuated by about 20 percent in the irradiated barley seeds during the first hour of germination as compared to the corresponding appropriate control. (author)

  6. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  7. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  8. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  9. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  10. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  11. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  12. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...

  13. Spatio-temporal changes in germination and radical elongation of barley seeds tracked by proteome analysis of dissected embryo, aleurone layer and endosperm tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Finnie, Christine; Roepstorff, P.;

    2007-01-01

    proteins to appear (at 4 h PI). Other early changes were observed that affected spots containing desiccation stress-associated late embryogenesis abundant and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced proteins. From 12 h PI proteins characteristic for desiccation stress disappeared rapidly, as did a putative embryonic...... functions to the seed embryo, aleurone, and endosperm. Abundance in 2-DE patterns was monitored for 48 different proteins appearing in 79 gel spots at 8 time-points up to 72 h post imbibition (PI). In embryo, a beta-type proteasome subunit and a heat shock protein 70 fragment were among the earliest......, increased in abundance at 36 h PI. The surprisingly early changes seen in the protein profiles already 4 h after imbibition indicate that germination is programmed during seed maturation...

  14. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... present in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment...... mutants were analyzed in spikes classified according to their ontogenetic relationship. The frequency with which two spikes segregated identical mutants was determined by pairwise comparisons of all spikes in each plant. In this way the frequency of mutant cluster sharing between spikes and spike groups...

  15. SEED PRODUCTION of WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) and BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KAYAÇETİN, Fatma

    2006-01-01

    Seed production of wheat and barley compose of several subsequentel processes such as production of required amount of certified seeds on time. An effective seed production program includes many basic components mechinal cleaning during sowing, harvest and the selector, removal of other species from field from heading to harvest, on time harvest and a good storage. The aim of seed production is to ensure clean seed material free from other species and weed seeds, large, plump grain without di...

  16. Genetic variation for seed protein in barley germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley accessions collected from three regions of Pakistan were evaluated for seed protein (%) for two seasons. A wide range of variation (9 to 21%) was found in the germplasm studied during both seasons. Maximum accessions exhibited protein 12.1 - 16.0% protein whereas few accessions produced more than 18.0% protein. Correlation between two seasons' data was highly significant indicating the influence of genetic component. Germplasm were classified on the basis of regions. Accessions from Northern areas possessed average higher protein percentage followed by NWFP, Baluchistan and check varieties. Classification on the basis of altitude showed that the accessions collected from 200-800 masl had low protein while those collected from 2601-3000 masl had high protein. This study provides information on important protein sources of germplasm. (author)

  17. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  18. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  19. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  20. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  1. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  2. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    . A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling...... seed dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was......Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable...

  3. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  4. Glyoxylate cycle and metabolism of organic acids in the scutellum of barley seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenguo; Marsolais, Frédéric; Bernards, Mark A; Sumarah, Mark W; Bykova, Natalia V; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-07-01

    During the developmental processes from dry seeds to seedling establishment, the glyoxylate cycle becomes active in the mobilization of stored oils in the scutellum of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds, as indicated by the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. The succinate produced is converted to carbohydrates via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and to amino acids via aminotransferases, while free organic acids may participate in acidifying the endosperm tissue, releasing stored starch into metabolism. The abundant organic acid in the scutellum was citrate, while malate concentration declined during the first three days of germination, and succinate concentration was low both in scutellum and endosperm. Malate was more abundant in endosperm tissue during the first three days of germination; before citrate became predominant, indicating that malate may be the main acid acidifying the endosperm. The operation of the glyoxylate cycle coincided with an increase in the ATP/ADP ratio, a buildup of H2O2 and changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione. It is concluded that operation of the glyoxylate cycle in the scutellum of cereals may be important not only for conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrates, but also for the acidification of endosperm and amino acid synthesis. PMID:27181945

  5. Effect of Osmo-priming on Germination and Enzyme Activity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Seeds under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei S. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming was used in barley to increase seed germination and tolerance on stress exposure. Barley seeds were treated with PEG (Polyethylene 6000 mw. After 7 days our results showed that, seed priming treatments significantly (p≤ 0.01 affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, and germination index. Seed priming with PEG increased germination characteristics as the compared to the unprimed. Also, priming increased catalase as compared to the unprimed seeds. Therefore, the highest germination characteristics and catalase activity were attained from priming with PEG.

  6. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie; Møller Kudahl, Cevilie; Davidsson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments...

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. PMID:26948880

  8. Irradiation seed treatment reduces scald, common root rot and increases phosphorus absorption of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on severity of barley to scald and common root rot diseases, and phosphorus absorption was studied seeds were exposed to doses of 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. A stimulatory effect was observed at irradiation doses of 30 and 40 Gy, which decreased the severity of barley to scald by 34% and 31% respectively. On the other hand, doses 20 and 30 Gy decreased the severity to CRR by 54% and 49% respectively, whereas, phosphorus absorption was significantly increased at doses of 15 and 20 Gy

  9. Radiation effects on wheat and naked barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the studies on radiation effects on fields crops, radiation effects on two kinds of wheat Triticum aestivum L.cv.Haruna-Nijo and Hordeum vulgare L.emend. Lam. cv.Omase, were investigated. Seeds or these wheats were irradiated by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source. At the irradiation, dry and wet seeds specified by the water content were prepared. Irradiation of the dry seed was made up to 630 krad, while that of the wet seed was made up to 52 krad. Seeding of the irradiated seeds was carried out in the following two stages ; the one in which the seeding was made directly after the irradiation and the other in which it was made after storage of the irradiation seeds for about six months. Radiation effects on the dry and wet seeds of wheats were observed as follows : 1. Within the dosage of 630 krad for dry seeds, germination percentage was not influenced by radiation. 2. On the other hand, the mean days of germination of the irradiated dry seeds was 2.2 days at the lower irradiation doses, slightly increasing at the higher ones. 3. Stem lengths of the irradiated wet seeds were markedly influenced by the radiation and the changes of those were observed to be one tenth of the dosage in case of the irradiated dry seeds. Therefore, the set seeds were noted to be more sensitive for radiation than the dry seeds. 4. Effects of storage period on the germination percentage and the changes in stem lengths were not observed

  10. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  11. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  12. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  13. miRNA regulation in the early development of barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curaba Julien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the early stages of seed development many genes are under dynamic regulation to ensure the proper differentiation and establishment of the tissue that will constitute the mature grain. To investigate how miRNA regulation contributes to this process in barley, a combination of small RNA and mRNA degradome analyses were used to identify miRNAs and their targets. Results Our analysis identified 84 known miRNAs and 7 new miRNAs together with 96 putative miRNA target genes regulated through a slicing mechanism in grain tissues during the first 15 days post anthesis. We also identified many potential miRNAs including several belonging to known miRNA families. Our data gave us evidence for an increase in miRNA-mediated regulation during the transition between pre-storage and storage phases. Potential miRNA targets were found in various signalling pathways including components of four phytohormone pathways (ABA, GA, auxin, ethylene and the defence response to powdery mildew infection. Among the putative miRNA targets we identified were two essential genes controlling the GA response, a GA3oxidase1 and a homolog of the receptor GID1, and a homolog of the ACC oxidase which catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. We found that two MLA genes are potentially miRNA regulated, establishing a direct link between miRNAs and the R gene response. Conclusion Our dataset provides a useful source of information on miRNA regulation during the early development of cereal grains and our analysis suggests that miRNAs contribute to the control of development of the cereal grain, notably through the regulation of phytohormone response pathways.

  14. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of a hull-less variety (IB 65) were γ-irradiated (40 and 45 krad, 100 rad/sec) at 250C, and the seeds were post-hydrated for 12 hours at approximately 30C in oxygenated and oxygen-free water or caffeine solutions (3.8 x 10-4 to 3.8 x 10-2M). Measurements of 8-day seedling growth showed that the different caffeine concentrations applied during oxygenated or oxygen-free hydrations produced no observable effects on the growth of unirradiated seeds. All caffeine concentrations afforded protection for the irradiated seeds under oxygenated conditions, and potentiated the damage under oxygen-free conditions. A maximum radio-protection occurred at a caffeine concentration of 3.8 x 10-3M, whereas radiosensitization under oxygen-free conditions was concentration-dependent. Possible mechanisms are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    analysis was used to describe the water-soluble protein fraction of Golden Promise seeds in comparison with the modern malting cultivar Barke. Using 2D-gel electrophoresis to visualise several hundred proteins in the pH ranges 4-7 and 6-11, 16 protein spots were found to differ between the two cultivars...

  16. Mineral balance evaluation of irradiated barley seeds grown on saline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two barley (C. V. Pakistani 30163) were irradiated with 0, 15, and 20 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on nutrient media, containing 0, 10, 50 and 100 meql-1 of NaCl. Zero and 20 Gy and 10 meql-1 NaCl, increased Ca++ and K+ contents of all plants. Fifty meql-1 NaCl decreased Mg++ content. Ten and 50 meql-1 NaCl increased the % of total N and P contents of all barley plants. Na+ and Cl- contents increased with NaCl concentrations in the media. Fifty meql-1 NaCl increased the cationic sum. The ratio of Na+/Cl- differed from one. (authors)

  17. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.;

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... identified only by immunostaining. Mass spectrometry identified 12 full-length forms and 12 fragments from the cultivar Barke. Products of both alpha-amylase 2 entries co-migrated in five full-length and one fragment spot. The alpha-amylase abundance and the number of fragments increased during germination...... only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  19. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  20. Modification of radiation effects on barley seeds by a pretreatment with some flavonoglycosides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.K.; Kaul, B.L.

    1985-11-05

    Studies were undertaken to find out the effect of rutin and quercetin pretreatment against various doses of gamma irradiation on barley seeds. It was found that both chemicals provide protection against gamma irradiation. In the case of rutin 0.5 mM gave maximum protection without being toxic both in terms of seedling injury and chromosomal aberrations whereas in the case of quercetin similar effects were produced by 5 mM treatment. Rutin was more effective than quercetin. The dose reduction factor varied between 1.1 and 1.5. (author).

  1. Effects of seed irradiation on the early development and mitochondrial RNA synthesis of 'Impala' barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of fractionated γ-irradiation on barley seeds was investigated under outdoor and hothouse conditions. The doses were 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 rad. The resulting radiation effects were investigated from the point of view of molecular biology, i.e. studying the RNA synthesis of the mitochondria after 14C-labelling of uridine. The radiation influence on the length of the coleoptiles was another criterion. The irradiation findings are discussed in connection with the cultivation of better and more resistant plants for agriculture. (GSE/AK)

  2. Study of variation in radiosensitivity of barley (Hardeum Vulgare) as a function of seed water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the sorption curve representing the development of water content versus relative humidity, in barley seeds (CV. Thibaut), shows that water is present in three different states: Constitutive water at less than 8.1%, absorption water between 8.1 and 10.9%, and free water at more than 10.9%. Along with these states, radiosensitivity is respectively high, low, and high. The seeds detached from the rachis have less radioresistance than the attached ones. However, this difference in behaviour is reduced when the water content is high (presence of free water). We also observed that growth was stimulated by weak doses of irradiation (20 Gy), whatever the water content was. (author). 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Response of barley genotypes to salinity stress as alleviated by seed priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study entitled Response of barley genotypes to salinity stresses as alleviated by seed priming was conducted at the Greenhouses of the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The response of twelve barely genotypes (Haide r-93, Soorab-96, Arabic Asward, NRB-37, Frontier-87, Jau-83, Balochistan-Local, NRB-31, KPK-Local, Sanober-96, Awarn-2002 and AZ-2006) at two seed conditions (seed priming with 30 mM NaCl and no seed priming) under four salinity levels (0 mM, 50 mM, 100 mM and 150 mM) was studied. The results revealed that seed priming and salinity had significantly (P = 0.05) affected all parameters under study. However, the effect of seed priming was non significant on shoot length (cm) and root length (cm). Maximum shoot length (40.79 cm), shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (10.15 g) and shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.81 g), was recorded in Balochistan-Local. Haider-93 produced highest root length (20.31 cm). Frontier-87 exhibited maximum shoot Na/sup +/K/sup +/ratio (1.49) and maximum shoot proline content of 144.31 mu g g/sup -1/ fresh weight was recorded from KPK-Local. Seed priming had distinctly enhanced all the above mentioned parameters except shoot Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratio. It is concluded that salinity stresses had affected all parameters under study however; seed priming with NaCl had alleviated the adverse effects of salinity in barely genotypes. (author)

  4. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ijaz Hussain, Abdullah; Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. ...

  5. From Proteomics to Structural Studies of Cytosolic/Mitochondrial-Type Thioredoxin Systems in Barley Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azar Shahpiri; Birte Svensson; Christine Finnie

    2009-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trx) are ubiquitous proteins that participate in thiol disulfide reactions via two active site cysteine residues,allowing Trx to reduce disulfide bonds in target proteins.Recent progress in proteome analysis has resulted in identification of a wide range of potential target proteins for Trx,indicating that Trx plays a key role in several aspects of cell metabolism.In contrast to other organisms,plants contain multiple forms of Trx that are classified based on their primary structures and sub-cellular localization.The reduction of cytosolic and mitochondrial types of Trx is dependenl on NADPH and catalyzed by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR).In barley,two isoforms each of Trx and NTR have been identified and investigated using proteomics,gene expression,and structural studies.This review outlines the diverse roles suggested for cytosolic/mitochondrial-type Trx systems in cereal seeds and summarizes the current knowl-edge of the barley system including recent data on function,regulation,interactions,and structure.Directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Effect of barley or rape seed cake as supplement to silage for high-yielding organic dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of barley or rape seed cake as supplement to silage given ad libitum on milk production and health of dairy cows. A total of 103 cows were divided into two groups on two farms. Before the experiment, the cows had an average milk yield of 26.9 kg ECM and they were in milk for an average of 99 days. Their average parity was 2.3 and their weight 596 kg. The cows in each group received either solely barley or an isoenergetic mixture of rap...

  7. Investigations on the relative biologic effectiveness of fast neutrons in barley and maize after dry seed irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring barley cultivar Elsa and the inbred maize line S-144 were used. Seeds having 12% moisture were irradiated with 4 doses of γ-rays and fast neutrons. The relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) was determined in regard to germination, sterility and chlorophyll mutation frequency. RBE-values for barley varied within the range of 15 to 31 for the individual criteria, while for maize the range was 4 to 14 respectively. It was established that with the rise in fast neutron irradiation doses RBE diminishes. (author)

  8. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  9. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dry barley seeds (3.1 per cent moisture content), the maximal level of oxic damage (class III damage) was reached within the first 40 min a post-hydration in oxygenated water at 5 +- 10C. The decay of the gamma-ray-induced oxygensensitive sites required however, about 120 min. The mechanism leading to partial protection against the class III damage were initiated when caffeine was present during the dirst 30 min of oxygenated post-hydration. If added after 30 min of oxygenated hydration, caffeine had no protective action. For the potentiation of an oxygen-independent component of damage, caffeine had to be present during the first 240 min of oxygen-free hydration. These observations involving a physiologically inert system raised questions regarding physico-chemical vis-a-vis biochemical mechanisms of caffeine effect on irradiated systems and these have been briefly discussed. (author)

  11. The Biological Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Vibrations on Barley Seed Hydration and Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Armine Amyan; Sinerik Ayrapetyan

    2004-01-01

    The changes of wet and dry weights and germination of barley seed in different periods of its swelling in nontreated (control), extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) )–treated, and extremely low frequency vibrations (ELFV)–treated cold (4°C) and warm (20°C) distilled water (DW) were studied. The metabolic-dependent seed hydration, dry weight dissolving, germination, and water binding in seed were modulated by preliminary EMF- and ELFV-treated DW. Frequency “windows” for the...

  12. Comparative genetic effects of gamma rays and neutrons on barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried barley seeds of the Piroline variety were exposed to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source and to the neutron fluxes obtained in two installations yielding different spectra: in the biological cell of the EL3 reactor, where the flux, coming from an uranium converter, consists mainly of fast neutrons; and in the pool of the low-power PEGGY reactor, where the flux against the core chimney is much more thermal in nature. Neutron flux was determined by biological dosimetry, measuring the reduction in the growth of the first lead of seedling grown from irradiated grain. The genetic effects of gamma rays and neutrons on chlorophyll mutations are studied by analyzing their incidence, spectrum and segregation ratios in the second plant and third generation. Statistical analysis of the results shows that the spectra of the main chlorophyll mutations (albina, viridis, xanta) do not different significantly whatever type of radiation the seeds are exposed to. Similarly, the incidence of presumed mutations which occur in the second generation, only to disappear in the third, and that of new mutations appearing only in the third generation do not differ depending on the type of radiation. Finally, the proportion of mutations which segregate in the ratio 3:1 in the third generation is the same with neutrons and gamma rays. This suggests that the proportion of significant chromosome modifications capable of being transmitted after meiosis and fertilization does not differ depending on the type of radiation applied to seeds of diploid species. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Barley Seed ß-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leah, R.; Kigel, J.; Svendsen, I.;

    1995-01-01

    blot analysis with the cDNA as probe indicated that BGQ60 is encoded by a single gene, and that BGQ60 mRNA only accumulates in the starchy endosperm tissue of late developing seeds. The bgq60 structural gene of approximately 5 kilobases contains an open reading frame encoding 485 amino acids...

  14. In situ study of water uptake by the seeds, endosperm and husk of barley using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J K

    2015-11-01

    Variations in the amount and rates of water uptake influence the seed hydration as well as the modification of the endosperm for industrial uses (e.g., malting). The aim of this study was to investigate and interpret absorption frequencies in the mid infrared (MIR) region associated with water uptake in whole seeds, husk and endosperm of barley seeds during the initial period of soaking in water. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the prediction of water uptake in the set of samples yield a coefficient of determination (R(2)) and a standard error in cross validation of 0.75 and 2.57 (% w/w), respectively. The biological implications of this study are that the first stages of germination can be monitored using the information derived from the MIR spectra. These results also demonstrated that whole seeds, endosperm and husk derived from the same variety or genotype have different patterns in the MIR region. PMID:26048560

  15. Effects of oxygen and moisture content on the radiation damage in barley seeds irradiated with fast neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gamma-irradiated barley seeds the effect of moisture content seems to modify the oxygen effect. If gamma-irradiated seeds (4% H2O content) are soaked in oxygen-free water before being transferred to oxygenated water, the oxygen-sensitive centres decay. The decay rate is a function of temperature and is shown to be most likely due to how fast the target molecules are hydrated. When low moisture content seeds were irradiated with fast neutrons in the SNIF, a moisture content effect was also obtained. However, contrary to what was found with gamma-irradiated seeds, no effect of oxygen was obtained. This excludes the possibility that gamma-contamination caused the moisture content effect. A model explaining the difference between the effect of neutrons and gamma-rays, respectively, is discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Metabolic Changes in Barley Seed Embryo during Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenguo; Marsolais, Frédéric; Bykova, Natalia V; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-01-01

    The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP/ADP ratios, reduction levels of ascorbate and glutathione, expression of the genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism of NO and activities of the enzymes involved in fermentation and in metabolism of NO and ROS were studied in the embryos of germinating seeds of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars differing in dormancy level. The level of NO production continuously increased after imbibition while the level of nitrosylated SH-groups in proteins increased. This corresponded to the decrease of free SH-groups in proteins. At early stage of germination (0-48 h post imbibition) the genes encoding class 1 phytoglobin (the protein scavenging NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (scavenging S-nitrosoglutathione) were markedly expressed. More dormant cultivar exhibited lower ATP/ADP and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratios and lower lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase activities, while the production of NO and nitrosylation of proteins was higher as compared to the non-dormant cultivar. The obtained data indicate that at the onset of germination NO is actively generated causing nitrosylation of SH-groups and a switch from respiration to fermentation. After radicle protrusion the metabolism changes in a more reducing type as recorded by ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione and ascorbate. The turnover of NO by the scavenging systems (phytoglobin, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase and interaction with ROS) might contribute to the maintenance of redox and energy balance of germinating seeds and lead to alleviation of dormancy. PMID:26909088

  17. Influence of oxygen at high pressure on the induction of damage in barley seeds by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of oxygen pressure prior to, during, and after irradiation on the induction of radiation damage was investigated using Himalaya (C.I. 620) barley seeds. Seeds were adjusted to water contents of 2 to 14% and then irradiated with 60Co gamma rays in vacuo or under various oxygen tensions. After irradiation, the seeds were rehydrated at approximately 00C in water continuously bubbled with oxygen or nitrogen. Biological effects of the treatments were recorded as M1 seedling injury. Seeds irradiated in oxygen pressure sustained two or three times more damage than those irradiated in vacuo followed by rehydrating in oxygenated water. Greater damage occurred when seeds were (a) exposed to oxygen pressure and the pressure released before irradiation, (b) irradiated under oxygen pressure, or (c) irradiated in vacuo and then exposed to oxygen pressure than when irradiated in vacuo and rehydrated in oxygenated water. These results suggest that seeds can be saturated with oxygen before irradiation and also that the radiation-induced sites (presumably free radicals) which react with the oxygen are somewhat stable in very dry seeds. That the reaction probably occurs before the seeds are rehydrated was demonstrated by the failure to remove the effect of oxygen pressure between high oxygen pressure treatment and irradiation. The results indicate that placing the seeds under oxygen pressure may increase the rate and extent of the reactions occurring during post-radiation storage of seeds in the presence of oxygen. The increase in damage associated with aerobic rehydration is partially lost during aerobic storage and is largely pre-empted when seeds are placed under oxygen pressure. The decrease in damage associated with aerobic rehydration is accompanied by an increase in damage occurring with anaerobic rehydration, suggesting that the reaction which leads to damage was initiated before rehydration and to the same oxygen sensitive sites

  18. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy

  19. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  20. 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: an interaction of the ionizable side chains essential for catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnishi, Tsuneo; Juffer, André H; Tamoi, Masahiro;

    2005-01-01

    To explore the structure essential for the catalysis in 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds, we calculated theoretical pKa values of the ionizable groups based on the crystal structure, and then the roles of ionizable side chains located near the catalytic residue were examined by site...... coli expression system. The transition temperature of thermal unfolding (T(m)) of R215A was lower than that of the wild type protein by about 6.2 degrees C. In the crystal structure, the Arg215 side chain is in close proximity to the Glu203 side chain, whose theoretical pKa value was found to be...

  1. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...

  2. Influence of oxygen at high pressure on the induction of damage in barley seeds by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of high pressure oxygen (HPO) before, during and after irradiation on seedling injury (percent reduction in seedling height relative to the nonirradiated controls) was investigated using Himalaya (C.I. 620) barley seeds. Seeds were adjusted to water contents of 2 to 14% by storage in vacuum desiccators over calcium oxide or mixtures of glycerol and water and then irradiated in vacuo or under various oxygen tensions with 60Co gamma rays. After irradiation, the seeds were soaked at approximately 00C in oxygen or nitrogen bubbled water. Treatment effects were recorded as M1 seedling injury. Seeds exposed to HPO before, during or after irradiation followed by soaking in oxygen or nitrogen expressed two or three times more damage than irradiation in vacuo followed by soaking in oxygenated water. That a reaction between oxygen and radiation-induced sites probably occurs before the seeds are soaked was demonstrated by the failure to remove completely the effect of HPO by vacuum between HPO treatment and irradiation. The results indicated that placing the seeds under HPO may increase the rate and extent of reactions which occur during post-radiation storage of seeds in the presence of oxygen. The increase in damage associated with oxygen soaking (oxygen-dependent damage) was partially lost during aerobic storage and was largely pre-empted when seeds were placed under HPO. This decrease in oxygen-dependent damage was accompanied by an increase in damage occurring with nitrogen soaking, suggesting that the reaction which leads to damage was initiated before soaking and to the same oxygen sensitive sites. (author)

  3. Barley grain maturation and germination: Metabolic pathway and regulatory network commonalities and differences highlighted by new MapMan/PageMan profiling tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, N.; Usadel, B.; Winter, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Weschke, W.; Strickert, M.; Close, T; Stitt, M.; Graner, A; Wobus, U

    2008-01-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm / aleurone and embryo / scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in...

  4. Microfluidic monitoring of programmed cell death in living plant seed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga;

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are dismantled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCD are only poorly understood in plant cells compared to in animal cells (Gechev, Tsanko......, et al., (2006), BioEssays, 28, p. 1091). Microfluidic cell culture enables in vitro experiments to approach in vivo conditions. Combining microfluidics with the Lab-On-a-Chip concept allows implementing a wide range of assays for real-time monitoring of effects in a biological system of factors such...... as concentration of selected compounds, external pH, oxygen consumption, redox state and cell viability. The aleurone layer of the barley seed is a 2-3 single cell type thick tissue that can be dissected from the embryo and starchy endosperm. During incubation in vitro this mechanically very robust...

  5. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffein. IV. Effect of the moisture content of seed and storage temperature after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Nadkarni, S

    1977-02-01

    The oxygen-dependent damage which develops in barley seeds with approximately 7-8 per cent moisture content disappears after post-irradiation storage in vacuo for 48 hours at 40 degrees C and for 24 hours at 50 degrees C. When the diration of storage at 40 degrees C is extended to 384 hours, oxygen-independent damage becomes potentiated. There is oxygen-dependent damage in seeds of approximately 13.3 per cent moisture content and after the seeds have been stored in vacuo at 50 degrees C, the oxygen-dependent damage begins to increase by 168 hours, and it is very significantly potentiated by 192 hours. Under these circumstances, caffeine acts as a radioprotector only as long as the precursors of oxic damage are present in the seeds. Once these sites are lost, caffeine acts only as a radiosensitizer. The oxygen-independent damage which increases with storage at high temperature is further potentiated by caffeine. PMID:300722

  6. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. PMID:25752426

  7. Influence of radiation dose and dose-rate on modification of barley seed radiosensitivity by post-treatment with caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of radiation doses (100, 150 and 200 Gy) and dose-rates (1.27-0.023 Gy/Sec) on the modification of oxic and anoxic radiation damage by caffeine at different concentrations has been investigated using metabolizing barley seeds as test system. As the radiation dose increases from 100 to 200 Gy, the magnitude of oxic and anoxic damages increase at all the dose-rates. Caffeine is able to afford partial radioprotection against the oxic damage, at the same time potentiating the anoxic damage. However, caffeine effect against the oxic and anoxic components of damage depend largely upon the dose of radiation applied and also on the dose-rate used. The possible mechanism of action of caffeine in bringing about the differential modification of oxic and anoxic damages has been discussed. 19 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  8. A flexible loop controlling the enzymatic activity and specificity in a glycosyl hydrolase family 19 endochitinase from barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukamizo, Tamo; Miyake, Ryoh; Tamura, Atsushi;

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the loop structure consisting of residues 70-82 (70-82 loop) localized to + 3/4 subsite of the substrate binding cleft of a family GH-19 endochitinase from barley seeds, Trp72 and Trp82 were mutated, and the mutated enzymes (W72A, W82A, and W72A/W82A) were characterized....... Thermal stability and specific activities toward glycol chitin and chitin hexasaccharide were significantly affected by the individual mutations. When N-acetylglucosamine hexamer was hydrolyzed by the wild type, the ß-anomer of the substrate was preferentially hydrolyzed, producing the trimer...... predominantly and the dimer and tetramer in lesser amounts. When the mutated enzymes were used instead of the wild type, the enzyme cleavage sites in the hexamer substrate were clearly shifted, and the ß-anomer selectivity was eliminated. The mutation effects on the enzymatic activity and stability were much...

  9. Gamma irradiation of barley seeds and its effect on ionic contents in plants differing in salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a field experiment, seeds of two barley varieties Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK) were irradiated with a 15 Gy dose of gamma irradiation, and sown on a saline soil (16.4-18.7 dS/m) and irrigated with a saline water (7.8 dS/m). At physiological maturity stage, gamma irradiation increased shoots dry weight of AA variety. Dose of 15 Gy had a negative effect on k+ and Na+ contents in plants of the PK variety; however, Mg++ and K+ contents of AA variety were increased. Gamma irradiation decreased the Σ cations and the Σ cations-Na+ in plants of the PK variety, and increased the Σ cations-Na+ of the AA variety. Moreover, it has positively affected both Ca++/Na+ ratio of PK variety and K+/Na+ ratio of AA variety. Ratio of Na+/Cl- of both varieties was smaller than one. (author)

  10. Comparative study of low and high dose x-irradiation of barley seeds during germination and early seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But for a few and sporadic cases of low dose stimulation, ionizing radiations are generally known for their growth inhibitory effects. Based on earlier experiments, conducted to select suitable doses, barley seeds were X-irradiated with one high (45 kR) and two low (400 R and 1600 R) doses. Morphological observations, during their 6 days of raising in dark, showed mild, yet significant, stimulations of both elongation growth and dry weight accumulation by low doses and a marked inhibition of these characters by the high dose. Corresponding changes in the physiological processes viz., sugars and protein metabolise, α-anylase and protesse activities and respiration supported the qualitative difference observed between the low and high radiation effects on growth. (author)

  11. 26kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: real-time monitoring of the enzymatic reaction and substrate binding experiments using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dennhart, Nicole; Weigang, Linda M M; Fujiwara, Maho;

    2009-01-01

    activity with unlabeled substrate. Further, the enzymatic activity of the E67Q mutant of the barley chitinase was analyzed and the role of Glu67 was discussed comparing the mass spectra of enzyme protein obtained in native and in denatured conditions. Then it was determined that the observed loss of the...... enzymatic activity in E67Q is definitely caused by a point mutation of Glu67 but not due to partial unfolding of the mutated enzyme. Finally, association constants of enzyme-oligosaccharide complexes were calculated from Scatchard plots obtained by mass spectra. The binding free energy values obtained for E......A 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds was enzymatically characterized exclusively by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). At first, oligosaccharide hydrolysis catalyzed by the barley chitinase was monitored in real-time by ESI-MS. The reaction time-course obtained by ESI...

  12. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  13. From Proteomics to Structural Studies of Cytosolic/Mitochondrial-Type Thioredoxin Systems in Barley Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahpiri, Azar; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2009-01-01

    for Trx, indicating that Trx plays a key role in several aspects of cell metabolism. In contrast to other organisms, plants contain multiple forms of Trx that are classified based on their primary structures and sub-cellular localization. The reduction of cytosolic and mitochondrial types of Trx is...... dependent on NADPH and catalyzed by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR). In barley, two isoforms each of Trx and NTR have been identified and investigated using proteomics, gene expression, and structural studies. This review outlines the diverse roles suggested for cytosolic/mitochondrial-type Trx...

  14. The effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on common bunt and covered smut diseases in wheat and barley seeds (Tilletia Caries, T. Foetida and Ustilago Hordei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of seeds treated by low doses of gamma irradiation (5-45 GY) in reducing the infection caused by pathagens transferred on wheat and barley seeds. Field experiments included 4 varieties of wheat (Mexipak, Fl. Aurore, Haurani, Jezira 17) and one variety of barley (WI 2291). Laboratory experiments were also carried out where fungal spores were germinated in soil-extract agar after the exposure to radiation. Field experiments included planting of irradiated seeds before and after inoculation, seed inculated by irradiated spores and seeds planted in soil contaminated by spores. In other experiments, irradiated seeds were planted after inoculation by spores of T. Caries and another time by the spores of T. Foetida. Results for 1988-89 and 1989-90 show that irradiation at doses used have a clear effect on reducing the infection by common bunt in wheat and covered smut in barley, where reductions reached between 15-60% compared with the control. The effects of 30 and 40 GY were more obvious. This study has also shown that the effect of radiation on the rate of infection (Mexipak, Fl. Aurore) was higher than in varieties which are more disease-resistent (Haurani, Jazira 17). Field and laboratory experiments indicate that this reduction in infection may be attributed to the effect of radiation on seeds and their germination and not on the fungi spores. There have been no significant differences between the rate of infection caused by T. Caries and T. Foetida after irradiation treatment. (author). 61 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...... provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight....

  16. Quantification of the tissue-culture induced variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek Piotr T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When plant tissue is passaged through in vitro culture, many regenerated plants appear to be no longer clonal copies of their donor genotype. Among the factors that affect this so-called tissue culture induced variation are explant genotype, explant tissue origin, medium composition, and the length of time in culture. Variation is understood to be generated via a combination of genetic and/or epigenetic changes. A lack of any phenotypic variation between regenerants does not necessarily imply a concomitant lack of genetic (or epigenetic change, and it is therefore of interest to assay the outcomes of tissue culture at the genotypic level. Results A variant of methylation sensitive AFLP, based on the isoschizomeric combinations Acc65I/MseI and KpnI/MseI was applied to analyze, at both the sequence and methylation levels, the outcomes of regeneration from tissue culture in barley. Both sequence mutation and alteration in methylation pattern were detected. Two sets of regenerants from each of five DH donor lines were compared. One set was derived via androgenesis, and the other via somatic embryogenesis, developed from immature embryos. These comparisons delivered a quantitative assessment of the various types of somaclonal variation induced. The average level of variation was 6%, of which almost 1.7% could be accounted for by nucleotide mutation, and the remainder by changes in methylation state. The nucleotide mutation rates and the rate of epimutations were substantially similar between the andro- and embryo-derived sets of regenerants across all the donors. Conclusion We have developed an AFLP based approach that is capable of describing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the tissue culture-induced variation. We believe that this approach will find particular value in the study of patterns of inheritance of somaclonal variation, since non-heritable variation is of little interest for the improvement of plant

  17. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  18. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  19. Simultaneous estimation of relative biological effectiveness of alpha particles and protons in thermal neutron exposure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles and protons emitted during exposure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds to thermal neutrons were estimated. sup(10)B-enriched re-dried seeds were irradiated with thermal neutrons or gamma-rays. Two assumptions so far believed that boron distribution was uniform throughout either natural dormant seeds or sup(10)B -enriched seeds, and that boron atoms enter the seeds as freely as water molecules do, were found to be invalid. A boron addition effect (BAE) as high as 58.2 was obtained after thermal neutron exposure of seeds presoaked in 4800 microg/g of sup(10)B-enriched boric acid solution. Estimates of RBE of alpha particles were nearly constant and independent of the contents of absorbed sup(10)B. RBE averaged 55.0 and 55.1 for the seed and spike presoaking methods of boron absorption, respectively. We could also obtain RBE of protons as high as 48.7 and 43.9 for the seed and spike methods, respectively. Boron addition converted the principal capture element during thermal neutron exposure from protons in dormant seeds to boron in sup(10)B enriched-seeds

  20. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie;

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...

  1. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    and vascular tissues of roots, and to the phloem of coleoptiles and leaves. The identification of BSZ4 in vegetative tissues by western blotting was confirmed for the roots by purification and amino acid sequencing, and for the leaves by in vitro reactive-centre loop cleavage studies. Plant serpins...... plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain and vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) showed that transcripts encoding BSZx, which inhibits distinct proteinases at overlapping reactive...... centres in vitro, were ubiquitous at low levels, but the protein could not be detected. EST analysis showed that expression of genes for serpins with BSZx-type reactive centres in vegetative tissues is widespread in the plant kingdom, suggesting a common regulatory function. For BSZ4 and BSZ7, expression...

  2. The effects of gamma irradiation on the leaching of reducing sugars, inorganic phosphate and enzymes from barley seeds during germination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation enhanced the leaching of reducing sugars from barley seeds into the water in which the seeds were shaken. Treatments prior to shaking in water, such as overnight soaking in water at 50C and subsequent germination in Petri dishes for 1 or 2 days at 200C, showed pronounced effects on the leaching. The highest effect, which was obtained at 500 krad irradiation, was four times higher than that of the non-irradiated control. Gamma irradiation also stimulated the leaching of inorganic phosphate and slightly that of amylases from barley seeds. When seeds from which the embryos has been removed were shaken into water, no stimulating effect on the leaching of sugars was noted. These results, combined with the irradiation effect on the embryo, suggest that the stimulated leaching of reducing sugars is due to the extreme difference in sensitivity to gamma irradiation between the production of reducing sugars in the endosperm and the development and growth of the embryo. (author)

  3. High-Density Spot Seeding for Tissue Model Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L. (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A model of tissue is produced by steps comprising seeding cells at a selected concentration on a support to form a cell spot, incubating the cells to allow the cells to partially attach, rinsing the cells to remove any cells that have not partially attached, adding culture medium to enable the cells to proliferate at a periphery of the cell spot and to differentiate toward a center of the cell spot, and further incubating the cells to form the tissue. The cells may be C2C12 cells or other subclones of the C2 cell line, H9c2(2-1) cells, L6 cells, L8 cells, QM7 cells, Sol8 cells, G-7 cells, G-8 cells, other myoblast cells, cells from other tissues, or stem cells. The selected concentration is in a range from about 1 x 10(exp 5) cells/ml to about 1 x 10(exp 6) cells/ml. The tissue formed may be a muscle tissue or other tissue depending on the cells seeded.

  4. Effects of Deoxynivalenol on Content of Chloroplast Pigments in Barley Leaf Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (scab) has been a devastating disease of wheat and barley in recent years across grain growing areas from Minnesota and the Dakotas to the Carolinas. The fungal pathogen causing the disease (Fusarium graminearum) produces a toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) that can be toxic when inf...

  5. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    Full Text Available In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Lip1, and PhyC, retroelements, sulfur homeostasis components Amp1, Hmt3, Eil3, and Vip1, mineral trafficking components Med16, Cnnm4, Aha2, Clpc1, and Pcbps, and vacuole organization factors Ymr155W, RabG3F, Vps4, and Cbl3. Our analysis introduces new interactors and signifies a broad spectrum of regulatory levels from chromatin remodeling to intracellular protein sorting mechanisms active in the plant mineral homeostasis. The results highlight the importance of storage proteins in metal ion toxicity-resistance and chelation. Interestingly, the protein sorting and recycling factors Exoc7, Cdc1, Sec23A, and Rab11A contributed to the response as well as the polar distributors of metal-transporters ensuring the directional flow of minerals. Alternative isoform switching was found important for plant adaptation and occurred among transcripts coding for identical proteins as well as transcripts coding for protein isoforms. We also identified differences in the alternative-isoform preference between

  6. A Novel Seeding and Conditioning Bioreactor for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schulte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple efforts have been made to develop small-diameter tissue engineered vascular grafts using a great variety of bioreactor systems at different steps of processing. Nevertheless, there is still an extensive need for a compact all-in-one system providing multiple and simultaneous processing. The aim of this project was to develop a new device to fulfill the major requirements of an ideal system that allows simultaneous seeding, conditioning, and perfusion. The newly developed system can be actuated in a common incubator and consists of six components: a rotating cylinder, a pump, a pulse generator, a control unit, a mixer, and a reservoir. Components that are in direct contact with cell media, cells, and/or tissue allow sterile processing. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed with polyurethane tubes and collagen tubes. The scaffolds were seeded with fibroblasts and endothelial cells that were isolated from human saphenous vein segments. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry showed better seeding success of polyurethane scaffolds in comparison to collagen. Conditioning of polyurethane tubes with 100 dyn/cm2 resulted in cell detachments, whereas a moderate conditioning program with stepwise increase of shear stress from 10 to 40 dyn/cm2 induced a stable and confluent cell layer. The new bioreactor is a powerful tool for quick and easy testing of various scaffold materials for the development of tissue engineered vascular grafts. The combination of this bioreactor with native tissue allows testing of medical devices and medicinal substances under physiological conditions that is a good step towards reduction of animal testing. In the long run, the bioreactor could turn out to produce tissue engineered vascular grafts for human applications “at the bedside”.

  7. Host and tissue selection, virion purification, RNA characterization and serological studies of barley yellow dwarf virus-RPV-IL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A purification scheme was improved for an isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus transmitted specifically by Rhopalosiphum padi L. (RPV-IL). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detects RPV-IL in all tissues and therefore is an inaccurate measure of extractable virus concentration in plants. The 5' terminus of RPV-IL RNA does not become labeled with 32P after dephosphorylation with phosphatase and subsequent treatment with [γ-32P] ATP and kinase and therefore is some derivative other than phosphate(s). An 125I-labeled 17,000 d protein is detected after treatment of RPV-IL RNA with 125I-Bolten-Hunter reagent and analyses by acid precipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This 17,000 d protein, as determined by immunoprecipitation assays, is a 17,000 d BYDV VPg (virion protein-genome linked). The serological relationships among five luteoviruses were compared using three variations of ELISA

  8. Screening Test of Greenhouse Seeding Exercise Matrix for Tissue Culture Seeding of Dendrobium Officinale Kimura et Migo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo has a high demand on planting matrix, while its tissue culture seeding has much more demands on planting matrix. To find out a seeding exercise matrix to enhance the survival rate of tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo more efficiently, this article carries out a screening test of greenhouse seeding exercise matrix material for tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. The test adopts full random test design, mainly for screening test of five matrix materials, namely pine bark, camphor tree bark, fern root, peanut shell and longan bark. Compare the impact of prepared seeding exercise matrix on the survival rate and growth trend (including plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate. The test result shows that: The seeding exercise matrix prepared by fern root is the most efficient, and the survival rate, plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate have achieved 100%, 4.5cm, 43.67% and 54.33% respectively. The main reason may be that the seeding exercise matrix C prepared by fern root is fairly loose and has a great water permeability, which is conducive to the growth of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

  9. Comparative study on seeding methods of human bone marrow stromal cells in bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣; 刘建国; 常颖; 徐莘香

    2004-01-01

    Background In general the traditional static seeding method has its limitation while the dynamic seeding method reveals its advantages over traditional static method. We compared static and dynamic seeding method for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in bone tissue engineering.Methods DNA assay was used for detecting the maximal initial seeding concentration for static seeding. Dynamic and static seeding methods were compared, when scaffolds were loaded with hBMSCs at this maximal initial cell seeding concentration. Histology and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were examined to evaluate the distribution of cells inside the constructs. Markers encoding osteogenic genes were measured by fluorescent RT-PCR. The protocol for dynamic seeding of hBMSCs was also investigated.Results DNA assay showed that the static maximal initial seeding concentration was lower than that in dynamic seeding. Histology and SEM showed even distribution and spread of cells in the dynamically seeded constructs, while their statically seeded counterparts showed cell aggregation.Fluorescent RT-PCR again showed stronger osteogenic potential of dynamically seeded constructs.Conclusion dynamic seeding of hBMSCs is a promising technique in bone tissue engineering.

  10. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol......Cereal seed germination involves a complex coordination between different seed tissues. Plasma membranes must play crucial roles in coordination and execution of germination; however, very little is known about seed plasma membrane proteomes due to limited tissue amounts combined with...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  11. The effect of gamma irradiation of seeds on germination - growth - mineral content and yield of two barley varieties grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two barley varieties [Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK)] were irradiated with 0 and 15 Gy doses of gamma irradiation. Then, they were sown on salty soil (16.8-18 dS/m) and irrigated with salty water (7-8 dS/m). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the % of seedling emergence of PK only. At the heading stage, gamma irradiation decreased the % of total N of PK and increased shoot dry weight, Mg++ and P content and the % of total N of AA. K+ content of PK was lower than that of AA. At harvest stage, gamma irradiation increased total and grain yields and harvest index of PK; however, straw yield and 1,000 grain weight of AA were higher than those of PK

  12. Optimization of permanent breast seed implant dosimetry incorporating tissue heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashouf, Shahram

    Seed brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose around brachytherapy sources is based on the AAPM TG43 formalism, which generates the dose in homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM task group no. 186 (TG186) emphasized the importance of accounting for heterogeneities. In this work we introduce an analytical dose calculation algorithm in heterogeneous media using CT images. The advantages over other methods are computational efficiency and the ease of integration into clinical use. An Inhomogeneity Correction Factor (ICF) is introduced as the ratio of absorbed dose in tissue to that in water medium. ICF is a function of tissue properties and independent of the source structure. The ICF is extracted using CT images and the absorbed dose in tissue can then be calculated by multiplying the dose as calculated by the TG43 formalism times ICF. To evaluate the methodology, we compared our results with Monte Carlo simulations as well as experiments in phantoms with known density and atomic compositions. The dose distributions obtained through applying ICF to TG43 protocol agreed very well with those of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments in all phantoms. In all cases, the mean relative error was reduced by at least a factor of two when ICF correction factor was applied to the TG43 protocol. In conclusion we have developed a new analytical dose calculation method, which enables personalized dose calculations in heterogeneous media using CT images. The methodology offers several advantages including the use of standard TG43 formalism, fast calculation time and extraction of the ICF parameters directly from Hounsfield Units. The methodology was implemented into our clinical treatment planning system where a cohort of 140 patients were processed to study the clinical benefits of a heterogeneity corrected dose.

  13. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjørring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the prot...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....... proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and...

  14. A redox-dependent dimerization switch regulates activity and tolerance for reactive oxygen species of barley seed glutathione peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bunkenborg, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric and dimeric forms of recombinant barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) glutathione peroxidase 2 (HvGpx2) are demonstrated to display distinctly different functional properties in vitro. Monomeric HvGpx2 thus has five fold higher catalytic efficiency than the dimer towards tert......-butyl hydroperoxide, but is more sensitive to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide. Treatment of the monomer with hydrogen peroxide results in dimer formation. This observed new behavior of a plant glutathione peroxidase suggests a mechanism involving a switch from a highly catalytically competent monomer to a less...

  15. Crystal structure of an essential enzyme in seed starch degradation - barley limit dextrinase in complex with cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of Hv......-stranded β-sandwich domain, a six-stranded β-sandwich domain belonging to the carbohydrate binding module 48 family, a catalytic (β/α)8-like barrel domain that lacks α-helix 5, and a C-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain of unknown function. The CDs are bound at the active site occupying carbohydrate...

  16. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  17. The cytogenetic disturbance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sprouts under the action of gamma-irradiation of seeds and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research results showed that gamma-irradiation of seeds in 2,5 and 5,0 Gy doses raised the sensitivity of plants to the further stressful factor action. In the process of seeds germination the drought served as the factor modifying the damaging influence of the ionizing radiation on genome of plants. On the one hand, there was noticed the antagonism of interaction of both factors on seeds germination and the mitotic activity of root cells, on the other hand – synergism of action on the output of aberrant cells

  18. The signature of seeds in resurrection plants: a molecular and physiological comparison of desiccation tolerance in seeds and vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Nicola; Denby, Katherine J; Collett, Helen; Shen, Arthur; Farrant, Jill M

    2005-11-01

    Desiccation-tolerance in vegetative tissues of angiosperms has a polyphyletic origin and could be due to 1) appropriation of the seed-specific program of gene expression that protects orthodox seeds against desiccation, and/or 2) a sustainable version of the abiotic stress response. We tested these hypotheses by comparing molecular and physiological data from the development of orthodox seeds, the response of desiccation-sensitive plants to abiotic stress, and the response of desiccation-tolerant plants to extreme water loss. Analysis of publicly-available gene expression data of 35 LEA proteins and 68 anti-oxidant enzymes in the desiccation-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana identified 13 LEAs and 4 anti-oxidants exclusively expressed in seeds. Two (a LEA6 and 1-cys-peroxiredoxin) are not expressed in vegetative tissues in A. thaliana, but have orthologues that are specifically activated in desiccating leaves of Xerophyta humilis. A comparison of antioxidant enzyme activity in two desiccation-sensitive species of Eragrostis with the desiccation-tolerant E. nindensis showed equivalent responses upon initial dehydration, but activity was retained at low water content in E. nindensis only. We propose that these antioxidants are housekeeping enzymes and that they are protected from damage in the desiccation-tolerant species. Sucrose is considered an important protectant against desiccation in orthodox seeds, and we show that sucrose accumulates in drying leaves of E. nindensis, but not in the desiccation-sensitive Eragrostis species. The activation of "seed-specific" desiccation protection mechanisms (sucrose accumulation and expression of LEA6 and 1-cys-peroxiredoxin genes) in the vegetative tissues of desiccation-tolerant plants points towards acquisition of desiccation tolerance from seeds. PMID:21676829

  19. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH3 anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH2 anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH3 symmetric) and 2848 cm-1 (CH2 asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH3 to CH2 ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed quality, and

  20. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  1. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is required. By studying mineral accumulation in different organs within genetically diverse members of the same species, it may be possible to identify variable traits that modulate seed mineral concentration. We utilized two ecotypes (A17 and DZA315.16 of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, to study dry mass and mineral accumulation in the leaves, pod walls, and seeds during reproductive development. The pod wall dry mass was significantly different between the two ecotypes beginning at 12 days after pollination, whereas there was no significant difference in the average dry mass of individual seeds between the two ecotypes at any time point. There were also no significant differences in leaf dry mass between ecotypes; however, we observed expansion of A17 leaves during the first 21 days of pod development, while DZA315.16 leaves did not display a significant increase in leaf area. Mineral profiling of the leaves, pod walls, and seeds highlighted differences in accumulation patterns among minerals within each tissue as well as genotypic differences with respect to individual minerals. Because there were differences in the average seed number per pod, the total seed mineral content per pod was generally higher in A17 than DZA315.16. In addition, mineral partitioning to the seeds tended to be higher in A17 pods. These data revealed that mineral retention within leaves and/or pod walls might attenuate mineral accumulation within the seeds. As a result, strategies to increase seed mineral content should include approaches that will enhance export from these tissues.

  2. Research on modeling germination response to salinity of barley seeds%大麦种子对盐的发芽响应模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红香; 田雨; 周道玮; 郑伟; 王敏玲

    2012-01-01

    salinities. Methods Two varieties of barley {Hordeum vulgare) seeds ('Cask' and 'County') were cultured in five binate iso-osmotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl solutions (-0.45, -0.88, -1.32, -1.76 and -2.20 MPa, distilled water as the control) at four constant temperatures of 5, 12, 20 and 27 ℃. Germination time courses were recorded and germination rates (the reciprocal of germination time) were calculated. The hydrotime model and the new salinity model were used to calculate the parameters and test which was the better fit. Important findings Results indicated that not only were seeds in saline conditions able to germinate at lower osmotic potentials than seeds germinating in an isotonic PEG-6000 solution, but that they were also able to do so faster. The hydrotime parameters of the NaCl treatments had great differences with the isotonic PEG treatments, which indicated the hydrotime model cannot describe salt effects on seed germination well. Barley seed germination rates in salt solutions were negatively linear with salinity. We proposed a salinity model to quantify germination response to salt. The germination time calculated from the salinity model approached the real data, compared to that calculated from the hydrotime model. Differences of germination rates in NaCl and the isotonic PEG treatments increased and then decreased with decreasing water potential. We suggest three situations of function mode by the osmotic and ion effects of salt. First, at low salinities the osmotic effect acts as the main negative role. Second, at medium salinities the two effects act together, with the positive ion effect stronger than the negative osmotic effect. Third, at high salinities the ion effect begins to harm the germination process.

  3. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified i...

  4. Human dental pulp stem cell is a promising autologous seed cell for bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hui; LIU Da-yong; ZHANG Fang-ming; WANG Fan; ZHANG Wen-kui; ZHANG Zhen-ting

    2011-01-01

    Background The seed cell is a core problem in bone tissue engineering research.Recent research indicates that human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro,which suggests that they may become a new kind of seed cells for bone tissue engineering.The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro and bone-like tissue formation when transplanted with three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds in vivo,and hDPSCs may become appropriate seed cells for bone tissue engineering.Methods We have utilized enzymatic digestion to obtain hDPSCs from dental pulp tissue extracted during orthodontic treatment.After culturing and expansion to three passages,the cells were seeded in 6-well plates or on three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds and cultured in osteogenic medium.After 14 days in culture,the three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks.In 6-well plate culture,osteogenesis was assessed by alkaline phosphatase staining,Von Kossa staining,and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the osteogenesis-specific genes type I collagen (COL l),bone sialoprotein (BSP),osteocalcin (OCN),RUNX2,and osterix (OSX).In three-dimensional gelatin scaffold culture,X-rays,hematoxylin/eosin staining,and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine bone formation.Results In vitro studies revealed that hDPSCs do possess osteogenic differentiation potential.In vivo studies revealed that hDPSCs seeded on gelatin scaffolds can form bone structures in heterotopic sites of nude mice.Conclusions These findings suggested that hDPSCs may be valuable as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.As a special stem cell source,hDPSCs may blaze a new path for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue: DHA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xue-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic engineering of seed biosynthetic pathways to diversify and improve crop product quality is a highly active research area. The validation of genes driven by seed-specific promoters is time-consuming since the transformed plants must be grown to maturity before the gene function can be analysed. Results In this study we demonstrate that genes driven by seed-specific promoters contained within complex constructs can be transiently-expressed in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf-assay system by co-infiltrating the Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene. A real-world case study is described in which we first assembled an efficient transgenic DHA synthesis pathway using a traditional N. benthamiana Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S-driven leaf assay before using the LEC2-extended assay to rapidly validate a complex seed-specific construct containing the same genes before stable transformation in Arabidopsis. Conclusions The LEC2-extended N. benthamiana assay allows the transient activation of seed-specific promoters in leaf tissue. In this study we have used the assay as a rapid preliminary screen of a complex seed-specific transgenic construct prior to stable transformation, a feature that will become increasingly useful as genetic engineering moves from the manipulation of single genes to the engineering of complex pathways. We propose that the assay will prove useful for other applications wherein rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue are sought.

  6. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  7. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  8. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pablo Burrieza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  9. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U-14C]triadimenol in the formulation as [14C]Baytan 075 FS and [14C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG)

  10. Molecular analysis of genome instability in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable protocol for regenerating barley from seedling explants, including leaf bases with a complete apical meristem, has been developed at the Institute of Genetic Engineering. The system was established with Bulgarian barley cultivars (Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei) and reconstructed genotypes (K. Gecheff IG). Pretreatment of the mature embryos with a high concentration of 2.4D generated valuable and stable genetic deviations in the regenerants. The brewery cultivar Ruen was selected as the model genotype. It has been demonstrated that genetic variations, such as higher yield, earlier maturation and lower protein content, have been induced and maintained for 5 years. Comparative experiments, including treatment of barley mature seeds with 60Co gamma rays (10 and 20 krad) and sodium azide (1.10-3 M and 5 x 10-4 M), were also carried out. The results obtained showed that both treatments stimulated calusogenesis and regeneration of the plants. Molecular markers such as proteins, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were applied in studies on the mutagenic effects of 2.4D, gamma rays and sodium azide, and a combination threof, on the quality and quantity of the genetic diversification generated in tissue culture of the Bulgarian barley cultivars Ruen, Karnobat, Obzor and Yubilei and the reconstructed genotypes

  11. Tissue-specific gene expression in maize seeds during colonization by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaomei; Livingston, David P; Franks, Robert G; Boston, Rebecca S; Woloshuk, Charles P; Payne, Gary A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides are fungal pathogens that colonize maize kernels and produce the harmful mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Management practice based on potential host resistance to reduce contamination by these mycotoxins has proven difficult, resulting in the need for a better understanding of the infection process by these fungi and the response of maize seeds to infection. In this study, we followed the colonization of seeds by histological methods and the transcriptional changes of two maize defence-related genes in specific seed tissues by RNA in situ hybridization. Maize kernels were inoculated with either A. flavus or F. verticillioides 21-22 days after pollination, and harvested at 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-inoculation. The fungi colonized all tissues of maize seed, but differed in their interactions with aleurone and germ tissues. RNA in situ hybridization showed the induction of the maize pathogenesis-related protein, maize seed (PRms) gene in the aleurone and scutellum on infection by either fungus. Transcripts of the maize sucrose synthase-encoding gene, shrunken-1 (Sh1), were observed in the embryo of non-infected kernels, but were induced on infection by each fungus in the aleurone and scutellum. By comparing histological and RNA in situ hybridization results from adjacent serial sections, we found that the transcripts of these two genes accumulated in tissue prior to the arrival of the advancing pathogens in the seeds. A knowledge of the patterns of colonization and tissue-specific gene expression in response to these fungi will be helpful in the development of resistance. PMID:25469958

  12. Uptake of and follow-up supply with [benzene ring-U-14C]triademinol via the caryopsis and from dressed zones after seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat using a dry dressing formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on hand studies the following issues: 1) What is the course of uptake of the agent and/or its metabolites into the plant following dry seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat with [benzene ring-U-14C] triadimenol and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 2) What is the relevance of uptake and follow-up supply from the dressed zones of plants in neighbouring rows. 3) What is the extent of uptake and follow-up supply via the roots from dressed zones of neighbouring plants within the same row. 4) What is the course of dressed-zone formation following dry treatment of winter barley and winter wheat and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 5) What is the quantitative distribution of the agent on the pericarp of winter wheat caryopses following dry seed treatment. 6) Will the 14C-labelled agent be taken up, too, via the caryopsis and be translocated in scion and root. 7) What are the pathways of the agent from the caryopsis into the embryo. 8) How long will follow-up supply via the scutellum continue. The results concerning issues 1 to 4 were taken from tests with field lysimeters. Experiments concerning issues 6-8 were performed without soil in an climatic chamber. (orig./MG)

  13. Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syzygium cumini Linn. (family Myrtaceae), commonly known as Jamun, is a medicinal plant and utilizable species which is widely used for its antioxidant activities to treat different ailments in many parts of the world. The current study was undertaken to study the effect of seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal as well as in tumor bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in biological tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting wherein, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing, radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole-body irradiated mice following pretreatment with hydo-alcoholic seed extract of Syzygium cumini (100 mg/kg b. wt./day), using alkaline comet assay and by estimating biochemical parameters such as antioxidant enzymes i.e. (superoxide dismutase and catalase), GSH, LPO and total proteins in organs like spleen, liver and intestine. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were administered Syzygium cumini extract (SCE) orally once daily for 5 consecutive days, then exposed to a single dose of 3, 6 and 9 Gy of gamma radiation. The results showed that the seed extract of Syzygium cumini protected the liver, spleen and intestine both in normal as well as tumor bearing mice. This study concludes that seed extract of Syzygium cumini has protective effects against radiation-induced cellular damage and biochemical alterations which could be attributed to the ability to scavenge free radicals and its antioxidant properties. Hence, seed extract of Syzygium cumini may be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress in normal tissues and improving the quality of life of cancer patients by mitigating side effects of radiation to normal tissues during radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Do seed VLCFAs trigger spongy tissue formation in Alphonso mango by inducing germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Seshadri; Sumathi, Manoharan

    2015-06-01

    Spongy tissue is a physiological disorder in Alphonso mango caused by the inception of germination-associated events during fruit maturation on the tree, rendering the fruit inedible. Inter-fruit competition during active fruit growth is a major contributing factor for the disorder which leads to reduced fat content in spongy tissue affected fruits. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the possible association between seed fats and ST formation. The study of the fat content during fruit growth showed that it increased gradually from 40 percent fruit maturity. At 70 percent maturity, however, there was a sudden increase of fat content of whole fruit, leading to acute competition and resulting in differential allocation of resources among developing fruits. As a result, the seed in spongy-tissue-affected mature ripe fruit showed a marked drop in the levels of fats and the two very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), tetracosanoic acid and hexacosanoic acid together with an increase of linolenic acid and a fall in oleic acid contents, which are known to be key determinants for the initiation of pre-germination events in seed. Subsequently, a rise in the level of cytokinin and gibberellins in ST seed associated with a fall in abscisic acid level clearly signalled the onset of germination. Concurrently, a significant reduction in the ratio of linolenic acid/linoleic acid in pulp led to the loss of membrane integrity, cell death and the eventual formation of spongy tissue. Based on the above, it is concluded that a significant reduction in the biosynthesis of VLCFAs in seeds during fruit growth might trigger pre-germination events followed by a cascade of biochemical changes in the pulp, leading to lipid peroxidation and membrane injury in pulp culminating in ST development. Thus, this study presents crucial experimental evidence to highlight the critical role played by VLCFAs in inducing ST formation in Alphonso mango during the pre-harvest phase of fruit

  15. Do seed VLCFAs trigger spongy tissue formation in Alphonso mango by inducing germination?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seshadri Shivashankar; Manoharan Sumathi; Tapas Kumar Roy

    2015-06-01

    Spongy tissue is a physiological disorder in Alphonso mango caused by the inception of germination-associated events during fruit maturation on the tree, rendering the fruit inedible. Inter-fruit competition during active fruit growth is a major contributing factor for the disorder which leads to reduced fat content in spongy tissue affected fruits. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the possible association between seed fats and ST formation. The study of the fat content during fruit growth showed that it increased gradually from 40% fruit maturity. At 70% maturity, however, there was a sudden increase of fat content of whole fruit, leading to acute competition and resulting in differential allocation of resources among developing fruits. As a result, the seed in spongy-tissue-affected mature ripe fruit showed a marked drop in the levels of fats and the two very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), tetracosanoic acid and hexacosanoic acid together with an increase of linolenic acid and a fall in oleic acid contents, which are known to be key determinants for the initiation of pre-germination events in seed. Subsequently, a rise in the level of cytokinin and gibberellins in ST seed associated with a fall in abscisic acid level clearly signalled the onset of germination. Concurrently, a significant reduction in the ratio of linolenic acid/linoleic acid in pulp led to the loss of membrane integrity, cell death and the eventual formation of spongy tissue. Based on the above, it is concluded that a significant reduction in the biosynthesis of VLCFAs in seeds during fruit growth might trigger pre-germination events followed by a cascade of biochemical changes in the pulp, leading to lipid peroxidation and membrane injury in pulp culminating in ST development. Thus, this study presents crucial experimental evidence to highlight the critical role played by VLCFAs in inducing ST formation in Alphonso mango during the pre-harvest phase of fruit growth.

  16. Influence of Barley Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth with Agrobacterium%农杆菌对大麦种子萌发及幼苗生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐开杰; 孟敏; 史丽丽; 刘曙东; 奚亚军

    2009-01-01

    以大麦品种(系)为主区('云引大麦Ⅰ'、'云引大麦Ⅱ'和'U008'),农杆菌浸种时间为副区(0.5、1.5和2.5 h),农杆菌菌液浓度为副副区(0.5、1.5和2.5 OD),采用再裂区试验研究了农杆菌浸种处理对大麦种子萌发和幼苗生长发育的影响.结果表明:品种、农杆菌菌液浓度、浸种时间对大麦的种子发芽率、幼苗高度、幼苗鲜重、叶绿素含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量影响无显著的互作效应,而对幼苗POD活性的影响存在显著互作效应;随着浸种时间的延长和菌液浓度的增加,各大麦品种(系)的种子发芽率、幼苗高度、幼苗鲜重、叶绿素含量均呈逐渐降低趋势,幼苗MDA含量则逐渐增加,并以'U008'变化幅度最大;在菌液浓度为0~1.5 OD、浸种时间为0~1.5 h范围内,幼苗POD活性随着菌液浓度的增加和浸种时间的延长而增强,超过该范围则均呈下降趋势,并以'U008'下降最为明显.可见,农杆菌处理对大麦种子萌发和幼苗生长发育有抑制作用,并在菌液浓度超过1.5 OD、浸种时间大于1.5 h时达极显著水平,且大麦品种间存在一定差异.%The barley varieties (lines) of 'YunyinⅠ','YunyinⅡ' and 'U008' as the dominated factors,agrobacterium soaking time including 0.5,1.5 and 2.5 h as the deputy factors,the agribacteria density of 0.5,1.5 and 2.5 OD as the deputy vice-factors,by adopting the resplit-plot design,the germination of seeds treated with agrobacterium and seedling growth and development of barley were studied.The results showed that the interaction effects of species,agribacteria density and soaking time for the barley seed germination rate,seedling height,seedling fresh weight,chlorophyll content,MDA content were not significant and the interaction effects for seedling POD activity existed.With the soaking time and agribacteria density increased,the barley seed germination rate,seedling height,seedling fresh weight,chlorophyll content in different

  17. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  18. In vitro evaluation of cell-seeded chitosan films for peripheral nerve tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wrobel, Sandra; Serra, Sofia Cristina; Samy, S. M.; Sousa, Nuno; Heimann, Claudia; Barwig, Christina; Grothe, Claudia; Salgado, A. J.; Talini, Kirsten Haastert

    2014-01-01

    Natural biomaterials have attracted an increasing interest in the field of tissue-engineered nerve grafts, representing a possible alternative to autologous nerve transplantation. With the prospect of developing a novel entubulation strategy for transected nerves with cell-seeded chitosan films, we examined the biocompatibility of such films in vitro. Different types of rat Schwann cells (SCs)—immortalized, neonatal, and adult—as well as rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC...

  19. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  20. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  1. Genotyping of Endosperms to Determine Seed Dormancy Genes Regulating Germination Through Embryonic, Endospermic, or Maternal Tissues in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Xing-You; Zhang, Jinfeng; Ye, Heng; Zhang, Lihua; Feng, Jiuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy is imposed by one or more of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues that belong to two generations and represent two ploidy levels. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for seed dormancy as measured by gross effects on reduced germination rate or delayed germination in crop or model plants. This research developed an endosperm genotype−based genetic approach to determine specific tissues through which a mapped QTL regulates germination using rice as a mod...

  2. Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu,P.; Block, H.; Niu, Z.; Doiron, K.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat differs from corn in biodegradation kinetics and fermentation characteristics. Wheat exhibits a relatively high rate (23% h{sup 01}) and extent (78% DM) of biodegradation, which can lead to metabolic problems such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants. The objective of this study was to rapidly characterize the molecular chemistry of the internal structure of wheat (cv. AC Barrie) and reveal both its structural chemical make-up and nutrient component matrix by analyzing the intensity and spatial distribution of molecular functional groups within the intact seed using advanced synchrotron-powered Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the U2B station of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. The wheat tissue was imaged systematically from the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm under the peaks at {approx}1732 (carbonyl C{double_bond}O ester), 1515 (aromatic compound of lignin), 1650 (amide I), 1025 (non-structural CHO), 1550 (amide II), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160, 1150, 1080, 930, 860 (all CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2928 (CH{sub 2} stretching band) and 2885 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 3} stretching band). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to analyze the molecular FTIR spectra obtained from the different inherent structures within the intact wheat tissues. The results showed that, with synchrotron-powered FTIR microspectroscopy, images of the molecular chemistry of wheat could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of aromatic lignin, structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as nutrient make-up and interactions in the seeds, could be revealed. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods are conclusive in showing that they can discriminate and classify the different inherent structures within the seed tissue. The wheat exhibited distinguishable

  3. Rapid Characterization of Molecular Chemistry, Nutrient Make-Up and Microlocation of Internal Seed Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat differs from corn in biodegradation kinetics and fermentation characteristics. Wheat exhibits a relatively high rate (23% h01) and extent (78% DM) of biodegradation, which can lead to metabolic problems such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants. The objective of this study was to rapidly characterize the molecular chemistry of the internal structure of wheat (cv. AC Barrie) and reveal both its structural chemical make-up and nutrient component matrix by analyzing the intensity and spatial distribution of molecular functional groups within the intact seed using advanced synchrotron-powered Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the U2B station of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. The wheat tissue was imaged systematically from the pericarp, seed coat, aleurone layer and endosperm under the peaks at ∼1732 (carbonyl C(doublebond)O ester), 1515 (aromatic compound of lignin), 1650 (amide I), 1025 (non-structural CHO), 1550 (amide II), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160, 1150, 1080, 930, 860 (all CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2928 (CH2 stretching band) and 2885 cm-1 (CH3 stretching band). Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to analyze the molecular FTIR spectra obtained from the different inherent structures within the intact wheat tissues. The results showed that, with synchrotron-powered FTIR microspectroscopy, images of the molecular chemistry of wheat could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of aromatic lignin, structural and non-structural carbohydrates, as well as nutrient make-up and interactions in the seeds, could be revealed. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods are conclusive in showing that they can discriminate and classify the different inherent structures within the seed tissue. The wheat exhibited distinguishable differences in the structural and

  4. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  5. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  6. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  7. The cytogenetic disturbances in sprouts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under the actions of gamma-irradiating of seeds and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-irradiating of seeds in doses 2.5 and 5.0 Gy raises sensitivity of plants to operation of the stressful factor. The drought at germination of seeds as the modifying factor of damaging operation of an ionizing radiation on a genome of plants was shown. (authors)

  8. Thioredoxin reductase from barley: Structure, recognition of thioredoxin, protein engineering and catalytic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth

    in Trx from barley and E. coli Finally, the expression levels of HvNTR1, HvNTR2, HvTrxh1, HvTrxh2 and α‐amylase during imbibition was examined in different tissues of barley seeds by Q‐PCR and micro‐ array data analysis. The effects of the plant hormone gibberellic acid, dormancy/after‐ ripening...... different from other LMW NTRs in the flavin oxidising (FO) and flavin reducing (FR) conformations. The difference can be described by a 38.2% closure, a 1.0 Å translation and a 24.7° rotational twist when compared to the only other plant NTR structure of AtNTR‐B from Arabidopsis thaliana (which is in the FO...

  9. Composition and nutritional quality of barley protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lysine concentration in barley seed protein is known to depend on both genetical and environmental factors. We investigated whether the differences in lysine concentration as well as the differences in nutritional quality between various barley cultivars could be accounted for by the protein composition of the hordein fraction. Hordein, the low lysine storage protein in barley seed, is classified in A, B and C hordeins with decreasing lysine content. The Riso high lysine mutants are characterized by decreased amounts of at least one of the three fractions. With increasing N-fertilization the content of the C hordeins in particular is elevated disproportionally more than the total N-content, resulting in overall decreasing lysine concentrations. Rat-feeding experiments did not displace any significant difference between the protein digestibility in the mutants and in the parent varieties. The biological value (BV) averaged 77 for field-grown normal-lysine barley against 90 for the high lysine mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. A marked negative correlation between BV and percentage N in the seed was found for both Bomi and mutant 1508. In Bomi this could be explained by the variation in lysine concentration whereas the sulphur-containing amino acids probably are limiting in mutant 1508. Provided that lysine is the first limiting amino acid, the nutritional quality of barley seed protein is closely related to the content of B- and C-hordeins. When this is not the case, as in mutant 1508, other unidentified proteins or groups of proteins become of importance. (author)

  10. Abscisic acid and stress signals induce Viviparous1 expression in seed and vegetative tissues of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueyuan; Costa, Liliana M; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Kbhaya, Bouchab; Dey, Nrisingha; Perez, Pascual; McCarty, Donald R; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose F; Becraft, Philip W

    2007-02-01

    Viviparous1 (Vp1) encodes a B3 domain-containing transcription factor that is a key regulator of seed maturation in maize (Zea mays). However, the mechanisms of Vp1 regulation are not well understood. To examine physiological factors that may regulate Vp1 expression, transcript levels were monitored in maturing embryos placed in culture under different conditions. Expression of Vp1 decreased after culture in hormone-free medium, but was induced by salinity or osmotic stress. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) also induced transcript levels within 1 h in a dose-dependent manner. The Vp1 promoter fused to beta-glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein reproduced the endogenous Vp1 expression patterns in transgenic maize plants and also revealed previously unknown expression domains of Vp1. The Vp1 promoter is active in the embryo and aleurone cells of developing seeds and, upon drought stress, was also found in phloem cells of vegetative tissues, including cobs, leaves, and stems. Sequence analysis of the Vp1 promoter identified a potential ABA-responsive complex, consisting of an ACGT-containing ABA response element (ABRE) and a coupling element 1-like motif. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that the ABRE and putative coupling element 1 components specifically bound proteins in embryo nuclear protein extracts. Treatment of embryos in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium blocked the ABRE-protein interaction, whereas exogenous ABA or mannitol treatment restored this interaction. Our data support a model for a VP1-dependent positive feedback mechanism regulating Vp1 expression during seed maturation. PMID:17208960

  11. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  13. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  14. Effect of varying concentrations of caffeine and ascorbic acid on the radiosensitivity of barley seed irradiated in oxygenated or oxygen-free hydration medium at 25 and 3700C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification of radiosensitivity of barley seed with 1.75 x 10-3M and 3.8 x 10-3M concentrations of caffeine and ascorbic acid during irradiation in oxygenated and oxygen-free hydration medium was studied at 25 and 370C, respectively. Both concentrations of caffeine and ascorbic acid afforded protection against oxic radiation damage which was maximal at 250C. Caffeine effectively potentiated the anoxic component of damage but ascorbic acid had no influence at all. At 250C there was no concentration-dependent effect of caffeine or ascorbic acid. At 370C, there was no effect, whatsoever, of either concentration of ascorbic acid, whereas caffeine dramatically potentiated the radiation damage under both oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions, and the magnitude of potentiation was concentration-dependent. The possible reactivity of caffeine and ascorbic acid towards the precursors of oxygen-dependent and -independent components of damage in determining the mode and magnitudes of modification is discussed briefly. (author)

  15. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  16. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  17. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  18. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  19. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and...... 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  20. Deep Sequencing of the Fruit Transcriptome and Lipid Accumulation in a Non-Seed Tissue of Chinese Tallow, a Potential Biofuel Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Uday K; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Penghao; Butlin, Jamie; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Liu, Qing; Vanhercke, Thomas; Petrie, James R; Talbot, Mark; White, Rosemary G; Taylor, Jennifer M; Larkin, Philip; Singh, Surinder P

    2016-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is a valuable oilseed-producing tree that can grow in a variety of conditions without competing for food production, and is a promising biofuel feedstock candidate. The fruits are unique in that they contain both saturated and unsaturated fat present in the tallow and seed layer, respectively. The tallow layer is poorly studied and is considered only as an external fatty deposition secreted from the seed. In this study we show that tallow is in fact a non-seed cellular tissue capable of triglyceride synthesis. Knowledge of lipid synthesis and storage mechanisms in tissues other than seed is limited but essential to generate oil-rich biomass crops. Here, we describe the annotated transcriptome assembly generated from the fruit coat, tallow and seed tissues of Chinese tallow. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of candidate genes and reconstruction of lipid pathways. A tallow tissue-specific paralog for the transcription factor gene WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and lipid droplet-associated protein genes, distinct from those expressed in seed tissue, were found to be active in tallow, underpinning the mode of oil synthesis and packaging in this tissue. Our data have established an excellent knowledge base that can provide genetic and biochemical insights for engineering non-seed tissues to accumulate large amounts of oil. In addition to the large data set of annotated transcripts, the study also provides gene-based simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. PMID:26589268

  1. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    OpenAIRE

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in v...

  2. Photochemical bonding of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice to rat muscle layer for esophageal tissue engineering: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Barbara P.; Sato, M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Kochevar, Irene E.; Redmond, Robert W.

    2005-04-01

    Bilayered tube structures consist of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice and muscle layer have been fabricated for esophageal tissue engineering. Good adhesion between layers in order to facilitate cell infiltration and neovascularization in the collagen lattice is required. Previous efforts include using other bioglues such as fibrin glue and silicone tube as the physical support. However, the former is subjected to chances of transmitting blood-born infectious disease and is time consuming while the latter requires a second surgical procedure. The current project aimed to bond the cell-seeded collagen lattice to muscle layer using photochemical bonding, which has previously been demonstrated a rapid and non-thermal procedure in bonding collagenous tissues. Rat esophageal epithelial cells were seeded on collagen lattice and together with the latissimus dorsi muscle layer, were exposed to a photosensitizer rose Bengal at the bonding surface. An argon laser was used to irradiate the approximated layers. Bonding strength was measured during the peeling test of the collagen layer from the muscle layer. Post-bonding cell viability was assessed using a modified NADH-diaphorase microassay. A pilot in vivo study was conducted by directly bonding the cell-seeded collagen layer onto the muscle flap in rats and the structures were characterized histologically. Photochemical bonding was found to significantly increase the adherence at the bonding interface without compromising the cell viability. This indicates the feasibility of using the technique to fabricate multi-layered structures in the presence of living cells. The pilot animal study demonstrated integration of the collagen lattice with the muscle layer at the bonding interface although the subsequent surgical manipulation disturbed the integration at some region. This means that an additional procedure removing the tube could be avoided if the approximation and thus the bonding are optimized. Cell infiltration

  3. Integration of the barley genetic and seed proteome maps for chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H and 7H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bagge, Merethe; Steenholdt, Torben; Østergaard, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Backes, Gunter; Jensen, Anais; Giese, Nanna Henriette; Larsen, Jørgen; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    variation, including peroxidases, serpins and proteins with unknown functions. Cultivars were clustered based on the spot variation matrix. Cultivars with superior malting quality grouped together, indicating malting quality to be more closely correlated with seed proteomes than with SSR profiles. Mass...... spectrometry showed that some spot variations were caused by amino acid differences encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coding SNPs were validated by mass spectrometry, expressed sequence tag and 2D gel data. Coding SNPs can alter function of affected proteins and may thus represent a link...... between cultivar traits, proteome and genome. Proteome analysis of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between a malting (Scarlett) and a feed cultivar (Meltan) enabled genetic localisation of protein phenotypes represented by 48 spot variations, involving e.g. peroxidases, serpins, alpha...

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 displays an endophytic lifestyle in cultivated cereals and enhances yield in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Alós, Enriqueta; Rey, María Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an indigenous inhabitant of olive roots, displays an endophytic lifestyle in this woody crop and exerts biocontrol against the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae Here we report microscopy evidence that the strain PICF7 is also able to colonize and persist on or in wheat and barley root tissues. Root colonization of both cereal species followed a similar pattern to that previously reported in olive, including inner colonization of the root hairs. This demonstrates that strain PICF7 can colonize root systems of distant botanical species. Barley plants germinated from PICF7-treated seeds showed enhanced vegetative growth. Moreover, significant increases in the number of grains (up to 19.5%) and grain weight (up to 20.5%) per plant were scored in this species. In contrast, growth and yield were not significantly affected in wheat plants by the presence of PICF7. Proteomics analysis of the root systems revealed that different proteins were exclusively found depending on the presence or absence of PICF7 and only one protein with hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity was exclusively found in both PICF7-inoculated barley and wheat plants but not in the controls. PMID:27130938

  5. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  6. Raspberry seed flour attenuates high-sucrose diet-mediated hepatic stress and adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inhae; Espín, Juan Carlos; Carr, Timothy P; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Chung, Soonkyu

    2016-06-01

    Chronic intake of high sucrose (HS) diet exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Previously, we have demonstrated that ellagic acid (EA), an abundant polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, exerts distinct lipid-lowering characteristics in hepatocytes and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that EA supplementation inhibits HS diet-mediated hepatic toxicity and its accompanied metabolic dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to three isocaloric HF diets (41% calories from fat) containing either no-sucrose (HF), high-sucrose (HFHS), or high-sucrose plus EA (HFHS-R) from raspberry seed flour (RSF, equivalent to 0.03% of EA), and fed for 12weeks. The inclusion of EA from RSF significantly improved HFHS diet-mediated dyslipidemia and restored glucose homeostasis levels similar to the HF diet-fed mice. Despite marginal difference in hepatic triglyceride content, the addition of EA substantially reversed the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative damage triggered by HFHS diet in the liver. These effects of EA were further confirmed in human hepatoma cells by reducing ER stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HFHS-R diet significantly decreased visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue inflammation evidenced by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and macrophage infiltration. In summary, EA supplementation from RSF was effective in reducing HFHS diet-mediated metabolic complication by attenuating hepatic ER and oxidative stresses as well as adipocyte inflammation. Our results suggest that the inclusion of EA in diets may normalize metabolic insults triggered by HS consumption. PMID:27142738

  7. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  8. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  9. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  10. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  11. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  12. Effects of irradiation on spring barley and sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presoaked barley seeds were irradiated with 60-500 R of 300 kV X-rays at a dose rate of 600 R/h. The seeds were sown in plastic containers and grown at 200C in a climatic chamber. A significant increase was observed in all investigated parameters except for the plant length till 250 R. Irradiation of presoaked seeds of sugar beet with 1,000-8,000 R resulted in an increase of root weight and sugar yield after 1,000 R. The irradiation of dry seeds, however, did not cause any stimulation. (MG/AK)

  13. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  14. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  15. Molecular chemistry of plant protein structure at a cellular level by synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy: Comparison of yellow ( Brassica rapa) and Brown ( Brassica napus) canola seed tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron light sourced FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel approach to characterize protein molecular structure of plant tissue: compared yellow and brown Brassica canola seed within cellular dimensions. Differences in the molecular chemistry and the structural-chemical characteristics were identified between two type of plant tissues. The yellow canola seeds contained a relatively lower (P < 0.05) percentage of model-fitted α-helices (33 vs. 37), a higher (P < 0.05) relative percentage of model-fitted β-sheets (27 vs. 21) and a lower (P < 0.05) ratio of α-helices to β-sheets (1.3 vs. 1.9) than the brown seeds. These results may indicate that the protein value of the yellow canola seeds as food or feed was different from that of the brown canola seeds. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis did not show clear differences between the yellow and brown canola seed tissues in terms of protein amide I structures, indicating they are related to each other. Both yellow and brown canola seeds contain the same proteins but in different ratios.

  16. The healing of bony defects by cell-free collagen-based scaffolds compared to stem cell-seeded tissue engineered constructs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Frank G

    2010-12-01

    One of the key challenges in tissue engineering is to understand the host response to scaffolds and engineered constructs. We present a study in which two collagen-based scaffolds developed for bone repair: a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) and biomimetic collagen-calcium phosphate (CCP) scaffold, are evaluated in rat cranial defects, both cell-free and when cultured with MSCs prior to implantation. The results demonstrate that both cell-free scaffolds showed excellent healing relative to the empty defect controls and somewhat surprisingly, to the tissue engineered (MSC-seeded) constructs. Immunological analysis of the healing response showed higher M1 macrophage activity in the cell-seeded scaffolds. However, when the M2 macrophage response was analysed, both groups (MSC-seeded and non-seeded scaffolds) showed significant activity of these cells which are associated with an immunomodulatory and tissue remodelling response. Interestingly, the location of this response was confined to the construct periphery, where a capsule had formed, in the MSC-seeded groups as opposed to areas of new bone formation in the non-seeded groups. This suggests that matrix deposited by MSCs during in vitro culture may adversely affect healing by acting as a barrier to macrophage-led remodelling when implanted in vivo. This study thus improves our understanding of host response in bone tissue engineering.

  17. Effect of Fenugreek seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on testicular tissue in the embryos of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M beyzaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with some of the metabolic dysfunctions represented with chronic hyperglycemia.  This disease can disrupt the function of testicular tissue and decline male sexual ability. Some of the medicinal herbs such as fenugreeks have protective effects on tissues via hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative properties. In the present paper,  the effects of fenugreek seed extract was evaluated on testicular tissue of 20 day-old embryos from diabetic rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty normal female rats were divided into three normal groups: non-diabetic control, glibenclamide and fenugreek groups and three diabetic groups: diabetic control, glibenclamide treatment and fenugreek treatment groups. Single injection of streptozotocin was used for induction of diabetes in these female rats. After detection of pregnancy, 1000 mg/kg fenugreek seed extract was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic fenugreek groups and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic glibenclamide groups. Non-diabetic and diabetic control group was fed with distilled water as the same volume as the fenugreek extract. After 20 days, their embryos were pulled out and fixed at 10% formalin. After tissue processing, five micron sections were stained with Hematoxylin- eosin and evaluated for morphometric changes of testicular tissue. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA test and Duncan post-hoc test. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and testis capsule thickness indicated no significant differences between fenugreek treatment and diabetic control groups (P> 0.05. Mean body weight of male embryos was significantly lower in fenugreek treatment group in comparison with the diabetic control group (P&le 0.05. The leydig, sertoli and spermatogonial cells number was significantly higher in fenugreek treatment group in compression with diabetic control group                      (P

  18. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  19. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  20. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  1. Patrones de absorción de nitrógeno nativo y del fertilizante en cebada cervecera con fertilizaciones cercanas a la siembra Soil and fertilizer nitrogen uptake patterns in malting barley with near seeding fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurora Lázzari

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe escasa información sobre la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados, en cebada cervecera, y su relación con el aumento de rendimiento de granos sin aumentar la concentración proteica a niveles que excedan el rango exigido por las malterías. Se llevaron a cabo ocho experimentos a campo en diferentes sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, en los años 1999 y 2000, para determinar el efecto del nitrógeno sobre el crecimiento, la absorción de N del suelo y del fertilizante, el rendimiento y la concentración de N en grano. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados a la emergencia de la planta, 30 y 60 kg N ha-1 aplicados en macollaje temprano, y 60 kg N ha-1 fraccionado en dos momentos: 30 kg N ha-1 cada uno aplicados a la emergencia y en macollaje temprano. Dentro de cada parcela se ubicó una microparcela a la que se le aplicó urea marcada con 15N. En cuatro momentos del ciclo de la cebada, desde macollaje temprano hasta madurez fisiológica, se evaluó la producción de materia seca y la absorción de N de plantas extraídas de las microparcelas. El crecimiento continuó hasta madurez fisiológica, y generalmente alcanzó el máximo después de antesis, en coincidencia con el período de mayor absorción de nitrógeno. La dosis de 30 kg N ha-1 aumentó el rendimiento pero no la concentración de N del grano. El agregado de 60 kg N ha-1 afectó ambos. El momento de aplicación de N no afectó el rendimiento de la materia seca ni la concentración de N en el grano. La variación en la absorción de N entre sitios fue mayor que la variación en la absorción de N del fertilizante. El Índice de Cosecha de Nitrógeno no fue afectado por las dosis de N aplicado.There is a lack of data associated with applications of nitrogen fertilizer to increase yield while not increasing seed protein to levels exceeding those acceptable for malting barley in Buenos Aires province. Field experiments were carried out on eight sites

  2. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  3. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  4. Effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the α-amylase activity at different stages of the seedling development in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced changes in the α-amylase activity of barley seeds during germination were studied. Barley-seeds of Kompolti Korai were irradiated with doses of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 rad. The seeds were germinated for 96 hr and the α-amylase activity was determined periodically. The observation showed high α-amylase activity at 500 rad. These effects can be attributed to the increase of gibberellin - like substances. (author)

  5. Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Coffea arabica Seeds during Perisperm Tissue Development and Their Relationship to Coffee Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Leonardo Cardoso; Magalhães, Diogo Maciel De; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Sera, Tumoru; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-24

    Coffee is one of the most important crops for developing countries. Coffee classification for trading is related to several factors, including grain size. Larger grains have higher market value then smaller ones. Coffee grain size is determined by the development of the perisperm, a transient tissue with a highly active metabolism, which is replaced by the endosperm during seed development. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during perisperm development in two genotypes with regular (IPR59) and large grain sizes (IPR59-Graudo) in three developmental stages. Twenty-four spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, corresponding to 15 proteins. We grouped them into categories as follows: storage (11S), methionine metabolism, cell division and elongation, metabolic processes (mainly redox), and energy. Our data enabled us to show that perisperm metabolism in IPR59 occurs at a higher rate than in IPR59-Graudo, which is supported by the accumulation of energy and detoxification-related proteins. We hypothesized that grain and fruit size divergences between the two coffee genotypes may be due to the comparatively earlier triggering of seed development processes in IPR59. We also demonstrated for the first time that the 11S protein is accumulated in the coffee perisperm. PMID:26809209

  6. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  7. Competition and dry matter yield in intercrops of barley and legume for forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLLAH JAVANMARD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For increasing land use efficiency intercropping plays a pivotal role. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., vetch (Vicia villosa, and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER,competitive ratio (CR, relative crowding coefficient (RCC, aggressivity (A, actual yield loss (AYL, monetary advantage index (MAI and intercropping advantage (IA.The experimental was arranged asa randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications.The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grass pea75 (5.44 t ha-1 mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1. The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64 than intercropped legumes (K=1.20, indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

  8. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the...... active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  9. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  10. A novel procedure for the quantitative analysis of metabolites, storage products and transcripts of laser microdissected seed tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchuk Ruslana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority in the context of seed biotechnology. Results We provide a guideline and detailed procedures towards the quantitative analysis of laser micro-dissected (LM tissues in oilseed rape (Brassica napus. This includes protocols for laser microdissection of the seed, and the subsequent extraction and quantitative analysis of lipids, starch and metabolites (sugars, sugar phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle. We have also developed a protocol allowing the parallel analysis of the transcriptome using Brassica-specific microarrays. Some data are presented regarding the compartmentation of metabolites within the oilseed rape embryo. Conclusion The described methodology allows for the rapid, combined analysis of metabolic intermediates, major storage products and transcripts in a tissue-specific manner. The protocols are robust for oilseed rape, and should be readily adjustable for other crop species. The suite of methods applied to LM tissues represents an important step in the context of both the systems biology and the biotechnology of oilseeds.

  11. New aspects of storage protein accumulation in pea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain legumes are important not only because they rank fifth in world-wide production behind wheat, maize, rice and barley, but also because they have higher protein contents (20-40%) than most other seed types. The goal of our work is to obtain a more complete understanding of the cell biology of legume seed protein accumulation. To this end, we have used immunogold labeling techniques to study the localization of storage proteins in developing seeds of Pisum sativum. This presentation focuses on two novel observations related to the intracellular transport and storage of these seed proteins. Since continuities between the electron-dense cisternae and vacuoles may be disrupted by directional changes in the streaming cytoplasm during fixation, I re-examined the relationship between these two organelles in seeds in which cytoplasmic streaming was inhibited by chilling on ice. In a separate study, the distribution of both globulin (legumin and vicilin) and albumin (PA1) storage proteins in axis tissue of developing seeds was investigated. Using double labeling with 10 and 20 nm colloidal gold, compartmentation of a sulfur-rich albumin (PA1) and a globulin (vicilin) was demonstrated within individual vacuolar protein deposits in cells at the base of the epicotyl

  12. Inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on seeded human tissues by gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Human tissue allografts are widely used in a variety of clinical applications with over 1.5 million implants annually in the US alone. Since the 1990s, most clinically available allografts have been disinfected to minimize risk of disease transmission. Additional safety assurance can be provided by terminal sterilization using low dose gamma irradiation. The impact of such irradiation processing at low temperatures on viruses was the subject of this study. In particular, both human tendon and...

  13. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  14. Efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus L. Effects of the culture of the Barley and of periods of control on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos da cultura da cevada e de períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção de sementes de Raphanus sativus. Foram considerados dois tratamentos testemunha sem controle das plantas daninhas, com e sem a cultura. Nos oito demais tratamentos, a cultura esteve sempre presente, controlando-se as plantas daninhas até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 e 100 dias após a emergência da cevada. A comunidade infestante da área era composta quase exclusivamente por R. .sativus. Avaliou-se o número de plantas, acúmulos de matéria seca, número médio de frutos e sementes de nabiça por planta e por unidade de área ; foram ainda avaliados o número médio de sementes por fruto, peso médio de 1.000 sementes e a contribuição das sementes na composição da matéria se catota. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que a espécie Raphanus sativus apresenta elevado potencial reprodutivo, sendo possível concluir pela ineficiência de programas de controle de curta duração, em termos de redução do banco de sementes. A presença da cultura da cevada reduziu tanto o crescimento quanto o número de sementes produzidas pela nabiça (R. sativus. Na ausência da cultura e de práticas de controle foram produzidas 5.074 sementes/m, a partir de 125 plantas/m ainda presentes na colheita da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of barley and weed control periods on the seed production and growth of Raphanus sativus, the major weed in the experimental area. The experiment was carried out in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Two checks, with and without the crop, were kept weedy from seeding to harvest. In other eight treatments the crop was kept weed free up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 days after emergence. It were evaluated the number of plants, the dry matter accumulation and the number of fruits and seeds per plant and per m2, the weight of 1.000 seeds and the

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  16. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  17. Albinism in barley androgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley a...

  18. New high yielding, high lysine mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley mutants with an increased content of lysine have successfully been selected. Unfortunately, they had a reduced grain yield, and this has led to the opinion that it may not be possible to obtain normal yielding high lysine mutants. In the present study, twenty low hordein barley mutants were derived from 49,000 M2 seeds. Two probably had a 10% increase in lysine content and a grain yield that was the same as that of the mother variety. The mutants were initially selected by a fast turbidity test on the M2 seeds, using special controls that make the tests sensitive. The screening procedure further consists of determination of the non-hordein/hordein ratio in later generations. 14 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  19. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  20. The Dose-Effect Relationship Between the Seeding Quantity of Human Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and In Vivo Tissue-Engineered Bone Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanhuan; Kang, Ning; Wang, Qian; Dong, Ping; Lv, Xiaoyan; Cao, Yilin; Xiao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Although the feasibility of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC)-based tissue-engineered bone (TEB) has been proven in a number of studies, reaching a high positive fraction and bone yield of TEB still remains a challenge. Here we report a dose-effect relationship of the quantity of seeded cells with in vivo bone yield and the required quantity of hBMMSCs for the effective, stable bone formation of TEB. In our study, TEB was constructed using the static seeding technique with the gradient of seeding densities and volumes of passage 3 hBMMSCs. The in vitro characteristics of seeding efficiency, proliferation, viability, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation of hBMMSCs seeded on two commercial scaffolds of β-TCP and CHA were investigated using alamarBlue assay, live/dead staining, confocal laser scanning microscope, scanning electronic microscopy examination, and mRNA expression analysis of osteogenic differentiation markers. After 3 months of ectopic implantation, in vivo bone regeneration was examined by quantitative analysis of histology and micro-CT. The results showed that 10 × 10(6) cells/ml was the minimum cell seeding density for CHA and β-TCP to generate new bone in vivo. In addition, 20 × 10(6) cells/ml and 30 × 10(6) cells/ml were the saturating seeding densities for CHA and β-TCP to produce new bone effectively and stably, respectively. Thus, for different scaffolds, the saturating seeding density should be investigated first to ensure the effectiveness and stability of TEB construction with minimum donor injury, which is essential for the clinical application of TEB. PMID:25398079

  1. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  2. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil – results of a phase I randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower® oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a pa...

  3. PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT HIGH pI-BARLEY α-GLUCOSIDASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 31 plays in barley seeds a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, β-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase is responsible for supply of glucose in the germinating seed as energy source for the embryo and growing...... plantlet [1]. Recently, expression and characterization of the recombinant full length, fully functional barley high pI α-glucosidase in Pichia pastoris has been achieved. To enable production of recombinant protein in mg amounts, a transformant harbouring a clone encoding the N-terminally hexa histidine...

  4. Characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, β-amylase, and limit dextrinase serve as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... (MacGregor A.W.). Here we present the recent results of the expression and characterization of the recombinant full length barley high pI α-glucosidase in Pichia Pastoris. In order to facilitate in the range of mg protein yield, a clone representing an N-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant form...

  5. Purification and characterization of recombinant high pI Barley α-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Bojsen, Kirsten; Svensson, Birte

    α-glucosidase activity in barley seeds plays a crucial role in embryonic development. The concerted action of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, α-amylase, and limit dextrinase serves as the machinery responsible for the supply of glucose as energy source for the developing embryo in the germinating seed...... (MACGREGOR & sissons). recently expression and characterization of the recombinant full length and fully functional barley high pi α-glucosidase in pichia pastoris has been achieved. in order to facilitate protein yield in the mg range, a clone representing an n-terminal hexa histidine tagged recombinant...

  6. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  7. Complementarity of medium-throughput in situ RNA hybridization and tissue-specific transcriptomics: case study of Arabidopsis seed development kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoz, Edith; Ranocha, Philippe; Pernot, Clémentine; Ru, Aurélie Le; Pacquit, Valérie; Dunand, Christophe; Burlat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The rationale of this study is to compare and integrate two heterologous datasets intended to unravel the spatiotemporal specificities of gene expression in a rapidly growing and complex organ. We implemented medium-throughput RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) for 39 genes mainly corresponding to cell wall proteins for which we have particular interest, selected (i) on their sequence identity (24 class III peroxidase multigenic family members and 15 additional genes used as positive controls) and (ii) on their expression levels in a publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana seed tissue-specific transcriptomics study. The specificity of the hybridization signals was carefully studied, and ISH results obtained for the 39 selected genes were systematically compared with tissue-specific transcriptomics for 5 seed developmental stages. Integration of results illustrates the complementarity of both datasets. The tissue-specific transcriptomics provides high-throughput possibilities whereas ISH provides high spatial resolution. Moreover, depending on the tissues and the developmental stages considered, one or the other technique appears more sensitive than the other. For each tissue/developmental stage, we finally determined tissue-specific transcriptomic threshold values compatible with the spatiotemporally-specific detection limits of ISH for lists of hundreds to tens-of-thousands of genes. PMID:27095274

  8. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  9. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.;

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays with...... test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...... content of total C and N. From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B...

  10. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  11. Semidwarf, high yielding and high protein mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An induced mutations programme was undertaken in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the primary objective of developing some semidwarf, short duration, high yielding types as most of the local cultivars grown in Meerut are tall statured with maturity period of 130-140 days. In recent years, the barley crop in this region, particularly at flowering/grain filling stages during February/March, has often been affected by unexpected rains accompanied by gusty winds, resulting in severe lodging of the crop and thereby reduction in crop yields. To combat this problem it is necessary to develop short statured types of barley, which can withstand lodging. If such types are associated with early maturity, that will be of greater help. Dry seeds of three local cultivars of barley 'K-169', 'K-272' and 'DL-281' were irradiated with gamma rays at 100; 200; 300 and 400 Gy. A number of morphological mutants for different plant characters like plant height (dwarfs and semidwarfs), maturity period (early and late maturing), spike density and size (lax panicled and erectoides), high tillering and chlorophyll deficiency (virescent) types were isolated from M2 mutated populations of the three varieties. Among these mutants, one semidwarf mutant (No. 3-20-5) of parent cultivar K-169 is of particular interest because of increased yield and significantly high protein content, besides the short stature

  12. Induced High Lysine Mutants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Køie, B.; Eggum, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    Screening of mutagenically treated materials by combined Kjeldahl nitrogen and dye-binding capacity determinations disclosed fourteen barley mutants, which have from a few to about 40 per cent more lysine in the protein and one mutant with 10 per cent less lysine in the protein than the parent...... variety. Comparisons of six high lysine mutants with the parent variety showed that grain yield and seed size of the mutants are reduced between 10 and 30 per cent. However, the most promising mutant had the lowest reduction in grain yield, and the absolute lysine yield of this mutant was some 30 per cent...... above that of the parent variety. Feeding tests with rats revealed substantial increases in the biological value of the high lysine mutant protein. Also the net protein utilization was improved but less so because of a somewhat reduced digestibility of the mutant protein....

  13. Mutation breeding of barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has special value as a food for people living in the Andes mountain area of Peru. It is also the basic raw material for the malting industry. The factors limiting barley production in Peru are mainly diseases, low soil fertility, low rainfall, drought, frost and hail. Improved varieties should have the capability to overcome most of the factors limiting production. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to apply appropriate methods in mutation induction, and crossing and selection. The mutation induction methods are used to improve well adapted varieties and lines. The barley variety Buenavista is suited to the Altiplano conditions. Because of its spikes, it can withstand hail damage better than other varieties. Naked barley is appreciated very much as a different type of food by people living in the highlands. Based on these facts, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to search for naked kernels and other interesting mutants in the Buenavista variety. The mutagenic agents applied were: gamma rays at 20 and 30 krad (200 and 300 Gy); EMS at 0.05 M and 0.1 M; and sodium azide at 0.001 and 0.004 M. The M1 populations were planted in Callejon de Huaylas at 2700 m of elevation. The M2 generation was grown at La Molina on the campus of the University at 200 m of elevation. The total number of plants in the M2 was 187,574. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations ranged from 1.13% to 5.94%. The highest doses of mutagens resulted in a higher number of chlorophyll mutations, while in the case of naked kernels selected from the bulked seeds of each treatment, the lower dose gave the higher number. The frequency of mutants with naked kernels ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. The main goal of obtaining naked kernel mutants was achieved. At the applied treatments gamma rays were more effective as a mutagenic agent for this purpose than EMS or sodium azide. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of two barley thioredoxin h isozymes, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof; Winther, J.R.; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    -dependent fluorescence, and the barley isozymes, reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties were readily determined. The reaction constants were 60% higher for HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2, while their redox potentials were very similar. The primary nucleophile, Cys(N), of the active site Trp-Cys(N)-Gly-Pro-Cys......Barley thioredoxin h isozymes 1 (HvTrxh1) and barley thioredoxin h isozymes 2 (HvTrxh2) show distinct spatiotemporal distribution in germinating seeds. Using a novel approach involving measurement of bidirectional electron transfer rates between Escherichia coli thioredoxin, which exhibits redox...

  15. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges and...

  16. Proteomic and activity profiles of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in germinating barley embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Shahpiri, Azar; Finnie, Christine;

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes involved in redox control are important during seed germination and seedling growth. Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in barley embryo extracts were monitored both by 2D-gel electrophoresis and activity measurements from 4 to 144 h post imbibition (PI). Strikingly different activity...

  17. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... in a buffer without propan-2-ol but containing sodium dodecyl sulfate....

  18. INTENSIFICATION OF THE SORPTION PROCESS OIL BY WASTES OF BARLEY TREATMENT FROM WATER SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Kondalenko O.A.; Stepanova S.V.; Shayhiev I.G.

    2013-01-01

    In article the technology of application of a sorption material from seed covers of barley by processing by plasma of the high-frequency category for elimination of consequences of environmental pollution at technogenic accidents and accidents on objects of petrochemical industries is improved.

  19. Effects of fast neutrons on seedling growth and metabolism in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds irradiated with fast neutrons showed reduced O2 uptake per lot of seeds compared with untreated controls, but no difference per mg of embryo ''protein''-N. This signifies that respiration per unit of active protoplasm was unchanged. Endosperm proteolytic activity and nitrogen transport to the embryo were unchanged, but embryonic protein synthesis was inhibited and nucleic acid synthesis was reduced. The relationship between seedling growth retardation and nucleic acid reduction are discussed. (author). 3 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  20. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using a Supercontinuum Laser: Application to Long Wavelength Transmission Spectra of Barley Endosperm and Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsted, Tine; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Keiding, Søren Rud; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-07-01

    The supercontinuum laser is a new type of light source, which combines the collimation and intensity of a laser with the broad spectral region of a lamp. Using such a source therefore makes it possible to focus the light onto small sample areas without losing intensity and thus facilitate either rapid or high-intensity measurements. Single seed transmission analysis in the long wavelength (LW) near-infrared (NIR) region is one area that might benefit from a brighter light source such as the supercontinuum laser. This study is aimed at building an experimental spectrometer consisting of a supercontinuum laser source and a dispersive monochromator in order to investigate its capability to measure the barley endosperm using transmission experiments in the LW NIR region. So far, barley and wheat seeds have only been studied using NIR transmission in the short wavelength region up to 1100 nm. However, the region in the range of 2260-2380 nm has previously shown to be particularly useful in differentiating barley phenotypes using NIR spectroscopy in reflectance mode. In the present study, 350 seeds (consisting of 70 seeds from each of five barley genotypes) in 1 mm slices were measured by NIR transmission in the range of 2235-2381 nm and oils from the same five barley genotypes were measured in a cuvette with a 1 mm path length in the range of 2003-2497 nm. The spectra of the barley seeds could be classified according to genotypes by principal component analysis; and spectral covariances with reference analysis of moisture, β-glucan, starch, protein and lipid were established. The spectral variations of the barley oils were compared to the fatty acid compositions as measured using gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:27340221

  2. EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND CORN BRAN TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS IMPROVING BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS OXIDIZED OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of adding 3 different dietary fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran) to normal balanced diet after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 20 kGy before adding cotton seed oils and boiled oil. The experimental diet was fed for 4 weeks. This study was designed to throw more light on certain biochemical and histological changes in liver of male albino rats. Rats were classified into 8 groups; control group fed on diet fibers free, group 2 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran), group 3 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers, group 4 fed on diet supplemented with 15% boiled oil, group 5 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fiber and 15% boiled oil, group 6 fed on diet supplemented with fibers and cotton seed oil 15%, group 7 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and boiled oil 15% and group 8 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and cotton seed oil 15%. Experimental investigations were carried out after 4 weeks. The results obtained revealed that extended administration of fibers and cotton seed oil has significantly minimized the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and significantly ameliorated the glutathion content. Superoxide dismutas and catalase enzymes were assayed in blood, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected. In addition, modulations of cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed through all the experiments. In rats fed on boiled oil, the data showed histological changes in liver such as tissue degeneration, lymphocyte infiltration, hepatic cell necrosis and dilation of portal spaces and blood vessels.

  3. Cloning, biochemical characterisation, tissue localisation and possible post-translational regulatory mechanism of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase from developing sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Cejudo, F J; Dorion, S; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2010-09-01

    Lipid biosynthesis in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds requires reducing power. One of the main sources of cellular NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), generated from the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate. This glycolytic intermediate, which can be imported to the plastid and enter in the OPPP, is the substrate and product of cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (cPGI, EC 5.3.1.9). In this report, we describe the cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding cPGI from developing sunflower seeds. The sequence was predicted to code for a protein of 566 residues characterised by the presence of two sugar isomerase domains. This cDNA was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein. The recombinant protein was purified using immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography and biochemically characterised. The enzyme had a specific activity of 1,436 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) and 1,011 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein when the reaction was initiated with glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, respectively. Activity was not affected by erythrose-4-phosphate, but was inhibited by 6-P gluconate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. A polyclonal immune serum was raised against the purified enzyme, allowing the study of protein levels during the period of active lipid synthesis in seeds. These results were compared with PGI activity profiles and mRNA expression levels obtained from Q-PCR studies. Our results point to the existence of a possible post-translational regulatory mechanism during seed development. Immunolocalisation of the protein in seed tissues further indicated that cPGI is highly expressed in the procambial ring. PMID:20628759

  4. Comparative analysis of adherence, viability, proliferation and morphology of umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollweck, Trixi; Marschmann, Michaela; Hartmann, Isabel; Akra, Bassil; Meiser, Bruno; Reichart, Bruno; Eissner, Guenther [Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich, E-mail: Guenther.Eissner@med.uni-muenchen.d [Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Umbilical cord tissue comprises an attractive new source for mesenchymal stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) exhibit self-renewal, multipotency and immunological naivity, and they can be obtained without medical intervention. The transfer of UCMSC to the ischemic region of the heart may have a favorable impact on tissue regeneration. Benefit from typical cell delivery by injection to the infarcted area is often limited due to poor cell retention and survival. Another route of administration is to use populated scaffolds implanted into the infarcted zone. In this paper, the seeding efficiency of UCMSC on uncoated and titanium-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffolds with different surface structures was determined. Dualmesh (registered) (DM) offers a corduroy-like surface in contrast to the comparatively planar surface of cardiovascular patch (CVP). The investigation of adherence, viability and proliferation of UCMSC demonstrates that titanium-coated scaffolds are superior to uncoated scaffolds, independent of the surface structure. Microscopic images reveal spherical UCMSC seeded on uncoated scaffolds. In contrast, UCMSC on titanium-coated scaffolds display their characteristic spindle-shaped morphology and a homogeneous coverage of CVP. In summary, titanium coating of clinically approved CVP enhances the retention of UCMSC and thus offers a potential cell delivery system for the repair of the damaged myocardium.

  5. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  6. Transgenic Bt cotton driven by the green tissue-specific promoter shows strong toxicity to lepidopteran pests and lower Bt toxin accumulation in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Lin; Li, Lebin; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-02-01

    A promoter of the PNZIP (Pharbitis nil leucine zipper) gene (1.459 kb) was cloned from Pharbitis nil and fused to the GUS (β-glucuronidase) and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin (Cry9C) genes. Several transgenic PNZIP::GUS and PNZIP::Cry9C cotton lines were developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Strong GUS staining was detected in the green tissues of the transgenic PNZIP::GUS cotton plants. In contrast, GUS staining in the reproductive structures such as petals, anther, and immature seeds of PNZIP::GUS cotton was very faint. Two transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C lines and one transgenic cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S::Cry9C line were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and insect bioassays. Expression of the Cry9C protein in the 35S::Cry9C line maintained a high level in most tissues ranging from 24.6 to 45.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight. In green tissues such as the leaves, boll rinds, and bracts of the PNZIP::Cry9C line, the Cry9C protein accumulated up to 50.2, 39.7, and 48.3 μg g(-1) fresh weight respectively. In contrast, seeds of the PNZIP::Cry9C line (PZ1.3) accumulated only 0.26 μg g(-1) fresh weight of the Cry9C protein, which was 100 times lower than that recorded for the seeds of the CaMV 35S::Cry9C line. The insect bioassay showed that the transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C cotton plant exhibited strong resistance to both the cotton bollworm and the pink bollworm. The PNZIP promoter could effectively drive Bt toxin expression in green tissues of cotton and lower accumulated levels of the Bt protein in seeds. These features should allay public concerns about the safety of transgenic foods. We propose the future utility of PNZIP as an economical, environmentally friendly promoter in cotton biotechnology. PMID:26728504

  7. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  8. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  9. Role of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) (VITIS VINIFERA) in the modulation of radiation-induced structural and oxidative damage in spleen and lung tissues of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) against oxidative organ damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats were treated daily, by gavage, with 100 mg/kg GSPE for 8 days before whole body exposure at 7 Gy and for 6 consecutive days after gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7 days after gamma irradiation. Histological examination of sections of the spleen and lung tissues through light microscope showed that exposure to ionizing irradiation has provoked severe architectural damage in both tissues as necrotic lesions and atrophied follicles in spleen and inflammation and disruption of bronchioles, destruction of respiratory portion in lung and dilating, widening of blood vessels in both spleen and lung. Histological damage was associated with significant alteration in the antioxidant status of both tissues, which was reflected by a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. GSPE treated-irradiated rats showed significant regeneration in lymphatic nodules and significant amelioration in inflammation, regeneration of bronchioles shape, alveolar sacs and improved pattern of blood vessels. Tissue regeneration was associated with significant improvement in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT and significant reduction in lipid peroxidation by products. It could be concluded that GSPE might be capable to attenuate radiation-induced oxidative and structural organ injury

  10. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats. PMID:26496863

  11. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  12. Improving the nutritional quality of the barley and wheat grain storage proteins by antisense technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Lange, Mette; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    genetic modification with antisense or the more drastic RNAi suppression technology and study the change in protein pattern under different environmental conditions. We have five antisense and 12 RNAi C-hordein lines of barley (RNAi lines are under characterisation) and wheat RNAi lines (gamma and alpha...... result, a considerable amount of research is focused on improving the quality and quantity of seed storage protein both by traditional plant breeding and by modern genetic engineering technology. In our research program we are trying to enrich the nutritional quality of barley and wheat grains using...... plan to construct wheat omega RNAi lines using RNAi technology. The cloning of the omega gliadin from wheat is in progress. Finally, the agronomic properties and nutritional values of the genetically modified barley and wheat will be evaluated. References Hansen, M., Lange, M., Friis, M., Dionisio. G...

  13. Gamma Ray and Barley Improvement for drought Land in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barley breeding program has been concentrated to improve it's yield under dry conditions (zone-C 250 m.m), so the Barley Breeder's in GCSAR reached to Barley mutant (M4) suitable for rain-fed area in zone-C by exposing Arabi Aswad (local Barley variety) to gamma-ray treatment 10 Kr/dose, It's cod is Furat A-4806. Furat A-4806 tested in yield trials 1988/1989-1992/1993 in Hasakeh Research Station RCBD 4.5 M2 plot size , Its out yielded A. Aswad by 31 %. And completed testing in On-Farme yield Trials (At Farmers fields) 1993/1994 - 1996/1997 RCBD 32 M2 plot size , Its out yielded the Farmers Variety 18 - 28 % in Hama and Daraa provinces, 16 % in Hasakeh province (Sig. at 1%). Furat A-4806 has been released and has a new name (furat 3). Furat 3 has planted at Farmers fields to released it under there conditions ( 1 Hac in 47 locations in Hama, Homs, Edleb, Aleppo and Hasakeh provinces 2000/2001 - 2002/2003. Agronomic data were: 1000-kernel weight 37.4 g ; protein content 11.7%, number of days to heading 117; Number of days to maturity 156 ; plant height 52 cm. It was also found to be moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to scald, and moderately resistant to Powdery Mildew. Furat 3 is two-row type, with brunet seeds color, and resistant to lodging. Furat 3 has been released for: Hassake, Hama, Aleppo and Dara'a, and has good adoption. (Author)

  14. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  15. Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency or disease. The average crop height at harvest was 25.5 cm and the yield varied from 25 to 59 t haˉ1, depending on the seed density. The hydroponically grown barley was able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, and PO43--P reductions ranged from 52.7 to 60.5%, from 72.9 to 83.1%, from 76.0 to 76.0%, from 97.6 to 99.2%, from 76.9 to 81.6% and from 87.1 to 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent produced from the hydroponics system had slightly higher levels of TS (420-485 mg Lˉ1 than the 480 mg Lˉ1 recommended for aquatic animals. A sedimentation/filtration unit should be added to the hydroponics system.

  16. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  17. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  18. Hordein variation in Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. and wild barley (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the hordein polypeptide patterns of Brazilian barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. and of two native species of Hordeum from southern Brazil (H. euclaston Steud. and H. stenostachys Godr.. Forty different hordein polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 30 to 94 kDa were found in the seeds of the three species studied. Twelve of the 14 varieties examined showed intravarietal polymorphism. The number of bands ranged from 10 to 17, depending on the variety, and from 3 to 13 among individual seeds, with a total of 26 bands in H. vulgare. Phenograms using each seed as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU showed that the seeds from most varieties did not form distinct clusters. Seeds from different plants of the native species varied considerably. The molecular weights of the hordein polypeptides of the two native species were quite different from those of H. vulgare. There was a greater similarity between the native species than with H. vulgare, although H. stenostachys was slightly closer to the cultivated species than H. euclaston.

  19. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  20. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  1. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [14C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U-14C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  2. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning. PMID:18567054

  3. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero; Michael J. Edney

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four cl...

  4. Mutation induction and isolation in potato through true seed and tuber mutagenesis and use of tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advance MV generation clones from hydrazine-sulphate-treated 'O.T' cultures have been field evaluated and 12 cultures have been selected for yield trials. One culture, DN-31-3, has been found to be day-neutral in its tuberization behaviour. Four JL/RA clones have been selected after a large-scale field trial. These clones are the selections from gamma-irradiated self seeds of Kufri Lauvkar (A-7416) and hybrid A-2235. Similarly 15 MV3 clones have been selected from the populations raised from EMS- and DES-treated self seeds of A-2235. Day-neutral mutants have been selected from the fourth to seventh sprouts taken from EMS-treated tuber halves of Kufri Jyoti. From the sixth sprout harvest from EMS-treated Kufri Jyoti halves, one mutant, BCN-6-2, has been isolated which showed less than 30 cysts of G. rostochiensis in the MV2 generation. This clone has been multiplied and made disease-free through apical meristem culture. Through the use of a new medium, PM-32, the plating efficiency of mechanically isolated single callus cells of dihaploid PH-258 is 30-35%. Nitsch's medium has been modified to formulate a new medium for direct embryogenesis in single callus cells of Phulwa. All stages up to the globular stage could be observed after five to six weeks of culture. Efforts were continued for the enzymatic isolation of single-leaf mesophyll cells from dihaploid PH-258. A new cell separation medium has been formulated which gives 80% viable cells. The LD50 and LD100 doses of EMS for the single callus cells of dihaploid PH-255 were found to be 500 ppm and 1000 ppm respectively. (author)

  5. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits...

  6. The barley protein project at Svaloev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important findings of the barley protein improvement project at Svaloev are reported. Linkage analyses have shown that in Hiproly the lysine factor is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. The results, so far, indicate that during favourable conditions the best high lysine barleys yield 95-100% of the standard variety Mona. However, when the growing conditions are unfavourable, high lysine barleys suffer more. Encouraging results were obtained from feeding experiments on pigs and it is anticipated that using available high-lysine barley, the protein supplementation can be reduced by 35%. (author)

  7. Lipid transfer proteins of barley

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídková, Jitka; Matejková, M.; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Žídek, L.; Sikorová, K.; Nálezková, M.; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 51. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics /6./. 29.03.2007-31.03.2007, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : protein separation * barley * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.; Gleave, A.P.; Roberts, Thomas Hugh

    2005-01-01

    wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar to...

  9. Repair of Segmental Bone Defect Using Totally Vitalized Tissue Engineered Bone Graft by a Combined Perfusion Seeding and Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Yang; Feng, Ya-Fei; Li, Xiang; Hu, Yun-Yu; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Lei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG) is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D) scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the “Totally Vitalized TEBG” (TV-TEBG) which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. Methods In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the c...

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloe; Andersson, Mariette; JOET, THIERRY; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Gautier, Sarah; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To g...

  11. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    . The pea and barley residue N recovered constituted only 2.5% and <1%, respectively, of total N in the N-fertilized barley. The total N uptake in a test crop of mustard grown in the second autumn following pea and barley cultivation was not significantly influenced by pre-precrop and residue treatment......Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated...... using N-15-labelled residues. Field pea fixed 75% of its N requirement and the N-2 fixation almost balanced the N removed with the seeds. The barley crop recovered 80% of the N-15-labelled fertilizer N supplied and the N in the barley grain corresponded to 80% of the fertilizer N taken up by the crop...

  12. Effects on plants. [X and gamma radiation, barley, maize, Nicotiana, Saintpaulia, Tradescantia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Results of experiments with plants on the effects of low-dose and low-dose rates of low LET radiation are reported. Experiments were conducted on the effects of x and gamma radiation on the production of yellow-green sectors in maize leaves, growth inhibition in germinating seeds of barley, survival and bud production in Saintpaulia, tumor formation in Nicotiana, and pink mutations in Tradescantia stamen hair cells. (HLW)

  13. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  14. Associated field mycobiota on malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf; Svendsen, Anne; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    1996-01-01

    composition of field mycobiota compared with the pesticide-free barley. The determining factor on the mycobiota was the location. The dominant species on barley was Alternaria infectoria Simmons. The most frequent Fusarium species detected were F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. Results...... implied an interaction between Alternaria and Fusarium on the surface of the kernels....

  15. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  16. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  17. The Effect of Different Gamma Radiation Doses Applied on Tokak 157/37 Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Karahan 99 Wheat (Triticum aestivum) on M1 Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Yeşim; Zeynep ERGÜN; Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    In this research study, the dose of different gamma radiation on seed germination of Hordeum vulgare TOKAK 157/37 barley kind and KARAHAN 99 wheatTriticum aestivum, and the mechanisms of the dose required to maximize the rate and percentage of germination and increased growth of root, seedling, TAEK was conducted in Ankara. The moisture rate has been %11, the barley and wheat seeds whose germination per cent is 98 % has been irradiated with 9 different doses between 0-600Gy in the centre of 6...

  18. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  19. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  20. Live and let die - the B(sister MADS-box gene OsMADS29 controls the degeneration of cells in maternal tissues during seed development of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Yang

    Full Text Available B(sister genes have been identified as the closest relatives of class B floral homeotic genes. Previous studies have shown that B(sister genes from eudicots are involved in cell differentiation during ovule and seed development. However, the complete function of B(sister genes in eudicots is masked by redundancy with other genes and little is known about the function of B(sister genes in monocots, and about the evolution of B(sister gene functions. Here we characterize OsMADS29, one of three MADS-box B(sister genes in rice. Our analyses show that OsMADS29 is expressed in female reproductive organs including the ovule, ovule vasculature, and the whole seed except for the outer layer cells of the pericarp. Knock-down of OsMADS29 by double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi results in shriveled and/or aborted seeds. Histological analyses of the abnormal seeds at 7 days after pollination (DAP indicate that the symplastic continuity, including the ovular vascular trace and the nucellar projection, which is the nutrient source for the filial tissue at early development stages, is affected. Moreover, degeneration of all the maternal tissues in the transgenic seeds, including the pericarp, ovular vascular trace, integuments, nucellar epidermis and nucellar projection, is blocked as compared to control plants. Our results suggest that OsMADS29 has important functions in seed development of rice by regulating cell degeneration of maternal tissues. Our findings provide important insights into the ancestral function of B(sister genes.

  1. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR......) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration to the...

  2. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  3. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring in...

  4. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  5. Influence of caffeine on fractionated irradiation in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important methods studying repair of radiation damage. Some authors reported that caffeine, a repair inhibitor, had no effects on fractionated irradiation in human cell, animal cell and Vicia faba. And they concluded that caffeine inhibited the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD), but did not inhibit the repair of sub-lethal damage (SLD). In this study, the effect of caffeine on the repair of PLD and SLD were reexamined in wheat and barley systems. The germinating seeds of wheat of barley were pre-irradiation treated 3 h with 5 x 10-3 mol/L caffeine, then they were irradiated by single or fractionated X-ray doses. The results showed that after caffeine treatment the effect of fractionated irradiation was disappeared. In this case, caffeine not only inhibited the repair of PLD but also inhibited the repair SLD. In previous fracttionated radiation experiments, the repairs during interval were discussed in detail, but the repairs after whole irradiation were neglected. According to the resuls of this experiment and some early reported about fractionated irradiation, the repair efficiency during interval and the repair function after whole irradiation were discussed

  6. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  7. Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte; Holm, Preben B

    briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways of iron in the two small grained cereals, barley and wheat, and focus on the efforts made to increase the iron content in cereals in general. However, mineral content is not the only factor of relevance for improving the...... nutritional impact of increasing mineral content accordingly has to be seen in the context of mineral bioavailability. Finally, we will briefly report on recent data from barley, where laser capture microdissection of the different grain tissues combined with gene expression profiling has provided some...... insight into metal transport and deposition (Tauris et al. 2009). In the present paper we will provide a tentative and preliminary roadmap for iron trafficking in the barley grain...

  8. Evaluation of Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Copper in Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of toxic effects of cadmium and copper on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings of barley were treated with four different concentrations of cadmium and copper, ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L-1. The aim of the study was to assess toxic effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on the growth of spring barley, and to determine metal accumulation in above-ground and underground parts of the plant. The impact of Cu and Cd on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the essential micronutrients (Mn, Fe were examined. Metal treatment reduced the growth of roots (by 60%, shoots (Cd – 48 %, Cu – 57% and dry weight (Cd – 47 %, Cu – 52% of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis revealed that there was significant negative relationship between MDA content and biomass of barley treated with Cu (r=-0.99, p=0.01. The examined heavy metals were accumulated mainly in the roots and bioconcentration of Cu there was higher than that of Cd, indicating that roots tended to accumulate higher amounts of Cu than Cd. Though translocation of Cd from roots to above-ground tissues was higher, higher levels of Cd were observed in leaves.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.1951

  9. Influence of forecrop and chemical seed treatment on the occurrence of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Weber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in years 1998/1999 - 2000/2001 on plantations and field plot experiments. Aim of the work was evaluation of take-all occurrence on winter wheat in milk-wax growth stage in dependence on forecrop (oilseed rape, wheat or barley as well as seed treatment with Latitude 125 FS when wheat was planted on fields after wheat or barley. Percentage of infected plants when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS varied from 82-100 on fields after wheat or barley, and 54-69 on fields after oilseed rape. In treatments with wheat grown after wheat or barley the percentage of infected plants amounted 20-100 when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS and 13-86 when seeds were treated with Latitude 125 FS. Mean degree of infection was low when percentage of infected plants was low and high when percentage of infected plants was high.

  10. Use of recurrent irradiation in plant breeding of quantitative characters of barley and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was applied recurrent irradiation by gamma radiation of cobalt 60 in different doses to barley and wheat seeds in order to generate genetic variation and facilitating the selection of quantitative characters. The first part of this work was realized without making any selection and the second one by means of selection toward the greatest number of tassel spikelets. The experimental evaluation of irradiated materials without selection indicated that in high doses it was obtained a best expression of the character and that this was greater increasing the generations of irradiation excepting the MI generation as in barley as wheat. According to the experimental evaluation, the selected lines of irradiated material of barley was greater yield that the original variety, but this did not occur with the wheat, because of the grain size of the selected lines was more little. The posterior selection for following increasing the spikelets number for tassel has been effective and in the barley the advances were greater than in the wheat. (Author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  11. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  12. A mutant homeobox gene created six-rowed spike in barley domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops. Early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number during domestication. We isolated the SIX-ROWED SPIKE 1 (Vrs1) from barley by chromosome walking. We discovered that Vrs1 encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper I-class protein (HD-ZIP I), a potential transcription factor. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Vrs1 is expressed only in lateral spikelet primordia. Sequencing alleles of 54 six-rowed mutant lines revealed a single amino acid substitution in 22 lines, creation of a new stop codon in 12 lines, a nucleotide substitution in the conserved splicing site in 3 lines, a frameshift mutation by a deletion in 5 lines, complete deletion of the gene region in 7 lines, and no DNA changes throughout the coding region with no gene expression detected in the remaining 5 lines. We found three haplotypes among six-rowed barley revealing loss-of-function mutation of the homeobox gene Vrs1. We found that two of them independently originated from two different type two-rowed barleys, but origin of the remaining one six-rowed allele remained unclear. (author)

  13. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  14. THE STUDY OF THE PROCESS OF SEED DISPERSAL OVER THE PLANT GROWING SURFACE OF A TRAY IN HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolenko O. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The low rate of planting and harvesting mechanization is a common drawback of the equipment for hydroponic green fodder (HGF cultivation. The system, that has been developed, is represented by a rack construction with a tray positioned on each rack; a tray is the place where the processes of seed dispersal and growth and the takeout of grown HGF occur. A tray with a pipe sways in opposite directions over pipe axis, and, as a result, moving bulk of seeds covers the entire tray surface with a seed layer of uniform thickness. The mathematical model of dynamics in the “granular medium – tray” system has been developed; on the basis of this model, after execution of simulation modeling, practical angles of tray tilt were identified as being within the range of 20 – 30 degrees. Experimental investigations have been carried out on the barley of “Vakula” cultivar with seed moisture contents 10%, 14%, 16% and 18%. During the research, the main factors influencing the process under consideration were identified: the moisture content in barley seeds; initial angle of tray tilt; the number of tray swaying motions. It was determined that the increase of tray filling rate can be achieved by means of setting up the initial angle of its tilt from a reference level, which depends on the moisture content in the barley seeds used in the process of HGF production. This angle is 22 – 24 degrees for the dry barley seed with moisture content 10-14% and 25 – 27degrees for the barley seed with higher moisture content. The upper limit of moisture content in the seeds used in work process should be specified to achieve high quality of a final product. The barley seeds with moisture content 10-15% and the angles of tray tilt 23 – 25 degrees should be used during HGF production

  15. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  16. Supplementing barley or rapeseed meal to dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage: I. Rumen degradability and microbial flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-08-01

    The present study was conducted to measure the flow of microbial and nonmicrobial N fractions entering the omasal canal of lactating dairy cows fed grass-red clover silage supplemented with barley and rapeseed meal. Four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed, in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, grass-red clover silage alone or supplemented with (on DM basis) 5.1 kg/d of barley, 1.9 kg/d of rape-seed meal or 5.1 kg/d of barley and 1.9 kg/d rapeseed meal. Nonammonia N flow entering the omasal canal was fractionated into microbial and nonmicrobial N using 15N. Microbial N was fractionated into N associated with liquid-associated bacteria, particle-associated bacteria, and protozoa. Supplementation of diets with barley increased microbial N flow entering the omasal canal (P degradability, but increased true ruminal N degradability (P degradability (P degradability. Despite higher N excretion in urine, rapeseed meal improved daily N retention (P improvements in energy and protein supply for the animal. However, provision of readily digestible carbohydrates in barley did not improve microbial capture of ruminal ammonia. Benefits associated with rapeseed meal supplementation were explained as an increase in the supply of ruminally undegradable protein. PMID:12211388

  17. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  18. Induced mutation-facilitated genetic studies of seed phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the chemical composition and total amount of seed phosphorus (P) are important to the end-use quality of cereal and legume seed crops, whether for use in human foods or animal feeds. They are also important to the management of P in agricultural production, and to the long-term sustainability of that production. About 75% (±10%) of seed total P is found as phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). Mutations that block the synthesis or accumulation of phytic acid during seed development, often referred to as low phytic acid (lpa) mutations, have been isolated in maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.). Chromosomal mapping has identified as many as six non-allelic lpa loci in a single species (barley). Studies of lpa mutants has enhanced knowledge of the genes and proteins important to phytic acid P metabolism. While there has been substantial research into the biology of P uptake by plants, there has been little progress in the genetics of seed total P. Genetics that either decreases or increases seed total P might be of value for both enhancing the end-use quality of seed crops and for optimizing the utilization of P during agricultural production. As proof-of-principle, homozygosity for recessive alleles of barley lpa1 both blocks seed phytic acid accumulation by 50% and reduces seed total P by 15%, while having little impact on yield. The current status of lpa genetics and current efforts at isolating 'seed-total P' mutants, using both forward and reverse genetics approaches, will be described. (author)

  19. Induced Mutation-Facilitated Genetic Studies of Seed Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the chemical composition and total amount of seed phosphorus (P) are important to the end-use quality of cereal and legume seed crops, whether for use in human foods or animal feeds. They are also important to the management of P in agricultural production, and to the long-term sustainability of that production. About 75% (±10%) of seed total P is found as phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). Mutations that block the synthesis or accumulation of phytic acid during seed development, often referred to as low phytic acid (lpa) mutations, have been isolated in maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.). Chromosomal mapping has identified as many as six non-allelic lpa loci in a single species (barley). Studies of lpa mutants has enhanced knowledge of the genes and proteins important to phytic acid P metabolism. While there has been substantial research into the biology of P uptake by plants, there has been little progress in the genetics of seed total P. Genetic factors that either decrease or increase seed total P might be of value for both enhancing the end-use quality of seed crops and for optimizing the utilization of P during agricultural production. As proof-of-principle, homozygosity for recessive alleles of barley lpa 1 both blocks seed phytic acid accumulation by 50% and reduces seed total P by 15%, while having little impact on yield. The current status of lpa genetics and current efforts at isolating 'seed-total P' mutants, using both forward and reverse genetics approaches, will be described. (author)

  20. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SEED SELECTION NOWADAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s insight into the theoretical foundations of plant breeding for self-pollinators and cross-pollinators. From the author’s point of view, plant breeding techniques depend on a type of pollination, population propagation and isolation from other variety pollen. Adaptive properties of crops are described as ones depending on a genetic type (genetically pure lines, populations, hybrids, pure varieties and clones. The key role of seeds in preserving a plant variety, or a cultivar, is emphasized. In the article, cultivar and yield qualities of seeds are characterized. The reasons for seed deterioration and yield decrease have been looked into. Improvement of main crops such as wheat, barley, rye, rice, soybeans, maize, triticale, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets is characterized in detail. The author shares the traditional point of view on the seed breeding program. It includes following steps: development phase (breeder’s seed, maintenance phase (in which a quantity of seed is maintained under high standards and the distribution phase (production of commercial seed for distribution to the public. The difference between primary and secondary seed selection is explained. The best periods for crop rotation and crop renovation are also described. The legally enforceable standards of quality and genetic purity for different crops are presented in the article. It is pointed out that it is vital to maintain high cultivar qualities after multiplication and distribution of the new variety. Only large-scale pedigree system for seed production promotes it

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of High-Temperature Stress in Developing Barley Caryopses :Early Stress Responses and Effects on Storage Compound Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elke Mangelsen; Joachim Kilian; Klaus Harter; Christer Jansson; Dierk Wanke; Eva Sundberg

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature stress,like any abiotic stress,impairs the physiology and development of plants,including the stages of seed setting and ripening.We used the Aflymetrix 22K Barley1 GeneChip microarray to investigate the response of developing barley(Hordeum vulgare)seeds,termed caryopses,after 0.5,3,and 6 h of heat stress exposure;958 induced and 1122 repressed genes exhibited spatial and temporal expression patterns that provide a detailed insight into the caryopses'early heat stress responses.Down-regulation of genes related to storage compound biosynthesis and cell growth provides evidence for a rapid impairment of the caryopsis' development.Increased levels of sugars and amino acids were indicative for both production of compatible solutes and feedback-induced accumulation of substrates for storage compound biosynthesis.Metadata analysis identified embryo and endosperm as primary locations of heat stress responses,indicating a strong impact of short-term heat stress on central developmental functions of the caryopsis.A comparison with heat stress responses in Arabidopsis shoots and drought stress responses in barley caryopses identified both conserved and presumably heat-and caryopsis-specific stress-responsive genes.Summarized,our data provide an important basis for further investigation of gene functions in order to aid an improved heat tolerance and reduced losses of yield in barley as a model for cereal crops.

  2. Identification of Circular RNAs From the Parental Genes Involved in Multiple Aspects of Cellular Metabolism in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz eDarbani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA circularization made by head-to-tail back-splicing events is involved in the regulation of gene expression from transcriptional to post-translational levels. By exploiting RNA-Seq data and down-stream analysis, we shed light on the importance of circular RNAs in plants. The results introduce circular RNAs as novel interactors in the regulation of gene expression in plants and imply the comprehensiveness of this regulatory pathway by identifying circular RNAs for a diverse set of genes. These genes are involved in several aspects of cellular metabolism as hormonal signaling, intracellular protein sorting, carbohydrate metabolism and cell-wall biogenesis, respiration, amino acid biosynthesis, transcription and translation, and protein ubiquitination. Additionally, these parental loci of circular RNAs, from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, encode for different transcript classes including protein coding transcripts, microRNA, rRNA, and long non-coding/microprotein coding RNAs. The results shed light on the mitochondrial exonic circular RNAs and imply the importance of circular RNAs for regulation of mitochondrial genes. Importantly, we introduce circular RNAs in barley and elucidate their cellular-level alterations across tissues and in response to micronutrients iron and zinc. In further support of circular RNAs' functional roles in plants, we report several cases where fluctuations of circRNAs do not correlate with the levels of their parental-loci encoded linear transcripts.Keywords: circular RNAs, coding and non-coding transcripts, leaves, seeds, transfer cells, micronutrients, mitochondria

  3. Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; van den Berg, Frans W.J.; Köckenberger, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    where it leads to clotting of filters and hazing of beer as well as in animal feed where it hinders the rapid uptake of energy. However, a high content of BG has a positive nutritional effect, as it lowers the cholesterol and the glycaemic index. It was studied whether water distribution and mobility...... were related to content and location of BG. Water mobility was investigated by following the rate and mode of desiccation in hydrated single seeds. In order to determine the different water components, a multispin echo experiment was set up to reveal the T2 transverse relaxation rates of water within...... the seeds. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated control seeds from the high-BG mutant seeds. MRI proved efficient in tracing the differences in water-holding capacity of contrasting barley seeds. All accessions showed nonuniform distribution of water at full hydration as well as during...

  4. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth;

    2011-01-01

    yield and biomass. Seed number increased by about 47 % in barley and by 26 % in oilseed rape, but in oilseed rape, the TSW was significantly decreased, possibly because of shortening of the seed filling period. Higher temperatures decreased yield and biomass significantly in both species. A......We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased...

  5. Differential appearance of isoforms and cultivar variation in protein temporal profiles revealed in the maturing barley grain proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Roepstorff, P.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Proteome analysis of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) seeds has led to the identification of proteins in about 450 spots on 2D-gels. To shed light on the role of some of these proteins, their temporal appearance was monitored over 5 weeks during grain-filling and maturation of field......-grown barley. Appearance profiles are described for 105 proteins identified in 185 2D-gel spots in the overlapping pI ranges 4-7 and 6-11. Grouping of proteins according to appearance across functional categories revealed instances of differential regulation of protein forms. Thus, a single 1-cys...... modification or defence against fungal pathogens. Comparison of two cultivars, Barke and Morex, led to identification of protein spots appearing earlier in Morex than Barke, reflecting the faster maturation of Morex seeds....

  6. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. PMID:24120122

  7. Aseptic germination and rapid propagation by tissue culture from space returned seeds of Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueiching ensis (Chan et Sehih) Hsiao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseptic germination of Rehmannia glutinosa f. hueichingensis (Chan et Sehih) Hsiao seeds space returned and rapid propagation of plantlets were studied. The results were as follows: (1) When the sterilization time of 0.05% HgCl2 was 5 s, both the germination rate and the germination energy of the seeds reached the maximum, which were 68.33% and 53.33% respectively; (2) The best aseptic germination medium of the seeds was 1/4MS, the germination rate and the germination energy of the seeds were 76.67% and 65.08%; (3) The optimum rapid propagation medium of the plantlets was MS + 6-BA 1mg/L + NAA 0.002 mg/L, after grew in the medium for 28 d, height of the plantlets increased 7.85 cm, the propagation coefficient could achieve 6.56. (authors)

  8. The role of biodegradable engineered random polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffolds seeded with nestin-positive hair follicle stem cells for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazar Yari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that modified PCL nanofiber scaffolds are suitable for HFSCs seeding, attachment, and proliferation. Furthermore, HFSCs are attached and proliferated on PCL nanofiber scaffolds.

  9. Effects of Dosages and Application Periods of EDTA on Morphological and Cytogenetic Characters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    İLBAŞ, Ali İrfan; EROĞLU, Yasemin; EROĞLU, Halil Erhan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has many applications in plant research in addition to other applications, such as chelation and medical therapy. The morphological and cytogenetic effects of EDTA on barley seedlings were investigated in the present study. Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. were treated with different doses of EDTA (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/l) and 2 different application periods (20 and 22 h). Except mitotic index, all of the measurements for the investigated characters we...

  10. Analysis of Seed Sorting Process by Estimation of Seed Motion Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole Thomsen; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2011-01-01

    movement are directly observed and data about important process parameters extracted. Image analysis was used to extract such data from the internal sorting process in one particular seed sorting device - the so-called “indented cylinder”. Twenty high speed image sequences were recorded of the indented...... cylinder in action, sorting a batch of barley with both whole and broken kernels. The motion trajectories and angle of escape for each seed in each frame were estimated. Motion trajectories and frequency distributions for the angle of escape are shown for different velocities and pocket sizes. A possible...

  11. Analysis of Seed Sorting Process by Estimation of Seed Motion Trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole Thomsen; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    movement are directly observed and data about important process parameters extracted. Image analysis was used to extract such data from the internal sorting process in one particular seed sorting device - the so-called “indented cylinder”. Twenty high speed image sequences were recorded of the indented...... cylinder in action, sorting a batch of barley with both whole and broken kernels. The motion trajectories and angle of escape for each seed in each frame were estimated. Motion trajectories and frequency distributions for the angle of escape are shown for different velocities and pocket sizes. A possible...

  12. The Mutation Frequency in Different Spike Categories in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, O.; Doll, Hans; Sandfær, J.

    1964-01-01

    treatment (denoted as post-formed spikes). The task was attempted in two ways. First, comparisons were made between plant groups with different numbers of tillers. This analysis revealed no significant differences. Secondly, we compared the mutant frequencies of spikes ranked within each X1 plant according......After gamma irradiation of barley seeds, a comparison has been made between the chlorophyll-mutant frequencies in X1 spikes that had multicellular bud meristems in the seeds at the time of treatment (denoted as pre-formed spikes) and X1 spikes having no recognizable meristems at the time of...... to their number of flowers, a ranking which was shown to reflect the embryological status of the spike. In this comparison it was found that (a) the frequency of mutated X1 spikes is larger by a factor of 1·5–2 in pre-formed than in post-formed spikes, (b) the frequency of mutated X2 plants among all...

  13. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found...... that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds....

  14. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni; Valles, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...

  15. Influence of corona discharge field on seed viability and dynamics of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rutkauskas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature sources state that an electromagnetic field causes physiological-biochemical changes in seeds. Water assimilation becomes faster, breathing of a germinating seed intensifies and its viability improves. Having reviewed the data about using electromagnetic fields in stimulating seed viability by different authors, it becomes obvious that research of seed germination dynamics is scarce. In addition, viability of illcondition seeds is rarely indicated. The research reported herein was performed with carrot, radish, beet, beetroot and barley seeds, using corona discharge electric field of continuous current. During the research it was established that the germination density function of the seeds affected by corona discharge field is described by lognormal distribution and that of the non-affected seeds – by normal distribution. This fact shows that the seeds affected by corona discharge field germinate faster than those non-affected, and their germination dynamics is greater. Due to the influence of the stimulating field, carrot seed viability increased by 24%, that of radish and beetroot – by 12%, beet seeds – 7%, and barley seeds – 9%. Viability increase was also substantial.

  16. Spontaneous mutation frequencies in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of the spontaneous mutation frequency requires screening of very large populations and has therefore rarely been carried out in higher plants. A study on inter-allelic recombination in the ml-o locus allowed to collect some data on spontaneous chlorophyll mutants. 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. 25 plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among a total of 470129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7±0.6x10-4). If these data are pooled with others from similar materials the resulting estimate is 1.6x10-4 in about 1,43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 6.3x10-4 per diploid genome. Assuming that the number of loci that can give rise to chlorophyll mutants is in the order of 500, the spontaneous mutation rate would be in the order of 6x10-7 per locus and haploid genome per generation. (author)

  17. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  18. Seed proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  19. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  20. Influence of biologically-active substances on 137Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on 137Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in 137Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced 137Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p137Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of 137Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of 137Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

  1. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  2. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.;

    1997-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...

  3. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  4. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part I. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during ripening of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was followed in ripening wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne seeds. In the investigated ontogenesis period the content in the seeds of total and acid-soluble phosphorus doubled. The phosphorus of free phytin and phytin that bound with proteins increased to the end of maturation. In dormant seeds the contribution of phosphorus bound with phytin was 62-70 per cent of total P. As the seeds ripened, the content of inorganic and nucleotides-P decreased, while that of saccharides-P and their metabolites started to decrease from the moment of wax ripeness. Later RNA-P and DNA-P level decreased only slight.ly and that of lipids-P markedly. Phosphoproteid content diminished at the beginning of ripening and further remained at almost the same level. Wheat, barley and rye seed exhibited similar dynamics of metabolically active (nucleotides, saccharide-P esters and their metabolites, functional (nucleic acids and structural (phospholipids phosphorus compounds. Accumulation of storage forms (phytin of phosphorus was higher in wheat and successively lower in rye and barley.

  5. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  6. Assesment of amylose and amylopectin variability in barley germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley grain is composed of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The present study was conducted to investigate the variability for amylose and amylopectin content in different accessions of wild and cultivated barley from different regions. Our results showed that apparent amylose content ranged from 14.1 to 35.8 percentage, 5.7 to 26.8 percentage and 13.9 to 36.2 percentage for wild barley, barley landraces and varieties, respectively. The highest range for amylopectin content was observed in barley landraces from 33.7 to 81.7 percentage with the highest mean average value and the lowest range from 39.9 to 63.7 percentage with 52.5 percentage mean average value was observed in wild barley for amylopectin content. Furthermore, we found that out of 157 accessions, 52 had an average content of amylose (20-30 percentage), whereas six accessions had more than 30 percentage of amylose content. Our results indicated that the wild barley and barley varieties had considerable variation for amylose and amylopectin ratio compared to barley landraces, which not only provided some useful information about the difference in the amount of amylose and amylopectin content among these barley accessions, but also offered some prospects of using selected germplasm for barley quality improvement in respect of preferred amylose and amylopectin content. (author)

  7. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  8. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Bowra, Steve

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the...... physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars for...

  9. A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

  10. Improvement of Forage Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Characters Using Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) farm at Inshas, Egypt during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons on barley forage crop genotype. The aim of this investigation to evaluate the effect of different gamma ray doses (100-350 Gy) on the barley forage yield and related traits. Seeds of barley forage genotype were subjected to five gamma ray treatments (100,150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy). The two cuts were taken per season, the obtained results showed that the doses of 200 and 250 Gy increased the majority of studied characters i.e., plant height, number of leaves/plant, fresh weight/plant, fresh weight/fed, and dry weight/fed. However the dry weight/ plant was decreased by some dose treatments. The low dose treatments, (100 and 150 Gy) increased the number of leaves/plant, stem diameter and leaves / stem ratio. The positive effects on yield and its components were more appeared in the second season than in the first ones.

  11. Isolation, mapping, and characterization of two barley multiovary mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, J D; Kudrna, D A; Kleinhofs, A

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in homeotic genes disturb the spatial and temporal patterns of development, often leading to the appearance of tissues in abnormal locations. Many homeotic genes, involved in flower development, code for proteins with a highly conserved domain called the MADS box, which acts as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Two floral development mutants were isolated from a fast neutron irradiated M2 barley population. The phenotypes are multiovary, that is, stamens replaced with carpels, designated mo7a, and stamens replaced with carpels and lodicules converted to leaflike structures, designated mo6b. These phenotypes resemble the Arabidopsis mutants APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILATA (PI). The mo6b and mo7a mutants were mapped to the centromeric region of chromosome 1 (7H) and to the telomeric region of chromosome 3 (3H), respectively. PMID:11218087

  12. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Weining

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous RNAs that regulates the gene expression involved in various biological and metabolic processes. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and is a model organism for genetic and genomic studies in Triticeae species. However, the miRNA research in barley has lagged behind other model species in grass family. To obtain more information of miRNA genes in barley, we sequenced a small RNA library created from a pool of equal amounts of RNA from four different tissues using Solexa sequencing. In addition to 126 conserved miRNAs (58 families, 133 novel miRNAs belonging to 50 families were identified from this sequence data set. The miRNA* sequences of 15 novel miRNAs were also discovered, suggesting the additional evidence for existence of these miRNAs. qRT-PCR was used to examine the expression pattern of six randomly selected miRNAs. Some miRNAs involved in drought and salt stress response were also identified. Furthermore, the potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted using the psRNATarget tools. Our results significantly increased the number of novel miRNAs in barley, which should be useful for further investigation into the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in barley and other species.

  13. Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, G P; Chen, X M

    2006-08-01

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA. To develop a molecular map for mapping the gene, F(8 )recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from the Steptoe X GZ cross through single-seed descent. Seedlings of the parents and RILs were evaluated for resistance to races PSH-14 and PSH-54 of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genomic DNA was extracted from the parents and 182 F(8 )RILs and used for linkage analysis. The resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) technique was used to identify molecular markers for rpsGZ. A linkage group for the gene was constructed with 12 RGAP markers, of which two markers co-segregated with the resistance locus, and two markers were closely linked to the locus with a genetic distance of 0.9 and 2.0 cM, respectively. These four markers were present only in the susceptible parent. The closest marker to the resistance allele was 11.7 cM away. Analyses of two sets of barley chromosome addition lines of wheat with the two RGAP markers that were cosegregating with the susceptibility allele showed that rpsGZ and the markers were located on the long arm of barley chromosome 4H. Further, tests with four simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed the chromosomal location of the rpsGZ gene and also integrated the RGAP markers into the known SSR-based linkage map of barley. The closest SSR marker EBmac0679 had a genetic distance of 7.5 cM with the gene in the integrated linkage map constructed with the 12 RGAP markers and 4 SSR markers. The information on chromosomal location and molecular markers for rpsGZ should be useful for incorporating this gene into commercial

  14. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  15. Damage resistance and microstructure of barley kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanov L.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mechanical properties, damage susceptibility and microstructure of five Polish cultivars of barley were examined. Brabender Hardness test, Instron measurements, PSI, PRI, and glassiness were used to characterise mechanical properties. The structure analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. Mechanical properties of grain were related to barley cultivar. Grain of cultivars with glassy endosperm were characterised by higher mechanical resistance than those with floury endosperm. Particle size distribution of the extracted starch granules, as determined by digital image analysis, did not correlate with the mechanical properties of barley grains. Generally speaking, the number of damaged kernels correlated with the fracture resistance and was related both to the direction of compression force and water content of grain. Compression along the axis of kernel thickness always resulted in a high number of damaged creases. When water content was high no damaged to the crease zone and a low number of internal damage was characteristic of kernels compressed along the width axis. It was observed that barley endosperm cracked inside cells, while the spaces between cell walls remained unfractured.

  16. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Vincze, Éva; Holm, Preben Bach

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  17. The potential of 3-dimensional construct engineered from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/fibrin hybrid scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for in vitro cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Rozlin; Mohamad Sukri, Norhamiza; Md Nazir, Noorhidayah; Ahmad Radzi, Muhammad Aa'zamuddin; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Che Ahmad, Aminudin; Hashi, Abdurezak Abdulahi; Abdul Rahman, Suzanah; Sha'ban, Munirah

    2015-08-01

    Articular cartilage is well known for its simple uniqueness of avascular and aneural structure that has limited capacity to heal itself when injured. The use of three dimensional construct in tissue engineering holds great potential in regenerating cartilage defects. This study evaluated the in vitro cartilaginous tissue formation using rabbit's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-seeded onto poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA/fibrin and PLGA scaffolds. The in vitro cartilaginous engineered constructs were evaluated by gross inspection, histology, cell proliferation, gene expression and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production at week 1, 2 and 3. After 3 weeks of culture, the PLGA/fibrin construct demonstrated gross features similar to the native tissue with smooth, firm and glistening appearance, superior histoarchitectural and better cartilaginous extracellular matrix compound in concert with the positive glycosaminoglycan accumulation on Alcian blue. Significantly higher cell proliferation in PLGA/fibrin construct was noted at day-7, day-14 and day-21 (p<0.05 respectively). Both constructs expressed the accumulation of collagen type II, collagen type IX, aggrecan and sox9, showed down-regulation of collagen type I as well as produced relative sGAG content with PLGA/fibrin construct exhibited better gene expression in all profiles and showed significantly higher relative sGAG content at each time point (p<0.05). This study suggested that with optimum in vitro manipulation, PLGA/fibrin when seeded with pluripotent non-committed BMSCs has the capability to differentiate into chondrogenic lineage and may serve as a prospective construct to be developed as functional tissue engineered cartilage. PMID:26100682

  18. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  19. The Determına Tıon Of Seeding Dıstrıb Utıon Pa Ttern On Grain Seed Drills Used In Toka T Region

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞER, Ö. Faruk; ALTUNTAŞ, Ebubekir

    1996-01-01

    In this research, it was tried to determine the most appropriate working speeds and also the rate of seed damaging with the machine gives the optimum seed distribution pattern in row for the wheat and barley seeds by using three different types of grain drilling machines which are used in Tokat region. Research were made on laboratory conditions according to 3 different working speed and the same seeding ratio. Sticky band system were used to determine of seeding uniformity in row. In the re...

  20. Distribution Frequency and Incidence of Seed-borne Pathogens of Some Cereals and Industrial Crops in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 41 species of fungi were isolated from seed samples of barley, maize, soybean,and sunflower collected at different locations in Serbia. The majority of detected speciesoccurred on barley (35 of 41 species or 87.8% comparing to soybean (17 of 41 species or41.5%, sunflower (16 of 41 species or 39.0% and maize (15 of 41 species or 36.9%. Speciesbelonging to genera Alternaria, Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopuswere present on seeds of all four plant species. Alternaria species were dominant on soybean,barley and sunflower seeds (85.7%, 84.7% and 76.9%. F. verticillioides and Penicilliumspp. were mainly isolated from maize seeds (100 and 92.3% respectively, while other specieswere isolated up to 38.5% (Chaetomium spp. and Rhizopus spp.. F. graminearum, F. proliferatum,F. poae and F. sporotrichioides were the most common Fusarium species isolatedfrom barley (51.1-93.3%, while on the soybean seeds F. oxysporum (71.4%, F. semitectum(57.1% and F. sporotrichioides (57.1% were prevalent. Frequency of Fusarium species onsunflower seeds varied from 7% (F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinansto 15.4% (F. verticillioides. Statistically significant negative correlation (r = –0.678* wasdetermined for the incidence of F. graminearum and Alternaria spp., as well as, Fusarium spp.and Alternaria spp. (r = –0.614*, on barley seeds. The obtained results revealed that seedbornepathogens were present in most seed samples of important cereals and industrialcrops grown under different agroecological conditions in Serbia. Some of the identifiedfungi are potential producers of mycotoxins, thus their presence is important in termsof reduced food safety for humans and animals. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosisand pathogen surveillance will provide time for the development and the applicationof disease strategies.

  1. Protective effect and economic impact of insecticide application methods on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stoetzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval; T2, just ST; T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL was reached; T4, without insecticide; and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021 - were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.

  2. Effect of glow discharge air plasma on grain crops seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, A.E.; Lazarenko, E.M.; Selemir, V.D.

    2000-02-01

    Oat and barley seeds have been exposed to both continuous and pulsed glow discharge plasmas in air to investigate the effects on germination and sprout growth. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the effect of plasma exposure on the percentage germination and length of sprout growth. A stimulating effect of plasma exposure was found together with a strong dependence on whether continuous or pulsed discharges were used.

  3. Differential gene expression in individual papilla-resistant and powdery mildew-infected barley epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, T.; Carver, Timothy L. W.; Skøt, Leif;

    2004-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility in barley to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) is determined at the single-cell level. Even in genetically compatible interactions, attacked plant epidermal cells defend themselves against attempted fungal penetration by localized responses...... leading to papilla deposition and reinforcement of their cell wall. This conveys a race-nonspecific form of resistance. However, this defense is not complete, and a proportion of penetration attempts succeed in infection. The resultant mixture of infected and uninfected leaf cells makes it impossible to...... relate powdery mildew-induced gene expression in whole leaves or even dissected epidermal tissues to resistance or susceptibility. A method for generating transcript profiles from individual barley epidermal cells was established and proven useful for analyzing resistant and successfully infected cells...

  4. Short-term aluminium-induced changes in barley root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinová, Veronika; Halušková, Lubica; Huttová, Jana; Illéš, Peter; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Tamás, Ladislav

    2011-07-01

    The short-term exposure of barley roots to low Al concentration caused significant root growth inhibition and radial swelling of roots. During Al treatment, the radial expansion of root cells occurred in root tissues representing elongation zone and meristem. Both low pH and Al treatments caused significant disruption of cell membranes in swollen roots. In contrast to Evans blue uptake callose formation was observed only at higher Al concentrations and was detected in both swollen and adjacent root areas. Similarly to Al, exogenous short-term application of indole-3-acetic acid, polar transport inhibitor triiodobenzoic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid or H(2)O(2) evoked root growth inhibition and radial cell expansion in barley root tip too. PMID:20734093

  5. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The clone pcR7 encodes an additional C-terminal sequence of 22 residues, which apparently are removed during processing. BP 1 is less than 50% identical to other sequenced plant peroxidases. Analyses of RNA and protein from aleurone, endosperm and embryo tissue showed......A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C-terminal...

  6. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues. PMID:27331111

  7. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  8. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (P<0·01) and milk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (P<0·05) milk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (P<0·05) the output of ΣC18 and Σcis-18 : 1 and increased (P<0·05) the output of trans-10-18 : 1 in milk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants. PMID:21875448

  9. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  10. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  11. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  12. Yield, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Copper and Zinc Uptake by Barley Forage Amended with Anaerobically Digested Cattle Feedlot Manure (ADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao X.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of bio-gas and availability of anaerobically digested cattle feedlot manure (ADM, we need a better understanding of the impact of its application on crop production and the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient and heavy metal uptake by barley forage from soil amended with ADM. A four-year field study was conducted in southern Alberta to compare annual application of ADM liquid (ADML, and the solid fraction separated from the ADM (ADMS to raw undigested cattle feedlot manure (CFMR. An unamended control (CK was also included for comparison. Treatments were replicated four times using a split plot experimental design. All amendments were applied in spring each year prior to seeding and barley was grown and harvested at the soft dough stage for making cattle silage feed. All amendments were applied at rates supplying 100 or 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1, assuming 100% mineral N and 50% organic N was available to crops in the year of application. Averaged over four years, the highest yields were found from ADML (9.55 and 9.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, and lowest from CK (6.93 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with ADMS and CFMR (7.80 to 8.66 Mg ha-1 in between. Contents and total uptake of nutrients and heavy metals (N, P, Cu and Zn by barley forage from ADML were higher than ADMS and CFMR. and higher at 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 than 100 kg N ha-1yr-1. Our data suggest that anaerobic digestion increases nutrients and heavy metal availability in cattle feedlot manure, but most increases occurred in the liquid fraction. Our data also suggest that the impact of organic amendment application on forage barley production is not only affected by the types of amendment used, but also by agronomic practices (e.g., seeding date as well as growing conditions.

  13. Microbial dynamics during barley tempeh fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, other fungi and bacteria also occur, which may influence tempeh quality or even constitute a health risk. Introduction of food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to tempeh fermentation may enhance tempeh nutritional and hygienic quality. The abilities of LAB a...

  14. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  15. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... significantly decreased the Bgh haustorial formation rate, indicating their contribution to fungal pathogenesis. All these CSEPs were highly expressed during and after haustorial formation, suggesting that they play a role in virulence during the late infection processes. In addition, they all localized to the...... misfolding and aggregation. Through their chaperone activity, some sHsps contribute to pathogen defence by stabilizing intracellular proteins, including resistance and defence signalling proteins. In this study, we validated the chaperone activity of the barley Hsp16.9, which prevented the aggregation of...

  16. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  17. Production of barley endoprotease B2 in Pichia pastoris and its proteolytic activity against native and recombinant hordeins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2014-01-01

    was 60 °C, thermal stability T50 value was 44 °C and the pH optimum was 4.5. r-HvEPB2ΔC was incubated with native purified barley seed storage proteins for up to 48 h. After 12 h, r-HvEPB2ΔC efficiently reduced the C and D hordeins almost completely, as evaluated by SDS–PAGE. The intensities of the B...

  18. Barley NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 encoding a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) regulates the marginal development of lateral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Masumoto, Yuuki; Nobori, Naoya; Ishii, Hiroto; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Taketa, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world and is mainly utilized as animal feed and malts. Recently barley attracts considerable attentions as healthy food rich in dietary fiber. However, limited knowledge is available about developmental aspects of barley leaves. In the present study, we investigated barley narrow leafed dwarf1 (nld1) mutants, which exhibit thin leaves accompanied by short stature. Detailed histological analysis revealed that leaf marginal tissues, such as sawtooth hairs and sclerenchymatous cells, were lacked in nld1, suggesting that narrowed leaf of nld1 was attributable to the defective development of the marginal regions in the leaves. The defective marginal developments were also appeared in internodes and glumes in spikelets. Map-based cloning revealed that NLD1 encodes a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3), an ortholog of the maize NARROW SHEATH genes. In situ hybridization showed that NLD1 transcripts were localized in the marginal edges of leaf primordia from the initiating stage. From these results, we concluded that NLD1 plays pivotal role in the increase of organ width and in the development of marginal tissues in lateral organs in barley. PMID:27436952

  19. Study on Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.Seed Germination and Tissue Culture%米荞种子萌发和组织培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃华; 陈燕; 张红玉; 赵钢; 孙雁霞; 邬晓勇

    2012-01-01

    To improve the seed germination rate of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. and establish the culture system of callus,the different treatment methods were used to investigate the seed germination rate of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. The optimum auxin ingredient was screened far callus induction in cotyledon, hypocotyl, radicle explains of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. The results showed that,when the Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. seed with no testa was soaked for 24 and 48 h,the germination rate was up to 100 % . The optimum auxin ingredient for callus induction was MS + 2,4-D 1 mg·L-1 +6-BA 2 mg·L-1. When the hypocotyl, cotyledon and radicle were taken as explains,the callus induction rate was up to 100 %, 78.90% and 54.44 %.%为了提高米荞种子的萌发率和建立其愈伤组织培养体系,研究了不同处理方式对米荞种子萌发宰的影响以及选择不同激素配比对米荞植物的子叶、胚轴和胚根外植体进行愈伤组织诱导.结果表明,采用去种皮的米荞种子经浸种处理,其种子在24和48 h的萌发率均最高为100%;诱导米荞胚根、胚轴和子叶外植体的最佳培养基配方为MS+2,4-D1 mg·L-1 +6-BA2 mg·L-1,其中胚轴外植体的愈伤组织诱导率最高为100.00%,子叶为78.90 9%,胚根为54.44%.

  20. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  1. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  2. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle: a consequence of prolonged feeding barley malt sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N

    2006-04-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327

  3. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  4. Resistance in barley against Drechslera teres induced by Bipolaris maydis and Septoria nodorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Lobeck, P.S.; Thordal-Christensen, Hans;

    1998-01-01

    not been examined to any great extent, with a few exceptions such as the rice-Pyricularia oryzae system. In a previous report [1], the severity of barley net blotch caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Drechslera teres and hyphal growth in the host tissue was shown to be strongly reduced when leaves were...

  5. Heat shock causes destabilization of specific mRNAs and destruction of endoplasmic reticulum in barley aleurone cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Belanger, F. C.; Brodl, M R; Ho, T H

    1986-01-01

    In response to a phytohormone, gibberellic acid, the aleurone layers of barley seeds synthesize and secrete alpha-amylases, which are coded by a set of stable mRNAs. When aleurone layers are subjected to heat shock treatment, the synthesis of alpha-amylase is suppressed while heat shock proteins are induced. The suppression of alpha-amylase synthesis is not the result of translational control as reported in several other systems. Rather, the sequences of alpha-amylase mRNA are rapidly degrade...

  6. A Comparison of the influence of material on in vitro cartilage tissue engineering with PCL, PGS, and POC 3D scaffold architecture seeded with chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Claire G.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine material effects on cartilage regeneration for scaffolds with the same controlled architecture. The 3D polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS), and poly (1,8 octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) scaffolds of the same design were physically characterized and tissue regeneration in terms of cell phenotype, cellular proliferation and differentiation, and matrix production were compared to find which material would be most optimal for cartilage regen...

  7. Mid-Infrared (MIR) and Near-Infrared (NIR) Detection of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB on Barley-Based Artificial Inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kimberly M; Calderón, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The amount of Rhizoctonia solani in the soil and how much must be present to cause disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is relatively unknown. This is mostly because of the usually low inoculum densities found naturally in soil and the low sensitivity of traditional serial dilution assays. We investigated the usefulness of Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic properties in identifying the artificial colonization of barley grains with R. solani AG 2-2 IIIB and in detecting R. solani populations in plant tissues and inoculants. The objectives of this study were to compare the ability of traditional plating assays to NIR and MIR spectroscopies to identify R. solani in different-size fractions of colonized ground barley (used as an artificial inoculum) and to differentiate colonized from non-inoculated barley. We found that NIR and MIR spectroscopies were sensitive in resolving different barley particle sizes, with particles that were solani had different MIR spectral properties than the non-inoculated samples for the larger fractions (0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, and >2.0 mm) of the ground barley. This colonization was confirmed using traditional plating assays. Comparisons with the spectra from pure fungal cultures and non-inoculated barley suggest that the MIR spectrum of colonized barley is different because of the consumption of C substrates by the fungus rather than because of the presence of fungal bands in the spectra of the colonized samples. We found that MIR was better than NIR spectroscopy in differentiating the colonized from the control samples. PMID:26449805

  8. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... polymerization DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  9. Analysis of Spring Barley Actual Evapotranspiration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Pohanková, Eva; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    Brno: Mendel university, 2013 - (Škarpa, P.; Ryant, P.; Cerkal, R.; Polák, O.; Kovárník, J.), s. 357-361 ISBN 978-80-7375-908-7. [MendelNet 2013. Mendelova univerzita v Brně (CZ), 20.11.2013-21.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reference evapotranspiration * Bowen ratio/energy balance method * crop coefficient * spring barley * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...

  11. Human plasma kallikrein and tissue kallikrein binding to a substrate based on the reactive site of a factor Xa inhibitor isolated from Bauhinia ungulata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M L; Andrade, S A; Batista, I F; Sampaio, M U; Juliano, M; Fritz, H; Auerswald, E A; Sampaio, C A

    1999-12-01

    Kunitz type Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) was purified from B. ungulata seeds. BuXI inactivates factor Xa and human plasma kallikrein (HuPK) with Ki values of 18.4 and 6.9 nM, respectively. However, Bauhinia variegata trypsin inhibitor (BvTI) which is 70% homologous to BuXI does not inhibit factor Xa and is less efficient on HuPK (Ki = 80 nM). The comparison between BuXI and BvTI reactive site structure indicates differences at Met59, Thr66 and Met67 residues. The hydrolysis rate of quenched fluorescence peptide substrates based on BuXI reactive site sequence, Abz-VMIAALPRTMFIQ-EDDnp (leading peptide), by HuPK and porcine pancreatic kallikrein (PoPK) is low, but hydrolysis is enhanced with Abz-VMIAALPRTMQ-EDDnp, derived from the leading peptide shortened by removing the dipeptide Phe-Ileu from the C-terminal portion, for HuPK (Km = 0.68 microM, k(cat)/Km = 1.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), and the shorter substrate Abz-LPRTMQ-EDDnp is better for PoPK (Km = 0.66 microM, k(cat)/Km = 2.2 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). The contribution of substrate methionine residues to HuPK and PoPK hydrolysis differs from that observed with factor Xa. The determined Km and k(cat) values suggest that the substrates interact with kallikreins the same as an enzyme and inhibitor interacts to form complexes. PMID:10615004

  12. GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY IN THE CENTRAL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysenko I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a combination of different methods of cultivation of winter barley on the background of plowing, and their impact on growth, development and crop yield. The main technological factors allowing implementing the biological potential of culture are adaptive variety, quality seeds, predecessors, sowing and harvesting, fertilizer, soil fertility, crop care, including protection from weeds, pests and diseases. Barley is the culture of versatile use, which is grown for food and feed purposes. Intensification of cultivation methods of this phenomenon is essential and significantly affects the grain yield of this crop. Under the natural fertility of the soil and favorable weather conditions for black earth of Kuban it is possible to get 3,0-3,5 tons per hectare of winter crops of grain, and this requires the creation of an optimal diet, because one of the main factors affecting the productivity of field crops, including one phenomenon are fertilizers. In addition, the level of soil fertility and protection system of weeds, pests and diseases has great importance. Since these types of issues are relevant for agriculture, we have carried out studies to identify the optimal combination of different methods on growth, development and productivity of a single phenomenon

  13. Protein quality of induced high lysine mutants in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, B O

    1978-01-01

    Evidence of high-lysine gene sources in barley derived from spontaneous and induced mutations has been presented. In addition barley sources considered to be "normal" also differ in lysine content. Changes in lysine concentrations invariable results in changes in other amino acids in barley protein. Protein fractions are altered in several mutant barleys and differ also in so called "normal barleys". The fractions in the normal barleys are probably more dependent upon environmental conditions than in mutant barleys. It is clearly demonstrated with chemical analyses and biological experiments with rats, poultry and pigs that high-lysine cultivars are superior in nutritive quality than their low-lysine isotypes. However, it appears that most of the lysine genotypes possess reduced grain weight and lower grain yield. This is of course unfortunate as an adequate supply of food appears to be the number one nutritional priority in the world today. This does not mean, however, that protein improvement would be of no practical value under conditions of marginal energy deprivation. The literature reviewed suggests that protein improvement would likely be of value under these conditions. PMID:727018

  14. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  15. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  16. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T2). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T2) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  17. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  18. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  19. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active...

  20. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5. The functional characterization of two proteins is undergoing. In Chapter 6, microarray data of F. graminearum during interaction with barley and wheat was analysed. The expression patterns of 11fungal genes in microarray analysis were different from q...

  1. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  2. Use of mutations in breeding short-stemmed forms of spring barley with high productivity ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies of the world collection of spring barley revealed a correlation between the height of plant and the length and magnitude of the root system, tillering capacity and ear productivity. Use of dwarf forms of the type ''uzu'' and of some X ray induced mutants obtained from long-stemmed cultivars did not give expected results. Semi-dwarf and dwarf mutants obtained after treating the seeds of short-stemmed highly productive lines of the Diamant type with different chemomutagens (MNU, MES, etc.) were crossed with the aim to remove the said unfavourable correlations. Using complex hybridization of the productive lines selected with chemomutant MB2, a semi-dwarf line KM 1952 was obtained by the Cereal Research Institute in Kromeriz showing both a marked tillering capacity and a high productivite of ears. (author)

  3. Starch and Prolamin Level in Single and Double High-Lysine Barley Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.; Doll, Hans

    1980-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...... development when the single mutants 527 and 29 are combined with the mutant 1508. At maturity, kernels of the double mutants 527/1508 and 29/1508 contained, respectively, 68 and 43% less starch than Bomi. The double mutant 29/1508 kernel had a slightly lower prolamin content than mutant 1508 which is the most...... prolamin-deficient single mutant. In the double mutant 527/1508, however, an almost complete suppression of prolamin synthesis was observed during kernel development. The percentage of lysine in the seed proteins of the double mutants was about the same as in the most extreme single mutant 1508. Based on...

  4. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  5. 基于体细胞组织培养的甘蓝型油菜核三系保持系绵7MB-1亲本繁殖与F1制种%Reproduction of the Three-line Genic Male Sterile Line Parent Mian 7MB-1 (Brasscia Napus L.) and Seed Production of F1 Based on Somatic Tissue Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙大庆; 陈军; 袁代斌; 张跃非; 郭子荣; 胥岚; 李芝凡; 蒲定福; 汤天泽; 贺启川

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the reproduction of the three-line genic male sterile (GMS) line parent Mian 7MB-1 (B.Napus L.) and the seed production of F1 through somatic tissue culture. [Method] Through hybridization, a new breeding material Mian 7MB-1 in three-line genic temporary maintainer line propagated by tissue culture was used to improve the sterile plant rate of rapeseed in dual-purpose recessive GMS line, such as Mian 7AB type, S45AB type, and etc. And then the variety comparative test was performed. [Result] In order to avoid some fertility restoration phenomena occurring during the process of self-reproduction, Mian 7AB was propagated in bulk with somatic tissue culture of temporary maintainer line plant stem. The propagated temporary maintainer line seedlings were applied to the breeding and seed production of net room male sterile line parent, promoting the sterile plant rate of the male sterile line parent to 91.7%-93.5%. The male sterile line parents per hectare were enough for the seed production of hybrid F1 in 7 500-15 000 hm2. [Conclusion] Compared with the original dual-purpose GMS line, the seed production ultilizing male sterile line with high sterile plant rate greatly reduced the labor, significantly improved the seed yield, ensuring the seed quality and forming a perfect breeding and seed production system.

  6. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  7. Increase and improvement of protein content of cereals and legumes. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was studied on barley (variety Athenais) and Italian drurum wheat (variety Capeiti). Gamma radiation and fast neutrons were used. The intention is to use high protein lines of barley and wheat in crosses with the high-yielding varieties grown in Cyprus, in order to develop new varieties with high seed protein, without reducing grain yield. The work on forage legumes was limited to the screening of varieties of forage vetches and medics, as part of the programme on improving dryland forage crops. Tables indicate the relative performance of M6-lines of Attiki barley (1977-79) and of M4 Athenais barley (1978-79). A list of 8 publications by the author, some of them jointly with A. della, is given, relating to the project

  8. Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

    2013-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and α-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

  9. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination that begins with imbibition and ends with radicle emergence is the first step for plant growth. Successful germination is not only crucial for seedling establishment but also important for crop yield. After being dispersed from mother plant, seed undergoes continuous desiccation in ecosystem and selects proper environment to trigger germination. Owing to the contribution of transcriptomic, proteomic, and molecular biological studies, molecular aspect of seed germination is elucidated well in Arabidopsis. Recently, more and more proteomic and genetic studies concerning cereal seed germination were performed on rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which possess completely different seed structure and domestication background with Arabidopsis. In this review, both the common features and the distinct mechanisms of seed germination are compared among different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. These features include morphological changes, cell and its related structure recovery, metabolic activation, hormone behavior, and transcription and translation activation. This review will provide more comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of seed germination. PMID:25597791

  10. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  11. The Effect of Different Gamma Radiation Doses Applied on Tokak 157/37 Barley (Hordeum vulgare and Karahan 99 Wheat (Triticum aestivum on M1 Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim KARA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research study, the dose of different gamma radiation on seed germination of Hordeum vulgare TOKAK 157/37 barley kind and KARAHAN 99 wheatTriticum aestivum, and the mechanisms of the dose required to maximize the rate and percentage of germination and increased growth of root, seedling, TAEK was conducted in Ankara. The moisture rate has been %11, the barley and wheat seeds whose germination per cent is 98 % has been irradiated with 9 different doses between 0-600Gy in the centre of 60Co which has 1.92 kGy/h powers. The objective of that work was to evaluate determine the efficient gamma radiation dose and to determine the physiological effects and the action of the processing for gamma radiation in plant kinds. At the laboratory experiment it has been seen that the percentage of germination of rising radiation doses has no effect on M1 generation, but after diminishing of root length and seedling height with rising radiation doses it has been determined that the growth of the first leaf has stopped on the 14th day and this event has been given importance statistically for TOKAK 157/37 barley kind, 50 % efficient dose has been determined as ED50 485 Gy, for KARAHAN 99 wheat kind, 50 % efficient dose has been determined as ED50 370 Gy.

  12. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  13. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  14. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  15. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  16. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones

  17. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  18. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  19. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [14C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  20. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  1. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  2. Ascorbic acid and reactive oxygen species are involved in the inhibition of seed germination by abscisic acid in rice seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Zhang, Aying; Li, Yingxuan; Liu, Rui; Shi, Lu; Jia, Liguo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. The possible links among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC), and GA during rice seed germination were investigated. Unlike in non-seed tissues where ROS production is increased by ABA, ABA reduced ROS production in imbibed rice seeds, especially in the embryo region. Such reduced ROS also led to...

  3. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Messing, E. [University of Rochester, Departments of Urology and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Rubens, D. [University of Rochester, Departments of Imaging Science and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Sarkar, N. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Ng, W. [Nangyang Technical University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-06-15

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  4. Molecular characterization of a GA-inducible gene, Cvsus1, in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lee, Jinwon; An, Gynheung

    2002-10-31

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed development, we isolated a seed-preferential gene from ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. The gene Cvsus1 encodes a protein that is 86% identical to the Vicia faba sucrose synthase expressed in developing seeds. RNA blot analysis showed that Cvsus1 was preferentially expressed in watermelon seeds. We also investigated gene expression levels both in pollinated seeds and in parthenocarpic seeds, which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcript level of Cvsus1 was rapidly increased during normal seed development, the expression was not significantly increased in the parthenocarpic seeds. However, treating the parthenocarpic fruits with GA3 strongly induced Cvsus1 expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that Cvsus1 is induced in maternal tissues via signals from the zygotic tissues, and that GA may be one of those signals. PMID:12442898

  5. Dynamics of phosphorus compounds in ripening and germinating cereal grains. Part II. Changes in phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat, barley and rye grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tłuczkiewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of phosphorus compounds was investigated in the embryos and endosperm of wheat (Grana, barley (Kosmos and rye (Pancerne grain after 2, 4 and 6 days of germination. In germinating grain the phosphorus compounds transformations ran along the way of synthesis in the embryo and of breakdown in the endosperm. The level of phosphorus: inorganic, nucleotides, saccharides esters and their metabolites, lipid, RNA, DNA, phytin free and phytin bound with proteins and proteins rapidly increased in germinating seed embryos. The content of phosphorus free phytin and that bound with proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA in the endosperm rapidly decreased during germination. On the other hand, the saccharides phosphorus and that of their metabolites did not change, and inorganic, nuclotides and proteins-P slightly increased. Germinating rye grains showed a higher rate of synthesis in the embryos and of breakdown in the endosperm of the investigated phosphorus compounds than wheat and barley grains.

  6. Determinação do vírus do enrolamento por enxertia com tecido infetado de tubérculo de batata Determination of the leaf roll virus in newly harvested seed potato by tissue grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Cupertino

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedaços de tecidos de tubérculo de batata infetado com o vírus do enrolamento inseridos em plantas-teste adequadas induzem a manifestação de sintomas e oferecem assim um bom teste. Os resultados obtidos com diferentes espécies de planta-teste indicaram que Datura stramonium foi a que mostrou sintomas mais nítidos de infecção em tempo mais curto. O lugar de onde foi retirado o pedaço de tecido usado como inóculo teve influência sôbre o pegamento. Quando retirado da região vascular da extremidade da gema, o pegamento foi de 67,8%; da região vascular da extremidade do estolão, 56,3%, e da região interna, não vascular do tubérculo, 60,0%. A passagem do vírus dos tecidos infetados para as plantas-teste se verificou em 100% dos casos em que houve pegamento, ao se testarem as regiões vasculares da gema e do estolão, e em 8,0% apenas, ao se testar a região interna, não vascular. O tipo de infecção do tubérculo (se enrolamento primário ou secundário não teve influência na eficiência de transmissão. O teste de enxertia com tecidos do tubérculo pode ser considerado como praticável para fins de determinação da ocorrência do vírus do enrolamento em lotes de batata-semente. Pode também ser aplicado em amostras retiradas antes da colheita.Tissue pieces from recently harvested potato tubers infected with. the leaf roll virus when grafted on adequate test plants induce symptoms within 30-45 days. From several species used in comparative tests, Datura stramoniumproved best. Scion tissues from tubers infected with primary or secondary leaf roll gave the same transmission results. Tissues from the vascular apical end of the tubers gave a slightly higher take (67.8% than comparable tissues from stolon end (56.3%, but transmission was always positive when tissue union took place. Scion tissues taken from the non-vascular inner part of the tubers gave a low transmission (8.0% even when the scion remained alive for a long time

  7. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  8. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  9. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X.; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  10. Protein and carbohydrate components in the Risoe high-lysine barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the Risoe high-lysine barley mutant were analysed for nitrogenous and carbohydrate components to identify possible interactions between the high-lysine character and the low grain yield. The protein yields of the high-lysine mutants are 73-97% of that of the parents. In the parents protein is fractionated into approximately 40% prolamin (approximately 1% lysine), 55% non-prolamin protein (NPP) (6% lysine) and 5% non-protein nitrogen (NPN). In all high-lysine mutants NPP is increased and prolamin reduced. Neither different high-lysine genes nor large differences in N content in the seeds have any significant influence on the amino acid composition of NPP. The amounts of the main prolamin components, hordein-1 and hordein-2, are reduced in different and often characteristic ways in most of the mutants. The starch yields of the mutants are 38-88% of the yields of the parents. This decrease is mainly caused by a reduced content of starch per seed, but also by a reduced seed number. The latter may be independent of the high-lysine genes. There is no correlation between the amounts of starch and prolamin in the mutants, but both may be changed in the same direction in allelic mutants with different genetic background. The percentage of starch and soluble sugars in all the high-lysine mutants shows a highly significant negative correlation. This suggests a possible common mechanism responsible for the reduction in starch synthesis in all the high-lysine mutants. (author)

  11. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  12. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  13. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  14. Differential RNA expression of Bmy1 during seed development and the association with beta-amylase accumulation, activity, and total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four genotypes carrying different Bmy1 intron III alleles were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 RNA expression in developing seeds at 17, 19, and 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon and PI 296897, wild barleys which carry the Bmy1.c and Bmy1.d intron III alleles, respectively, had 2.5 to 3- fold...

  15. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  16. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  17. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  18. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  19. Mycoflora Of Barley Hordeum Vulgare L. At Different Locations In Hail Area- Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 400 grain samples collected from barley fields in Hail area at the northern part of Saudi Arabia was used for this study. Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association ISTA using YGCA medium. A total of 265 of external mycoflora and 517 of internal mycoflora were grouped into five fungal genera namely Aspergillus Alternaria Penillium Fusarium and Ulocladium spp. were isolated. Comparsion between frequencies and relative densities of external and internal mycoflora was carried out among the species of the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger reaveled high Fr. and RD of external mycoflora A. flavus Fr.60.9 - 40.5 RD 48.3 - 40.9and A. niger Fr. 52.7- 48.6- and RD 38.7- 41.9 as external internal mycoflora mycoflora respectively. All the species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were predominant as internal mycoflora .The most predominant species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were U. atrium Fr 89 -75.5and RD -79- 62.5 as internal external mycoflora respectively and Alternaria alternate Fr. 60 - 46.6 and RD. 55-32.3as externalinternal mycoflora respectively.

  20. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley tolerance grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at Al-Hijanah, an area located at about 35 km south east of Damascus. Seeds of two barley varieties [White Arabi (WA) and Pakistani 30163 (PK) were irradiated with 2 doses 0 and 15 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then, they were shown on salty soil (17.6-18,9 m mos/cm) and irrigated with salty water (5.12-5.75 m mos/cm). A dose of 15 Gy of gamma irradiation was shown to positively affect the percent germination of PK but had no similar effect on WA. The results were obtained at 3 different growth stages: first, the heading stage, 15 Gy dose increased shoots dry weight, Mg++, P content and percent of WA, whereas N percent of PK was decreased. When the seeds were irradiated by the same dose. K+ content in WA was significantly higher than that in PK. Second, physiological maturity stage, the same dose (15 Gy) increased shoot dry, but affected negatively K+ and Na+ contents in PK variety. As for WA variety, Mg++ and P contents were increased, whereas Na+ and Cl- were slightly decreased. Third, harvest stage, gamma irradiation had a positive effect on total yield, grain yield, nitrogen yield and harvest index of PK variety. A positive effect was produced on straw yield, 1000-grain weight, and nitrogen yield of WA variety. (author)

  1. Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of diploid barley were subjected to mutagenic treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS alone or in combination. Damage (reduction in seedling height, plant height and fertility), the frequency of chimeras in the M1 generation, and the frequency of chlorophyll-deficient mutations as well as morphological mutations in the M2 generation induced by combined treatments were greater than those by either of the single treatments. Synergistic increase in the frequency of chimeras, chlorphyll-deficient mutations and morphological mutations were observed in both sodium azide post-irradiation treatments and pre-EMS treatments; interaction among the mutagens in the treatment combinations on M1 damage was generally subtractive. An 8- to 16-hr soaking period of irradiated seeds in distilled water prior to sodium azide treatment significantly increased chlorophyll mutation frequency, as compared to that from the non-soaking treatment. Damage and frequency of chimeras, chlorophyll mutations and morphological mutations were consistently reduced by the soaking treatment in sodium azide plus EMS treatments. (author)

  2. The barley grain thioredoxin system - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof; Navrot, Nicolas;

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type Trx facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent Trx reductase. This review presents a summary of the resear...

  3. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  4. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Germinated Barley on Live Performance and Carcass Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastar B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of germinated barley (GB on live performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks starting from 7 days of age and ending at 42 days of age. Chicks (Ross 308 were fed six dietary treatments including a corn–soy diet (corn diet, a barley–soy diet (barley diet, a barley diet plus enzymes (enzyme barley diet, and 3 other diets in which GB was replaced with barley at levels of 33%, 66%, and 100% in the barley diet (33% GB diet, 66% GB diet, and GB diet, respectively. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Results indicated that birds fed a barley diet had significantly lower performance than those fed other diets (P. Supplementing of the barley diet with β-glucanase enzyme as well as replacing GB with barley improved the performance of broilers. Birds fed a GB diet had a significantly higher carcass yield those fed other diets (P. The lowest abdominal fat percentage was observed in birds fed a barley diet or a corn diet. Thus, it is concluded that replacing GB with barley, especially at 33% level, is more effective than supplementing barley diets with β-glucanase enzyme in improving live performance of broiler chickens.

  6. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  7. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  8. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  9. On the origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, M; Romagosa, I; Salcedo, G; Sánchez-Monge, R; Molina-Cano, J L

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic origin of Spanish two-rowed barleys, we studied 44 accessions of old land-races both morphologically and biochemically to ascertain their similarity with 51 entries of old cultivars and land-races of widespread origin across Europe. They were also compared with 20 accessions of Hordeum spontaneum from the Mediterranean basin and other regions of its distribution range, 14 accessions of Moroccan cultivated six-rowed barley land-races, and different six-rowed Spanish and two-and six-rowed European cultivars. CM-(trypsin inhibitors and subunits of the barley tetrameric α-amylase inhibitor) proteins and hordeins, all of which are endosperm proteins, were used as biochemical markers. The appearance of separate clusters of the Spanish barleys in the numerical classifications for both protein systems as a result of the existence of characteristic gene combinations that do not exist in entries from other origins permitted us to postulate the existence of local ancestors for most of the Spanish two-rowed barleys studied, and, therefore, a possible in situ domestication. PMID:24190469

  10. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  11. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: → The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. → Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. → Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. → Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  12. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  15. Seed maturation regulators are related to the control of seed dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Rikiishi

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, the regulation network of the seed maturation program controls the induction of seed dormancy. Wheat EST sequences showing homology with the master regulators of seed maturation, leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1, LEC2 and FUSCA3 (FUS3, were searched from databases and designated respectively as TaL1L (LEC1-LIKE, TaL2L (LEC2-LIKE, and TaFUS3. TaL1LA, TaL2LA and TaFUS3 mainly expressed in seeds or embryos, with the expression limited to the early stages of seed development. Results show that tissue-specific and developmental-stage-dependent expressions are similar to those of seed maturation regulators in Arabidopsis. In wheat cultivars, the expression level of TaL1LA is correlated significantly with the germination index (GI of whole seeds at 40 days after pollination (DAP (r =  -0.83**. Expression levels of TaFUS3 and TaL2LA are significantly correlated respectively with GIs at 40 DAP and 50 DAP, except for dormant cultivars. No correlation was found between the expression level of TaVP1, orthologue of ABA insensitive3 (ABI3, and seed dormancy. Delay of germination1 (DOG1 was identified as a quantitative trait locus (QTL for the regulation of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Its promoter has RY motif, which is a target sequence of LEC2. Significant correlation was found between the expression of TaDOG1 and seed dormancy except for dormant cultivars. These results indicate that TaL1LA, TaL2LA, and TaFUS3 are wheat orthologues of seed maturation regulators. The expressions of these genes affect the level of seed dormancy. Furthermore, the pathways, which involve seed maturation regulators and TaDOG1, are important for regulating seed dormancy in wheat.

  16. Seed maturation regulators are related to the control of seed dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the regulation network of the seed maturation program controls the induction of seed dormancy. Wheat EST sequences showing homology with the master regulators of seed maturation, leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1), LEC2 and FUSCA3 (FUS3), were searched from databases and designated respectively as TaL1L (LEC1-LIKE), TaL2L (LEC2-LIKE), and TaFUS3. TaL1LA, TaL2LA and TaFUS3 mainly expressed in seeds or embryos, with the expression limited to the early stages of seed development. Results show that tissue-specific and developmental-stage-dependent expressions are similar to those of seed maturation regulators in Arabidopsis. In wheat cultivars, the expression level of TaL1LA is correlated significantly with the germination index (GI) of whole seeds at 40 days after pollination (DAP) (r =  -0.83**). Expression levels of TaFUS3 and TaL2LA are significantly correlated respectively with GIs at 40 DAP and 50 DAP, except for dormant cultivars. No correlation was found between the expression level of TaVP1, orthologue of ABA insensitive3 (ABI3), and seed dormancy. Delay of germination1 (DOG1) was identified as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the regulation of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Its promoter has RY motif, which is a target sequence of LEC2. Significant correlation was found between the expression of TaDOG1 and seed dormancy except for dormant cultivars. These results indicate that TaL1LA, TaL2LA, and TaFUS3 are wheat orthologues of seed maturation regulators. The expressions of these genes affect the level of seed dormancy. Furthermore, the pathways, which involve seed maturation regulators and TaDOG1, are important for regulating seed dormancy in wheat. PMID:25211528

  17. Auxin effects on somaclonal variation and plant regeneration from mature embryo of barley (hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), immature embryos are the most commonly used as explant source for In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation but, mature embryos are alternative to immature embryo due to the fact that they have advantages such as easy storage and ready availability throughout the year. The effects of different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/l) of three auxins (2,4-D, dicamba and picloram) were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Calli, embryogenic calli and regenerated plants were observed in all of the studied auxins. The MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium) containing 12 mg/l dicamba was found to be the most effective for embryogenic callus, responded embryogenic callus and regeneration efficiency. Plant tissue culture can bring about genetic changes that are known as somaclonal variation. Genetic and epigenetic changes were examined by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and CRED-RA (Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification) techniques, respectively. Increased auxin concentration led to the decrease in the GTS (Genomic Template Stability) value. DNA hypermethylation occurred in higher concentrations of 2,4-D and picloram, while DNA hypomethylation was observed in dicamba. (author)

  18. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  19. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  1. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers. PMID:23653264

  2. Influence of laser beams on the variability of traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński W.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser is one of the sources for inducing a biostimulation effect and genetic changes in higher plants. Lower doses of laser activate plants, resulting in increasing bioenergetical potential of the cell and higher activation their biochemical and physiological processes. Higher doses influence genetical material of the cell leading to genetic changes of plant traits. The seeds of cv. Maresi spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were irradiated with different doses of laser beams and additionally treated with chemomutagens. For the experiment, a helium-neon laser (He-Ne with the wavelength of 632.8 nm and power density 1 mW cm-2 was chosen. In the M1 progeny reduction or stimulation of morphological and yield-contributing traits was estimated. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations was analysed in M2 and selection of morphological mutants was started in this generation. In the M4 generation variability of traits in the mutants obtained was estimated. The results showed that in the M1 progeny lower doses of laser beams (1/2 and 1.0 h induced biostimulation effect of the analysed traits. Higher doses (2.0 h induced reduction of the traits value in comparison to the control cv. Maresi. In addition, laser beams were able to induce chlorophyll and morphological mutations in the M2 progeny. In comparison to the initial cv. Maresi, the mutants were characterised by higher variability of morphological and yieldcontributing traits. The mutants with desirable yield structure parameters were selected. The results obtained show that the helium-neon laser with the wavelength of 632.8 nm can be an effective tool for increasing variability of traits in spring barley.

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differentially expressed genes of two barley genotypes reveal root-zone-specific responses to salt exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Camilla Beate; Cassin, Andrew; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots are the first organs sensing and responding to salinity stress, manifested differentially between different root types, and also at the individual tissue and cellular level. High genetic diversity and the current lack of an assembled map-based sequence of the barley genome severely limit barley research potential. We used over 580 and 600 million paired-end reads, respectively, to create two de novo assemblies of a barley landrace (Sahara) and a malting cultivar (Clipper) with known contrasting responses to salinity. Generalized linear models were used to statistically access spatial, treatment-related, and genotype-specific responses. This revealed a spatial gene expression gradient along the barley root, with more differentially expressed transcripts detected between different root zones than between treatments. The root transcriptome also showed a gradual transition from transcripts related to sugar-mediated signaling at the root meristematic zone to those involved in cell wall metabolism in the elongation zone, and defense response-related pathways toward the maturation zone, with significant differences between the two genotypes. The availability of these additional transcriptome reference sets will serve as a valuable resource to the cereal research community, and may identify valuable traits to assist in breeding programmes. PMID:27527578

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield and...

  6. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    objective is to develop barley varieties with good baking properties. The poor leavening properties of barley can be attributed, at least partially, to the physical properties of the storage proteins. Studies based on small scaled baking trials and protein pattern analysed by SDS-PAGE on a large number of...... high protein barley cultivars suggested differences in baking quality and correlation between baking quality and D-hordeins. The amino acid composition was measures using the newly developed AccQ Tag Ultra Amino acid (AA) derivatisation system designed for the Acquity UPLC. Obtained results from the...... opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  7. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  8. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Nørregaard Jensen, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance, thus little is known about the membrane proteins involved in...... seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Since detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure was...

  9. Enrichment and identification of integral membrane proteins from barley aleurone layers by reversed-phase chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the cereal aleurone layer is the site of perception of germination signals and release of enzymes to the starchy endosperm. Analysis of membrane proteins is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance; thus, little is known about the membrane proteins involved...... in seed germination. A membrane fraction highly enriched for the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was prepared from barley aleurone layers by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Because detergent and salt washes did not efficiently remove soluble proteins from the membrane preparations, an alternative procedure...

  10. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  11. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  12. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  13. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by...... solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  14. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...

  15. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by......, the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in...

  16. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  17. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  18. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  19. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  20. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf;

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in...... dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  1. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  2. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  3. The Level of Expression of Thioredoxin is Linked to Fundamental Properties and Applications of Wheat Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Chun Li; Jiang-Ping Ren; Myeong-Je Cho; Su-Mei Zhou; Yong-Bum Kim; Hong-Xiang Guo; Joshua H.Wong; Hong-Bin Niu; Hyun-Kyung Kim; Susumu Morigasaki; Peggy G.Lemaux; Oscar L.Frick; Jun Yin; Bob B.Buchanan

    2009-01-01

    Work with cereals (barley and wheat) and a legume (Medicago truncatula) has established thioredoxin h (Trx h) as a central regulatory protein of seeds.Trx h acts by reducing disulfide (S-S) groups of diverse seed proteins (storage proteins,enzymes,and enzyme inhibitors),thereby facilitating germination.Early in vitro protein studies were comple-mented with experiments in which barley seeds with Trx h overexpressed in the endosperm showed accelerated germi-nation and early or enhanced expression of associated enzymes (α-amylase and pullulanase).The current study extends the transgenic work to wheat.Two approaches were followed to alter the expression of Trx h genes in the endosperm:(1) a hordein promoter and its protein body targeting sequence led to overexpression of Trx hS,and (2) an antisense construct of Trx h9 resulted in cytosolic underexpression of that gene (Arabidopsis designation).Underexpression of Trx h9 led toeffects opposite to those observed for overexpression Trx h5 in barley-retardation of germination and delayed or reduced expression of associated enzymes.Similar enzyme changes were observed in developing seeds.The wheat lines with underexpressed Trx showed delayed preharvest sprouting when grown in the greenhouse or field without a decrease in final yield.Wheat with overexpressed Trx h5 showed changes commensurate with earlier in vitro work:increased sol-ubility of disulfide proteins and lower allergenicity of the gliadin fraction.The results are further evidence that the level of Trx h in cereal endosperm determines fundamental properties as well as potential applications of the seed.

  4. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  5. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte;

    2016-01-01

    Cereal grains are colonized by a microbial community that actively interacts with the plant via secretion of various enzymes, hormones, and metabolites. Microorganisms decompose plant tissues by a collection of depolymerizing enzymes, including β-1,4-xylanases, that are in turn inhibited by plant......-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation and...... included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment....

  6. Microgradients of microbial oxygen consumption in a barley rhizosphere model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Sorensen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A microelectrode technique was used to map the radial distribution of oxygen concentrations and oxygen consumption rates around single roots of 7- day-old barley seedlings. The seedlings were grown in gel-stabilized medium containing a nutrient solution, a soil extract, and an inert polymer. Oxygen...... consumption by microbial respiration in the rhizosphere (<5 mm from the root) and in bulk medium (>30 mm from the root) was determined by using Fick's laws of diffusion and an analytical approach with curve fitting to measured microprofiles of oxygen concentration. A marked increase of microbial respiration...... was observed in the inner 0- to 3-mm-thick, concentric zone around the root (rhizosphere). The volume-specific oxygen consumption rate (specific activity) was thus 30 to 60 times higher in the innermost 0 to 0.01 mm (rhizoplane) than in the bulk medium. The oxygen consumption rate in the root tissue...

  7. The CELLULOSE-SYNTHASE LIKE C (CSLC) Family of Barley Includes Members that Are Integral Membrane Proteins Targeted to the Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenny M. Dwivany; Dina Yuli; Rachel A. Burton; Neil J. Shirley; Sarah M. Wilson; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Antony Bacic; Ed Newbigin; Monika S. Doblin

    2009-01-01

    The CELLULOSESYNTHASE-LIKE C(CSLC) family is an ancient lineage within the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE/CEL-LULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CESA/CSL) polysaccharide synthase superfamily that is thought to have arisen before the diver-gence of mosses and vascular plants. As studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis have suggested synthesis of the (1,4)-β-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (XyG), a wall polysaccharide that tethers adjacent cellulose microfibrils to each other, as a probable function for the CSLCs, CSLC function was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a species with low amounts of XyG in its walls. Four barley CSLC genes were identified (designated HvCSLC1-4). Phylogenetic analysis reveals three well supported clades of CSLCs in flowering plants, with barley having representatives in two of these clades. The four barley CSLCs were expressed in various tissues, with in situ PCR detecting transcripts in all cell types of the coleoptile and root, including cells with primary and secondary cell walls. Co-expression analysis showed that HvCSLC3 was coor-dinately expressed with putative XyG xylosyltransferase genes. Both immuno-EM and membrane fractionation showed that HvCSLC2 was located in the plasma membrane of barley suspension-cultured cells and was not in internal membranes such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Based on our current knowledge of the sub-cellular locations of poly-saccharide synthesis, we conclude that the CSLC family probably contains more than one type of polysaccharide synthase.

  8. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  9. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  10. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non-heat-treated...... wheat compared with the non-heat-treated barley (averaging 23.3 vs. 43.5 h), whereas K was higher in the wheat compared with the barley (averaging 12.3 vs. 11.1 h; P=0.02 and P=0.006; Phytase 1 and Phytase 2) when the cereals were heat-treated. In conclusion, the GMM function is a suitable model for......The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate mathematical function describing the in vitro phytate degradation profile of soaked wheat or barley (20 °C; 1 cereal: 2.75 water (w/w)) as affected by heat-treatment (stem pelleting at 90 °C) and phytase addition (Phytase 1: 0, 250, 500...

  11. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  12. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  13. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  14. Protein composition of malting barley varieties required in brewing industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Bobálová, Janette

    Berlin : Freie Universität Berlin, 2011. s. 354. [Proteomic Forum 2011. 03.04.2011-07.04.2011, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * varieties * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the...

  16. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  17. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by...

  18. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a...

  19. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  20. Expression of Barley Endopeptidase B in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, R.; Mantyla, A.; Nevalainen, H.; Suominen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The gene for barley endopeptidase B (EPB) has been expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the cbh1 promoter. The EPB signal sequence allowed secretion of over 90% of the recombinant protein. Yields reached about 500 mg of immunoreactive protein per liter and exceeded values for any other protein derived from a higher eukaryotic organism produced in T. reesei.

  1. Proteome balancing of the maize seed for higher nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Most flowering plant seeds are composed of the embryo and endosperm, which are surrounded by maternal tissue, in particular the seed coat. Whereas the embryo is the dormant progeny, the endosperm is a terminal organ for storage of sugars and amino acids in proteins and carbohydrates, respectively. Produced in maternal leaves during photosynthesis, sugars, and amino acids are transported to developing seeds after flowering, and during germination they nourish early seedlings growth. Maize endo...

  2. Wheat and barley mutants selected in hydroponics by root and/or coleoptile characteristics and their relationship with water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to produce a collection of lines with putative mutations related with response to water stress and root characteristics, of two bread wheat varieties were treated with three different mutagens. Approximately 50000 M2 seeds per variety were germinated in plastic boxes with high osmotic NaCl solutions. Putative mutant seedlings with changes in morphological characteristics of roots and coleoptile were selected and further tested in M3 and M4 generations. Nine M5 families with increased tolerance to NaCl or artificial drought (polyethylene glycol solutions) at four leaf stage were selected. Three families which presented the highest tolerance to drought and the highest capacity for maintaining water content under temporary drought conditions are considered the most interesting for further studies. Additionally, a barley mutant that shows a differential root behavior under hydroponic conditions is briefly described. (author)

  3. Identifying root system genes using induced mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root systems play an important role in plant growth and development. They absorb water and nutrients, anchor plant in the soil and affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Despite their importance, the progress in understanding the molecular processes underlying root development has been achieved only in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was accomplished through detailed analysis of root mutants with the use of advanced molecular, genomic and bioinformatic tools. Recently, similar studies performed with rice and maize root mutants have led to the identification of homologous and novel genes controlling root system formation in monocots. The collection of barley mutants with changes in root system development and morphology has been developed in our Department after mutagenic treatments of spring barley varieties with N-methyl N-nitosourea (MNU) and sodium azide. Among these mutants, the majority was characterized by seminal roots significantly shorter than roots of a parent variety throughout a whole vegetation period. Additionally, several mutants with root hairs impaired at different stages of development have been identified. These mutants have become the material of studies aimed at genetic and molecular dissection of seminal root and root hair formation in barley. The studies included the molecular mapping of genes responsible for mutant phenotype using DNA markers and root transcriptome analysis in the mutant/parent variety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we have identified the HvEXPB1 gene encoding root specific beta expansin related to the root hair initiation in barley. We have also initiated the database search for barley sequences homologous to the known Arabodopsis, maize and rice genes. The identified homologous ESTs are now used for isolation of the complete coding sequences and gene function will be validated through identification of mutations related to the altered phenotype. This work was supported by the IAEA Research Contracts 12611 and 12849

  4. A transgenic approach to controlling wheat seed dormancy level by using Triticeae DOG1-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikawa, Ikuo; Mori, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Abe, Fumitaka

    2014-08-01

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait: low levels can cause premature germination, while too much can inhibit uniform germination. As an approach to controlling the seed dormancy level in crops, we used Triticeae DOG1-like genes as transgenes. DOG1 is an Arabidopsis gene that underlies natural variation in seed dormancy. We previously showed that although their sequence similarities to DOG1 were low, some cereal DOG1-like genes enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here, we introduced two DOG1-like genes, TaDOG1L4 from wheat and HvDOG1L1 from barley, individually into the wheat cultivar Fielder. Their overexpression under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter enhanced the seed dormancy level while leaving other traits unchanged. TaDOG1L4 was more effective than HvDOG1L1, which accords with the previously revealed difference in the effectiveness of these two genes in Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Knockdown of endogenous TaDOG1L4 in Fielder using double-strand RNA interference decreased the seed dormancy level by several tens of percent. This result indicates that some degree of seed dormancy inherent in wheat is imparted by DOG1-like genes. PMID:24752830

  5. Evidence that the adverse effect of urea fertilizer on seed germination in soil is due to ammonia formed through hydrolysis of urea by soil urease

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, John M.; Krogmeier, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Studies using seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and corn (Zea mays L.) indicated that the adverse effect of urea fertilizer on seed germination in soil is due to ammonia formed through hydrolysis of urea by soil urease and is not due to urea itself, to urea fertilizer impurities such as biuret, or to nitrite formed by nitrification of urea nitrogen. Support for this conclusion was obtained from (i) comparison of the effects on seed ge...

  6. Viabilidade de sementes de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC: avaliação da vitalidade dos tecidos Seed viability of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.: evaluation of the tissue vitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Claudia Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia interna e a viabilidade de sementes de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. foram estudadas utilizando-se o tetrazólio (cloreto de 2, 3, 5 trifenil tetrazólio. Dos clones testados, o Flórida Sweet foi o que apresentou a menor percentagem de sementes com embriões normais (10% como também em reação às sementes sem embriões (8% e o maior percentagem de sementes com embriões deformados (81%. O clone 07-OS apresentou maior percentagem de sementes com embriões normais (51% e um número considerado elevado de sementes sem embriões (34%. Os demais clones apresentaram valores intermediários. Para todos os clones avaliados, as sementes com embriões normais apresentaram 100% de embriões viáveis. Essas sementes submetidas ao teste de tetrazólio por um período de 12 horas, apresentaram-se com uma coloração vermelha intensa, considerada ideal para a avaliação positiva da viabilidade das sementes. Estes resultados não podem, entretanto, ser tomados para prognóstico e o cálculo da taxa de germinação e dormência, apenas indicando que as sementes estão vivas.The morphology and seed viability of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. were evaluated using the tetrazolium (2, 3, 5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. From all clones tested, Florida Sweet presented the smallest percentage of seeds with normal embryos (10% or without them (8% and the greatest percentage of seeds with malformed embryos, (81%. The clone 07-0S had the greatest percentage of seeds with normal embryos (5 l% and an elevated number of seeds without embryos (34%. For all other clones evaluated, the seeds with normal embryos were 100% viable. The seeds subjected to the tetrazolium test for 12 hours, had a deep red color, considered ideal for viability positive evaluation. These tests cannot be taken as prognosis to calculate the germination and dormancy rates, only indicating that the seeds are alive.

  7. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  8. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  9. Developmental expansion of the hilum in chickpea seed coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful growth of seeds is dependent on the flow of nutrients from vegetative tissues to the developing ovule. In legumes like chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), the pathway for this nutrient flow includes the pod wall surrounding the seeds, and ultimately the funiculus, which is the structure conne...

  10. Water binding in legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  11. Understanding the Differences in Molecular Conformation of Carbohydrate and Protein in Endosperm Tissues of Grains with Different Biodegradation Kinetics Using Advanced Synchrotron Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). These results suggest that SR-FTIRM plus

  12. Cartilage tissue engineering by collagen-chitosan-chondroitin sulfate scaffold seeded with rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in vitro%大鼠脂肪干细胞复合胶原-壳聚糖-硫酸软骨素三维支架构建组织工程软骨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 付勤; 于志永

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the character of the collagen-chitosan-chondroitin sulfate scaffold seeded with rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Methods A dipose tissue were harvested from 6 weeks old Wistar rats and the stromal cells were harvested by type Ⅰ collagenase and then cultured in vitro. Type Ⅰ collagen was fully mixed with chitosan, freeze-dried and cross-linked with chondroitin sulfate, then freeze-dried again and sterilized by ethylene oxide. The pore diameter, water content, porosity of the scaffold were tested. The adipose tissue-derived stromal cells were digested, seeded into the plates, scaffold, and cen-trifuged into pellet, and then induced into cartilage. MTT detection for cell proliferation was done. After 3 weeks, the cell morphology, and cell proliferation and adhesion were observed, and chondrngenic differenti-ation was also analyzed. Results The pore diameter, water content, porosity tested for the scaffold showed an appropriate form. Cell proliferation showed faster in the scaffold and pellet culture system after 5 day, there was still cell proliferation in the scaffold system after 14 days but no obvious changes in the pellet cul-ture system; ceils on the scaffold proliferated densely showed by histological staining, but there was a scaf-fold structure residues in the inner layer. The finding of type Ⅱ immunohistochemistry stain showed that cells express strong positive for type Ⅱ collagen in the scaffold and pellet culture system whereas it was weakly positive in the plate culture system; the specific mRNA for cartilage, type Ⅱ collagen, aggrecan and SOX-9 were expressed in all three systems showed by RT-PCR, but type X collagen was expressed continu-ously in the plate culture system and expressed after 21 days in the pellet culture system, whereas it was not detected in the collagen-chitosan-chondroitin sulfate scaffold system. Conclusion The parameters of the collagen-chitosan-chondroitin sulfate scaffold were suitable in

  13. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops are......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  14. Effects of Addition of Linseed and Marine Algae to the Diet on Adipose Tissue Development, Fatty Acid Profile, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Meat Quality in Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Olaia Urrutia; José Antonio Mendizabal; Kizkitza Insausti; Beatriz Soret; Antonio Purroy; Ana Arana

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of linseed and algae on growth and carcass parameters, adipocyte cellularity, fatty acid profile and meat quality and gene expression in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues (AT) in lambs. After weaning, 33 lambs were fed three diets up to 26.7 ± 0.3 kg: Control diet (barley and soybean); L diet (barley, soybean and 10% linseed) and L-A diet (barley, soybean, 5% linseed and 3.89% algae). Lambs fed L-A diet showed lower average daily gain and greater sl...

  15. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  16. Analysis of enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae using whole barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaori; Matsumoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Shoji, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Masayuki

    2009-10-01

    We have reported on high enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii using barley with the husk (whole barley). To elucidate the mechanism underlying this high enzyme production, we performed a detailed analysis. Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was submerged-cultured using whole barley and milled whole barley. Enzyme production was analyzed in terms of changes in medium components and gene expression levels. When whole barley was used, high production of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase and high gene expression levels of these enzymes were observed. Low ammonium concentrations were maintained with nitrate ion uptake continuing into the late stage using whole barley. These findings suggest that the sustainability of nitrogen metabolism is related to high enzyme production, and that a mechanism other than that associated with the conventional amylase expression system is involved in this relationship. PMID:19809198

  17. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    Introduction: Cereals are normally stored dry at low moisture content (< 14%) to maintain grain quality. The hypothesis is that reconstitution of grain with water activates the endogenous enzymes and makes grain nutrients more soluble and digestible. The objective is to investigate the effect of...... reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P<0.001). Reconstitution increased P...

  18. Peculiarities of mineral nutrition of grain crops during the presowing treatment of seeds by plasma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental studies of influence of the presowing treatment with plasma irradiation on content of ions in grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) realized in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. The influence of the applied method on the peculiar features of mineral nutrition and toxicological characteristics of grain quality was studied. Research results showed that grain seeds presowing treatment with plasma medium of different exposition made it possible to improve yield quality, lowered the concentration of toxic substances (chloride and strontium), nitrates, increased the accumulation of phosphorous and potassium. Concentration of magnesium and ammonium varied unissentially, but concentration of natrium lowered both in grains of spring wheat and barley. Application of the presowing treatment also improved the ecological environment by means of lowering of chemical loads of the arable lands, and also made it possible to obtain high yields in the conditions of application of the minimal doses of inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides

  19. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Plant Mineral Content And Yield Of Barley Grown Under Saline Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at Al-Hijanah, an area located at about 35 km south east of Damascus. Seeds of two barley varieties [Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK)] were irradiated with 2 doses 0 and 15 Gy of gamma irradiation. They were sown on saline soil (16.4-18.7 dS/m) and irrigated with saline water ( 7-8 dS/m) A dose of 15 Gy of gamma irradiation was shown to positively effect the percent germination of PK but had no similar effect on AA. -Physiological Maturity Stage: The same dose (15 Gy) increased shoot dry weight, but had a negative effect on K+ and Na+ contents in the PK variety. As for the AA variety, Mg++ and P contents were increased, whereas Na+ and Cl- were slightly decreased. -Harvest Stage: Gamma irradiation had a positive effect on total yield, grain yield, nitrogen yield and harvest index of the PK variety. A positive effect was produced on straw yield, 1000-grain weight and N% of a Avariety. (Authors)

  20. Preparation and administration of I-125 labeled seeds for localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Tvedskov, Tove Holst Filtenborg;

    2015-01-01

    for reliable gamma probe identification of the seeds and the levels of exposure to the staff. METHODS: 11 patients received a seed, which was manually placed in an 18 gauge needle with bone wax occluding the tip, and the radiologist introduced it into the breast tissue guided by ultrasound. The seed...

  1. Effect of barley-legume intercrop on disease frequency in an organic farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Kinane, Dr. J.; Lyngkjær, Dr. M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley-legume intercrop in an organic farming system on disease incidence was investigated. The legumes were lupin, faba bean and pea. Diseases were detected on pea and barley. On pea, only ascochyta blight (Ascochyta pisi) was observed. When either pea variety was intercropped with barley, the level of ascochyta blight was reduced. Net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia recondita) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) (in order of incidence) were mo...

  2. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  3. Molecular Phylogeography of Domesticated Barley Traces Expansion of Agriculture in the Old World

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided...

  4. Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1, the common pathogen of wheat, barley and sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka; Jan Adamiak; Ewa Adamiak

    2014-01-01

    Isuluies of Rhizoctonia cerealis anastomosis group GAG-1 were obtained from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and on barley culms and from diseased sugar beet seedlings. Isolates of R. cerealis were collected from a fields with crop rotation experiments: sugar beet-spring wheat-winter barley. In pathogenicity tests isolates of R. cerealis from sugar beet seedlings and from sharp eyespot lesions on wheat and barley were pathogenic to these crops. Isolates of R. cerealis from sharp eyespot lesions...

  5. Shining Light on the Differences in Molecular Structural Chemical Makeup and the Cause of Distinct Degradation Behavior Between Malting- and Feed- Type Barley Using Synchrotorn FTIR Microspectroscopy: A Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein a-helix and β-sheet, but lower in the others (β-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  6. Mutants pave the way to wheat and barley for celiac patients and dietary health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat has two major nutritional problems for the consumer: (1) The flour or pasta produced from the grain is not acceptable to congenital celiac patients and may induce intolerance of dietary 'gluten' in people later in life. (2) The grain is highly deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Currently there is only one treatment for sufferers of celiac disease: the complete exclusion of wheat, barley and rye grains from their diets. Celiac disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction against undigested proline/glutamine rich peptides (epitopes) that are taken up through the intestinal mucosa and initiate an autoimmune response in human leucocyte antigen DQ2- or DQ8-positive individuals. This leads to chronic erasure of the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and to permanent intolerance of dietary 'gluten'. Cereal prolamins are of two types: high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG) with a molecular structure of elastic fibrils that form dityrosine cross-links during dough formation and baking, and gliadins. The gene promoters of the gliadin-type proteins are silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissues. This methylation is removed during grain development to permit protein synthesis. Inhibition of the demethylation by mutation specifically inhibits the synthesis of the gliadin-type proteins and only proteins consisting of elastic fibrils are produced. As a proof of principle, a barley cultivar called Lysiba already exists that has such a mutation and provides the rationale creating wheat varieties by mutation of the 5-methylcytosine deglycosylases in the endosperm. Celiac patients are sensitive to a wide variety of different epitopes, which are located in the gliadin-type prolamins. Gliadin-type prolamins are of no importance for baking because wheat HMW glutenin has been shown to be alone sufficient to produce high quality breads. (author)

  7. Mutants Pave the Way to Wheat and Barley for Celiac Patients and Dietary Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat has two major nutritional problems for the consumer: (1) The flour or pasta produced from the grain is not acceptable to congenital celiac patients and may induce intolerance of dietary 'gluten' in people later in life. (2) The grain is highly deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Currently there is only one treatment for sufferers of celiac disease: the complete exclusion of wheat, barley and rye grains from their diets. Celiac disease is caused by an autoimmune reaction against undigested proline/glutamine rich peptides (epitopes) that are taken up through the intestinal mucosa and initiate an autoimmune response in human leucocyte antigen DQ2- or DQ8-positive individuals. This leads to chronic erasure of the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and to permanent intolerance of dietary 'gluten.' Cereal prolamins are of two types: high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG) with a molecular structure of elastic fibrils that form dityrosine cross-links during dough formation and baking, and gliadins. The gene promoters of the gliadin-type proteins are silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissues. This methylation is removed during grain development to permit protein synthesis. Inhibition of the demethylation by mutation specifically inhibits the synthesis of the gliadin-type proteins and only proteins consisting of elastic fibrils are produced. As a proof of principle, a barley cultivar called Lysiba already exists that has such a mutation and provides the rationale for creating wheat varieties by mutation of the 5-methylcytosine deglycosylases in the endosperm. Celiac patients are sensitive to a wide variety of different epitopes, which are located in the gliadin-type prolamins. Gliadin-type prolamins are of no importance for baking because wheat HMW glutenin has been shown to be alone sufficient to produce high quality breads. (author)

  8. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  9. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  10. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  11. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  12. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  13. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  14. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  15. Theoretical and practical aspects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of recent literature review basic aspects of the mechanism responsible for pre-sowing laser bio-stimulation of the seeds were discussed. Developed by professor W. Sedlak theory of bioplasma was the main point of reference. Presented results of own research works proved the positive influence of pre-sowing laser treatment of seeds on their yielding and nutritive value. The yield rises caused by pre-sowing laser seed bio-stimulation for some examined plant crops were as follows: maize (from 10 to 15%), spring wheat (from 20 to 30%), spring barley (from 20 to 25%), sugar beets (from 10 to 30%), rape seeds (from 10 to 15%). The quality of crops frawn from the laser treated seeds was also better than the control ones. For example, the protein content in grain of spring wheat grown from the seeds bio-stimulated with a the He-Ne laser increased from about 12 up to 14%. Similarly, in roots of the sugar beets grown from laser treated seeds, the sugar content rose from about 15 up to about 17%

  16. Studies on the specific effects of low dose ionizing radiation on seeds of cultivated plants. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative germination tests and plot experiments with silo maize, wheat, barley, oats, rye, lupine, rape and sweet turnip were performed to study possible interrelationships between the course of germination and the seed yield from γ-irradiated seeds. The germination period proved to be significantly accelerated or retarded by ionizing radiation, with the yield of seed not influenced. Because there is no correspondence between the dose-response curves of generation and yield within the range of 0.0625 and 15 Gy, different modes of action revealed to be decisive for germination and yield, resp. Rapid determination of the prospective yield or the optimum dose to influence the yield is impossible by means of germination tests

  17. Methodology of quality control for brachytherapy {sup 125}I seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: esmoura@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology of quality control of {sup 125}I seeds used for brachytherapy. The {sup 125}I seeds are millimeter titanium capsules widely used in permanent implants of prostate cancer, allowing a high dose within the tumour and a low dose on the surrounding tissues, with very low harm to the other tissues. Besides, with this procedure, the patients have a low impotence rate and a small incidence of urinary incontinence. To meet the medical standards, an efficient quality control is necessary, showing values with the minimum uncertainness possible, concerning the seeds dimensions and their respective activities. The medical needles are used to insert the seeds inside the prostate. The needles used in brachytherapy have an internal diameter of 1.0 mm, so it is necessary {sup 125}I seeds with an external maximum diameter of 0.85 mm. For the seeds and the spacer positioning on the planning sheet, the seeds must have a length between 4.5 and 5.0 mm. The activities must not vary more than 5% in each batch of {sup 125}I seeds. For this methodology, we used two ionization chamber detectors and one caliper. In this paper, the methodology using one control batch with 75 seeds manufactured by GE Health care Ltd is presented. (author)

  18. Seed biopriming with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ahmad; Turgay, Oğuz Can; Farooq, Muhammad; Hayat, Rifat

    2016-08-01

    Beneficial microbes are applied to the soil and plant tissues directly or through seed inoculation, whereas soil application is preferred when there is risk of inhibitors or antagonistic microbes on the plant tissues. Insufficient survival of the microorganisms, hindrance in application of fungicides to the seeds and exposure to heat and sunlight in subsequent seed storage in conventional inoculation methods force to explore appropriate and efficient bacterial application method. Seed priming, where seeds are hydrated to activate metabolism without actual germination followed by drying, increases the germination, stand establishment and stress tolerance in different crops. Seed priming with living bacterial inoculum is termed as biopriming that involves the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. It increases speed and uniformity of germination; also ensures rapid, uniform and high establishment of crops; and hence improves harvest quality and yield. Seed biopriming allows the bacteria to enter/adhere the seeds and also acclimatization of bacteria in the prevalent conditions. This review focuses on methods used for biopriming, and also the role in improving crop productivity and stress tolerance along with prospects of this technology. The comparison of methods being followed is also reviewed proposing biopriming as a promising technique for application of beneficial microbes to the seeds. PMID:27222220

  19. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  20. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  1. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  2. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  3. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  4. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  5. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  6. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  7. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...

  8. Proteomic analysis of different extracts from barley grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelík, Josef; Řehulka, Pavel; Střelcová, M.; Kubáň, V.; Mayrhofer, C.; Allmaier, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2002), s. 261-264. ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/99/1576 Grant ostatní: Austrian-Czech Republic Collaboration Grant(AT) II/4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : proteomics * barley * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2002

  9. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Laurence; Leroux, Christine; Rouel, Jacques; Bonnet, Muriel; Chilliard, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d exper...

  10. 种子消毒方法对大葱无菌苗培养的影响%Influence of Seed Disinfection Methods on Aseptic Welsh Onion Tissue Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董飞; 陈运起; 刘世琦; 高莉敏; 王传增

    2011-01-01

    Used sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride 2 common disinfectants to conduct disinfection treatment for welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. ) and studied the effect of Tween-20 onion seed disinfection. The results showed that 40 min soak in 2% sodium hypochlorite, and adding Tween-20 before and after disinfection was the highest in disinfection effect for welsh onion seeds, could significantly improve seed germination rate, germination energy and reduced pollution rate.%采用次氯酸钠、升汞两种常用消毒剂对大葱种子进行消毒处理,并研究添加助剂吐温20对大葱种子发芽和消毒效果的影响.结果表明:用2%次氯酸钠消毒40 min,并在消毒前后添加吐温20对大葱种子的消毒效果最好,能显著提高大葱种子的发芽率和发芽势,降低污染率.

  11. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P<0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during

  12. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  13. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  14. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly......A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse...... from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2'-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption...

  15. Internal water balance of barley under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A A; Duysen, M E; Wilkinson, G E

    1968-06-01

    Leaf water potential, leaf relative water content, and relative transpiration of barley were determined daily under greenhouse conditions at 3 growth stages: tillering to boot, boot to heading, and heading to maturity. The leaf moisture characteristic curve (relative water content versus leaf water potential) was the same for leaves of the same age growing in the same environment for the first 2 stages of growth, but shifted at the heading to maturity stage to higher leaf relative water content for a given leaf water potential. Growth chamber experiments showed that the leaf moisture characteristic curve was not the same for plants growing in different environments.Relative transpiration data indicated that barley stomates closed at a water potential of about -22 bars at the 3 stages studied.The water potential was measured for all the leaves on barley to determine the variation of water potential with leaf position. Leaf water potential increased basipetally with plant leaf position. In soil with a moisture content near field capacity a difference of about 16.5 bars was observed between the top and bottom leaves on the same plant, while in soil with a moisture content near the permanent wilting point the difference was only 5.6 bars between the same leaf positions. PMID:16656869

  16. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  17. Water relations in seed biology

    OpenAIRE

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  18. A Simplified Seed Transformation Method for Obtaining Transgenic Brassica napus Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; ZHAO De-gang; WU Yong-jun; TIAN Xiao-e

    2009-01-01

    We report here a seed transformation of sonication-assisted,no-tissue culture to rapidly produce transgenic Brassica napus plants.This method comprises the steps of treating seeds by ultrasonic wave,inoculating Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a recombinant ChlFN-a gene and germinating directly of treatment seed on wet filter papers.The obtained transformants were verified by GUS histochemical assay and nested PCR amplification.It suggests that seed transformation has a potential use in genetic transformation of rape.

  19. Study of dose deposition for different configurations of seeds OncoSeed 6711

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. lodine-125 brachytherapy seeds are presented as a form of treatment. In prostate cancer therapy 80-120 iodine-125 seeds are implanted in the organ following a previous planning. During positioning and after it, the implanted seeds can undergo slight displacements relative to the original position. These deviations may cause changes in dose distribution in the tumor volume. This work has made a dosimetry study for iodine-125 seeds used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the first stage, we performed a one seed dosimetric parameters study following the TG-43 protocol recommendations with the objective of validating our methodology. Then a quantitative study of the variation in dose distribution for three configurations of four seeds OncoSeed 6711 was conducted with two configurations using the seeds in symmetrical positions and the other presenting small displacements. A soft tissue phantom and TLD dosimeters were used. Then a qualitative study of isodose curves of the configurations was performed using radiochromic film, Gafchromic model. This method was used to complement the study of the crystals. The seed's dosimetric parameters obtained in this work showed excellent agreement with the TG-43 consensual values, thus validating the methodology used in this work. The results obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters have shown that there is a significant difference in dose distribution when there is a change in the positioning of the seeds. The use of these two methods simultaneously is efficient since the crystals bring a point view and the film has a global view of the dose distribution. (author)

  20. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution. PMID:17947416