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Sample records for barley powdery mildew1woa

  1. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  2. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  3. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aggregation in the distribution of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, the barley powdery mildew pathogen, was investigated in field plots of 'Golden Promise', 'Proctor' and 'Tyra'. 'Golden Promise' and 'Proctor' have no effective mildew resistance alleles, whereas 'Tyra' has Mla1, which...

  4. The effect of fungicide dose on the composition of laboratory populations of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Nielsen, B.J.; Østergård, Hanne

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the use of different doses of the fungicide fenpropimorph on populations of barley powdery mildew Blumeria (Erysiphe) graminis f. sp. hordei was investigated in a laboratory selection experiment. A sample from the Danish aerial population of powdery mildew was split into populations...... to explain why this resistance has evolved at a slower rate than resistance towards other fungicides....

  5. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector...... with PR17c was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses. Down-regulation and over-expression of PR17c in epidermal cells of barley confirmed that this protein is important for penetration resistance against the powdery mildew fungus. In line with this, PR17c was found...

  6. Transcriptome sequencing in a Tibetan barley landrace with high resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xing-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Yu-Lin; Xu, Qi-Jun; Bai, Li-Jun; Yuan, Hong-Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2014-01-01

    Hulless barley is an important cereal crop worldwide, especially in Tibet of China. However, this crop is usually susceptible to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In this study, we aimed to understand the functions and pathways of genes involved in the disease resistance by transcriptome sequencing of a Tibetan barley landrace with high resistance to powdery mildew. A total of 831 significant differentially expressed genes were found in the infected seedlings, covering 19 functions. Either "cell," "cell part," and "extracellular region" in the cellular component category or "binding" and "catalytic" in the category of molecular function as well as "metabolic process" and "cellular process" in the biological process category together demonstrated that these functions may be involved in the resistance to powdery mildew of the hulless barley. In addition, 330 KEGG pathways were found using BLASTx with an E-value cut-off of powdery mildew infection.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...

  8. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  9. Field assessment of partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. Chr.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1986-01-01

    Partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley was evaluated in three plot types: large isolation plots, in 1.4 m2 plots in chessboard design with guard plots of spring wheat and in single rows. Percentage leaf area covered by powdery mildew was scored four to six times during the season....... The relationship between single scores of amount of powdery mildew on the upper four leaves and the area under the disease progress curve was high in all plot designs during the first two to three weeks after heading, allowing selection for the trait by one or two scorings. Differential ranking of varieties...

  10. A Japanese powdery mildew isolate with exceptionally large infection efficience on Mlo-resistant barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Jensen, H.P.; Østergård, Hanne

    1995-01-01

    A Japanese field isolate (Race I) of Erysiphe graminis f,sp. hordei was tested on 17 barley lines carrying the mlo powdery mildew resistance gene. Race I produced many successful infections with infection type larger than or equal to 2 on six lines (M66, MC20, SR1, SR7, Atem and Totem). On the re......A Japanese field isolate (Race I) of Erysiphe graminis f,sp. hordei was tested on 17 barley lines carrying the mlo powdery mildew resistance gene. Race I produced many successful infections with infection type larger than or equal to 2 on six lines (M66, MC20, SR1, SR7, Atem and Totem...

  11. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren van; McGuffin, Liam J.;

    2012-01-01

    Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute...... requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease....

  12. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren van; McGuffin, Liam J.;

    2012-01-01

    Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute...

  13. Heterogeneity of Powdery Mildew Resistance Revealed in Accessions of the ICARDA Wild Barley Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiseitl, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    The primary genepool of barley comprises two subspecies – wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley H. vulgare. subsp. vulgare. The former originated 5.5 million years ago in southwest Asia and is the immediate ancestor of cultivated barley, which arose around 10,000 years ago. In this study, the specific resistance of a set of 146 wild barley accessions, maintained by the International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), to 32 isolates of barley powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei was evaluated. The set comprised 146 heterogeneous accessions of a previously tested collection. Seed was obtained by single seed descent and each accession was usually represented by five single plant progenies. In total, 687 plant progenies were tested. There were 211 phenotypes of resistance among the accessions, 87 of which were found in single plants, while 202 plants contained the eight most common phenotypes. The most frequent phenotype was found in 56 plants that were susceptible to all pathogen isolates, whereas the second most frequent phenotype, which occurred in 46 plants, was resistant to all isolates. The broad resistance diversity that was revealed is of practical importance and is an aid to determining the extent and role of resistance in natural ecosystems.

  14. Differential gene expression in individual papilla-resistant and powdery mildew-infected barley epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, T.; Carver, Timothy L. W.; Skøt, Leif;

    2004-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility in barley to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) is determined at the single-cell level. Even in genetically compatible interactions, attacked plant epidermal cells defend themselves against attempted fungal penetration by localized responses...... separately. Contents of single epidermal cells (resistant, infected, and unattacked controls) were collected, and after cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification, the resulting sample was hybridized to dot-blots spotted with genes, including some previously reported to be induced upon pathogen attack. Transcripts...

  15. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVRa gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVRa genes and identified AVRa1 and AVRa13, encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVRa1 and AVRa13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVRA1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVRA1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVRA1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  16. An LRR/malectin receptor-like kinase mediates resistance to non-adapted and adapted powdery mildew fungi in barley and wheat

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    Jeyaraman Rajaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for required for nonhost resistance 8 encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates nonhost resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating nonhost resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  17. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  18. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

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    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  19. Tempered mlo broad-spectrum resistance to barley powdery mildew in an Ethiopian landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xintian; Deng, Weiwei; Lee, Zheng Zhou; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco J; Schweizer, Patrick; Ellwood, Simon R

    2016-07-12

    Recessive mutations in the Mlo gene confer broad spectrum resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare) to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei), a widespread and damaging disease. However, all alleles discovered to date also display deleterious pleiotropic effects, including the naturally occurring mlo-11 mutant which is widely deployed in Europe. Recessive resistance was discovered in Eth295, an Ethiopian landrace, which was developmentally controlled and quantitative without spontaneous cell wall appositions or extensive necrosis and loss of photosynthetic tissue. This resistance is determined by two copies of the mlo-11 repeat units, that occur upstream to the wild-type Mlo gene, compared to 11-12 in commonly grown cultivars and was designated mlo-11 (cnv2). mlo-11 repeat unit copy number-dependent DNA methylation corresponded with cytological and macroscopic phenotypic differences between copy number variants. Sequence data indicated mlo-11 (cnv2) formed via recombination between progenitor mlo-11 repeat units and the 3' end of an adjacent stowaway MITE containing region. mlo-11 (cnv2) is the only example of a moderated mlo variant discovered to date and may have arisen by natural selection against the deleterious effects of the progenitor mlo-11 repeat unit configuration.

  20. Localization of the Laevigatum powdery mildew resistance gene to barley chromosome 2 by the use of RFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.; Holm-Jensen, A.G.; Jensen, H.P.;

    1993-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease resistance gene Ml(La) was found to belong to a locus on barely chromosome 2. We suggest that this locus be designated MlLa. Linkage analysis was carried out on 72 chromosome-doubled, spring-type progeny lines from a cross between the winter var 'Vogelsanger Gold' and t......' and the spring var 'Alf'. A map of chromosome 2 spanning 119 cM and flanked by two peroxidase gene loci was constructed. In addition to the Laevigatum resistance locus the map includes nine RFLP markers, the two peroxidase gene loci and the six-row locus in barley....

  1. A Transient Expression System for the Functional Assessment of Early Response Genes on the Powdery Mildew Infected Barley or Wheat Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-li

    2003-01-01

    The principle and the basic steps of the transient assay system for the functional assessment ofearly response genes on the powdery mildew infected barley or wheat leaves were summarized in brief. The development of this technology and its extensive application were reviewed. Future studies on this approach wererecommended in this paper.

  2. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    how the basic resistance components contribute to resistance against powdery mildews. Furthermore, I propose an alternative strategy of achieving resistance to barley powdery mildew by application of peptide aptamers. Peptide aptamers are small proteins selected to specifically target conserved Yx......C motif of barley powdery mildew effectors. I present a proof-of-concept study in Arabidopsis, where overexpression of peptide aptamers significantly reduced the susceptibility to barley powdery mildew. Moreover, I set the discovery in a bigger context by summarizing genetic engineering technologies...

  3. Localization of powdery mildew resistance gene Ml-ra on barley chromosome 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the powdery mildew resistance gene called Ml-(41/145) represents a unique, unnamed locus, which we suggest to be designated Ml-ra with reference to variety 'Ragusa b' [Hordeum vulgare]. Ml-ra is located on the short arm of chormosome 5 near powdery mildew resistance locus...... Ml-a and the seed storage protein loci Hor1 and Hor2. The most likely order of the loci is Hor1, Ml-a, Ml-ra, and Hor2....

  4. Critical yield-point model to estimate damage caused by brown spot and powdery mildew in barley

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    Lenita Agostinetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgaris L. is the second most important winter crop in Southern Brazil. The excessive rainfall in this region during the crop-growing season increases the frequency and intensity of foliar fungal diseases. The research aimed to determine the damage function equations (DFE for the multiple pathosystem of barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on the relationship between grain yield and diseases intensity at different 'BRS Cauê' cultivar growth stages (GS during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons in Southern Brazil. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates. The disease gradients were generated by strobilurins and triazols fungicides rates and number of applications on barley cv. Cauê. The fungicide applications and disease incidence and severity assessments were performed at the 22, 31, 39, 45 and 56 plant GS. The DFE were obtained by variance analysis and linear regression between grain yield and diseases intensity. Significant and negative DFE were obtained and the damage coefficients (DC varied from 29.48 to 100.08 (2009 and from 36.08 to 113.57kg ha-1 (2010 for incidence, and from 219.5 to 6,276.6 (2009 and 102.3 to 5,292.5kg ha-1 (2010 for severity. The largest damage coefficients were obtained when diseases assessments were made on GS 22 and 31 on both growing seasons evaluated. DFE were used to calculate the economic damage threshold (EDT as a criterion to indicate the fungicide application moment to control the diseases in cultivars similar to 'BRS Cauê' in Southern Brazil.

  5. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

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    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  6. A Cluster of Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Resides in a Barley Powdery Mildew Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci on 7HL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalapiedra, Carlos P; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Silvar, Cristina; Perovic, Dragan; Ordon, Frank; Gracia, María Pilar; Igartua, Ernesto; Casas, Ana M

    2016-07-01

    Powdery mildew causes severe yield losses in barley production worldwide. Although many resistance genes have been described, only a few have already been cloned. A strong QTL (quantitative trait locus) conferring resistance to a wide array of powdery mildew isolates was identified in a Spanish barley landrace on the long arm of chromosome 7H. Previous studies narrowed down the QTL position, but were unable to identify candidate genes or physically locate the resistance. In this study, the exome of three recombinant lines from a high-resolution mapping population was sequenced and analyzed, narrowing the position of the resistance down to a single physical contig. Closer inspection of the region revealed a cluster of closely related NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat containing protein) genes. Large differences were found between the resistant lines and the reference genome of cultivar Morex, in the form of PAV (presence-absence variation) in the composition of the NBS-LRR cluster. Finally, a template-guided assembly was performed and subsequent expression analysis revealed that one of the new assembled candidate genes is transcribed. In summary, the results suggest that NBS-LRR genes, absent from the reference and the susceptible genotypes, could be functional and responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. The procedure followed is an example of the use of NGS (next-generation sequencing) tools to tackle the challenges of gene cloning when the target gene is absent from the reference genome.

  7. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    . This is the 1st case where the effect of callose refers to the action of a specific gene. Six susceptible Japanese varieties formed large appositions but they were initiated as late as in other susceptible varieties, and their color was paler than in other barleys. Nine Hordeum spp. [H. capense, H. chilense, H...

  8. Mla- and Rom1-mediated control of microRNA398 and chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase regulates cell death in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus

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    Barley Mla (Mildew resistance locus a) confers allele-specific interactions with natural variants of the ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Significant reprogramming of host gene expression occurs upon infection by this obligate biotrop...

  9. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-AtPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finni, Christine; Andersen, Claus H; Borch, Jonas;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  10. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  11. Flor Revisited (Again):eQTL and Mutational Analysis of NB-LRR Mediated Immunity to Powdery Mildew in Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roger Wise; Priyanka Surana; Greg Fuerst; Ruo Xu; Divya Mistry; Julie Dickerson; Dan Nettleton

    2014-01-01

    Genes encoding early signaling events in pathogen defense often are identiifed only by their phenotype. Such genes involved in barley-powdery mildew interactions includeMla, specifying race-speciifc resistance;Rar1(Required for Mla12-speciifed resistance1), andRom1 (Restoration of Mla-speciifed resistance1). The HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 complex appears to function as chaperone in MLA-speciifed resistance, however, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise signaling underlying plant immunity. Genetic analyses of fast-neutron mutants derived from CI 16151 (Mla6) uncovered a novel locus, designated Rar3(Required for Mla6-specified resistance3).Rar3 segregates independent ofMla6 andRar1, andrar3 mutants are susceptible toBlumeria graminis f. sp.hordei (Bgh) isolate 5874 (AVRa6), whereas, wild-type progenitor plants are resistant. Comparative expression analyses of therar3 mutantvs. its wild-type progenitor were conductedvia Barley1 GeneChip and GAIIx paired-end RNA-Seq. Whereas Rar1affects transcription of relatively few genes; Rar3appearstoinlfuence thousands, notably in genes controlling ATP binding, catalytic activity, transcription, and phosphorylation; possibly membrane bound or in the nucleus. eQTL analysis of a segregating doubled haploid population identiifed over two-thousand genes as being regulated byMla(q value/FDR=0.00001), a subset of which are signiifcant inRar3 interactions. The intersection of datasets derived frommla-loss-of-function mutants,Mla-associated eQTL, andrar3-mediated transcriptome reprogramming are narrowing the focus on essential genes required forMla-speciifed immunity.

  12. Suppression of resistance to Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei conferred by the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Carver, T.L.W.; Zeyen, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    . Additional suppression of mlo5 penetration resistance against the avirulent E. graminis isolate was achieved by using DDG, mannose, or glucose in combination with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). A mlo virulent isolate of E. graminis was also tested...... phenolic compound synthesis, but that phenolics are not responsible for the primary mechanism of mlo5 penetration resistance. Sequestration of phosphate ions caused by complexing with DDG or mannose may lower the energy available for penetration resistance in these barley lines, obviating both inherent...

  13. Malting barley BRS Borema

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    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  14. The effectivity of Tilletiopsis albescens in biocontrol of powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, I.M.B.; Skou, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Tilletiopsis albescens grows well on powdery mildew fungi inoculated on barley or cucumber leaves and causes collapse of the colonies. Application of ballistospores or cut mycelium was equally effective for biocontrol, and the effectiveness tended to increase exponentially with the concentration...... of germinating units (conidia and cut mycelium) applied. Seventy percent relative humidity or more is required for effective biocontrol. Two applications of T. albescens in the period from 3 days before to 3 days after inoculation with powdery mildew were more effective than one. Applications before inoculation...... or 7 days after inoculation with powdery mildew had little effect. T. albescens followed the powdery mildew as it was disseminated to uninoculated leaves, but this did not result in an effective biocontrol. The potential for using T. albescens for biocontrol of powdery mildews is discussed....

  15. Barley leaf transcriptome and metabolite analysis reveals new aspects of compatibility and Piriformospora indica-mediated systemic induced resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Alexandra; Zajic, Doreen; Voll, Lars M; Pons-K Hnemann, Jorn; Samans, Birgit; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Waller, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Colonization of barley roots with the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales) induces systemic resistance against the biotrophic leaf pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (B. graminis). To identify genes involved in this mycorrhiza-induced systemic resistance, we compared the leaf transcriptome of P. indica-colonized and noncolonized barley plants 12, 24, and 96 h after challenge with a virulent race of B. graminis. The leaf pathogen induced specific gene sets (e.g., LRR receptor kinases and WRKY transcription factors) at 12 h postinoculation (hpi) (prepenetration phase) and vesicle-localized gene products 24 hpi (haustorium establishment). Metabolic analysis revealed a progressing shift of steady state contents of the intermediates glucose-1-phosphate, uridinediphosphate-glucose, and phosphoenolpyruvate 24 and 96 hpi, indicating that B. graminis shifts central carbohydrate metabolism in favor of sucrose biosynthesis. Both B. graminis and P. indica increased glutamine and alanine contents, whereas substrates for starch and nitrogen assimilation (adenosinediphosphate- glucose and oxoglutarate) decreased. In plants that were more B. graminis resistant due to P. indica root colonization, 22 transcripts, including those of pathogenesis-related genes and genes encoding heat-shock proteins, were differentially expressed ?twofold in leaves after B. graminis inoculation compared with non-mycorrhized plants. Detailed expression analysis revealed a faster induction after B. graminis inoculation between 8 and 16 hpi, suggesting that priming of these genes is an important mechanism of P. indica-induced systemic disease resistance.

  16. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...... of the known powdery mildew resistance genes. The infection types and spectra of resistance were compared to those of 31 test lines with 35 known resistance genes to find possible new resistance genes and to reveal known resistance genes. The collections may possess some new and some known resistance genes...

  17. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    a transgenic approach to constitutively silence HvNAC6 expression, using RNA interference (RNAi), to investigate the in vivo functions of HvNAC6 in basal resistance responses in barley in relation to the phytohormone ABA. The HvNAC6 RNAi plants displayed reduced HvNAC6 transcript levels and were more...... susceptible to Bgh than wild-type plants. Application of exogenous ABA increased basal resistance against Bgh in wild-type plants, but not in HvNAC6 RNAi plants, suggesting that ABA is a positive regulator of basal resistance which depends on HvNAC6. Silencing of HvNAC6 expression altered the light....../dark rhythm of ABA levels which were, however, not influenced by Bgh inoculation. The expression of the two ABA biosynthetic genes HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was compromised, and transcript levels of the ABA conjugating HvBG7 enzyme were elevated in the HvNAC6 RNAi lines, but this effect was not clearly associated...

  18. LIFEGUARD proteins support plant colonization by biotrophic powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Corina; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Eichmann, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Pathogenic microbes manipulate eukaryotic cells during invasion and target plant proteins to achieve host susceptibility. BAX INHIBITOR-1 (BI-1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident cell death suppressor in plants and animals and is required for full susceptibility of barley to the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. LIFEGUARD (LFG) proteins resemble BI-1 proteins in terms of predicted membrane topology and cell-death-inhibiting function in metazoans, but display clear sequence-specific distinctions. This work shows that barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes harbour five LFG genes, HvLFGa-HvLFGe and AtLFG1-AtLFG5, whose functions are largely uncharacterized. As observed for HvBI-1, single-cell overexpression of HvLFGa supports penetration success of B. graminis f.sp. hordei into barley epidermal cells, while transient-induced gene silencing restricts it. In penetrated barley epidermal cells, a green fluorescent protein-tagged HvLFGa protein accumulates at the site of fungal entry, around fungal haustoria and in endosomal or vacuolar membranes. The data further suggest a role of LFG proteins in plant-powdery mildew interactions in both monocot and dicot plants, because stable overexpression or knockdown of AtLFG1 or AtLFG2 also support or delay development of the powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum on the respective Arabidopsis mutants. Together, this work has identified new modulators of plant-powdery mildew interactions, and the data further support functional similarities between BI-1 and LFG proteins beyond cell death regulation.

  19. Durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in pea er1 plants is conferred by natural loss-of-function mutations in PsMLO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphry, M.; Reinstädler, A.; Ivanov, S.; Bisseling, T.; Panstruga, R.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function alleles of plant-specific MLO (Mildew Resistance Locus O) genes confer broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in monocot (barley) and dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato) plants. Recessively inherited powdery mildew resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) er1 plants is, in many aspects,

  20. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  1. Identification of genes affecting the response of tomato and Arabidopsis upon powdery mildew infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, D.

    2014-01-01

      Many plant species are hosts of powdery mildew fungi, including Arabidopsis and economically important crops such as wheat, barley and tomato. Resistance has been explored using induced mutagenesis and natural variation in the plant species. The isolated genes encompass loss-of-function susc

  2. Direct selection of expressed sequences on a YAC clone revealed proline-rich-like genes and BARE-1 sequences physically linked to the complex ¤Mla¤ powdery mildew resistance locus of barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Jahoor, A.

    2002-01-01

    homology to the copia-like retroelement BA REI of barley, putatively involved in evolution of disease resistance loci. The high degree of clones representing barley rRNA sequences or false positives is a major disadvantage of direct selection of cDNAs in barley. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All...

  3. Differential effects of D-mannose and 2-deoxym-D-glucose on attempted powdery mildew fungal infection of inappropriate and appropriate Gramineae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeyen, R.J.; Kruger, W.M.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged;

    2002-01-01

    Barley, oat and wheat were used as both inappropriate hosts (IH) and appropriate hosts (AH) for three formae speciales of the fungus Blumeria graminis, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Treatment with either the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG) or with D-mannose dramatically suppr...

  4. Powdery Mildew Disease Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Shauna C.

    2010-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to characterize the PMR5 protein, a member of the DUF231/TBR family, and to determine its role in plant cell wall biogenesis. Since the pmr5 mutants are also resistant to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen, we wished to determine what specific cell wall changes are associated with disease resistance and why. The graduate student working on this project made mutations in the putative active site of PMR5, assuming it is a member of the SGNH/GDSL esterase superfamily (Anantharaman and Aravind, 2010, Biology Direct 5, 1). These mutants were inactive in planta suggesting that PMR5 is a functional enzyme and not a binding protein or chaperone. In addition, she determined that cell wall preparations from the pmr5 mutant exhibited a modest reduction (13%) in total acetyl groups. To pursue characterization further, the graduate student expressed the PMR5 protein in a heterologous E. coli system. She could purify PMR5 using a two step protocol based on tags added to the N and C terminus of the protein. She was able to show the PMR5 protein bound to pectins, including homogalacturonan, but not to other cell wall components (e.g., xyloglucans, arabinans). Based on these observations, a postdoctoral fellow is currently developing an enzyme assay for PMR5 based on the idea that it may be acetylating the homogalacturonic acid pectin fraction. Our initial experiments to localize PMR5 subcellularly suggested that it occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since the various pectins are believed to be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, we felt it necessary to repeat our results using a native promoter expression system. Within the past year, we have demonstrated conclusively that PMR5 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a location that sets it apart from most cell wall biogenesis and modification enzymes. The graduate student contributed to the characterization of two suppressor mutants, which were selected as restoring powdery

  5. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  6. Host cell entry of powdery mildew is correlated with endosomal transport of antagonistically acting VvPEN1 and VvMLO to the papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, A; Jermakow, A M; Ivancevic, A; Godfrey, D; Pak, H; Panstruga, R; Dry, I B

    2013-10-01

    Challenge by a nonadapted powdery mildew fungal pathogen leads to the formation of a local cell-wall apposition (papilla) beneath the point of attempted penetration. Several plasma membrane (PM) proteins with opposing roles in powdery mildew infection, including Arabidopsis thaliana PENETRATION1 (PEN1) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO), are localized to the site of powdery mildew attack. PEN1 contributes to penetration resistance to nonadapted powdery mildews, whereas MLO is a susceptibility factor required by adapted powdery mildew pathogens for host cell entry. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the vesicle and endosomal trafficking inhibitors, brefeldin A and wortmannin, have opposite effects on the penetration rates of adapted and nonadapted powdery mildews on grapevine. These findings prompted us to study the pathogen-induced intracellular trafficking of grapevine variants of MLO and PEN1. We first identified grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvPEN1 and VvMLO orthologs that rescue Arabidopsis Atpen1 and Atmlo2 mlo6 mlo12 null mutants, respectively. By using endomembrane trafficking inhibitors in combination with fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that VvMLO3/VvMLO4 and VvPEN1 are co-trafficked together from the PM to the site of powdery mildew challenge. This focal accumulation of VvMLO3/VvMLO4 and VvPEN1 to the site of attack seems to be required for their opposing functions during powdery mildew attack, because their subcellular localization is correlated with the outcome of attempted powdery mildew penetration.

  7. Early changes in protein expression of barley following inoculation with erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, S.P.; Somerville, S.C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei is an obligate pathogen of barley causing the powdery mildew disease. Resistance to this disease is the product of a highly specific interaction between barley lines with specific resistance alleles and pathogen races carrying complementary avirulence alleles. Using congenic barley lines which differ at the M1-a disease reaction locus, we hope to define the early molecular events of this interaction. Accordingly, resistant and susceptible barley seedlings were labelled with {sup 35}S-methionine and examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis at two hour intervals following inoculation. Infection related changes were observed with both isolines during the four to twelve hour time period. Additional differences existed constitutively between the barley lines. These differences have been quantified. Further characterization of these proteins will yield useful markers for events preceding or coinciding with cytological responses any may lead to identification and cloning of the M1-a gene.

  8. Powdery mildew fungal effector candidates share N-terminal Y/F/WxC-motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmersen Jeppe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdery mildew and rust fungi are widespread, serious pathogens that depend on developing haustoria in the living plant cells. Haustoria are separated from the host cytoplasm by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane. They secrete effector proteins, some of which are subsequently transferred across this membrane to the plant cell to suppress defense. Results In a cDNA library from barley epidermis containing powdery mildew haustoria, two-thirds of the sequenced ESTs were fungal and represented ~3,000 genes. Many of the most highly expressed genes encoded small proteins with N-terminal signal peptides. While these proteins are novel and poorly related, they do share a three-amino acid motif, which we named "Y/F/WxC", in the N-terminal of the mature proteins. The first amino acid of this motif is aromatic: tyrosine, phenylalanine or tryptophan, and the last is always cysteine. In total, we identified 107 such proteins, for which the ESTs represent 19% of the fungal clones in our library, suggesting fundamental roles in haustoria function. While overall sequence similarity between the powdery mildew Y/F/WxC-proteins is low, they do have a highly similar exon-intron structure, suggesting they have a common origin. Interestingly, searches of public fungal genome and EST databases revealed that haustoria-producing rust fungi also encode large numbers of novel, short proteins with signal peptides and the Y/F/WxC-motif. No significant numbers of such proteins were identified from genome and EST sequences from either fungi which do not produce haustoria or from haustoria-producing Oomycetes. Conclusion In total, we identified 107, 178 and 57 such Y/F/WxC-proteins from the barley powdery mildew, the wheat stem rust and the wheat leaf rust fungi, respectively. All together, our findings suggest the Y/F/WxC-proteins to be a new class of effectors from haustoria-producing pathogenic fungi.

  9. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties.

  10. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  11. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew.

  12. Mechanisms involved in control of ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ in barley treated with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, H.; Collinge, D.B.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2002-01-01

    Treatment with mycelial extracts, prepared from liquid cultures of Bipolaris oryzae , Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer , protected barley (Hordeum vulgare ) against powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei . The mechanisms of this protection were studied...

  13. A Compromised Mlo Pathway Affects the Response of Barley to the Necrotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus) and Its Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Hückelhoven, R; Beckhove, U; Nagarajan, S; Kogel, K H

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT In search of new durable disease resistance traits in barley to control leaf spot blotch disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus), we developed macroscopic and microscopic scales to judge spot blotch disease development on barley. Infection of barley was associated with cell wall penetration and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The latter appeared to take place in cell wall swellings under fungal penetration attempts as well as during cell death provoked by the necrotrophic pathogen. Additionally, we tested the influence of a compromised Mlo pathway that confers broad resistance against powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). Powdery mildew-resistant genotypes with mutations at the Mlo locus (mlo genotypes) showed a higher sensitivity to infiltration of toxic culture filtrate of Bipolaris sorokiniana as compared with wild-type barley. Mutants defective in Ror, a gene required for mlo-specified powdery mildew resistance, were also more sensitive to Bipolaris sorokiniana toxins than wild-type barley but showed less symptoms than mlo5 parents. Fungal culture filtrates induced an H2O2 burst in all mutants, whereas wild-type (Mlo) barley was less sensitive. The results support the hypothesis that the barley Mlo gene product functions as a suppresser of cell death. Therefore, a compromised Mlo pathway is effective for control of biotrophic powdery mildew fungus but not for necrotrophic Bipolaris sorokiniana. We discuss the problem of finding resistance traits that are effective against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens with emphasis on the role of the anti-oxidative system of plant cells.

  14. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2013-01-01

    the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effector proteins into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides......Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). Over...... a model for and new insights into a putative transfer mechanism of effectors into the plant cell. We show that silencing of the barley Sec61βa transcript results in decreased susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus. HvSec61βa is a component of both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon...

  15. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  16. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  17. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  18. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  19. Messages from Powdery Mildew DNA:How the Interplay with a Host Moulds Pathogen Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pietro D. Spanu

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of the barley,Arabidopsis and pea powdery mildew are signiifcantly larger than those of related fungi. This is due to an extraordinary expansion of retro-trasposons that are evident as repetitive elements in the sequence. The protein coding genes are fewer than expected due to an overall reduction in the size of gene families, a reduction in the number of paralogs and because of the loss of certain metabolic pathways. Many of these changes have also been observed in the genomes of other taxonomically unrelated obligate biotrophic pathogens. The only group of genes that bucks the trend of gene loss, are those encoding small secreted proteins that bear the hall marks of effectors.

  20. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  1. Triticale powdery mildew: population characterization and wheat gene efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguennec, Annaig; Trottet, Maxime; du Cheyron, Philippe; Lonnet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew has emerged on triticale in the early 2000s in many locations, probably due to a host range expansion of the wheat formae speciales, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Many triticale cultivars are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, mainly in seedling stage, revealing a probably narrow genetic basis for powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm). Moreover, as Blumeria graminis is an obligate biotrophic fungus, it is very time consuming and difficult to maintain powdery mildew isolates for a non-specialized laboratory and populations can evolve. In order to identify wheat Pm genes efficient against natural populations of powdery mildew, wheat differential hosts and triticale seedlings were inoculated below susceptible triticale crop naturally contaminated by mildew, in several locations and several years. Symptoms on seedlings were measured after approximately two weeks of incubation in favorable fungus growth conditions. According to these data, we classified the Pm genes presents in our wheat differential hosts set in 3 classes: Pm already overcame by triticale powdery mildew, Pm having variable effects and Pm still efficient against triticale mildew. Data on triticale seedlings allowed us to identify some few triticale cultivars resistant to Blumeria graminis in seedling stage. We will try to identify Pm genes present in those cultivars next year by testing them with the characterized isolates of powdery mildew from Gent University. Nevertheless, interspecific crossing of wheat, resistant to powdery mildew in seedling stage, and rye have been initiated to introduce potentially interesting genes for resistance in triticale.

  2. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of erysiphe-graminis-f-sp-hordei on barley hordeum-vulgare lines with resistance genes ml-a-1 ml-a-6 ml-a-12 and ml-g

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of 4 barley lines with powdery mildew resistance genes Ml-al, Ml-a6, Mla12 or Ml-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3 which is avirulent to the 4 host lines. Inoculation density was 1.2 infectious conidia/mm2, and in total 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence...... 2 .times. 10-8. A reconstruction experiment showed that the density of avirulent inoculum did not reduce the survival rate of rare virulent genotypes....

  3. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  4. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM. Over the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effectors into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides a model for and new insights into a putative transfer mechanism of effectors into the plant cell. We show that silencing of the barley Sec61βa protein results in decreased susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus. HvSec61βa is a component of both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER translocon and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery (ERAD. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER, which was found to be in close proximity to the EHM around the haustorial body, but not the haustorial fingers. This differential EHM proximity suggests that the ER, including HvSec61βa, may be actively recruited by the haustorium, potentially to provide efficient effector transfer to the cytosol. Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol.

  5. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Pedersen, Carsten; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). Over the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effector proteins into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides a model for and new insights into a putative transfer mechanism of effectors into the plant cell. We show that silencing of the barley Sec61βa transcript results in decreased susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus. HvSec61βa is a component of both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER, which was found to be in close proximity to the EHM around the haustorial body, but not the haustorial fingers. This differential EHM proximity suggests that the ER, including HvSec61βa, may be actively recruited by the haustorium, potentially to provide efficient effector transfer to the cytosol. Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol.

  6. Defence reactions of plants to fungal pathogens: principles and perspectives, using powdery mildew on cereals as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitefuss, Rudolf

    2001-06-01

    Diseases of crop plants may lead to considerable yield losses. To control fungal diseases, fungicides are used extensively in present-day agricultural production. In order to reduce such external inputs, cultivars with natural resistance to important fungal pathogens are recommended in systems of integrated plant protection. Basic research, including genetics and molecular methods, is required to elucidate the mechanisms by which plants react to an attack by fungal pathogens and successfully defend themselves. This review examines our knowledge with respect to the multicomponent systems of resistance in plants, using powdery mildew on barley as an example. In addition, the question is adressed whether systemic acquired resistance and plants with transgenic resistance may be utilized in future plant protection strategies.

  7. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1 detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2 estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC. Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were weekly measured by a portable fluorescence sensor and spectroradiometer, respectively. Results showed that vegetation indices recorded at canopy level performed well for the early detection of slightly-diseased plants. The combined reflectance index, MCARI/TCARI, yielded the best discrimination between healthy and diseased plants across seven barley varieties. The blue to far-red fluorescence ratio (BFRR_UV and OSAVI were the best fluorescence and reflectance indices for estimating LCC, respectively, yielding R2 of 0.72 and 0.79. Partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVM regression models further improved the use of fluorescence signals for the estimation of LCC, yielding R2 of 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. Our results demonstrate that non-destructive spectral measurements are able to detect mild disease symptoms before significant losses in LCC due to diseases under natural conditions.

  8. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  9. Single-cell transcript profiling of barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, Torben; Hagedorn, Peter; Schweizer, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    attacked at the same time may resist fungal penetration. To date, the mixed cellular responses seen even in susceptible host leaves have made it difficult to relate induced changes in gene expression to resistance or susceptibility in bulk leaf samples. By microextraction of cell-specific m...

  10. The barley powdery mildew effector candidates CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 promote fungal infection success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Pedersen, Carsten; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    independent silencing of the transcripts for these CSEPs significantly reduced the fungal penetration and haustoria formation rate. Both CSEPs are likely required during and after the formation of haustoria, in which their transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, rather than in epiphytic tissue...

  11. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, K K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2017-02-09

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species.

  12. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  13. The white barley mutant albostrians shows enhanced resistance to the biotroph Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Langen, Gregor; Hess, Wolfgang; Börner, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2004-04-01

    We performed cytological and molecular analyses of the interaction between the biotrophic barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and white and green leaves of the barley albostrians mutant. The leaves have the same nuclear genotype but differ from each other in respect to plastid differentiation. White leaves showed enhanced penetration resistance to B. graminis f. sp. hordei, associated with higher epidermal H2O2 accumulation beneath the appressorial germ tubes and protein cross-linking in papillae. Very low basal salicylic acid content was found in white leaves, which further confirmed that H2O2 accumulation and penetration resistance in barley are independent of salicylic acid. Expression analysis of stress and defense-related genes, including such being involved in reactive oxygen species production and cell death regulation, revealed stronger constitutive or pathogen-induced transcript accumulation in white leaves. We discuss the data on the basis of the finding that white albostrians leaves exhibit a supersusceptible interaction phenotype with the hemibiotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.

  14. Peroxidase profiling reveals genetic linkage between peroxidase gene clusters and basal host and non-host resistance to rusts and mildew in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Higher plants possess a large multigene family encoding secreted class III peroxidase (Prx proteins. Peroxidases appear to be associated with plant disease resistance based on observations of induction during disease challenge and the presence or absence of isozymes in resistant vs susceptible varieties. Despite these associations, there is no evidence that allelic variation of peroxidases directly determines levels of disease resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study introduces a new strategy called Prx-Profiling. We showed that with this strategy a large number of peroxidase genes can be mapped on the barley genome. In order to obtain an estimate of the total number of Prx clusters we followed a re-sampling procedure, which indicated that the barley genome contains about 40 peroxidase gene clusters. We examined the association between the Prxs mapped and the QTLs for resistance of barley to homologous and heterologous rusts, and to the barley powdery mildew fungus. We report that 61% of the QTLs for partial resistance to P. hordei, 61% of the QTLs for resistance to B. graminis and 47% of the QTLs for non-host resistance to other Puccinia species co-localize with Prx based markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that Prx-Profiling was effective in finding the genetic location of Prx genes on the barley genome. The finding that QTLs for basal resistance to rusts and powdery mildew fungi tend to co-locate with Prx clusters provides a base for exploring the functional role of Prx-related genes in determining natural differences in levels of basal resistance.

  15. The relationship between powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) resistance and leaf chlorosis sensitivity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) studied in single seed descent lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, S.; Jansen, R.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The genetic relation between powdery mildew resistance and sensitivity for leaf chlorosis of glasshouse cucumber was investigated. The powdery mildew resistant, leaf chlorosis sensitive hybrid variety 'Profito' was crossed with the powdery mildew susceptible, non chlorosis sensitive hybrid variety '

  16. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  17. New Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in Melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many physiological races of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen (CPM) Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) Braun & Shishkoff have been reported on melon (Cucumis melo L.). Melon accession PI 313970 is the only reported source of host plant resistance to race S, which first appeared in Imperial Valley, CA...

  18. Hop powdery mildew control through alteration of spring pruning practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1997, Podosphaera macularis, the causal agent of hop powdery mildew, has become a recurrent threat to hops in the Pacific Northwest because of the potential to reduce cone yield and quality. Disease management practices often involve preventative fungicide applications, but alternative approac...

  19. Identification of novel powdery mildew resistance sources in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a globally dominating disease of wheat with a high occurrence frequency, and genetic resistance plays an important role in managing this devastating disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate leaf rust resistance and the underlying genes of breeding lines in the USA, a...

  20. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  1. Antisense expression of peach mildew resistance locus O (PpMlo1) gene confers cross-species resistance to powdery mildew in Fragaria x ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwan, Derick; Roalson, Eric H; Main, Dorrie; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the major plant pathogens. The conventional method of PM control includes frequent use of sulfur-based fungicides adding to production costs and potential harm to the environment. PM remains a major scourge for Rosaceae crops where breeding approaches mainly resort to gene-for-gene resistance. We have tested an alternate source of PM resistance in Rosaceae. Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) has been well studied in barley due to its role in imparting broad spectrum resistance to PM. We identified PpMlo1 (Prunus persica Mlo) in peach and characterized it further to test if a similar mechanism of resistance is conserved in Rosaceae. Due to its recalcitrance in tissue culture, reverse genetic studies involving PpMloI were not feasible in peach. Therefore, Fragaria x ananassa LF9 line, a taxonomic surrogate, was used for functional analysis of PpMlo1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation yielded transgenic strawberry plants expressing PpMlo1 in sense and antisense orientation. Antisense expression of PpMlo1 in transgenic strawberry plants conferred resistance to Fragaria-specific powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis. Phylogenetic analysis of 208 putative Mlo gene copies from 35 plant species suggests a large number of duplications of this gene family prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots, early in eudicot diversification. Our results indicate that the Mlo-based resistance mechanism is functional in Rosaceae, and that Fragaria can be used as a host to test mechanistic function of genes derived from related tree species. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts at testing the potential of using a Mlo-based resistance strategy to combat powdery mildew in Rosaceae.

  2. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  3. Study on the Motion state of Powdery materials in Dense-phase Pneumatic Conveying Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of computational fluid dynamics, a model is created about powdery materials flowing in the dense-phase pneumatic conveying pipe. the motion state powdery materials flowing in the horizontal and vertical pipe is simulated. It is found that in the horizontal pipe the powdery materials represent the flow of dune-like state, and continuously move forward in this form, the volume fraction of powdery materials at the pipe's bottom is large, the velocity is low; In the vertical pipe, the columnar solid-plug can form and scatter continuously, and the motion state is closer to fluidization.

  4. Rationalization of pesticide treatments against powdery mildew of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, G; La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Bugliosi, R

    2007-01-01

    The powdery mildew represents one of the diseases which affect the grape, it is diffused in all agricultural regions with variable intensity and epidemic course in operation of many microclimatic factors. The powdery mildew of grape is caused from Uncinala necator (Schw.) Burr. (nowadays named Erysiphe necator Schwein.); it is controlled with systemic therapy and contact chemicaL products. In some vineyards located in Latium (central Italy), different field trials have been carried out purposely to rationalize the treatments against E. necator. We have studied the powdery mildew infections through monitoring a set of environmental parameters, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics. We have analysed the following environmental parameters monitoring every 15 minutes: precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. Besides, we have used Artificial Intelligence analysis techniques to try to forecast U. necator infections. Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/4 (4) has been used. The trials were conducted in conventional and organic farms. In 2 conventional farms and in organic farm we have considered 1 untreated control thesis, in order to follow the course of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 thesis where the treatments were carried out according to examining the environmental data. In another conventional vineyard, we have considered only 1 untreated control thesis and 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard) to study disease trend. The achieved results have underlined the possibility (through the knowledge of data pedoclimatic and cultural) to position the treatments against the powdery mildew so that to reduce their number. The lower number of treatments that

  5. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  6. Role of MLO genes in susceptibility to powdery mildew in apple and grapevine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a major fungal disease that threatens thousands of plant species. PM is caused by Podosphaera leucotricha in apple and Erysiphe necator in grapevine. Powdery mildew is controlled by frequent applications of fungicides, having negative effects on the environment, and leading to

  7. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  8. Evaluation and Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to powdery mildew in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major leafy vegetable that is susceptible to powdery mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions in an interspecific population derived from a cross betw...

  9. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera macularis on hop (Humulus lupulus) in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2015, a grower in western North Carolina detected powdery mildew in a small hop yard. Characteristic colonies of the pathogen where observed on cultivars Cashmere, Cascade, and Chinook. Leaves with powdery mildew were collected from cultivar Cashmere for confirmation of the pathogen identi...

  10. Characterization of resistance to powdery mildew in the Hop cultivars Newport and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera macularis, is an important disease in the Northwestern U.S. Outbreaks of powdery mildew on cultivars previously resistant to the disease have been reported increasingly with the emergence of virulent pathogen strains capable of overcoming a commonly deployed...

  11. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  12. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  13. Effects of sulphur dioxide on the development of fungal diseases of winter barley in an open-air fumigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, P.J.; Bell, J.N.B.; Wheeler, B.E.J. (Imperial Coll., Ascot (UK)); McLeod, A.R. (National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-01-01

    The development of fungal diseases was monitored through three consecutive growing seasons (1984-1985, 1985-1986 and 1986-1987) on field plots of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) concentrations in the range 0.005-0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} using an open-air fumigation system. In each season the incidence and severity of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis D.C. ex Merat f.sp. hordei Em. Marchal) increased and leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis Oudem J.J. Davis) decreased in plots exposed to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} (0.014-0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2}) compared with control plots exposed to background levels of 0.005-0.009 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2}. The apparent infection rate of powdery mildew was also greater in SO{sub 2}-treated plots. The effects of SO{sub 2} exposure on eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton) and black ear moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria spp.) were variable. Sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis van der Hoeven), Fusarium foot rot, brown rust (Puccinia hordei Otth.), Septoria nodorum Berk., net blotch (Pyrenophora teres Sacc.) and Botrytis spp. infection on the ear were all apparently unaffected by SO{sub 2}. 3 figs., 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. How Specific is Non-Hypersensitive Host and Nonhost Resistance of Barley to Rust and Mildew Fungi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niks R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full nonhost resistance can be deifned as immunity, displayed by an entire plant species against all genotypes of a plant pathogen. Interesting biological questions are, whether the genes responsible for the nonhost status of a plant species have a general or a specific effectiveness to heterologous (“nonhost”) pathogens? Is the nonhost resistance to pathogens of plant species that are related to the nonhost based onR-genes or on other types of genes?We study this question in barley (Hordeum vulgareL.), which is a near-nonhost to several rusts (Puccinia) of cereals and grasses. By crosses and selection we accumulated susceptibility and developed an experimental line, SusPtrit, with high susceptibility to at least nine different heterologous rust taxa such as the wheat andAgropyron leaf rusts (P. triticina andP. persistens, respectively). At the microscopic level there is also some variation among barley accessions in the degree that the heterologous wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminisf.sp.tritici) is able to form haustoria in epidermal cells. So, also the genetics of the variation in level of nonhost resistance to heterologous mildew fungi can be studied in barley. Our data obtained on mapping populations involving three regular nonhost-immune accessions (Vada, Cebada Capa and Golden Promise) suggest that nonhost resistance is the joined effect of multiple, quantitative genes (QTLs) and very occasionally a major gene (R-gene?) is involved. Most QTLs have effect to only one or two heterologous rusts, but some have a wider spectrum. This was conifrmed in a set of QTL-NILs. Those QTL-NILs are used to ifne-map the effective genes. In some cases, a QTL region with effectiveness to several heterologous rusts might be a cluster of genes with a more narrow spectrum of effectiveness. Our evidence suggests that nonhost resistance in barley to rust and powdery mildew fungi of related Gramineae is not due toR-genes, but to pathogen species-speciifc quantitative

  15. Powdery Mildew Control and Yield Response of Inodorus Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Camele

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud. in 2006 and 2007 at “Pantanello” Experimental Farm (40° 24’N; 16° 48’E; 10 m a.s.l.; Metaponto, southern Italy to evaluate the efficacy of a low environmental impact control strategy against powdery mildew of cucurbits. Winter melon was treated with a new anti-oidium formulation, called Stifénia, obtained from fenugreek seeds and stimulating the plant self-defence. The adopted experimental design included two control strategies (1. biological, using Stifénia and 2. conventional, using penconazole, myclobutanil and sulphur and an untreated control (treated with water alone applied to two cultivars of inodorus melon (cv ‘Amarillo’ and HF1 ‘Cocorito’, the latter a genotype resistant to powdery mildew. Stifénia applications were not effective against the disease; in fact, there were no differences in percentage of attacked plant surface between treated plots and untreated ones. The melon marketable yield was significantly higher with the conventional strategy respect to Stifénia and control. Repeated applications of Stifénia resulted in a significant decrease of marketable yield even in comparison with the untreated control. The cultivars significantly affected powdery mildew development, since the resistant one (‘Cocorito’ was attacked later and damaged always lower than the non-resistant genotype (‘Amarillo’. Laboratory analyses carried out on infected leaves always confirmed that Golovinomyces cichoracearum D.C. was responsible of the disease.

  16. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Service and Sejet Plant Breeding based on the Cisgenesis concept. Cisgenesis implies that the plants are transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material and that the final Cisgenic plants have to be free of any foreign genes. The Cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction...... of extra gene copies of a particular gene whereby a particular trait can be accentuated. Transgenic crops generated by the Cisgenesis concept are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. In our part of the project we are focusing on barley phytases as candidate genes...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...

  17. Development of a compact powdery sample negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Tanabe, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sasao, Mamiko; Kawano, Hiroyuki

    1997-02-01

    A gas-feed-free compact negative ion source can be realized by utilizing the process of electron stimulated desorption from powdery sample. A negative ion source of this type is designed to be attached to a standard 1.33 inch copper-gasket-flange. The ion source is operated stable with LiH powder for more than 10 hours with the mass-separated negative hydrogen ion current of 1 nA. The source causes minute gas emission, and particularly suitable for ion beam applications in which a good vacuum is required. The present status of the compact ion source development is briefly described. (author)

  18. Structure-function analysis of barley NLR immune receptor MLA10 reveals its cell compartment specific activity in cell death and disease resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Bai

    Full Text Available Plant intracellular immune receptors comprise a large number of multi-domain proteins resembling animal NOD-like receptors (NLRs. Plant NLRs typically recognize isolate-specific pathogen-derived effectors, encoded by avirulence (AVR genes, and trigger defense responses often associated with localized host cell death. The barley MLA gene is polymorphic in nature and encodes NLRs of the coiled-coil (CC-NB-LRR type that each detects a cognate isolate-specific effector of the barley powdery mildew fungus. We report the systematic analyses of MLA10 activity in disease resistance and cell death signaling in barley and Nicotiana benthamiana. MLA10 CC domain-triggered cell death is regulated by highly conserved motifs in the CC and the NB-ARC domains and by the C-terminal LRR of the receptor. Enforced MLA10 subcellular localization, by tagging with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS or a nuclear export sequence (NES, shows that MLA10 activity in cell death signaling is suppressed in the nucleus but enhanced in the cytoplasm. By contrast, nuclear localized MLA10 is sufficient to mediate disease resistance against powdery mildew fungus. MLA10 retention in the cytoplasm was achieved through attachment of a glucocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domain (GR, by which we reinforced the role of cytoplasmic MLA10 in cell death signaling. Together with our data showing an essential and sufficient nuclear MLA10 activity in disease resistance, this suggests a bifurcation of MLA10-triggered cell death and disease resistance signaling in a compartment-dependent manner.

  19. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    : wst5 (white streaks), necl (necrotic leaf spots), Ml-nn (powdery mildew resistance), and Pa4 (leaf rust resistance). Further, the two sections of the map are united, and the precision of the map is improved. A system for designating the positions of the loci on the linkage map is proposed. A 0...

  20. AvrPm2 encodes an RNase-like avirulence effector which is conserved in the two different specialized forms of wheat and rye powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Coraline R; Bourras, Salim; Zeng, Fansong; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Menardo, Fabrizio; Xue, Minfeng; Yang, Lijun; Roffler, Stefan; Böni, Rainer; Herren, Gerard; McNally, Kaitlin E; Ben-David, Roi; Parlange, Francis; Oberhaensli, Simone; Flückiger, Simon; Schäfer, Luisa K; Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Dazhao; Keller, Beat

    2017-02-01

    There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2. The virulent AvrPm2 allele arose from a conserved 12 kb deletion, while there is no protein sequence diversity in the gene pool of avirulent B. g. tritici isolates. We found one polymorphic AvrPm2 allele in B. g. triticale and one orthologue in B. g. secalis and both are recognized by Pm2. AvrPm2 belongs to a small gene family encoding structurally conserved RNase-like effectors, including Avra13 from B. g. hordei, the cognate Avr of the barley resistance gene Mla13. These results demonstrate the conservation of functional avirulence genes in two cereal powdery mildews specialized on different hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for successful introgression of resistance genes from rye or other grass relatives to wheat.

  1. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  2. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  3. Identification and mapping of two powdery mildew resistance genes in Triticum boeoticum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhuneja, Parveen; Kumar, Krishan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Hurni, Severine; Keller, Beat; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2012-04-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the important foliar diseases of wheat that can cause serious yield losses. Breeding for cultivars with diverse resources of resistance is the most promising approach for combating this disease. The diploid A genome progenitor species of wheat are an important resource for new variability for disease resistance genes. An accession of Triticum boeoticum (A(b)A(b)) showed resistance against a number of Bgt isolates, when tested using detached leaf segments. Inheritance studies in a recombinant inbred line population (RIL), developed from crosses of PM resistant T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 with a PM susceptible T. monococcum acc. pau14087, indicated the presence of two powdery mildew resistance genes in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088. Analysis of powdery mildew infection and molecular marker data of the RIL population revealed that both powdery mildew resistance genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Mapping was conducted using an integrated linkage map of 7A consisting of SSR, RFLP, STS, and DArT markers. These powdery mildew resistance genes are tentatively designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2. The PmTb7A.2 is closely linked to STS markers MAG2185 and MAG1759 derived from RFLP probes which are linked to powdery mildew resistance gene Pm1. This indicated that PmTb7A.2 might be allelic to Pm1. The PmTb7A.1, flanked by a DArT marker wPt4553 and an SSR marker Xcfa2019 in a 4.3 cM interval, maps proximal to PmT7A.2. PmTb7A.1 is putatively a new powdery mildew resistance gene. The powdery mildew resistance genes from T. boeoticum are currently being transferred to cultivated wheat background through marker-assisted backcrossing, using T. durum as bridging species.

  4. Biological control mechanisms of D-pinitol against powdery mildew in cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; Fernandez, Diana; Wang, D. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Dai, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    D-pinitol is an effective agent for controlling powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in cucumber. In this study, we determined the mechanisms of D-pinitol in controlling powdery mildew in cucumber plants. We compared P. xanthii development on cucumber leaf surface treated with D-pinitol or water (2 mg ml(-1)) at different time points after inoculation. The germinating conidia, hyphae, and conidiophores of the pathogen were severely damaged by D-pinitol at any time of application tested. The h...

  5. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  6. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone von Burg

    Full Text Available In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew became more favourable for another pest (aphids.

  7. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici) and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM) mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew) became more favourable for another pest (aphids).

  8. Bacillus sp. BS061 Suppresses Gray Mold and Powdery Mildew through the Secretion of Different Bioactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sook; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yeo, Woon-Hyung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-09-01

    A Bacillus sp. BS061 significantly reduced disease incidence of gray mold and powdery mildew. To identify the active principle, the culture filtrate was partitioned between butanol and water. The antifungal activity against B. cinerea was evident in the butanol-soluble portion, and active substances were identified as cyclic lipopeptides, iturin A series, by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) and mass analysis. Interestingly, antifungal activity against powdery mildew was observed in the water-soluble portion, suggesting that cyclic lipopeptides have no responsibility to suppress powdery mildew. This finding reveals that biocontrol agents of Bacillus origin suppress gray mold and powdery mildew through the secretion of different bioactive substances.

  9. Identification of a protein which differs in lines of barley resistant or susceptible to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, S.P.; Somerville, S.C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    As yet no resistance genes or gene products have been isolated from a plant. We wish to isolate the Ml-a gene which encodes resistance by barley to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of the powdery mildew disease. We have utilized near isogenic barley lines, resistant and susceptible to E. g. hordei, race CR3 to provide a homogenous background for examination of protein differences related to resistance. To enrich for epidermal tissue, the site of infection, proteins from {sup 35}S labelled coleoptiles were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Two major protein differences were observed, one of which is a polymorphism identified by a higher molecular weight form in the susceptible line, with the lower molecular weight form appearing in the resistant line. A partially susceptible mutant line derived from the resistant line shows a 63% reduction in the level of the resistant form of the polypeptide. A likely conclusion from these results is that we have identified the Ml-a gene product. Further characterization of the polymorphic protein and its gene will lead to an understanding of gene-for-gene related resistance processes.

  10. Regulation of basal resistance by a powdery mildew-induced cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Jensen, Michael K; Maiser, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    , followed by a rather short 17-amino-acid transmembrane domain, which includes an AAA motif, two features characteristic of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted proteins and, finally, a characteristic putative protein kinase domain in the C-terminus. The HvCRK1 transcript was isolated from leaves inoculated...

  11. Simultaneous powdery boronaluminizing of steel stable in aluminum melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhariev, Z. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Bl.11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: zahary19@mail.bg; Marinov, M.; Penyashki, T.; Tsokov, Pl. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Bl.11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-14

    The corrosion resistance of a boron-aluminized carbon steel C45 in aluminum melt has been investigated. Simultaneous saturation with aluminum and boron has been performed with different powdery mixtures. Simultaneous boronizing and aluminizing of steels has been found possible, layers of up to 1 mm thickness being obtained. Corrosion tests have shown the advantages of the two-component layers obtained by the alumothermic method (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Al + B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + NaF) as compared to other saturating mixtures and especially single-component boronizing with EKabor. It has been shown that the two-component boron-aluminized layer can be used for protecting usual carbon steels in aluminum melts.

  12. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN MYCORRHIZAL WHEAT PROTECTION AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj; Reignault, Ph

    2014-01-01

    In France, the Ecophyto 2018 national action plan will set out to reduce the use of pesticides by 50% by 2018, if possible. To achieve this goal, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could be a potential alternative method allowing the control of crop diseases. The inoculation by AM fungi has been demonstrated to protect plants against soil-borne pathogens, but little is known about their effectiveness against aerial pathogens, such as the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) causing wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew. In the present study, wheat plants were grown in pots, under controlled conditions. Using various phosphorus (P) concentrations, the effectiveness of three AM inocula (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm)) and Solrize, a mixture of Ri and Fm) in Orvantis wheat cultivar, were tested. After 42 days of culture, mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were infected by Bgt. A satisfactory mycorrhizal rate was obtained with the phosphorus concentration P/5 (P corresponding to the dose used in wheat fields in = 62 mg/L). Our work shows, for the first time, (i) a protective effect of AM inoculation against wheat powdery mildew, reaching up to 73% with Fm inocula, and (ii) its ability to induce a systemic resistance in wheat. Thereafter, we investigated mechanisms involved in this protection. Control plants, M plants, infected plants by Bgt, and M-infected plants were compared at: (i) cytological level, our results revealed that papillae and whole-fluorescent cells presence was induced, conversely fungal haustorium formation in epidermal cells was reduced within M plants leaves (ii) enzymatic level-by assessing defense enzyme activities (lipoxygenase, peroxidase) known as defense markers were measured 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after infection (hai). The importance of these activities in the defense pathways induced in wheat by AM fungi will be discussed.

  13. Studies on biological control of powdery mildew in cucumber (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa) by means of mycoparasites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew on rose ( Sphaerotheca pannosa ) and cucumber ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea ) are two serious diseases in glasshouses. Intensive control by fungicides is needed. The research presented here deals with biocontrol of powdery mildew on cucumber and rose by means of mycoparasites.The mycoparas

  14. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  15. Biotrophy at Its Best: Novel Findings and Unsolved Mysteries of the Arabidopsis-Powdery Mildew Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Hannah; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Kusch, Stefan; Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Wu, Hongpo; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted in plant-microbe interactions research that disease is the exception rather than a common outcome of pathogen attack. However, in nature, plants with symptoms that signify colonization by obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungi are omnipresent. The pervasiveness of the disease and the fact that many economically important plants are prone to infection by powdery mildew fungi drives research on this interaction. The competence of powdery mildew fungi to establish and maintain true biotrophic relationships renders the interaction a paramount example of a pathogenic plant-microbe biotrophy. However, molecular details underlying the interaction are in many respects still a mystery. Since its introduction in 1990, the Arabidopsis-powdery mildew pathosystem has become a popular model to study molecular processes governing powdery mildew infection. Due to the many advantages that the host Arabidopsis offers in terms of molecular and genetic tools this pathosystem has great capacity to answer some of the questions of how biotrophic pathogens overcome plant defense and establish a persistent interaction that nourishes the invader while in parallel maintaining viability of the plant host.

  16. Application of Glycerol for Induced Powdery Mildew Resistance in Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Song, Na; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Li, Feng; Geng, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, Wanhui; Xie, Chaojie; Sun, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and oleic acid (18:1) are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1-2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase) and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase), two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA) pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5), induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality.

  17. Serine/threonine kinase gene Stpk-V, a key member of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, confers powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xueming; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yulei; Qian, Chen; Ni, Jinlong; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Dajun; Wang, Xiue; Chen, Peidu

    2011-05-10

    Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, located on the chromosome 6V short arm of Haynaldia villosa and transferred to wheat as a 6VS·6AL translocation (T6VS·6AL), confers durable and broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21 has become a key gene resource for powdery mildew resistance breeding all over the world. In China, 12 wheat varieties containing Pm21 have been planted on more than 3.4 million hectares since 2002. Pm21 has been intractable to molecular genetic mapping because the 6VS does not pair and recombine with the 6AS. Moreover, all known accessions of H. villosa are immune to powdery mildew fungus. Pm21 is still defined by cytogenetics as a locus. In the present study, a putative serine and threonine protein kinase gene Stpk-V was cloned and characterized with an integrative strategy of molecular and cytogenetic techniques. Stpk-V is located on the Pm21 locus. The results of a single cell transient expression assay showed that Stpk-V could decrease the haustorium index dramatically. After the Stpk-V was transformed into a susceptible wheat variety Yangmai158, the characterized transgenic plants showed high and broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance similar to T6VS·6AL. Silencing of the Stpk-V by virus-induced gene silencing in both T6VS·6AL and H. villosa resulted in their increased susceptibility. Stpk-V could be induced by Bgt and exogenous H(2)O(2), but it also mediated the increase of endogenous H(2)O(2), leading to cell death and plant resistance when the plant was attacked by Bgt.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD MARKER LINKED TO POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE GENE Pm 12 IN WHEAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Feng; ZHANG Qing-li; GUO Xiao-chun; LI Tao; WANG Hong-gang

    2004-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases of wheat in China. In this paper,bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to search for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the Pm12 gene,which confers resistance to the powdery mildew in wheat. 200 decamer primers were screened and one RAPD marker (S1071900) was identified to be linked to Pm 12 in coupling phase, and their genetic distance is 11.98 ±4.00cM. This marker can be used for marker - assisted selection in wheat breeding for the identification or pyramiding of Pm12 with other resistance genes.Key Words: Wheat, RAPD, Powdery mildew, resistance genes.

  19. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  20. QTL Mapping for Adult Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Italian Wheat cv. Strampelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad Muhammad Azeem; BAI Bin; LAN Cai-xia; YAN Jun; XIA Xian-chun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2013-01-01

    The Italian wheat cv. Strampelli displays high resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to powdery mildew in a population of 249 F2:3 lines from Strampelli/Huixianhong. Adult plant powdery mildew tests were conducted over 2 yr in Beijing and 1 yr in Anyang and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used for genotyping. QTLs Qpm.caas-3BS, Qpm.caas-5BL.1, and Qpm.caas-7DS were consistent across environments whereas, Qpm.caas-2BS.1 found in two environments, explained 0.4-1.6, 5.5-6.9, 27.1-34.5, and 1.0-3.5%of the phenotypic variation respectively. Qpm.caas-7DS corresponded to the genomic location of Pm38/Lr34/Yr18. Qpm.caas-4BL was identified in Anyang 2010 and Beijing 2011, accounting for 1.9-3.5%of phenotypic variation. Qpm.caas-2BS.1 and Qpm.caas-5BL.1 contributed by Strampelli and Qpm.caas-3BS by Huixianhong, seem to be new QTL for powdery mildew resistance. Qpm.caas-4BL, Qpm.caas-5BL.3, and Qpm.caas-7DS contributed by Strampelli appeared to be in the same genomic regions as those mapped previously for stripe rust resistance in the same population, indicating that these loci conferred resistance to both stripe rust and powdery mildew. Strampelli could be a valuable genetic resource for improving durable resistance to both powdery mildew and stripe rust in wheat.

  1. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN HEVEA CLONES UNDER POWDERY MILDEW ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Cristina Gonzalez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810561The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Of Juss. Muell. Arg.] can be affected by the occurrence of the fungus Oidium heveae, which causes one of the most important diseases of rubber trees, powdery mildew. This work studied meet changes in photosynthetic pigments, an indicator of oxidative stress, in seedlings of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 600, GT1 and PR255, under infection in Oidium heveae. The experiment was conducted in an open environment under natural photoperiod conditions and at the beginning of the trial, the rubber plants would be inoculated were sprayed with an aqueous suspension containing O. heveae at a concentration of 16 x 104 conidia mL-1. On the day of inoculation and after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h leaf samples were collected for the determination of photosynthetic pigments. Degradation in photosynthetic pigments in the period of infection was observed in rubber tree clones studied; thus, there is oxidative stress in clones of rubber trees. No promising genetic material for genetic improvement work stress tolerance by Oidium heveae was identified.

  2. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  3. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  4. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  5. Mildew-omics: How global analyses aid the understanding of life and evolution of powdery mildews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Veronique Bindschedler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The common powdery mildew plant diseases are caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. Their characteristic life style as obligate biotrophs renders functional analyses in these species challenging, mainly because of experimental constraints to genetic manipulation. Global large-scale (-omics approaches are thus particularly valuable and insightful for the characterisation of the life and evolution of powdery mildews. Here we review the knowledge obtained so far from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies in these fungi. We consider current limitations and challenges regarding these surveys and provide an outlook on desired future investigations on the basis of the various –omics technologies.

  6. Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Chand, Ramesh; Navathe, Sudhir; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-09-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea.

  7. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  8. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    , the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  9. Evidence for cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen races based on watermelon differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii occurs in open fields and greenhouses and can severely limit cucurbit production. Presently seven races of P. xanthii have been identified using melon (Cucumis melo) differentials. Physiological races of this pathogen have not been classified for ot...

  10. Cucurbit powdery mildew of melon incited by Podosphaera xanthii: global and western U.S. perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is a major problem of melon (Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide, that is mostly caused by two fungi: Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC) V.P. Heluta (formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum). The two species may co-infect in some areas of northern Europe...

  11. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  12. Knockdown of MLO genes reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew in grapevine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano; Lenzi, Luisa; Perazzolli, Michele; Campa, Manuela; Costa, Dalla Lorenza; Urso, Simona; Valè, Giampiero; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable

  13. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides t

  14. Mapping of QTL for resistance to powdery mildew and resistance gene analogues in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, B; Jensen, L B; Asp, T;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map resistance gene analogues (RGA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for powdery mildew resistance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The mapping population consisted of 184 F2 genotypes produced from a cross between one genotype of a synthetic perennial...

  15. Susceptibility pays off: insights into the mlo-based powdery mildew resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appiano, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a worldwide-occurring plant disease caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. A conspicuous number of plant species are susceptible to this disease, the occurrence of which is increasing due to the influence of climate change. Symptoms are easy to recognize by the p

  16. Suppression of cucumber powdery mildew by UV-B is affected by background light quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brief (5-10 min) exposure to UV-B radiation (280-300 nm) suppressed powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) on Cucumis sativus. The effect was enhanced by red light (600-660 nm), but offset by blue light (420-500 nm) and UV-A (300-420 nm). Compared to untreated controls, 2 h red light from specific lig...

  17. Cucurbit powdery mildews: Methodology for objective determination and denomination of races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM), a disease on field and greenhouse cucurbit crops worldwide, is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites (Golovinomyces orontii s.l., Podosphaera xanthii) that are highly variable in their pathogenicity and virulence. Various, independent syste...

  18. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  19. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects 1) plant volatiles emitted in r...

  20. Evaluation of watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew and Phytophthora fruit rot, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. This study was undertaken to determine the performance of seeded and seedless commercial watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew (PM) and Phytophthora fruit rot as...

  1. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  2. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouan; Mersha, Zelalem; Vallad, Gary E; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole). In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  3. Tolerance to powdery mildew conferred in susceptible watermelon scion by grafting on resistant rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open field production. We have developed several watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible cultivar Mickey Lee ...

  4. Exogenous trehalose induces defenses in wheat before and during a biotic stress caused by powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Christine; Randoux, Béatrice; Vincent, Dorothée; Bourdon, Natacha; Reignault, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Powdery mildew would be one of the most damaging wheat diseases without the extensive use of conventional fungicides. Some of the alternative control strategies currently emerging are based on the use of resistance inducers. The disacharride trehalose (TR) is classically described as an inducer of defenses in plants to abiotic stress. In this work, the elicitor or priming effect of TR was investigated in wheat both before and during a compatible wheat-powdery mildew interaction through molecular, biochemical, and cytological approaches. In noninoculated conditions, TR elicited the expression of genes encoding chitinase (chi, chi1, and chi4 precursor), pathogenesis-related protein 1, as well as oxalate oxidase (oxo). Moreover, lipid metabolism was shown to be altered by TR spraying via the upregulation of lipoxygenase (lox) and lipid-transfer protein (ltp)-encoding gene expression. On the other hand, the protection conferred by TR to wheat against powdery mildew is associated with the induction of two specific defense markers. Indeed, in infectious conditions following TR spraying, upregulations of chi4 precursor and lox gene expression as well as an induction of the LOX activity were observed. These results are also discussed with regard to the impact of TR on the fungal infectious process, which was shown to be stopped at the appressorial germ tube stage. Our findings strongly suggest that TR is a true inducer of wheat defense and resistance, at least toward powdery mildew.

  5. Meta-analysis reveals a critical period for management of powdery mildew on Hop cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of 28 field trials conducted over a 12-year period investigating management of hop powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera macularis were quantitatively summarized by meta-analysis to compare product efficacy and use patterns by mode of action as defined by Fungicide Resistance Action Committe...

  6. Adaptation to partial resistance to powdery mildew in the hop cultivar Cascade by Podosphaera macularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hop cultivar Cascade has been grown in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. with minimal input for management of powdery mildew (Podosphaera macularis) for nearly 20 years due to the putatively quantitative resistance in this cultivar. While partial resistance is generally thought to be more durable th...

  7. Registration of ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean with resistance to soybean aphid and powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2 and resistance to powdery mildew was jointly released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) as a late maturity group (MG) II (2.9) foo...

  8. Confirming resistance in bottle gourd germplasm by quantifying powdery mildew conidia using a cellometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, an important foliar disease affecting cucurbit crops grown in the United States, commonly occurs on foliage, petioles, and stems. We have developed two highly resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) germplasm (USVL351 and USVL482) for use in o...

  9. Tolerance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in USDA Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Plant Introductions (PI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields and greenhouses. Bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria) are being used throughout the world as rootstocks for grafting watermelon. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the USA in...

  10. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  11. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  12. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  13. Assessment of Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP1) Gene in Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-li; MENG Cheng-sheng; ZHOU Rong-hua; MA Zhi-ying; JIA Ji-zeng

    2006-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of lipid transfer protein (LTP1) gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) resistance. A pair of primers based on the full length cDNA of wheat LTP1was used for amplifying the coding regions of LTP in hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat and its diploid donors T. urartu (AA),Ae. speltoides ssp speltoide (SS) and Ae. tauchii ssp strangulate (DD). LTP1 and LTP2 of wheat were isolated from the tested two hexaploid (ABD) materials: powdery mildew resistance near isogenic line (NIL) Mardler/7 x B ainong 3217 and its susceptible parent Bainong 3217 at the same time, while only one kind of LTP gene was found in the tested three diploid materials respectively by using the above PCR primer pairs. Two peaks of the expression of LTP1 and LTP2 induced by powdery mildew were observed [one occurred at 3 h after inoculation (hai); the other occurred at 10 hai] in resistant NIL Mardler/7 x Bainong3217 in comparison with a steady transcript level of LTP1 and LTP2 in susceptible Bainong3217.Transient over-expression result showed that LTP1 reduced the penetration efficiency (PE) of powdery mildew in susceptible cultivar by about 28.3%. This result indicated an obvious effectiveness of LTP1 in powdery mildew resistance. Expression analysis also showed that LTP1 and LTP2 of wheat are generally involved in salt/drought, but not in low temperature stress early responses.

  14. Elevated early callose deposition results in complete penetration resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Naumann, Marcel; Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Jamrow, Torsten; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C; Voigt, Christian A

    2013-03-01

    A common response by plants to fungal attack is deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan polymer, in the form of cell wall thickenings called papillae, at site of wall penetration. While it has been generally believed that the papillae provide a structural barrier to slow fungal penetration, this idea has been challenged in recent studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where fungal resistance was found to be independent of callose deposition. To the contrary, we show that callose can strongly support penetration resistance when deposited in elevated amounts at early time points of infection. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that express POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT4 (PMR4), which encodes a stress-induced callose synthase, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter. In these lines, we detected callose synthase activity that was four times higher than that in wild-type plants 6 h post inoculation with the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The callose synthase activity was correlated with enlarged callose deposits and the focal accumulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged PMR4 at sites of attempted fungal penetration. We observed similar results from infection studies with the nonadapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Haustoria formation was prevented in resistant transgenic lines during both types of powdery mildew infection, and neither the salicylic acid-dependent nor jasmonate-dependent pathways were induced. We present a schematic model that highlights the differences in callose deposition between the resistant transgenic lines and the susceptible wild-type plants during compatible and incompatible interactions between Arabidopsis and powdery mildew.

  15. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-02-02

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field.

  16. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  17. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R D; Steed, Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Goddard, Rachel; Lachaux, Clea; Bansal, Anuradha; Corbitt, Margaret; Gorniak, Kalina; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K M

    2015-02-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS.

  18. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  19. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  1. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate...... the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral...

  2. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  3. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  4. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The cisgenesis concept implies that plants are transformed only with their own genetic materials or genetic materials from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. We used a barley...... phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four...

  5. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    based on the cisgenesis concept. In contrast to transgenesis, cisgenesis implies that the plant is transformed only with its own or very closely related genetic material. Furthermore, all “helper” genes and gene sequences of foreign nature are removed from the transformed plant lines. Cisgenic crops...... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  6. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  7. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  8. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  9. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  10. Preparation of Powdery Carbon Nanotwist and Application to Printed Field Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hosokawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an automatic production system with sequencer control for the synthesis of carbon nanofibriform based on catalytic CVD using a substrate was developed. The carbon nanotwist (CNTw, which is one of the helical carbon nanofibers, was then synthesized in powdery form with an Ni–SnO2-composed catalyst. The production rate was 5 400 times that of the conventional CVD system and Ni–Cu–In2O3 catalyst. The powdery CNTw was easily scraped off the substrate, then pasted with organic binder, and printed by a squeegee method on ITO glass substrate for an electron field emitter. The field emission performance was found to be better than that of the directly grown CNTw film in conventional CVD with Ni–Cu catalyst.

  11. Inheritance of resistance to powdery mildew in pea and pathogenesis-related aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance of resistance to powdery mildew in the pea cultivar MK-10 and some histological aspects of infection were assessed. For the inheritance study, F1, F2, backcrosses and F3 generations of MK-10 crossed with two susceptible populations were evaluated. Histological evaluations included percentage of germinated conidia, percentage of conidia that formed appresoria, percentage of conidia that established colonies, and number of haustoria per colony. Segregation ratios obtained in the resistance inheritance study were compared by Chi-square (ײ test and the histological data were analyzed by Tukey's test at 5% probability. It was concluded that resistance of MK-10 to powdery mildew is due to a pair of recessive alleles since it is expressed in the pre-penetration stage and completed by post-penetration localized cellular death, characteristic of the presence of the pair of recessive alleles er1er1.

  12. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  13. Inhibitive Mechanisms of Two Silicon Compounds on Powdery Mildew of Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yu-rong; LIU Lei; ZHAO Hua; CHEN De-rong; BI Yang

    2005-01-01

    Seedlings of Yujinxiang melon were used to investigate the effect and inhibitive mechanism of sodium silicate and nanosized silicon oxide on powdery mildew. The results showed that the severity of powdery mildew on melon seedlings was lowered significantly by treatment with either of the two silicon compounds, although the effect of sodium silicate was more powerful than silicon oxide. Application of sodium silicate to the seedlings caused significant increases in the activity of peroxidase (POD) and of 3-1,3-glucosidase (GLU), both enzymes are known to be associated with the disease defence systems of plants. SEM-EDX analysis of sodium silicate-treated leaves of the melon seedlings showed an elevated level of silicon deposit at stomata and epidermis. Treatment with nanosized silicon oxide also resulted in a similar increase in silicon deposit, but the treatment did not cause a significant increase in POD activity.

  14. Development of partial ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew in hop cones and its management implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Twomey

    Full Text Available Knowledge of processes leading to crop damage is central to devising rational approaches to disease management. Multiple experiments established that infection of hop cones by Podosphaera macularis was most severe if inoculation occurred within 15 to 21 days after bloom. This period of infection was associated with the most pronounced reductions in alpha acids, cone color, and accelerated maturation of cones. Susceptibility of cones to powdery mildew decreased progressively after the transition from bloom to cone development, although complete immunity to the disease failed to develop. Maturation of cone tissues was associated with multiple significant affects on the pathogen manifested as reduced germination of conidia, diminished frequency of penetration of bracts, lengthening of the latent period, and decreased sporulation. Cones challenged with P. macularis in juvenile developmental stages also led to greater frequency of colonization by a complex of saprophytic, secondary fungi. Since no developmental stage of cones was immune to powdery mildew, the incidence of powdery mildew continued to increase over time and exceeded 86% by late summer. In field experiments with a moderately susceptible cultivar, the incidence of cones with powdery mildew was statistically similar when fungicide applications were made season-long or targeted only to the juvenile stages of cone development. These studies establish that partial ontogenic resistance develops in hop cones and may influence multiple phases of the infection process and pathogen reproduction. The results further reinforce the concept that the efficacy of a fungicide program may depend largely on timing of a small number of sprays during a relatively brief period of cone development. However in practice, targeting fungicide and other management tactics to periods of enhanced juvenile susceptibility may be complicated by a high degree of asynchrony in cone development and other factors that are

  15. Wheat protection against powdery mildew by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi : mechanisms and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Ghalia

    2015-01-01

    The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be an innovative alternative to chemicals against fungal plant diseases. Our work aimed at studying the possible protective effect of arbuscular mycorrhization in the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), a biotrophic fungi responsible of wheat powdery mildew, a disease affecting the aerial plant organs. Wheat mycorrhizal inoculation by Funneliformis mosseae (Fm), under controlled and optimized co...

  16. Management of Powdery Mildew in Squash by Plant and Alga Extract Biopesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many fungicides are registered for use to control powdery mildew on cucurbits, management of resistance to fungicides in pathogen populations still remains a major challenge. Two biopesticides Regalia SC and HMO 736 were evaluated in the greenhouse and field for their efficacy against powdery mildew in squash. In greenhouses, Regalia SC alone significantly (P < 0.05 reduced powdery mildew compared to the nontreated control, and was as effective as the chemical standard Procure 480SC (triflumizole. In alternation with Procure 480SC, Regalia SC demonstrated greater or equivalent effects on reducing the disease. HMO 736 alone showed varying levels of disease control, but alternating with Procure 480SC significantly improved control efficacy. In addition, application of Regalia SC or HMO 736 each in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly increased the chlorophyll content in leaves and the total fresh weight of squash plants, when compared with the water control, Regalia SC and HMO 736 alone. In field trials, application of Regalia SC and HMO 736 each alone significantly reduced disease severity in one of two field trials during the early stage of disease development, but not during later stages when disease pressure became high. Both Regalia SC and HMO 736 each applied in alternation with Procure 480SC significantly improved the control efficacy compared to Procure 480SC alone. Results from this study demonstrated that an integrated management program can be developed for powdery mildew in squash by integrating the biopesticides Regalia SC, HMO 736 with the chemical fungicide Procure 480SC.

  17. Multiple evolutionary events involved in maintaining homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

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    Qin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  18. Grapevine powdery mildew resistance and susceptibility loci identified on a high-resolution SNP map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Harriman, James; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Brooks, Siraprapa; Hyma, Katie; Reisch, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Improved efficacy and durability of powdery mildew resistance can be enhanced via knowledge of the genetics of resistance and susceptibility coupled with the development of high-resolution maps to facilitate the stacking of multiple resistance genes and other desirable traits. We studied the inheritance of powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance and susceptibility of wild Vitis rupestris B38 and cultivated V. vinifera 'Chardonnay', finding evidence for quantitative variation. Molecular markers were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing, resulting in 16,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on alignment to the V. vinifera 'PN40024' reference genome sequence. With an average density of 36 SNPs/Mbp and uniform coverage of the genome, this 17K set was used to identify 11 SNPs on chromosome 7 associated with a resistance locus from V. rupestris B38 and ten SNPs on chromosome 9 associated with a locus for susceptibility from 'Chardonnay' using single marker association and linkage disequilibrium analysis. Linkage maps for V. rupestris B38 (1,146 SNPs) and 'Chardonnay' (1,215 SNPs) were constructed and used to corroborate the 'Chardonnay' locus named Sen1 (Susceptibility to Erysiphe necator 1), providing the first insight into the genetics of susceptibility to powdery mildew from V. vinifera. The identification of markers associated with a susceptibility locus in a V. vinifera background can be used for negative selection among breeding progenies. This work improves our understanding of the nature of powdery mildew resistance in V. rupestris B38 and 'Chardonnay', while applying next-generation sequencing tools to advance grapevine genomics and breeding.

  19. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  20. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  1. Development of partial ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew in hop cones and its management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Megan C; Wolfenbarger, Sierra N; Woods, Joanna L; Gent, David H

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of processes leading to crop damage is central to devising rational approaches to disease management. Multiple experiments established that infection of hop cones by Podosphaera macularis was most severe if inoculation occurred within 15 to 21 days after bloom. This period of infection was associated with the most pronounced reductions in alpha acids, cone color, and accelerated maturation of cones. Susceptibility of cones to powdery mildew decreased progressively after the transition from bloom to cone development, although complete immunity to the disease failed to develop. Maturation of cone tissues was associated with multiple significant affects on the pathogen manifested as reduced germination of conidia, diminished frequency of penetration of bracts, lengthening of the latent period, and decreased sporulation. Cones challenged with P. macularis in juvenile developmental stages also led to greater frequency of colonization by a complex of saprophytic, secondary fungi. Since no developmental stage of cones was immune to powdery mildew, the incidence of powdery mildew continued to increase over time and exceeded 86% by late summer. In field experiments with a moderately susceptible cultivar, the incidence of cones with powdery mildew was statistically similar when fungicide applications were made season-long or targeted only to the juvenile stages of cone development. These studies establish that partial ontogenic resistance develops in hop cones and may influence multiple phases of the infection process and pathogen reproduction. The results further reinforce the concept that the efficacy of a fungicide program may depend largely on timing of a small number of sprays during a relatively brief period of cone development. However in practice, targeting fungicide and other management tactics to periods of enhanced juvenile susceptibility may be complicated by a high degree of asynchrony in cone development and other factors that are situation-dependent.

  2. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  3. Biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LJ02 induces systemic resistance against cucurbits powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Gu, Yilin; Li, Juan; Xu, Mingzhu; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yuanhong

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease found in a wide range of plants and can significantly reduce crop yields. Bacterial strain LJ02 is a biocontrol agent (BCA) isolated from a greenhouse in Tianjin, China. In combination of morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, strain LJ02 was classified as a new member of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Greenhouse trials showed that LJ02 fermentation broth (LJ02FB) can effectively diminish the occurrence of cucurbits powdery mildew. When treated with LJ02FB, cucumber seedlings produced significantly elevated production of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase as compared to that of the control. We further confirmed that the production of free salicylic acid (SA) and expression of one pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 in cucumber leaves were markedly elevated after treating with LJ02FB, suggesting that SA-mediated defense response was stimulated. Moreover, LJ02FB-treated cucumber leaves could secrete resistance-related substances into rhizosphere that inhibit the germination of fungi spores and the growth of pathogens. Finally, we separated bacterium and its fermented substances to test their respective effects and found that both components have SA-inducing activity and bacterium plays major roles. Altogether, we identified a BCA against powdery mildew and its mode of action by inducing systemic resistance such as SA signaling pathway.

  4. Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Fabrizio; Praz, Coraline R; Wyder, Stefan; Ben-David, Roi; Bourras, Salim; Matsumae, Hiromi; McNally, Kaitlin E; Parlange, Francis; Riba, Andrea; Roffler, Stefan; Schaefer, Luisa K; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Valenti, Luca; Zbinden, Helen; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the history of agriculture, many new crop species (polyploids or artificial hybrids) have been introduced to diversify products or to increase yield. However, little is known about how these new crops influence the evolution of new pathogens and diseases. Triticale is an artificial hybrid of wheat and rye, and it was resistant to the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) until 2001 (refs. 1,2,3). We sequenced and compared the genomes of 46 powdery mildew isolates covering several formae speciales. We found that B. graminis f. sp. triticale, which grows on triticale and wheat, is a hybrid between wheat powdery mildew (B. graminis f. sp. tritici) and mildew specialized on rye (B. graminis f. sp. secalis). Our data show that the hybrid of the two mildews specialized on two different hosts can infect the hybrid plant species originating from those two hosts. We conclude that hybridization between mildews specialized on different species is a mechanism of adaptation to new crops introduced by agriculture.

  5. Airborne hyperspectral imaging for the detection of powdery mildew in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jonas; Mewes, Thorsten; Menz, Gunter

    2008-08-01

    Plant stresses, in particular fungal diseases, show a high variability in spatial and temporal dimension with respect to their impact on the host. Recent "Precision Agriculture"-techniques allow for a spatially and temporally adjusted pest control that might reduce the amount of cost-intensive and ecologically harmful agrochemicals. Conventional stressdetection techniques such as random monitoring do not meet demands of such optimally placed management actions. The prerequisite is an accurate sensor-based detection of stress symptoms. The present study focuses on a remotely sensed detection of the fungal disease powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in wheat, Europe's main crop. In a field experiment, the potential of hyperspectral data for an early detection of stress symptoms was tested. A sophisticated endmember selection procedure was used and, additionally, a linear spectral mixture model was applied to a pixel spectrum with known characteristics, in order to derive an endmember representing 100% powdery mildew-infected wheat. Regression analyses of matched fraction estimates of this endmember and in-field-observed powdery mildew severities showed promising results (r=0.82 and r2=0.67).

  6. Identification of Powdery Mildew Responsive Genes in Hevea brasiliensis through mRNA Differential Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Bi, Zhenghong; Di, Rong; Liang, Peng; He, Qiguang; Liu, Wenbo; Miao, Weiguo; Zheng, Fucong

    2016-01-29

    Powdery mildew is an important disease of rubber trees caused by Oidium heveae B. A. Steinmann. As far as we know, none of the resistance genes related to powdery mildew have been isolated from the rubber tree. There is little information available at the molecular level regarding how a rubber tree develops defense mechanisms against this pathogen. We have studied rubber tree mRNA transcripts from the resistant RRIC52 cultivar by differential display analysis. Leaves inoculated with the spores of O. heveae were collected from 0 to 120 hpi in order to identify pathogen-regulated genes at different infection stages. We identified 78 rubber tree genes that were differentially expressed during the plant-pathogen interaction. BLAST analysis for these 78 ESTs classified them into seven functional groups: cell wall and membrane pathways, transcription factor and regulatory proteins, transporters, signal transduction, phytoalexin biosynthesis, other metabolism functions, and unknown functions. The gene expression for eight of these genes was validated by qRT-PCR in both RRIC52 and the partially susceptible Reyan 7-33-97 cultivars, revealing the similar or differential changes of gene expressions between these two cultivars. This study has improved our overall understanding of the molecular mechanisms of rubber tree resistance to powdery mildew.

  7. Breeding and molecular cytogenetic identification of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition lines resistant to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Wheat-related species Th. intermedium was used to cross with common wheat Yannong 15. In the self progenies of the hybrid, two addition lines, Ⅱ-1-7-1 and Ⅱ-3-3-2, stable in cytology, were developed by cytology and powdery mildew resistance identification. Their chromosome number were 2n = 44 and formed 22 bivalents at PMC MI. In F1 of the two addition lines crossing with Yannong 15, there appeared about one univalent at PMC MI, respectively. Resistance identification in greenhouse and field using the No. 15 and mixed strains of E. gramnis f. sp. tritici showed that they were immune to powdery mildew. Chromosome number and resistance identification using the F2 single plants of the addition line crossing with Yannong 15 indicated that the resistant gene was located on the alien chromosomes. In situ hybridization using St and E genomic DNA as probe showed that the added chromosome in the two addition lines probably came from the E genome of Th. intermedium, which indicated that a pair of E genome chromosomes carried a new resistant gene to powdery mildew.

  8. Transformation of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Jesús; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    The obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of powdery mildew in cucurbit crops all over the world. A major limitation of molecular studies of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) is their genetic intractability. In this work, we describe a robust method based on the promiscuous transformation ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for reliable transformation of P. xanthii. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system yielded transformants of P. xanthii with diverse transferred DNA (T-DNA) constructs. Analysis of the resultant transformants showed the random integration of T-DNA into the P. xanthii genome. The integrations were maintained in successive generations in the presence of selection pressure. Transformation was found to be transient, because in the absence of selection agent, the introduced genetic markers were lost due to excision of T-DNA from the genome. The ATMT system represents a potent tool for genetic manipulation of P. xanthii and will likely be useful for studying other biotrophic fungi. We hope that this method will contribute to the development of detailed molecular studies of the intimate interaction established between powdery mildew fungi and their host plants.

  9. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  10. Strategies for RUN1 deployment using RUN2 and REN2 to manage grapevine powdery mildew informed by studies of race-specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TIR-NB-LRR gene, Resistance to Uncinula necator 1 (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic Vitis vinifera cultivars. However, powdery mildew cleistothecia ha...

  11. Powdery mildew outbreaks caused by Podosphaera macularis on Hop cultivars possessing the resistance gene R6 in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars of hop (Humulus lupulus) have been grown, with the aim of helping to manage powdery mildew in the Pacific Northwest since the first report of the disease in the field in 1997 (4). A major objective of many breeding programs is development of resistance to powdery mildew, and thi...

  12. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant losses in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located on the short ...

  13. Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer(Triticum dicoccoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7A...

  14. Identification and genetic mapping of the putative Thinopyrum intermedium-derived dominant powdery mildew resistance gene PmL962 on wheat chromosome arm 2BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive disease affecting the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Powdery mildew resistance was putatively transferred from Thinopyrum intermedium to the common wheat line L962, which conferred resistance to multiple Ch...

  15. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  16. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  17. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  18. Cytological and molecular analysis of nonhost resistance in rice to wheat powdery mildew and leaf rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulin; Yao, Juanni; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-07-01

    Cereal powdery mildews caused by Blumeria graminis and cereal rusts caused by Puccinia spp. are constant disease threats that limit the production of almost all important cereal crops. Rice is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is atypical because of its immunity to all powdery mildew and rust fungi. We analyzed the nonhost interactions between rice and the wheat powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Ptr) to identify the basis of nonhost resistance (NHR) in rice against cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi at cytological and molecular levels. No visible symptoms were observed on rice leaves inoculated with Bgt or Ptr. Microscopic observations showed that both pathogens exhibited aberrant differentiation and significantly reduced penetration frequencies on rice compared to wheat. The development of Bgt and Ptr was also completely arrested at early infection stages in cases of successful penetration into rice leaves. Attempted infection of rice by Bgt and Ptr induced similar defense responses, including callose deposition, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and hypersensitive response in rice epidermal and mesophyll cells, respectively. Furthermore, a set of defense-related genes were upregulated in rice against Bgt and Ptr infection. Rice is an excellent monocot model for genetic and molecular studies. Therefore, our results demonstrate that rice is a useful model to study the mechanisms of NHR to cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi, which provides useful information for the development of novel and durable strategies to control these important pathogens.

  19. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1973-01-01

    BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in m...

  20. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vecto...... inoculation, although large parts of the insert had been lost from the virus vector. The instability of the insert, observed consistently throughout our experiments, offers an explanation for the transient nature of silencing when using BSMV as a VIGS vector.......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...... for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the resulting...

  1. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  2. A novel major gene on chromosome 6H for resistance of barley against the barley yellow dwarf virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Habekuss, A.; Bekele, B.; Ordon, F.

    2004-01-01

    In a mapping population derived from the Ethiopian barley line L94 x Vada, natural infection by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred. While line L94 hardly showed symptoms, Vada was severely affected. The 103 recombinant inbred lines segregated bimodally. The major gene responsible for this res

  3. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneker, M; Kanne, J

    2010-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, because powdery mildew infections may result in a total loss of the crop. In organic currant growing the number of adequate control methods is very limited. Sulphur as a fungicide against powdery mildew in e.g. gooseberry or table grape growing is not recommendable due to possible bleaching of berries and scorching of tender shoots. Various bicarbonate salts are suggested as a good option to control powdery mildew. In a field trial the effect of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the on the control of powdery mildew of gooseberry was evaluated. Four treatments; i.e. two preventive strategies and two curative strategies, were applied. PLants were sprayed until runoff. The percent of infected fruits and disease severity were assessed. In the unsprayed control plots very high disease incidences were observed; on average more than 90% of the berries were infected with powdery mildew. The weekly (preventive) spray applications with potassium carbonate reduced the disease incidences on fruits significantly. On average approximately 10% of the fruits were affected by powdery mildew. However, the number of spray applications was high. In conclusion, our results indicate that applications of potassium bicarbonate (as Armicarb) are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of American powdery mildew in gooseberry. Early spray applications are necessary to protect berries against powdery mildew infections. Future research will focus on reducing the number of applications, e.g. warning models based on powdery mildew of rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa).

  4. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  5. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  6. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  7. Adult plant and seedling resistance to powdery mildew in a Triticum aestivum x Triticum militinae hybrid line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Irena; Peusha, Hilma; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Järve, Kadri

    2006-02-01

    In the progeny of a cross between the common wheat cultivar Tähti and Triticum militinae, a member of the timopheevii group of tetraploid wheats, several hybrid lines were selected that are characterized by improved seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to powdery mildew. An F2 single-seed descendant mapping population segregating for seedling resistance and APR to powdery mildew was analysed for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The main QTL responsible for APR was detected on the long arm of chromosome 4A tightly linked to the Xgwm160 locus on a T. militinae translocation explaining up to 54% of phenotypic variance. The same translocation influenced seedling resistance to powdery mildew upon inoculation of plants with a synthetic population of Blumeria graminis DC. f. sp. tritici, and explained 28-33% of the phenotypic variance.

  8. Insights into the recent emergence of powdery mildew on its 'new' host triticale: from origin to disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, Veronique; Audenaert, Kris; Bekaert, Boris; Höfte, Monica; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The development of new crop species and their associated agro-ecosystems led simultaneously to the emergence of new pathogens (Stukenbrock and McDonald, 2008). This research focused on the recent emergence of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) on triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). In a first part, we aimed to gain insights into the evolutionary origin of this pathogen on its new host. A secondary aim was to investigate the presence of powdery mildew resistance in current commercial triticale cultivars, including its cellular basis of resistance. To address these research goals, we have pursued a molecular, pathological and cytological approach. This discussion will reflect on the experimental findings described in this research and their impact for future management of powdery mildew on triticale and other cereals.

  9. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  10. Differences in early callose deposition during adapted and non-adapted powdery mildew infection of resistant Arabidopsis lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Marcel; Somerville, Shauna; Voigt, Christian

    2013-06-01

    The deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan cell wall polymer, can play an essential role in the defense response to invading pathogens. We could recently show that Arabidopsis thaliana lines with an overexpression of the callose synthase gene PMR4 gained complete penetration resistance to the adapted powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum and the non-adapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei. The penetration resistance is based on the transport of the callose synthase PMR4 to the site of attempted fungal penetration and the subsequent formation of enlarged callose deposits. The deposits differed in their total diameter comparing both types of powdery mildew infection. In this study, further characterization of these callose deposits revealed that size differences were especially pronounced in the core region of the deposits. This suggests that specific, pathogen-dependent factors exist, which might regulate callose synthase transport to the core region of forming deposits.

  11. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  12. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  14. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  15. Monitoring powdery mildew of winter wheat by using moderate resolution multi-temporal satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B, green (G, red (R and near infrared (NIR bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72. However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples, all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59. The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale.

  16. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  17. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tabata

    Full Text Available Powdery mildews (Erysiphales are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp. and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  18. A transgenic wheat with a stilbene synthase gene resistant to powdery mildew obtained by biolistic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Stilbene, a kind of phytoalexin, plays an important role in resistance to fungal and bacterial infection in plants. It strongly inhibits the growth of fungi and sprout of spore. Stilbene synthase gene (Vst1) obtained from grapevine has been transferred into common spring wheat Jinghong 5 by using the biolistic transformation method. Five transgenic plants (T0) were obtained from the bombarded 2014 immature embryos. One immune plantlet and 3 plantlets with mid-resistance to powdery mildew were identified from the transgenic plants of T3 generation which came from 2 T0 transgenic plants.

  19. RFLP Tagging of a Gene Pm12 for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾继增; T.E.Miller; S.M.Reader; M.D.Gale

    1994-01-01

    A dominant gene, Pml2, conferring the resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) has been transferred to wheat from Aegilops speltoides. Sixteen RFLP probes were used to test Line 31 and its parents, showing that Line 31 is a 6B/6S translocation lines. The linkage analysis by five probes indicates that Pm12 is located on the chromosome 6B/6S, and tightly flanked by an RFLP marker α-Amy-1 (1.1 cM), identified by RFLP and isozyme analysis. This approach is equally applicable to the identification of other transferred alien genes and the segments of alien chromosome introgressed into wheat.

  20. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  1. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  2. 植物白粉病的化学防治进展%Development of Chemical Control for Powdery Mildew on Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益林; 段霞瑜; 盛宝钦

    2001-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a type of important disease on plants, and fungicides is a main mean for controlling powdery mildew. The development and history of chemical control for powdery mildew was briefly reviewed, and some important fungicides and the mechanism of their action were introduced.%对植物白粉病的化学防治历史和发展进行了综述,同时介绍了一些重要的药剂及其作用机制,并讨论了白粉病化学防治中存在的问题。

  3. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  6. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  7. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  8. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  9. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  10. Studies in plant pathogenic fungi—II. On some powdery mildews (Erysiphales) recently recorded from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordeloos, M.E.; Loerakker, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Full descriptions and notes on their pathogenous properties are given of the anamorphs of four powdery mildews recently recorded as new from the Netherlands. Two are described as new species, viz. Oidium longipes on Solarium melongena and O. limnanthis on Limnanthes alba. Oidium lycopersicum Cooke &

  11. Effects produced by nuclear radiation in powdery milk; Efectos producidos por radiaciones nucleares en leches en polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena N, F.; Reyes G, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical effects produced by the gamma rays and beta particles radiations on the powdery milk. This work treats on the Pre-dose analysis, sampling radiating, electron spin resonance, acidity, proteins, aminoacids, lactose, fatty acids, peroxides, as well as its experimental results. (Author)

  12. Distribution and characterization of Podosphaera macularis virulent on hop cultivars possessing R6-based resistance to powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, an epidemic of powdery mildew occurred in Washington and Idaho on previously resistant cultivars whose resistance was putatively based on the gene designated R6. In 2013, isolates capable of causing severe disease on cultivars with R6-based resistance were confirmed in Oregon and became wid...

  13. A disulphide isomerase gene (PDI-V) from Haynaldia villosa contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Li, Yingbo; Arshad, Muhammad; Jiangyue, Cheng; Jia, Zhao; Wang, Zongkuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Yu, Feifei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we report the contribution of a PDI-like gene from wheat wild relative Haynaldia villosa in combating powdery mildew. PDI-V protein contains two conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active domains (a and a') and an inactive domain (b). PDI-V interacted with E3 ligase CMPG1-V protein, which is a positive regulator of powdery mildew response. PDI-V was mono-ubiquitinated by CMPG1-V without degradation being detected. PDI-V was located on H. villosa chromosome 5V and encoded for a protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Bgt infection in leaves of H. villosa induced PDI-V expression. Virus induced gene silencing of PDIs in a T. durum-H. villosa amphiploid compromised the resistance. Single cell transient over-expression of PDI-V or a truncated version containing the active TXR domain a decreased the haustorial index in moderately susceptible wheat cultivar Yangmai 158. Stable transgenic lines over-expressing PDI-V in Yangmai 158 displayed improved powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. By contrast over-expression of point-mutated PDI-V(C57A) did not increase the level of resistance in Yangmai 158. The above results indicate a pivotal role of PDI-V in powdery mildew resistance and showed that conserved TRX domain a is critical for its function.

  14. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey Partial Amphiploid Resistant to Powdery Mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Bing LIU; Hong-Gang WANG; Xue-Yong ZHANG; Xing-Feng LI; Da-Yong LI; Xia-Yu DUAN; Yi-Lin ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Wide cross and molecular cytogenetic methods were used to transfer the powdery mildew resistance gene from Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey to wheat. Among the progeny of crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yannong 15 with Th. intermedium, a partial amphiploid E990256, with resistance to powdery mildew, was developed. It had 56 chromosomes and could form 28bivalents in pollen mother cells at metaphase I of meiosis. Resistance verification by race 15 at the seedling stage and by mixed strains of Erysiphales gramnis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal at the adult stage showed it was immune to powdery mildew at both stages. Gene postulation via 21 isolates of E. gramnis f. sp. tritici and 29 differential hosts showed it was nearly immune to all the isolates used, and its resistance pattem was different from all the mildew resistance genes used, which indicated it probably contained a new resistance gene to powdery mildew. Biochemical verification showed it might convey different Th. intermedium chromosomes from those of the wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploids Zhong 1-5. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis by using St genomic DNA as the probe showed E990256 contained a recombination genome of St and E.

  15. Initiative for international cooperation of researchers and breeders related to determination and denomination of cucurbit powdery mildew races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is caused most frequently by two obligate erysiphaceous ectoparasites, Golovinomyces orontii s.l. and Podosphaera xanthii, that are highly variable in virulence. Various independent systems of CPM race determination and denomination cause a chaotic situation in cucurbit...

  16. QTL identification in an interspecific grapevine cross segregating for resistance to Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew, Black Rot, and Phylloxera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine is a highly heterozygous plant with a complex genetic background. Here, we report the use of an F1 family (N = 125) from a cross of MN1264 × MN1246 made in 2010. The cross contains at least six Vitis species in its ancestry and segregates for resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)...

  17. Genomic identification, phylogeny, and expression analysis of MLO genes involved in susceptibility to powdery mildew in Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L X; Jiang, M; Zhang, Y C; Yang, X F; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, Z F; Wang, Y Z; Jiang, G H

    2016-08-05

    The MLO (powdery mildew locus O) gene family is important in resistance to powdery mildew (PM). In this study, all of the members of the MLO family were identified and analyzed in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome. The strawberry contains at least 20 members of the MLO family, and the protein sequence contained between 171 and 1485 amino acids, with 0-34 introns. Chromosomal localization showed that the MLOs were unevenly distributed on each of the chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. The greatest number of MLOs (seven) was found on chromosome 3. A phylogenetic tree showed that the MLOs were divided into seven groups (I-VII), four of which consisted of MLOs from strawberry, Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. Multiple sequence alignment showed that strawberry MLO candidates related to powdery mildew resistance possessed seven highly conserved transmembrane domains, a calmodulin-binding domain, and two conserved regions, all of which are important domains for powdery mildew resistance genes. Expressed sequence tag analysis revealed that the MLOs were induced by multiple abiotic stressors, including low and high temperature, drought, and high salinity. These findings will contribute to the functional characterization of MLOs related to PM susceptibility, and will assist in the development of disease resistance in strawberries.

  18. ‘Appalachian Joy’ is a supernumery, white-bracted cultivar of cornus florida resistant to powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wholesale nursery industry in Tennessee contributes more than $200 million to the annual economy of the state and are in excess of $50 million annually for flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Two fungal diseases, dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew (Discula destructiva and Erysiphe pulchra, r...

  19. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  20. Potential Sources of Resistance to Cucurbit Powdery Mildew in US Plant Introductions (PI) of Lagenaria Siceraria (bottle gourd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields and greenhouses. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the USA in grafting watermelon plants onto various cucurbit rootstocks. Bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria) are being use...

  1. Mapping of novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm53 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease in many areas of the world, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Host plant resistance is the preferred form of disease prevention because it is both economical and environmentally benign. Identification of new resi...

  2. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  3. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  4. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  5. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  6. Proton extrusion is an essential signalling component in the HR of epidermal single cells in the barley-powdery mildew interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, F.S.; Andersen, C.H.; Burhenne, K.;

    2000-01-01

    between the epidermal cell and underlying mesophyll cells; (2) scavenger treatment reduces HR; (3) treatment of leaves with low-pH (3.5) citrate and succinate buffers causes more cells to undergo HR in the compatible interaction, while treatment with the same buffers at pH 5.5 reduces the number of HR...

  7. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like...

  8. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA Markers Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene in Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker linked to powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm-I in melon PI 371795 was reported. However, the RAPD marker has problem in scoring. To detect powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm-I in melon accurately, the RAPD marker was cloned and sequenced to design sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers. SCAPMAR5 marker derived from pUBC411 primer yielded a single DNA band at 1061 bp. Segregation of SCAPMAR5 marker in bulk of F2 plants demonstrated that the marker was co-segregated with RAPD marker from which the SCAR marker was originated. Moreover, results of SCAR analysis in diverse melons showed SCAPMAR5 primers obtained a single 1061 bp linked to Pm-I in resistant melon PI 371795 and PMAR5. On the other hand, SCAPMAR5 failed to detect Pm-I in susceptible melons. Results of this study revealed that SCAR analysis not only confirmed melons that had been clearly scored for resistance to Pm-I evaluated by RAPD markers, but also clarified the ambiguous resistance results obtained by the RAPD markers.   Key words: Cucumis melo L., Pm-I, RAPD, SCAPMAR5

  9. Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jian Fan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means inducedby biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits ofCnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide withacceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72, but it also showed a significantprophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36 against pumpkin powdery mildew at aconcentration of 100 μg·mL-1. In pumpkin leaves with/or without inoculation ofSphaerotheca fuliginea, osthol treatment induced the accumulation of chitinase andperoxidase and enhanced the transcription of chitinase gene in non-inoculated leaves. Thepotentiation of phenylalanine amonia-lyase activity in leaves by osthol application andfollowing inoculation was absent in that with inoculation or osthol treatment, indicatingthat induced PAL in osthol-pretreated plants was inoculation-mediated. In conclusion, thisnatural compound could induce resistance response in the plant against powdery mildew.

  10. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanpeng; Cheng, Xi; Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been applied to engineer targeted modifications in polyploid genomes, but simultaneous modification of multiple homoeoalleles has not been reported. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (refs. 4,5) technologies in hexaploid bread wheat to introduce targeted mutations in the three homoeoalleles that encode MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) proteins. Genetic redundancy has prevented evaluation of whether mutation of all three MLO alleles in bread wheat might confer resistance to powdery mildew, a trait not found in natural populations. We show that TALEN-induced mutation of all three TaMLO homoeologs in the same plant confers heritable broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We further use CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate transgenic wheat plants that carry mutations in the TaMLO-A1 allele. We also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering targeted DNA insertion in bread wheat through nonhomologous end joining of the double-strand breaks caused by TALENs. Our findings provide a methodological framework to improve polyploid crops.

  11. Characterization of Particle Size Distributions of Powdery Building Material Aerosol Generated by Fluidization and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Prasauskas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify particle size distributions (PSD of aerosol of powdery building materials commonly used in construction work (cement, chalk, clay, wood sawdust, wood grinding dust, gypsum, hydrated lime, masonry grout, quartz sand, sand and structural lime by two aerosolization methods: fluidization and gravitation. Fluidization and gravitation methods represent industrial activities such as pneumotransportation and unloading. Both particle resuspension mechanisms have been modelled in laboratory conditions. The particle size distributions of resuspended particulate matter from powdery building materials were rather similar identified by both fluidization and gravitation methods, with an exception of wood sawdust and sand. The PM10 fraction ranged between 30% and 87%, PM2.5 from 7% to 28% and PM1.0 from 3% to 7% of the total mass of particulate matter. The highest PM10/PMtotal ratio was calculated for masonry grout - 0.87, and the lowest ratio for quartz sand - 0.30. The highest ratio of PM2.5/PMtotal was calculated for sand - 0.23, the lowest for quartz sand - 0.07. Substantial quantities of PM2.5 were found to be emitted implying a potential threat to human health.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1519

  12. Effect of soil heating, severity of powdery mildew and nitrogen fertilization on yield of winter wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschhaus, H.; Werning, L.

    1981-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the effect of different levels of nitrogen and severity of powdery mildew on yield of winter wheat grown in soil heated with waste heat from power plants. Soil heating reduced yield depending on efficiency of mildew control and nitrogen level from 12 to 37%. Disease severity showed a linear increase with intensity of heating corresponding with a decrease in yield reduction. In the non-heated plot, 0.8% of the flag leaves were diseases. Increase soil temperatures by 2-3/sup 0/C caused a 2% rise in mildew severity and at 5-6/sup 0/C 3%, respectively. Control of powdery mildew increased yield on the unheated plot about 5,2 dt/ha, on the moderately heated about 8,7 dt/ha and on the plots with highest temperature about 11,1 dt/ha over that of untreated plots. Nitrogen fertilizers increased yield on non-heated plots, in heated plots with diseased plants, only. Nitrogen did not increases yield of healthy plants on heated plots.

  13. Essential oils and whole milk in the control of soybean powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Perina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils (EOs and cow's whole milk (CWM in order to control soybean powdery mildew and to estimate the most effective concentrations of these natural products in reducing the disease severity on soybean plants. Three experiments were carried out: The first experiment evaluated and selected the most effective treatments to reduce the severity of soybean powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions; the second experiment evaluated the effect of CWM and EOs of citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, cinnamon and tea tree on the pathogen through the ultrastructure analysis of soybean leaflets infected by Erysiphe diffusa using the scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscope (LM technology. In the third experiment, the most effective products were tested at several concentrations in order to define the most effective concentrations to reduce disease severity under greenhouse conditions. The treatments CWM (100mL L-1 and EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus (1.0mL L-1, reduced the disease severity from 67 to 74%. Direct effects from all natural products tested on the structures of E. diffusa were demonstrated through the SEM and LM analysis. Concentrations at 1.5mL L-1 for EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus and also at 180mL L-1 for the treatment CWM were the most effective against E. diffusa on soybean.

  14. Proteomic analysis of the compatible interaction of wheat and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Xiwen; Liu, Xinhao; Yu, Haibo; Du, Congyang; Li, Mengda; He, Dexian

    2017-02-01

    Proteome characteristics of wheat leaves with the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) infection were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. We identified 46 unique proteins which were differentially expressed at 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation. The functional classification of these proteins showed that most of them were involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, defense responses, and signal transduction. Upregulated proteins included primary metabolism pathways and defense responses, while proteins related to photosynthesis and signal transduction were mostly downregulated. As expected, more antioxidative proteins were activated at the later infection stage than the earlier stage, suggesting that the antioxidative system of host plays a role in maintaining the compatible interaction between wheat and powdery mildew. A high accumulation of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in infected leaves indicated the regulation of the TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathway in parallel to the activation of host defenses. The downregulation of MAPK5 could be facilitated for the compatible interaction of wheat plants and Bgt. qRT-PCR analysis supported the data of protein expression profiles. Our results reveal the relevance of primary plant metabolism and defense responses during compatible interaction, and provide new insights into the biology of susceptible wheat in response to Bgt infection.

  15. Physiological study of the effects of SO/sup 2/ pollution, phenylmercuric acetate sprays, and parasitic infection on stomatal behavior and aging in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majernik, O.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were performed on first leaves of barley which were at different stages of ontogenesis. Two varieties with different susceptibilities to Erysiphe graminis were studied. A reduction in stomatal aperture in light was found both after application of 10/sup -3.5/ M phenylmercuric acetate (PMA), and during infection with E. graminis. On the other hand, the stomata remained partially open in darkness compared with the complete closure in the controls. By comparison, toxic levels of SO/sub 2/ caused a general stimulation of opening in light, shown by increased rate of opening, higher maximum opening, and slower closure in darkness. On older leaves the stimulatory effects of SO/sub 2/ were smaller. Responses to SO/sub 2/ pollution differed in these two varieties selected for powdery mildew resistance. All the three agents studied affected the course of stomatal behavior in a manner potentially detrimental to the plant. Changes in stomatal behavior can affect many different physiological processes and this may have been one factor behind the premature aging and death that was observed in all the treated leaves. 32 references, 9 figures.

  16. Identification of QTL for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese wheat landrace Pingyuan 50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azeem Asad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major wheat diseases worldwide. The Chinese wheat landrace Pingyuan 50 has shown adult-plant resistance (APR to powdery mildew in the field for over 60 years. To dissect the genetic basis of APR to powdery mildew in this cultivar, a mapping population of 137 double haploid (DH lines derived from Pingyuan 50/Mingxian 169 was evaluated in replicated field trials for two years in Beijing (2009–2010 and 2010–2011 and one year in Anyang (2009–2010. A total of 540 polymorphic SSR markers were genotyped on the entire population for construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Three QTL were mapped on chromosomes 2BS (QPm.caas-2BS.2, 3BS (QPm.caas-3BS, and 5AL (QPm.caas-5AL with the resistance alleles contributed by Pingyuan 50 explaining 5.3%, 10.2%, and 9.1% of the phenotypic variances, respectively, and one QTL on chromosome 3BL (QPm.caas-3BL derived from Mingxian 169 accounting for 18.1% of the phenotypic variance. QPm.caas-3BS, QPm.caas-3BL, and QPm.caas-5AL appear to be new powdery mildew APR loci. QPm.caas-2BS.2 and QPm.caas-5AL are possibly pleiotropic or closely linked resistance loci to stripe rust resistance QTL. Pingyuan 50 could be a potential genetic resource to facilitate breeding for improved APR to both powdery mildew and stripe rust.

  17. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.. The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23 were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C → G at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  18. Inheritance of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Development of an AFLP Marker for Resistance Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cucumber powdery mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of cucumber throughout the world. In the present study, inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in three crosses, and linkage of resistance with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are studied to formulate efficient strategies for breeding cultivars resistant to powdery mildew. The joint analysis of multiple generations and AFLP technique has been applied in this study. The best model is the one with two major genes, additive, dominant, and epistatic effects, plus polygenes with additive, dominant, and epistatic effects (E-1-0 model). The heritabilities of the major genes varied from 64.26% to 97.82%, and susceptibility was incompletely dominant for the two major genes in the three crosses studied. The additive effects of the two major genes and the dominant effect of the second major gene were high, and the epistatic effect of the additive-dominant between the two major genes was the highest in cross Ⅰ. In cross Ⅱ, the absolute value of the additive effect, dominant effect, and potential ratio of the first major gene were far higher than those of the second major gene, and the epistatic effect of the additive-additive was the highest. The genetic parameters of the two major genes in cross Ⅲ were similar to those in cross Ⅱ. Correlation and regression analyses showed that marker E25/M63-103 was linked to a susceptible gene controlling powdery mildew resistance. The marker could account for 19.98% of the phenotypic variation. When the marker was tested on a diverse set of 29 cucumber lines, the correlation between phenotype and genotype was not significant, which suggested cultivar specialty of gene expression or different methods of resistance to powdery mildew. The target DNA fragment was 103 bp in length, and only a small part was found to be homologous to DNA in the other species evaluated,which indicated that it was unique to the cucumber genome.

  19. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suli Sun; Yuhua He; Cheng Dai; Canxing Duan; Zhendong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.). The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23) were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C→G) at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155-and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  20. Identification of QTL for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese wheat landrace Pingyuan 50

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad; Azeem; Asad; Bin; Bai; Caixia; Lan; Jun; Yan; Xianchun; Xia; Yong; Zhang; Zhonghu; He

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major wheat diseases worldwide. The Chinese wheat landrace Pingyuan 50 has shown adult-plant resistance(APR)to powdery mildew in the field for over 60 years. To dissect the genetic basis of APR to powdery mildew in this cultivar, a mapping population of 137 double haploid(DH) lines derived from Pingyuan 50/Mingxian 169 was evaluated in replicated field trials for two years in Beijing(2009–2010 and 2010–2011) and one year in Anyang(2009–2010). A total of 540 polymorphic SSR markers were genotyped on the entire population for construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Three QTL were mapped on chromosomes 2BS(QPm.caas-2BS.2), 3BS(QPm.caas-3BS),and 5AL(QPm.caas-5AL) with the resistance alleles contributed by Pingyuan 50 explaining 5.3%,10.2%, and 9.1% of the phenotypic variances, respectively, and one QTL on chromosome 3BL(QPm.caas-3BL) derived from Mingxian 169 accounting for 18.1% of the phenotypic variance.QPm.caas-3BS, QPm.caas-3BL, and QPm.caas-5AL appear to be new powdery mildew APR loci.QPm.caas-2BS.2 and QPm.caas-5AL are possibly pleiotropic or closely linked resistance loci to stripe rust resistance QTL. Pingyuan 50 could be a potential genetic resource to facilitate breeding for improved APR to both powdery mildew and stripe rust.

  1. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  2. Reprint of "Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-02

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field.

  3. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  4. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  5. Uncinula necator (Schow Burr., the Causal Agent of Grape Powdery Mildew: Economic Impact, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miladinović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an overview of what we know at present about the patogen Uncinula necator and the disease powdery mildew of grapevine, i.e. its economic status, inoculum source, microclimate conditions, vine susceptibility and principles of its protection.Powdery mildew is a major grapevine disease in terms of losses. It infects the plant’s green parts, reducing its fertility, spoiling the quality of grapes and wine and ruining plant vitality. The process additionally affects subsequent vegetation seasons. The disease occursevery year and its intensity depends on a number of factors.It had long been assumed that overwintering mycelium was the primary source of inoculum. More recent research, however, has revealed a crucial role of cleistothecia in many vineyards. They were found in our vine-growing regions long ago but their true role in the epidemiology of disease has been explained only recently.Microclimate conditions considerably affect the abundance and vitality of cleistothecia and the pathogen’s infection potential. Outbreaks and intensity of disease both depend on them, while vine susceptibility plays another important role, depending on cultivarand plant ontogenesis. Grapevine is most sensitive during flowering and bunch formation when conditions are generally good for the disease to appear and spread.Temperature, precipitation and relative air humidity may limit the occurrence of powdery mildew, but extreme values in that respect are a rarity. Their normal scope is more or less favourable for the disease, especially in Podgorica vineyards.Knowing the pathogen, especially its infection potential, environmental conditions, dynamics of host development and timely and good quality protection of vines, both preventive and chemical, is crucial for grapevine protection.Prevention is important but treatments with fungicides are crucial for U. necator control, and they can either focus on destroying the inoculum and delaying mildew outbreaks

  6. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  7. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  8. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Granfeldt, Y E; Björck, I M

    1996-02-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products made from common barley, oats or a barley genotype containing elevated levels of beta-glucans were evaluated in nine healthy subjects. Porridges were made from commercial Swedish whole-meal barley or oat flours, and a mixed whole-meal porridge using the high fiber barley genotype and commercial Swedish common barley (50:50). Also studied were two types of flour-based bread products composed of high fiber barley and common barley in ratios of 50:50 or 80:20, respectively. The common oat and barley porridges produced postprandial glucose and insulin responses similar to the white wheat bread reference, suggesting that the naturally occurring dietary fiber in these whole-meal flours has no impact on the glucose tolerance. In contrast, all high fiber barley products induced significantly lower responses than did the reference product, with the glycemic and insulin indices ranging from 57 to 72 or 42 to 72%, respectively. It is concluded that "lente" products of high sensory quality can be prepared from a barley genotype with an elevated content of soluble dietary fiber. The glycemic index of these products compares favorably with that of products made from common cereals, suggesting their use as a potential component of diets for patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and for individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  9. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  10. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  11. Characterization of resistance mechanisms to powdery mildew (Erysiphe betae) in beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Prats, Elena; Emeran, Amero A; Rubiales, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Beet powdery mildew incited by Erysiphe betae is a serious foliar fungal disease of worldwide distribution causing losses of up to 30%. In the present work, we searched for resistance in a germplasm collection of 184 genotypes of Beta vulgaris including fodder (51 genotypes), garden (60 genotypes), leaf (51 genotypes), and sugar (22 genotypes) beet types. Resistant genotypes were identified in the four beet types under study. In addition, mechanisms underlying resistance were dissected through histological studies. These revealed different resistance mechanisms acting at different fungal developmental stages, i.e., penetration resistance, early and late cell death, or posthaustorial resistance. Most genotypes were able to hamper fungal development at several stages. The later are interesting for breeding aiming to resistance durability. Furthermore, characterization of defense mechanisms will be useful for further cellular and molecular studies to unravel the bases of resistance in this species.

  12. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Didier; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Capdevielle, Xavier; Dugravot, Aline; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001–2005). Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area) at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70–90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60%) than in less heavily infected trees (85%). Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production. PMID:27177029

  13. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bert

    Full Text Available Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001-2005. Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70-90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60% than in less heavily infected trees (85%. Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production.

  14. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  15. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Marin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, was introduced into Europe more than 160 years ago and is now distributed everywhere that grapes are grown. To understand the invasion history of this pathogen we investigated the evolutionary relationships between introduced populations of Europe, Australia and the western United States (US and populations in the eastern US, where E. necator is thought to be native. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that populations of E. necator in the eastern US are structured based on geography and Vitis host species. Results We sequenced three nuclear gene regions covering 1803 nucleotides from 146 isolates of E. necator collected from the eastern US, Europe, Australia, and the western US. Phylogeographic analyses show that the two genetic groups in Europe represent two separate introductions and that the genetic groups may be derived from eastern US ancestors. Populations from the western US and Europe share haplotypes, suggesting that the western US population was introduced from Europe. Populations in Australia are derived from European populations. Haplotype richness and nucleotide diversity were significantly greater in the eastern US populations than in the introduced populations. Populations within the eastern US are geographically differentiated; however, no structure was detected with respect to host habitat (i.e., wild or cultivated. Populations from muscadine grapes, V. rotundifolia, are genetically distinct from populations from other Vitis host species, yet no differentiation was detected among populations from other Vitis species. Conclusions Multilocus sequencing analysis of the grape powdery mildew fungus is consistent with the hypothesis that populations in Europe, Australia and the western US are derived from two separate introductions and their ancestors were likely from native populations in the eastern US. The invasion history of E. necator follows a pattern

  16. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  17. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni;

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...... crosses with different microspore embryogenesis capacities were selected for n-butanol application in anther and isolated microspore cultures. Application of 0.1 % n-butanol after a mannitol stress treatment in anther culture significantly increased the number of embryos (up to almost twice) and green...... plants (from 1.7 to 3 times) in three low-responding cultivars: Albacete, Astoria and Majestic. No significant differences on microspore embryogenesis efficiency were observed in medium and high responding cultivars. The application of n-butanol treatment to isolated microspores from cold treated spikes...

  18. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... insight into the substrate binding by describing residues defining 9 subsites, namely -7 through +2. These structures support that the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose is hydrolyzed by the active enzymes. Moreover, sugar binding was observed to the starch granule-binding site previously determined...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  19. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  20. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  1. Gene Targeting Without DSB Induction Is Inefficient in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice. We implemented these approaches in barley and analysed gene targeting with the ALS gene in wild type and RAD51 and RAD54 transgenic lines. In addition, P-N selection was tested. In contrast to the high gene targeting efficiencies obtained in the absence of DSB induction in A. thaliana or rice, not one single gene targeting event was obtained in barley. These data suggest that gene targeting efficiencies are very low in barley and can substantially differ between different plants, even at the same target locus. They also suggest that the amount of labour and time would become unreasonably high to use these methods as a tool in routine applications. This is particularly true since DSB induction offers efficient alternatives. Barley, unlike rice and A. thaliana has a large, complex genome, suggesting that genome size or complexity could be the reason for the low efficiencies. We discuss to what extent transformation methods, genome size or genome complexity could contribute to the striking differences in the gene targeting efficiencies between barley, rice and A. thaliana.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  3. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  5. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  6. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  7. 平榛白粉病药剂防治试验%Corylus heterophylla Powdery Mildew Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尧; 孙冬伟

    2012-01-01

      Powdery mildew is an important disease with hazelnut ,rapid onset ,spread fast ,serious harm characteristics of .The hazelnut powdery mildew testing found ,Corylus heterophylla pow-dery mildew in Fushun city starting period for June to early July ,flourishing period in the middle of July to late September ,stage of 10 month to month l1 .Effect of chemical control of powdery mildew of Corylus heterophylla effective best is 12 .5% myclobutanil 1000 times liquid ,use 7 days later to investigate its control effect reached 57 .6% ,45% and 15% 200 times solution LSSS three Triadimefon 400 times fluid control effect were 51 .2% ,51 .7% .%  白粉病是榛子的重要病害,具有发病快、传播快、危害严重的特点.通过对平榛白粉病药剂防治试验发现,平榛白粉病在抚顺市始发期为6月上旬至7月上旬,盛发期为7月中旬至9月下旬,末期为10月上旬至11月.平榛白粉病有效药剂防治效果最好的是12.5%腈菌唑1000倍液,施用7天后调查其防治效果达到57.6%,45%石硫合剂200倍液和15%三唑酮400倍液防治效果分别为51.2%、51.7%.

  8. Studies in plant pathogenic fungi—II. On some powdery mildews (Erysiphales) recently recorded from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Noordeloos, M.E.; Loerakker, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Full descriptions and notes on their pathogenous properties are given of the anamorphs of four powdery mildews recently recorded as new from the Netherlands. Two are described as new species, viz. Oidium longipes on Solarium melongena and O. limnanthis on Limnanthes alba. Oidium lycopersicum Cooke & Massee is redescribed on account of the study of the holotype and recently collected material, and an Oidium sp. occurring on Chrysanthemum morifolium is critically compared with the existing desc...

  9. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eNesler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB, against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  10. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L. and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs. Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  11. Genetic dissection of powdery mildew resistance in interspecific half-sib grapevine families using SNP-based maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Soon Li; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Clark, Matthew D; Gadoury, David M; Sun, Qi; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Luby, James J

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in perennial fruit crops is impeded largely by their lengthy generation time, resulting in costly and labor-intensive maintenance of breeding programs. In a grapevine (genus Vitis) breeding program, although experimental families are typically unreplicated, the genetic backgrounds may contain similar progenitors previously selected due to their contribution of favorable alleles. In this study, we investigated the utility of joint QTL identification provided by analyzing half-sib families. The genetic control of powdery mildew was studied using two half-sib F1 families, namely GE0711/1009 (MN1264 × MN1214; N = 147) and GE1025 (MN1264 × MN1246; N = 125) with multiple species in their ancestry. Maternal genetic maps consisting of 1077 and 1641 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, respectively, were constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy. Ratings of field resistance to powdery mildew were obtained based on whole-plant evaluation of disease severity. This 2-year analysis uncovered two QTLs that were validated on a consensus map in these half-sib families with improved precision relative to the parental maps. Examination of haplotype combinations based on the two QTL regions identified strong association of haplotypes inherited from 'Seyval blanc', through MN1264, with powdery mildew resistance. This investigation also encompassed the use of microsatellite markers to establish a correlation between 206-bp (UDV-015b) and 357-bp (VViv67) fragment sizes with resistance-carrying haplotypes. Our work is one of the first reports in grapevine demonstrating the use of SNP-based maps and haplotypes for QTL identification and tagging of powdery mildew resistance in half-sib families.

  12. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Veerappan, Karpagam; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L.) and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs). Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  13. The Podosphaera fusca TUB2 gene, a molecular "Swiss Army knife" with multiple applications in powdery mildew research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Corcía, David; Bellón-Gómez, Davinia; López-Ruiz, Francisco; Torés, Juan Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2014-02-01

    The powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca (synonym Podosphaera xanthii) is the main causal agent of cucurbit powdery mildew and one of the most important limiting factors for cucurbit production worldwide. Despite the fungus' economic importance, very little is known about the physiological and molecular processes involved in P. fusca biology and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterised the β-tubulin-encoding gene of P. fusca (PfTUB2) to develop molecular tools with different applications in powdery mildew research. PfTUB2 is predicted to encode a protein of 447 amino acid residues. The coding region is interrupted by six introns that occur at approximately the same positions as the introns present in other fungal TUB2-like genes. Once cloned, the PfTUB2 sequence information was used in different applications. Our results showed that the TUB2 gene is a good marker for molecular phylogenetics in powdery mildew fungi but it is unsuitable for the analysis of intraspecific diversity in P. fusca. The expression of PfTUB2 was proven to be stable in different temperature conditions, supporting its use as a reference gene in quantitative gene expression studies. Furthermore, an allele-specific PCR assay for the detection of resistance to methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides in P. fusca was developed based on the correlation between the single amino acid change E198A in β-tubulin and the MBC resistance phenotype. Lastly, PfTUB2 was used as a target gene in the development of a high-throughput method to quantify fungal growth in plant tissues.

  14. Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Majka, M; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (S(l)S(l)) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid forms (2n = 6x = 42, UUSSRR) showed the presence of product that corresponded to Pm13 marker and the lower infection level compared to susceptible model, respectively. This study also describes the transfer of Ae. variabilis Eig. (2n = 4x = 28, U(v)U(v)S(v)S(v)) chromosomes, carrying powdery mildew resistance, into triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) using Ae. variabilis × S. cereale amphiploid forms. The individual chromosomes of Ae. variabilis, triticale 'Lamberto' and hybrids were characterized by genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH/FISH). The chromosome configurations of obtained hybrid forms were studied at first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) using GISH. The statistical analysis showed that the way of S-genome chromosome pairing and transmission to subsequent hybrid generations was diploid-like and had no influence on chromosome pairing of triticale chromosomes. The cytogenetic study of hybrid forms were supported by the marker-assisted selection using Pm13 marker and visual evaluation of natural infection by Blumeria graminis, that allowed to select the addition or substitution lines of hybrids carrying chromosome 3S(v) which were tolerant to the powdery mildew infection.

  15. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; Perazzolli, Michele; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Elad, Yigal; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB), against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  16. Mutation of the glucosinolate biosynthesis enzyme cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase increases camalexin accumulation and powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simu eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1, which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  17. Gene expression profiling related to powdery mildew resistance in wheat with the method of suppression subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    "Bainong 3217×Mardler" BC5F4 wheat line at the initial stage of inoculation with powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis DC) was used to construct a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. Totally 760 ESTs were obtained through sequencing. Similarity analysis of ESTs based on BLASTn and BLASTx with the sequences in GenBank, in combination with macroarray differential screening, revealed that 199 ESTs of 65 kinds were known to be functionally disease resistance related. Based on the gene expression profiling in the present study, it is postulated that salicylic acid (SA) and MAP-related signal transduction pathways were involved in powdery mildew resistance in wheat. System acquired resistance genes were predominant in terms of kinds and quantity. With the initiation of cell defense reaction, the genes conferring anti-oxida- tion substances were largely expressed and thus cell protection mechanism was activated. Much evidence revealed that phenylpropanes metabolic pathway was involved in phytoalexin synthesis in wheat powdery mildew resistance. Genes conferring some enzymes of structural modification of cell walls and proteinase inhibitors inhibiting pathogen growth were also detected. The genes controlling a few proteinases (mainly cysteine proteinase) had a considerable redundancy of expression.

  18. Mutation of the Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Enzyme Cytochrome P450 83A1 Monooxygenase Increases Camalexin Accumulation and Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simu; Bartnikas, Lisa M; Volko, Sigrid M; Ausubel, Frederick M; Tang, Dingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1), which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  19. Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat Cultivar Mv Hombár is Conferred by a New Gene, PmHo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komáromi, Judit; Jankovics, Tünde; Fábián, Attila; Puskás, Katalin; Zhang, Zengyan; Zhang, Miao; Li, Hongjie; Jäger, Katalin; Láng, László; Vida, Gyula

    2016-11-01

    A new powdery mildew resistance gene designated as PmHo was identified in 'Mv Hombár' winter wheat, bred in Martonvásár, Hungary. It has exhibited a high level of resistance over the last two decades. Genetic mapping of recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross 'Ukrainka'/Mv Hombár located this gene on chromosome 2AL. The segregation ratio and consistent effect in all environments indicated that PmHo is a major dominant powdery mildew resistance gene. The race-specific nature of resistance in Mv Hombár was shown by the emergence of a single virulent pathotype designated as 51-Ho. This pathotype was, to some extent, able to infect Mv Hombár, developing visible symptoms with sporulating colonies. Microscopic studies revealed that, in incompatible interactions, posthaustorial hypersensitivity reaction was the most prevalent but not exclusive plant defense response in Mv Hombár, and fungal growth was mostly arrested during haustorium formation or in the early stages of colony development. The delayed fungal development of the virulent pathotype 51-Ho may be explained by additional effects of other loci that were also involved in the powdery mildew resistance of Mv Hombár.

  20. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  1. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  2. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  3. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  4. Radiation hybrid map of barley chromosome 3H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assembly of the barley genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps; however, do not provide accurate information on the physical po...

  5. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  6. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly...

  7. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  8. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  9. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  10. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  11. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  12. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  13. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  14. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  15. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  16. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  17. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  18. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  19. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  20. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  1. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  2. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  3. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  4. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  5. The novel gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata increases powdery mildew resistance in transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingmin eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. The PR-4 gene was overexpressed in regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and also repressed the growth of powdery mildew. The PR gene responds differently to different stresses in the PR-4 transformants. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  6. 亚麻种质对白粉病的抗性评价%Resistance Evaluation of Flax Varieties to Powdery Mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔红霞; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    The resistance evaluation of 53 flax varieties to powdery mildew in Qingyang region were conducted, the results showed that there were nearly no flax varieties with immune to powdery mildew, except for Xiji variety. There are very short of flax germplasm resources which are resistance to powdery mildew in Qingyang region.%对收集的53个亚麻种质进行了白粉病田间抗性评价,结果表明所调查的亚麻种质均无免疫(M)植株,仅西吉胡麻为抗(R)病品种,庆阳市抗白粉病亚麻资源材料较为匮乏.

  7. 芍药白粉病的空间分布型及抽样技术∗%Spatial Distribution Pattern and Sampling Method of Peony Powdery Mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉会; 马海霞; 瞿小杰; 李茜; 杨信东

    2014-01-01

    对芍药白粉病的空间分布型进行研究,结果表明:芍药白粉病的空间分布型为聚集分布。芍药白粉病的理论抽样数研究结果表明:若想获得精确的调查结果,在常见的发病条件下(每个植株的病级数为1~5),大约需要调查200~700个植株。如果想获得较为精确的调查结果,在常见的发病条件下(每个植株的病级数为1~5),大约需要调查50~170个植株。另外还制定了指导防治工作的序贯抽样检索表。%Peony samples with powdery mildew were collected in Changchun, Jilin province in this study. The spatial distribution of the peony powdery mildew was found to be in a pattern of aggrega⁃ted distribution. In addition, optimum sample number for analyzing peony powdery mildew was de⁃termined. The field survey results showed that, under normal disease condition, 200—700 plant samples ( 1—5 disease grade of peony powdery mildew per plant) were required to analyze data with high precision; while 50—170 plant samples ( 1—5 disease grade of peony powdery mildew per plant) were required to analyze data with moderate precision. A sequential sampling search table was established, which can be used for directing peony powdery mildew disease control.

  8. No indication of strict host associations in a widespread mycoparasite: grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) is attacked by phylogenetically distant Ampelomyces strains in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Alexandra; Bereczky, Zsolt; Kovács, Gábor M; Nagy, László G; Xu, Xiangming; Legler, Sara Elisabetta; Váczy, Zsuzsanna; Váczy, Kálmán Zoltán; Caffi, Tito; Rossi, Vittorio; Kiss, Levente

    2012-07-01

    Pycnidial fungi belonging to the genus Ampelomyces are common intracellular mycoparasites of powdery mildews worldwide. Some strains have already been developed as commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs) of Erysiphe necator and other powdery mildew species infecting important crops. One of the basic, and still debated, questions concerning the tritrophic relationships between host plants, powdery mildew fungi, and Ampelomyces mycoparasites is whether Ampelomyces strains isolated from certain species of the Erysiphales are narrowly specialized to their original mycohosts or are generalist mycoparasites of many powdery mildew fungi. This is also important for the use of Ampelomyces strains as BCAs. To understand this relationship, the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial actin gene (act1) sequences of 55 Ampelomyces strains from E. necator were analyzed together with those of 47 strains isolated from other powdery mildew species. These phylogenetic analyses distinguished five major clades and strains from E. necator that were present in all but one clade. This work was supplemented with the selection of nine inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers for strain-specific identification of Ampelomyces mycoparasites to monitor the environmental fate of strains applied as BCAs. The genetic distances among strains calculated based on ISSR patterns have also highlighted the genetic diversity of Ampelomyces mycoparasites naturally occurring in grapevine powdery mildew. Overall, this work showed that Ampelomyces strains isolated from E. necator are genetically diverse and there is no indication of strict mycohost associations in these strains. However, these results cannot rule out a certain degree of quantitative association between at least some of the Ampelomyces lineages identified in this work and their original mycohosts.

  9. Prediction Model for Predicting Powdery Mildew using ANN for Medicinal Plant— Picrorhiza kurrooa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivling, V. D.; Ghanshyam, C.; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Radhika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Atul; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Plant disease fore casting system is an important system as it can be used for prediction of disease, further it can be used as an alert system to warn the farmers in advance so as to protect their crop from being getting infected. Fore casting system will predict the risk of infection for crop by using the environmental factors that favor in germination of disease. In this study an artificial neural network based system for predicting the risk of powdery mildew in Picrorhiza kurrooa was developed. For development, Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm was used having a single hidden layer of ten nodes. Temperature and duration of wetness are the major environmental factors that favor infection. Experimental data was used as a training set and some percentage of data was used for testing and validation. The performance of the system was measured in the form of the coefficient of correlation (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error and root mean square error. For simulating the network an inter face was developed. Using this interface the network was simulated by putting temperature and wetness duration so as to predict the level of risk at that particular value of the input data.

  10. Prediction Model for Predicting Powdery Mildew using ANN for Medicinal Plant—Picrorhiza kurrooa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivling, V. D.; Ghanshyam, C.; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Radhika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Atul; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Plant disease fore casting system is an important system as it can be used for prediction of disease, further it can be used as an alert system to warn the farmers in advance so as to protect their crop from being getting infected. Fore casting system will predict the risk of infection for crop by using the environmental factors that favor in germination of disease. In this study an artificial neural network based system for predicting the risk of powdery mildew in Picrorhiza kurrooa was developed. For development, Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm was used having a single hidden layer of ten nodes. Temperature and duration of wetness are the major environmental factors that favor infection. Experimental data was used as a training set and some percentage of data was used for testing and validation. The performance of the system was measured in the form of the coefficient of correlation (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error and root mean square error. For simulating the network an inter face was developed. Using this interface the network was simulated by putting temperature and wetness duration so as to predict the level of risk at that particular value of the input data.

  11. A new putative alphapartitivirus recovered from the powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe palczewskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guihong; Qiu, Ping; Li, Cong; Chen, Zhuo; Islam, Saif Ul; Fang, Shouguo; Wu, Zujian; Zhang, Songbai; Du, Zhenguo

    2017-02-27

    Two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) likely representing the genome of a novel alphapartitivirus which we provisionally named Erysiphe palczewskii alphapartitivirus 1 (EpV1) were recovered from the powdery mildew fungus E. palczewskii infecting Sophora japonica in Jingzhou, Hubei province of China. The two dsRNAs, 1955 (dsRNA1) and 1917 (dsRNA2) bp in size, respectively, each contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 585- and 528-aa protein, respectively. The 585-aa protein contains a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and shows significant homology to RdRps of approved or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Alphapartitivirus. However, it shares an aa sequence identity lower than 80% with its closest relative, the RdRp of the putative alphapartitivirus Grapevine partitivirus, and lower than 60% with the RdRps of other partitiviruses. In a phylogenetic tree constructed with RdRp aa sequences of selected partitiviruses, the putative virus EpV1 clustered with Grapevine partitivirus and formed a well-supported monophyletic clade with known or putative alphapartitiviruses.

  12. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  13. QTL molecular marker location of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The cucumber lines, S94 (Northern China open-field type, powdery mildew (PM) susceptible) and S06 (European greenhouse type, PM resistant), and their F6:7 populations were used to investigate PM re-sistance under seedling spray inoculation in 2005/Autumn and 2006/Spring. QTL analysis was under-taken based on a constructed molecular linkage map of the corresponding F6 population using com-posite interval mapping. A total of four QTLs (pm1.1, pm2.1, pm4.1 and pm6.1) for PM resistance were identified and located on LG 1, 2, 4 and 6, respectively, explaining 5.2%-21.0% of the phenotypic variation. Three consistent QTLs (pm1.1, pm2.1 and pm4.1) were detected under the two test conditions. The QTL pm6.1 was only identified in 2005/Autumn. The total phenotypic variation explained by the QTLs was 52.0% and 42.0% in 2005/Autumn and 2006/Spring, respectively. Anchor markers tightly linked to those loci (<5 cM) could lay a basis for both molecular marker-assisted breeding and map-based gene cloning of the PM-resistance gene in cucumber.

  14. Ozone and sulphur dioxide effects on the lilac powdery mildew fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibben, C.R.; Taylor, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Colonisation of lilac (Syringa vulgaris) by the powdery mildew fungus (Microsphaera alni) is often sparse in sites exposed to urban air pollutants. The influence of ozone(O/sub 3/) and sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on conidial germination and the establishment of infection by M. alni was studied. Although tolerant of O/sub 3/, mildew infection was reduced by acute and chronic doses of SO/sub 2/. Conidial germination and the appressorium phase were the stages most sensitive to SO/sub 2/. Infection was unimpeded on leaves previously fumigated, thus confirming that these reactions were due more to the fungicidal, rather than the phytotoxic, properties of the pollutant. There was no synergism between the two gases that lowered the threshold of toxicity to conidia. A member of the Fungi Imperfecti, Hyalodendron album, sporulated on mildew colonies on lilac leaves. It was antagonistic to the mildew by reducing both conidial germination and the formation of appressoria. Conidia of H. album were more sensitive to O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ than M. alni. These results suggest that the role of nonpathogenic microbial epiphytes should be considered when assessing the full impact of air pollutants on obligate parasites, and possibly on other foliar pathogens.

  15. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat– Thinopyrum ponticum translocation line resistant to powdery mildew

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FANG HE; YINGUANG BAO; XIAOLEI QI; YINGXUE MA; XINGFENG LI; HONGGANG WANG

    2017-03-01

    Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70) serves as a valuable gene pool for wheat improvement. Line SN0224, derived from crosses between Th. ponticum and the common wheat cultivar Yannong15, was identified in the present study. Cytogenetic observations showed that SN0224 contains 42 chromosomes in the root-tip cells and 21 bivalents in the pollen mother cells, therebydemonstrating its cytogenetic stability. Genomic in situ hybridization, probed with the total genomic DNA of Th. ponticum, produced hybridization signals in the distal region of two wheat chromosome arms. After inoculation with the Blumeriagraminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates, SN0224 exhibited immunity. Segregation in F1s and F2s from the cross SN0224/cv. Huixianhong indicated that SN0224 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew (Pm) resistance, which was temporarily designated PmSn0224. Three markers Barc212, Xwmc522 and Xbarc1138 were detected to be linked with PmSn0224. Based on the locations of the markers, PmSn0224 was located on the chromosome 2A. None of the three markers above is linked with the previously reported PM resistance genes on chromosome 2A, and none of the previously reported PM resistance genes on chromosome 2A is related to Th. ponticum. Therefore, PmSn0224 is likely a novel gene putatively from Th. ponticum.

  16. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  17. Gene Location and Molecular Markers of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat%小麦抗白粉病基因定位与分子标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英考; 辛志勇

    2000-01-01

    Genetic location and molecular markers of powdery mildew resistance genes in wheat were reviewed. The inheritance of powdery mildew resistance was also introduced. The research perspective was discussed in this paper%对小麦抗白粉病基因的遗传定位与分子标记进行了综述,介绍了小麦抗白粉病的遗传,并对今后的研究方向进行了讨论。

  18. New wheat-rye 5DS-4RS·4RL and 4RS-5DS·5DL translocation lines with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Ren, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaoming; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Fu, Tihua; Tang, Zongxiang

    2014-11-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2 n = 6 × = 42, genomes AABBDD). Rye (Secale cereale L., 2 n = 2 × = 14, genome RR) offers a rich reservoir of powdery mildew resistant genes for wheat breeding program. However, extensive use of these resistant genes may render them susceptible to new pathogen races because of co-evolution of host and pathogen. Therefore, the continuous exploration of new powdery mildew resistant genes is important to wheat breeding program. In the present study, we identified several wheat-rye addition lines from the progeny of T. aestivum L. Mianyang11 × S. cereale L. Kustro, i.e., monosomic addition lines of the rye chromosomes 4R and 6R; a disomic addition line of 6R; and monotelosomic or ditelosomic addition lines of the long arms of rye chromosomes 4R (4 RL) and 6R (6 RL). All these lines displayed immunity to powdery mildew. Thus, we concluded that both the 4 RL and 6 RL arms of Kustro contain powdery mildew resistant genes. It is the first time to discover that 4 RL arm carries powdery mildew resistant gene. Additionally, wheat lines containing new wheat-rye translocation chromosomes were also obtained: these lines retained a short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) on which rye chromosome 4R was fused through the short arm 4 RS (designated 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL; 4 RL stands for the long arm of rye chromosome 4R); or they had an extra short arm of rye chromosome 4R (4 RS) that was attached to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) (designated 4 RS-5 DS · 5 DL; 5 DL stands for the long arm of wheat chromosome 5D). These two translocation chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably, and the wheat lines containing 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL chromosome also displayed immunity to powdery mildew. The materials obtained in this study can be used for wheat powdery mildew resistant breeding program.

  19. Changes in net photosynthesis, transpiration and dark respiration in winter barley exposed to elevated levels of sulphur dioxide using an open-air fumigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrall, N.M. (National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthesis, transpiration and dark respiration were measured in winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' exposed to sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in an open-air fumigation experiment during three growing seasons from 1985 to 1987. Observations were made on the most recently fully expanded leaves in situ using portable photosynthesis equipment with an integral logging facility. No long-term inhibition of photosynthesis was detected in response to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} of up to means of 0.043, 0.048 and 0.038 microliter l{sup {minus}1} during three experiments, respectively, but elevated rates of dark respiration were recorded in plots exposed to means of 0.032 and 0.043 microliter l{sup {minus}1} in 1985. Significantly enhanced rates of net photosynthesis were seen on the flag leaves in plots exposed to means of 0.021 and 0.043 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2} in 1985 and 0.014 and 0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2} in 1986 where infestation with powdery mildew Erysiphe graminis DC ex Merat F. sp. hordei (Em Marchal) was also significantly greater of a percentage leaf area basis. The possible enhancement of leaf photosynthetic rates by mildew infestation of the lower leaves is discussed. No long-term reduction in the rate of transpiration or in stomatal conductance was detected, but simultaneous changes were observed in these two parameters in the same direction, as short-term incrases or decreases in photosynthesis. 6 figs., 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  1. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  2. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  3. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  4. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  5. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  6. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  7. Collinearity Analysis and High-Density Genetic Mapping of the Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm40 in PI 672538

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Akash; Yang, Jiezhi; Chen, Wanquan; Liu, Taiguo; Hu, Yuting; Li, Qing; Guo, Jingwei; Zhang, Min; Lei, Li; Li, Xin; Tang, Shengwen; Luo, Peigao

    2016-01-01

    The wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm40, which is located on chromosomal arm 7BS, is effective against nearly all prevalent races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) in China and is carried by the common wheat germplasm PI 672538. A set of the F1, F2 and F2:3 populations from the cross of the resistant PI 672538 with the susceptible line L1034 were used to conduct genetic analysis of powdery mildew resistance and construct a high-density linkage map of the Pm40 gene. We constructed a high-density linkage genetic map with a total length of 6.18 cM and average spacing between markers of 0.48 cM.Pm40 is flanked by Xwmc335 and BF291338 at genetic distances of 0.58 cM and 0.26 cM, respectively, in deletion bin C-7BS-1-0.27. Comparative genomic analysis based on EST-STS markers established a high level of collinearity of the Pm40 genomic region with a 1.09-Mbp genomic region on Brachypodium chromosome 3, a 1.16-Mbp genomic region on rice chromosome 8, and a 1.62-Mbp genomic region on sorghum chromosome 7. We further anchored the Pm40 target intervals to the wheat genome sequence. A putative linear index of 85 wheat contigs containing 97 genes on 7BS was constructed. In total, 9 genes could be considered as candidates for the resistances to powdery mildew in the target genomic regions, which encoded proteins that were involved in the plant defense and response to pathogen attack. These results will facilitate the development of new markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection of Pm40 in wheat breeding programs. PMID:27755575

  8. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  9. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance.

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    Diaoguo An

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization, mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, mc-GISH (multicolor GISH and EST (expressed sequence tag-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering.

  10. Nuclear Function of Subclass I Actin-Depolymerizing Factor Contributes to Susceptibility in Arabidopsis to an Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Higaki, Takumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2016-03-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are conserved proteins that function in regulating the structure and dynamics of actin microfilaments in eukaryotes. In this study, we present evidence that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) subclass I ADFs, particularly ADF4, functions as a susceptibility factor for an adapted powdery mildew fungus. The null mutant of ADF4 significantly increased resistance against the adapted powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii. The degree of resistance was further enhanced in transgenic plants in which the expression of all subclass I ADFs (i.e. ADF1-ADF4) was suppressed. Microscopic observations revealed that the enhanced resistance of adf4 and ADF1-4 knockdown plants (ADF1-4Ri) was associated with the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and cell death specific to G. orontii-infected cells. The increased resistance and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in ADF1-4Ri were suppressed by the introduction of mutations in the salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways but not by a mutation in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Quantification by microscopic images detected an increase in the level of actin microfilament bundling in ADF1-4Ri but not in adf4 at early G. orontii infection time points. Interestingly, complementation analysis revealed that nuclear localization of ADF4 was crucial for susceptibility to G. orontii. Based on its G. orontii-infected-cell-specific phenotype, we suggest that subclass I ADFs are susceptibility factors that function in a direct interaction between the host plant and the powdery mildew fungus.

  11. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding.

  12. Identification and Mapping of Two New Genes Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew from Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Di Liu; Hai-Quan Zhang; Na-Xin Huo; Rong-Hua Zhou; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Two powdery mildew resistance genes were Identified from Aegilops tauschii accessions Y201 and Y212and mapped using two different F2 populations derived from the crosses between susceptible accession Y2272 and Y201, and susceptible accession Y2263 and Y212. Genetic analysis of resistance to powdery mildew indicated that the resistance of Y201 was controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas the resistance of Y212 was controlled by a single recessive gene. We have temporarily designated these genes as PmY201 and PmY212, respectively. By bulk segregation analysis, six microsatellite markers including Xgwm174, cfd26, cfd57, cfd102, Xgwm583 and Xgwm639 were found to be linked to PmY201 with genetic distances of 5.2, 7.7, 9.6, 12.5, 20.2 and 22.1 cM, respectively. Five SSR markers, including cfd57, Xgwm182,cfd7, cfd102, and cfd12, were found to be linked to PmY212 with distances of 5.6, 7.2, 11.5, 14.7, and 18.5 cM,respectively. According to the locations of the linked markers, the two resistance genes were located in the 5DL region. Based on the chromosomal locations and the resistance patterns of the two genes, we propose that PmY201 and PmY212 are two novel powdery mildew resistance genes, and are suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  13. Collinearity Analysis and High-Density Genetic Mapping of the Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm40 in PI 672538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengfu; Ma, Lixia; Fatima, Syeda Akash; Yang, Jiezhi; Chen, Wanquan; Liu, Taiguo; Hu, Yuting; Li, Qing; Guo, Jingwei; Zhang, Min; Lei, Li; Li, Xin; Tang, Shengwen; Luo, Peigao

    2016-01-01

    The wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm40, which is located on chromosomal arm 7BS, is effective against nearly all prevalent races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) in China and is carried by the common wheat germplasm PI 672538. A set of the F1, F2 and F2:3 populations from the cross of the resistant PI 672538 with the susceptible line L1034 were used to conduct genetic analysis of powdery mildew resistance and construct a high-density linkage map of the Pm40 gene. We constructed a high-density linkage genetic map with a total length of 6.18 cM and average spacing between markers of 0.48 cM.Pm40 is flanked by Xwmc335 and BF291338 at genetic distances of 0.58 cM and 0.26 cM, respectively, in deletion bin C-7BS-1-0.27. Comparative genomic analysis based on EST-STS markers established a high level of collinearity of the Pm40 genomic region with a 1.09-Mbp genomic region on Brachypodium chromosome 3, a 1.16-Mbp genomic region on rice chromosome 8, and a 1.62-Mbp genomic region on sorghum chromosome 7. We further anchored the Pm40 target intervals to the wheat genome sequence. A putative linear index of 85 wheat contigs containing 97 genes on 7BS was constructed. In total, 9 genes could be considered as candidates for the resistances to powdery mildew in the target genomic regions, which encoded proteins that were involved in the plant defense and response to pathogen attack. These results will facilitate the development of new markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection of Pm40 in wheat breeding programs.

  14. Characterization of a New Pm2 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in the Wheat Germplasm Line FG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengtao; Xu, Hongxng; Li, Lihui; Zhang, Hongxia; Han, Guohao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Xiaotian; An, Diaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew has a negative impact on wheat production. Novel host resistance increases the diversity of resistance genes and helps to control the disease. In this study, wheat line FG-1 imported from France showed a high level of powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. An F2 population and F2:3 families from the cross FG-1 × Mingxian 169 both fit Mendelian ratios for a single dominant resistance gene when tested against multiple avirulent Blumeria tritici f. sp. tritici (Bgt) races. This gene was temporarily designated PmFG. PmFG was mapped on the multi-allelic Pm2 locus of chromosome 5DS using seven SSR, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-derived and two SCAR markers with the flanking markers Xbwm21/Xcfd81/Xscar112 (distal) and Xbwm25 (proximal) at 0.3 and 0.5 cM being the closest. Marker SCAR203 co-segregated with PmFG. Allelism tests between PmFG and documented Pm2 alleles confirmed that PmFG was allelic with Pm2. Line FG-1 produced a significantly different reaction pattern compared to other lines with genes at or near Pm2 when tested against 49 Bgt isolates. The PmFG-linked marker alleles detected by the SNP-derived markers revealed significant variation between FG-1 and other lines with genes at or near Pm2. It was concluded that PmFG is a new allele at the Pm2 locus. Data from seven closely linked markers tested on 31 wheat cultivars indicated opportunities for marker-assisted pyramiding of this gene with other genes for powdery mildew resistance and additional traits.

  15. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  16. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    pretreatment conditions; hot water extraction and acid- or water impregnation followed by steam explosion showed there were slight differences between the effect of pretreatment conditions in relation to the overall yield from enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose concentration was found for barley straw...... subjected to acid impregnation followed by steam explosion; however when the glucose concentration was related to the glucose potential in the substrates, the highest yield was obtained with hot water extracted. Analysis of the supernatants from the pretreatments by mass spectrometry showed that the water...... feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...

  18. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome....... Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry...

  19. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  20. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  1. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  2. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  3. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D was developed....... (3) microarray analysis of transcriptional response in barley to inoculation with R. collo-cygni was carried out, and finally the (4) population genetic structure of R. collo-cygni was assessed by AFLP and gene sequencing. Based on these experiments interaction was compared to the interactions of C...

  4. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  5. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  6. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  7. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  8. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  9. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.

  10. Effects of ethylene on root elongation in barley and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, A.; Hall, M.A.; Crossett, R.N.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of rice and barley to growth inhibition by ethylene. The mechanism of growth inhibition was investigated at the cellular level and a detailed comparison was made between the responses of the two species. The following measurements were made on intact plants in short (up to 200 minutes), medium (up to 3 days) or long (up to 10 days) experiments: the rate of extension growth of main root axes; the final cell length and number of elongating cells produced; and the extensibility of the apical growing region. Results indicate that the effects of ethylene on the elongation of roots of rice and barley plants are different. In barley there is a rapid inhibition of root extension which persists with prolonged exposure to the gas but with little effect on the production of growing cells. However, rice roots exhibit no rapid growth inhibition response, but a reduction does occur after prolonged exposure. Low concentrations promote extension rice roots. The inhibition of root growth is reflected in a reduced extensibility of the apical growing region.

  11. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  12. The Metabolic Signature of Biomass Formation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad R; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Usadel, Björn; Junker, Björn; Schreiber, Falk; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-09-01

    The network analysis of genome-wide transcriptome responses, metabolic signatures and enzymes' relationship to biomass formation has been studied in a diverse panel of 12 barley accessions during vegetative and reproductive stages. The primary metabolites and enzymes involved in central metabolism that determine the accumulation of shoot biomass at the vegetative stage of barley development are primarily being linked to sucrose accumulation and sucrose synthase activity. Interestingly, the metabolic and enzyme links which are strongly associated with biomass accumulation during reproductive stages are related to starch accumulation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate, malate, trans-aconitate and isocitrate. Additional significant associations were also found for UDP glucose, ATP and the amino acids isoleucine, valine, glutamate and histidine during the reproductive stage. A network analysis resulted in a combined identification of metabolite and enzyme signatures indicative for grain weight accumulation that was correlated with the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a rate-limiting enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, and with that of alanine amino transferase involved in the synthesis of storage proteins. We propose that the mechanism related to vegetative and reproductive biomass formation vs. seed biomass formation is being linked to distinct fluxes regulating sucrose, starch, sugars and amino acids as central resources. These distinct biomarkers can be used to engineer biomass production and grain weight in barley.

  13. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  14. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  15. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  16. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  17. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light...... that normal barley starch is less influenced by the diurnal photosynthetic lighting regime than amylose-free barley starch suggesting a role of amylose to prevent structural disorder and increase starch granule robustness against environmental cues....

  18. BACILLUS SUBTILIS FOR THE CONTROL OF POWDERY MILDEW ON CUCUMBER AND ZUCCHINI SQUASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTIOL WAGNER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of concentrated metabolites of Bacillus subtilis - CMBS - (5,000 µg/mL one and 24 h before or after inoculation of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (3 x 104 conidia/mL reduced the number of lesions on cucumber leaves by 90-99%. The average number of lesions on control plants was 16.7 per leaf. A wettable powder product formulated with cells (10% and metabolites (10% of B. subtilis (WPBS, and CMBS sprayed on cucumber plants (1,000 µg/mL and 10,000 µg/mL twice a week totally controlled powdery mildew. In the control treatment, 18 days after the first spray, the percent leaf surface covered by lesions was 99.0 and 46.7%, on the cotyledonary and expanded leaves, respectively. In the control treatment, 30 days after the first spray, the percent leaf surface with lesions was 26.1%, while leaves sprayed with CMBS presented no lesions. The fresh weight per plant was 4.3 g in the control treatment; 12.2 g, and 10.2 g for plants sprayed with CMBS at the concentration of 1,000 and 10,000 µg/mL, respectively; and 9.7 g and 10.1 g for plants sprayed with WPBS 1,000 and 10,000 µg/mL, respectively. For zucchini squash, CMBS (5,000 µg/mL sprayed every 2, 4, and 6 days showed reductions in lesioned leaf surface of 100.0, 98.3, and 94.7%, respectively.

  19. Further isolation of AFLP and LMS markers for the mapping of the Ol-2 locus related to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici) resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardi, L.; Lotti, C.; Pavan, S.N.C.; Bai, Y.; Lindhout, P.; Giovanni, de C.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici) is a new plant disease that in recent years has frequently occurred in open field and protected environments to cause serious damage to tomato crops. Currently, the development of resistant cultivars appear to be the best eco-compatible solution to contr

  20. Mapping of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV and powdery mildew resistant gene in black gram [Vigna mungo(L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Anjum,K. Sanjeev Gupta and Subhojit Datta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Black gram, one of the important species of Asian Vigna group of grain legumes, is widely grown in South Asia and is animportant source of dietary protein. The two main biological constraints particularly Mungbean Yellow Mosaic IndiaVirus(MYMIV and powdery mildew pose a major threat to black gram production in India. Several reports on mappingmungbean yellow mosaic virus disease and powdery mildew resistant genes on black gram using parental lines suitable forcountries viz. Australia and Japan are available. However, to achieve precision in plant breeding, it is important that mappingof traits are done using parental lines which are best suited for the target area/country. Microsatellite markers facilitateeffective screening of mapping population and marker assisted selection for target traits such as disease resistance in manycrops. Linkage mapping for identification of genes conferring resistance to these target traits in the crop is underway. Theparents selected for MYMIV mapping population are DPU 88-31 as resistant source and AKU 9904 as susceptible one. Forestablishment of powdery mildew mapping population RBU 38 was used as resistant and DPU 88-31 as the susceptible one.Parental polymorphism was assessed using 363 SSR and 24 RGH markers. Efforts are being made to identify the markerstightly linked to the genes responsible for resistance which will be useful for marker assisted breeding for developingMYMIV and powdery mildew resistant cultivars in black gram.

  1. Control of powdery mildew on glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurms, K.V.; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very serious disease affecting glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands. Control is limited because of resistance to existing fungicides. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and soybean oil (SBO) emulsions were evaluated for control of PM in roses and tomatoes. Both AM

  2. Oidium neolycopersici: Intra-specific variability inferred from AFLP analysis and relationship with closely related powdery mildew fungi infecting various plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovics, T.; Bai, Y.; Kovacs, G.M.; Bardin, M.; Nicot, P.C.; Toyoda, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Niks, R.E.; Kiss, L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous works indicated a considerable variation in the pathogenicity, virulence, and host range of Oidium neolycopersici isolates causing tomato powdery mildew epidemics in many parts of the world. In this study, rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and amplified fragment length polym

  3. Dominant negative RPW8.2 fusion proteins reveal the importance of haustorium-oriented protein trafficking for resistance against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Berkey, Robert; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Wenming; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xianfeng; King, Harlan; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew fungi form feeding structures called haustoria inside epidermal cells of host plants to extract photosynthates for their epiphytic growth and reproduction. The haustorium is encased by an interfacial membrane termed the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). The atypical resistance protein RPW8.2 from Arabidopsis is specifically targeted to the EHM where RPW8.2 activates haustorium-targeted (thus broad-spectrum) resistance against powdery mildew fungi. EHM-specific localization of RPW8.2 suggests the existence of an EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway during EHM biogenesis. However, the importance of this specific trafficking pathway for host defense has not been evaluated via a genetic approach without affecting other trafficking pathways. Here, we report that expression of EHM-oriented, nonfunctional RPW8.2 chimeric proteins exerts dominant negative effect over functional RPW8.2 and potentially over other EHM-localized defense proteins, thereby compromising both RPW8.2-mediated and basal resistance to powdery mildew. Thus, our results highlight the importance of the EHM-oriented protein/membrane trafficking pathway for host resistance against haustorium-forming pathogens such as powdery mildew fungi.

  4. The wheat homolog of putative nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat resistance gene TaRGA contributes to resistance against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Defu; Wang, Xiaobing; Mei, Yu; Dong, Hansong

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, one of the most destructive wheat diseases worldwide, is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), a fungal species with a consistently high mutation rate that makes individual resistance (R) genes ineffective. Therefore, effective resistance-related gene cloning is vital for breeding and studying the resistance mechanisms of the disease. In this study, a putative nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) R gene (TaRGA) was cloned using a homology-based cloning strategy and analyzed for its effect on powdery mildew disease and wheat defense responses. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that a Bgt isolate 15 and salicylic acid stimulation significantly induced TaRGA in the resistant variety. Furthermore, the silencing of TaRGA in powdery mildew-resistant plants increased susceptibility to Bgt15 and prompted conidia propagation at the infection site. However, the expression of TaRGA in leaf segments after single-cell transient expression assay highly increased the defense responses to Bgt15 by enhancing callose deposition and phenolic autofluorogen accumulation at the pathogen invading sites. Meanwhile, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes decreased in the TaRGA-silenced plants and increased in the TaRGA-transient-overexpressing leaf segments. These results implied that the TaRGA gene positively regulates the defense response to powdery mildew disease in wheat.

  5. The Lr46 gene conditions partial adult-plant resistance to yellow rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew in Thatcher wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease resistance is a critical goal for many wheat improvement programs. Wheat cultivars are often attacked by multiple diseases, including the rusts and powdery mildew. F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Thatcher*3/CI13227 that had been previously characterized as having...

  6. Effects of Powdery Mildew on 1 000-Kernel Weight, Crude Protein Content and Yield of Winter Wheat in Three Consecutive Growing Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-ren; YAO Dong-ming; DUAN Xia-yu; LIU Wei; FAN Jie-ru; DING Ke-jian; ZHOU Yi-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impact posed by wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) on the yield and yield components in different epidemic seasons, ifeld trials were conducted in three growing seasons, 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, in Langfang City, Hebei Province, China. The relationships between 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield and disease index (DI), as well as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) were studied. The models of the percentage of loss of 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content and yield were constructed using DI at critical point (CP) of growth stages (GS) and AUDPC in the three growing seasons, respectively. The CPs for estimating 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield of wheat caused by powdery mildew were GS 11.1, GS 10.5.3 and GS 10.5.3, respectively. Models based on DI at CP to estimate the percentage of loss of 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield were better than models based on AUDPC. And models of the percentage of loss of 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content and yield for 2011-2012 season were signiifcant different from these for 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. These results indicated that besides powdery mildew, weather conditions also had inlfuence on 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield loss of wheat when powdery mildew occurred.

  7. Selection of New Wheat Germplam with Resistance to Powdery Mildew from Haynalddia villosa%簇毛麦抗白粉病新种质的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润堂

    2011-01-01

    Wheat powdery mildew is one of wheat main diseases. We used Haynaldia villosa as antigens, gene resistance to powdery mildew from Haynaldia villosa was introduced to wheat through crossing radiation and young embryo culture. By disease resistant identification, systematic selection and cell analysis, we have selected high yield varieties and new germplasm with good agronomic characters and resistance to powdery mildew. By DNA analysis, gene resistant to powdery mildew from Haynaldia villosa has been joined to wheat varieties.%小麦白粉病是小麦的主要病害之一.以簇毛麦为抗源,采用杂交与辐射、组织培养相结合的方法,将簇毛麦的抗白粉病基因导入小麦.经抗病鉴定、系统选育和细胞学分析,选育出农艺性状较好、抗白粉病的小麦新种质.经DNA分析,证明簇毛麦抗白粉病基因(或染色体片断)已被导入小麦品种.

  8. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Kanne, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed, beca

  9. Naturally occurring broad-spectrum powdery mildw resistance in a central American tomato accession is caused by loss of Mlo function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Pavan, S.N.C.; Zheng, Z.; Zappel, N.F.; Reinstadler, A.; Lotti, C.; Giovanni, de C.; Ricciardi, L.; Lindhout, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Theres, K.; Panstruga, R.

    2008-01-01

    The resistant cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) line LC-95, derived from an accession collected in Ecuador, harbors a natural allele (ol-2) that confers broad-spectrum and recessively inherited resistance to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici). As both the genetic and phytopat

  10. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  11. Using a limited mapping strategy to identify major QTLs for resistance to grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) and their use in marker-assisted breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S; Tenscher, A C; Ramming, D W; Walker, M A

    2011-04-01

    A limited genetic mapping strategy based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker data was used with five grape populations segregating for powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance in an effort to develop genetic markers from multiple sources and enable the pyramiding of resistance loci. Three populations derived their resistance from Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Magnolia'. The first population (06708) had 97 progeny and was screened with 137 SSR markers from seven chromosomes (4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, and 18) that have been reported to be associated with powdery or downy mildew resistance. A genetic map was constructed using the pseudo-testcross strategy and QTL analysis was carried out. Only markers from chromosome 13 and 18 were mapped in the second (04327) and third (06712) populations, which had 47 and 80 progeny, respectively. Significant QTLs for powdery mildew resistance with overlapping genomic regions were identified for different tissue types (leaf, stem, rachis, and berry) on chromosome 18, which distinguishes the resistance in 'Magnolia' from that present in other accessions of M. rotundifolia and controlled by the Run1 gene on chromosome 12. The 'Magnolia' resistance locus was termed as Run2.1. Powdery mildew resistance was also mapped in a fourth population (08391), which had 255 progeny and resistance from M. rotundifolia 'Trayshed'. A locus accounting for 50% of the phenotypic variation mapped to chromosome 18 and was named Run2.2. This locus overlapped the region found in the 'Magnolia'-based populations, but the allele sizes of the flanking markers were different. 'Trayshed' and 'Magnolia' shared at least one allele for 68% of the tested markers, but alleles of the other 32% of the markers were not shared indicating that the two M. rotundifolia selections were very different. The last population, 08306 with 42 progeny, derived its resistance from a selection Vitis romanetii C166-043. Genetic mapping discovered a major powdery mildew resistance locus

  12. Gel-combustion synthesis of CoSb2O6 and its reduction to powdery Sb2Co alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA JOVIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb2Co alloy in powdery form was synthesized via reduction with gaseous hydrogen of the oxide CoSb2O6, obtained by the citrate gel-combustion technique. The precursor was an aqueous solution of antimony nitrate, cobalt nitrate and citric acid. The precursor solution with mole ratio Co(II/Sb(V of 1:2 was gelatinized by evaporation of water. The gel was heated in air up to the temperature of self-ignition. The product of gel combustion was a mixture of oxides and it had to be additionally thermally treated in order to be converted to pure CoSb2O6. The reduction of CoSb2O6 by gaseous hydrogen yielded powdery Sb2Co as the sole phase. The process of oxide reduction to alloy was controlled by thermogravimetry, while X-ray diffractometry was used to control the phase compositions of both the oxides and alloys.

  13. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  14. Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L H; Osmeloski, J F; Wettlaufer, S H; Galston, A W

    1987-01-01

    In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

  15. Introgression of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Conferred by Chromosome 2R by Crossing Wheat Nullisomic 2D with Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using the nullisomic back-cross procedure, four wheat-rye chromosome substitution 2R (2D) lines with different agronomic performance, designated WR02-145-1, WR01-145-2, WR02-145-3, and WR02-145-4, were produced from a cross between 2D nullisomic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Xiaoyan 6") and rye (Secale cereale L. cv. "German White"). The chromosomal constitution of 2n=42=21 in WR02-145 lines was confirmed by cytological and molecular cytogenetic methods. Using genomic in situ hybridization on root tip chromosome preparations, a pair of intact rye chromosomes was detected in the WR02-145 lines. PCR using chromosome-specific primers confirmed the presence of 2R chromosomes of rye in these wheat-rye lines, indicating that WR02-145 lines are disomic chromosome substitution lines 2R (2D). The WR02-145 lines are resistant to the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici E. Marchal) isolates prevalent in northern China and may possess gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differ from the previously identified Pm7 gene located on chromosome 2RL. The newly developed "Xiaoyan 6"- "German White"2R (2D) chromosome substitution lines are genetically stable, show desirable agronomic traits, and are expected to be useful in wheat improvement.

  16. Rye Pm8 and wheat Pm3 are orthologous genes and show evolutionary conservation of resistance function against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Buchmann, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Jordan, Tina; Krukowski, Patricia; Wicker, Thomas; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Mago, Rohit; Keller, Beat

    2013-12-01

    The improvement of wheat through breeding has relied strongly on the use of genetic material from related wild and domesticated grass species. The 1RS chromosome arm from rye was introgressed into wheat and crossed into many wheat lines, as it improves yield and fungal disease resistance. Pm8 is a powdery mildew resistance gene on 1RS which, after widespread agricultural cultivation, is now widely overcome by adapted mildew races. Here we show by homology-based cloning and subsequent physical and genetic mapping that Pm8 is the rye orthologue of the Pm3 allelic series of mildew resistance genes in wheat. The cloned gene was functionally validated as Pm8 by transient, single-cell expression analysis and stable transformation. Sequence analysis revealed a complex mosaic of ancient haplotypes among Pm3- and Pm8-like genes from different members of the Triticeae. These results show that the two genes have evolved independently after the divergence of the species 7.5 million years ago and kept their function in mildew resistance. During this long time span the co-evolving pathogens have not overcome these genes, which is in strong contrast to the breakdown of Pm8 resistance since its introduction into commercial wheat 70 years ago. Sequence comparison revealed that evolutionary pressure acted on the same subdomains and sequence features of the two orthologous genes. This suggests that they recognize directly or indirectly the same pathogen effectors that have been conserved in the powdery mildews of wheat and rye.

  17. Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L. H.; Osmeloski, J. F.; Wettlaufer, S. H.; Galston, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

  18. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat-rye 1R addition line with multiple spikelets and resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wujuan; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xinlun; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-04-01

    Alien addition lines are important for transferring useful genes from alien species into common wheat. Rye is an important and valuable gene resource for improving wheat disease resistance, yield, and environment adaptation. A new wheat-rye addition line, N9436B, was developed from the progeny of the cross of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) cultivar Shaanmai 611 and rye (Secale cereal L., 2n = 2x = 14, RR) accession Austrian rye. We characterized this new line by cytology, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular markers, and disease resistance screening. N9436B was stable in morphology and cytology, with a chromosome composition of 2n = 42 + 2t = 22II. GISH investigations showed that this line contained two rye chromosomes. GISH, FISH, and molecular maker identification suggested that the introduced R chromosome and the missing wheat chromosome arms were 1R chromosome and 2DL chromosome arm, respectively. N9436B exhibited 30-37 spikelets per spike and a high level of resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) isolate E09 at the seedling stage. N9436B was cytologically stable, had the trait of multiple spikelets, and was resistant to powdery mildew; this line should thus be useful in wheat improvement.

  20. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  1. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  2. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  3. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  4. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  5. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  6. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  7. Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

  8. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  9. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  10. Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia, E.; Tondelli, A.; Rizza, F.; Badeck, F.W.; Li Destri Nicosia, O.; Akar, T.; Grando, S.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benkelkacim, A.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Romagosa, I.; Stanca, A.M.; Pechionni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eig

  11. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  12. A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ziaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran in relation to various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from main 11 cities in the studied region. Input data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interview. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ ha−1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ ha−1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94, respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability indexes of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in the studied region.

  13. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  14. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...

  15. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  16. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  17. Immunomodulatory properties of oat and barley β-glucan populations on bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosch, Christiane; Meijerink, Marjolein; Delahaije, Roy J.B.M.; Taverne, Nico; Gruppen, Harry; Wells, Jerry M.; Schols, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Specific structures of oat and barley β(1,3)(1,4)-glucans induced different in vitro immunomodulatory effects in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR2/4 knock out mice. All barley β-glucan fractions induced larger amounts of cytokines in BMDCs than their oat equivalents. The particula

  18. Identification and utilization of a new Erysiphe necator isolate NAFU1 to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance in wild Chinese grapevine species using detached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Rong; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Yuan; Ding, Qin; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe necator. To integrate effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines, numerous disease resistance screens of diverse Vitis germplasm, including wild species, have been conducted to identify powdery mildew resistance, but the results have been inconsistent. Here, a new powdery mildew isolate that is infectious on grapevines, designated Erysiphe necator NAFU1 (En. NAFU1), was identified and characterized by phylogeny inferred from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of pathogen ribosomal DNA sequences. Three classical methods were compared for the maintenance of En. NAFU1, and the most convenient method was maintenance on detached leaves and propagation by contact with infected leaves. Furthermore, controlled inoculations of En. NAFU1 were performed using detached leaves from 57 wild Chinese grapevine accessions to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance based on trypan blue staining of leaf sections. The results were compared with previous natural epidemics in the field. Among the screened accessions inoculated with En. NAFU1, 22.8% were resistant, 33.3% were moderately resistant, and 43.9% were susceptible. None of the accessions assessed herein were immune from infection. These results support previous findings documenting the presence of race-specific resistance to E. necator in wild Chinese grapevine. The resistance of wild Chinese grapevine to En. NAFU1 could be due to programmed cell death. The present results suggest that En. NAFU1 isolate could be used for future large-scale screens of resistance to powdery mildew in diverse Vitis germplasms and investigations of the interaction between grapevines and pathogens.

  19. Effects of processing technologies combined with cell wall degrading enzymes on in vitro degradability of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; Schols, H A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes on in vitro degradation of barley were tested in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement: 5 technologies (unprocessed, wet-milling, extrusion, autoclaving, and acid-autoclaving), with or without enzymes. Upper gastrointestinal tract digestion (Boisen incubation) and large intestinal fermentation (gas production technique) were simulated in duplicate. All technologies increased digestion of DM (13 to 43% units) and starch (22 to 51% units) during Boisen incubation, compared with the unprocessed control (P starch (≈ 20% units), and CP (≈ 10% units) in unprocessed and autoclaved barley (P starch present in the Boisen residues. In conclusion, wet-milling, extrusion, and acid-autoclaving improved in vitro starch and CP digestion in barley, which is related to the cell wall matrix disruption. Addition of xylanases and β-glucanases improved in vitro starch and CP digestion only in unprocessed barley or barley poorly affected by processing.

  20. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  1. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana;

    2016-01-01

    family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  3. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  4. Long-term reconstitution with water of dry barley before feeding increases phosphorus digestibility in pigs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    compared to dry stored barley on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in pigs. Dry barley (12% moisture; total P, 3.3 g/kg DM; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions...... numerically more soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and less phytate P (0.93 g/kg DM) than dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed an increase in P absorption (54%, P

  5. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  6. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  7. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially...... in degradative, metabolic and regulatory processes that could be used in future strategies aimed at modifying the senescence process. The breeding of crops for characters related to senescence processes, e.g. higher yields and better nutrient use efficiency, is complex. Such breeding has to cope with the dilemma...

  8. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    for describing the phytate degradation profiles of the soaked wheat and barley. The in vitro results showed that heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 and reduced the K although the plant phytase activity was reduced. This was possible due to induced structural changes of the grain that increased...... the contact between phytate and plant phytases. The lack of effect of additions of Phytase 1 or Phytase 2 on the phytate degradation in the cereals was possible due to a poor access of the microbial phytases to phytate. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about processing technologies that increase the access...... of plant and microbial phytases to phytate in the grains....

  9. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  10. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  11. Towards a more sustainable agriculture: wheat mycorrhization to protect against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Reignault, Ph; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj

    2013-01-01

    One of the means to reduce the use of pesticides, which are harmful for humans and the environment, is the development of alternative methods to control crop diseases. In this context, arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation possesses a great potential for crop production by a more sustainable agriculture. Our work aims to (i) determine the optimal conditions for wheat mycorrhization (ii) study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on a foliar disease of wheat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, Bgt), (iii) evaluate the stimulation of natural defences of wheat (Triticuma estivum). Therefore, this work consisted firstly of defining the parameters, affecting the establishment of wheat mycorrhization, such as: phosphorus concentration (62, 12.5, 6.2 mg/L), culture time (4, 5, 6, 7 weeks), arbuscular mycorrhizal species used as an inoculum (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Glomus masseae (Gm) and the mixture of (Ri+Gm)) and wheat cultivars (Orvantis and Lord, sensitive and moderately resistant to Bgt, respectively). Secondly, the protective effect of mycorrhizal inoculation against Bgt was estimated by comparing infection rates of wheat seedlings subjected and non-subjected to AMF. Finally, to better understand the biochemical mechanisms involved in the protection, two enzymatic activities described as defense markers [lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxidase (POX)] were also assessed. Extensive mycorrhization (about 31%) was obtained at P/5 concentration (12.5 mg/L) when wheat plants were 6 weeks old. The highest colonization rate was obtained when wheat was inoculated with Gm compared to SZE and Ri. The higher resistance level of Lord wheat cultivar against Bgt did not affect the mycorrhizal rate compared to the more susceptible cultivar Orvantis. Our work showed a significant protection level in mycorrhizal (M) wheat plants against Bgt, estimated to about 25 and 43% with Ri and SZE respectively compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) Orvantis plants. The

  12. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  13. Development and Identification of Wheat Haynaldia villosa 6DL/6VS Translocation Lines with Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Chen Xiao; Xin Zhiyong; Ma Youzhi; Xu Huijun

    2000-01-01

    Wheat-H. villosa 6DL/6VS translocation lines, Pm97033, Pm97034 and Pm97035 developed by(TH3/4 ×Wan7107)F1 young embryo and anther culture, were evaluated by powdery mildew resistance test, cytogenetic analysis, biochemical analysis, and in situ hybridization respectively. Pm97033 and its hybrids crossing with susceptible cultivar Wan7107, 6D/6V substitution line and double ditelocentric lines (DDT) of Chinese Spring(C S)6A, 6B and 6D were all immune to powdery mildew through the growing period. It was with the somatic chromosome number of 42 and twenty-one bivalents at M I in pollen mother cells (PMCs M I ). The configurations at pMCs M I in hybrids F1 of Pm97033 with either susceptible cultivar or 6D/6V substitution line were 21 biva lents. In hybrids F1 between Pm97033 and C S 6A, 6B DDT, twenty bivalents and one allo-trivalent (t I t)composing of one univalent and two telocentric chromosomes were observed at PMCs M I . The configuration between Pm97033 and C S 6D DDT was twenty bivalents, one allo-bivalent (I t)and one telocentric chromosome. The results of cytogenetic analysis showed that Pm97033 was a translocation line , and the translocation was related to chromosome 6D. The results of in situ hybridization between probe labeled with biotin of H. villosa total DNA and the chromosomes showed that the three lines were all Robertsonian translocation lines. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)isozyrme analyses showed that the translocation lines expressed the same pattern with C S,and without the specific band of 6VL of H. villas compared with substitution line and addition line. In α-zone of gliadin-2 pattern, all lines resistant to powdery mildew expressed an identical specific band encoded by the gene located on 6VS of H. villosa. All the cytogenetic and biochemical analysis confirmed that Pm97033, etc. were 6DL/6VS translocation lines with the substitution of 6VS for 6DS.

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  15. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  16. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled.

  17. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  18. InDel Markers for Identification of Cucumber Powdery Mildew Resistance%用于黄瓜白粉病抗性鉴定的InDel标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂京涛; 李晓丹; 姚永康; 潘俊松; 何欢乐; 刘士辉; 蔡润

    2015-01-01

    The co-dominant InDel markers were successfully explored based on the insertion-deletion (InDel)mutation in the major gene/QTL conferring powdery mildew resistance in cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.). The InDel marker InDel-MLO1 was co-segregated with the major gene for powdery mildew resistance through linkage analysis. Known of powdery mildew resistance phenotype,24 cucumber lines originated from various geographical regions of the world were tested by the InDel marker. The results showed that the genotypes of InDel-MLO1 were consistent with their resistance phenotypes in 21 cucumber lines,which indicated that this causal InDel mutation for powdery mildew resistance occurred frequently during the evolution and domestication of cucumber. Therefore,our finding confirmed that the InDel marker is very useful for identification of cucumber powdery mildew resistance and molecular marker-assisted breeding for most of the cucumber lines,and thus,the process of powdery mildew resistance breeding in cucumber will be accelerated.%根据黄瓜白粉病抗性主效基因/QTL的插入/缺失突变,将其设计成共显性的InDel分子标记。通过群体连锁分析,发现InDel-MLO1标记与黄瓜白粉病抗性主效基因共分离。应用该标记对24份来自世界各地且白粉病抗性已知的黄瓜材料进行抗性验证,21份材料的抗性表型与标记的带型一致,说明在黄瓜进化和驯化过程中,造成抗病表型的该插入/缺失突变发生普遍。因此,该InDel标记适合于大多数黄瓜材料的白粉病抗性鉴定和分子标记辅助育种,从而加快黄瓜白粉病抗病育种的进程。

  19. Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, B; Koning, G; Lok, K Him

    2003-07-01

    The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4-200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l(-1), and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response.

  20. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  1. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  2. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  3. Barley β-glucans extraction and partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

    2014-07-01

    Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of β-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley β-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted β-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted β-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial β-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting β-glucans.

  4. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2014-01-01

    8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi......-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed...... in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts...

  5. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  6. Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, D.T.H.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic acid. The accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity is sustained or quickly restored when cordycepin is added simultaneously or some time after abscisic acid, indicating that the response of aleurone layers to abscisic acid depends on the continuous synthesis of a short lived RNA. By analysis of the newly synthesized proteins by gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate, it was observed that the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase is decreased in the presence of abscisic acid while the synthesis of most of the other proteins remains unchanged. From the rate of resumption of ..cap alpha..-amylase production in the presence of cordycepin and abscisic acid, it appears that abscisic acid does not have a measurable effect on the stability of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA.

  7. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  8. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  9. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  10. Increased callose deposition in plants lacking DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B is dependent upon POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Michelle E; Rogers, Sean W; Heese, Antje

    2016-11-01

    Callose deposition within the cell wall is a well-documented plant immune response to pathogenic organisms as well as to pathogen-/microbe- associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate pathogen-induced callose deposition are less understood. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants lacking the vesicle trafficking component DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B (DRP2B) display increased callose deposition in response to the PAMP flg22. Here, we show that increased number of flg22-induced callose deposits in drp2b leaves is fully dependent on the callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4). We propose that in addition to functioning in flg22-induced endocytosis of the plant receptor, FLAGELLIN SENSING 2, DRP2B may regulate the trafficking of proteins involved in callose synthesis, such as PMR4, and/or callose degradation.

  11. Identification of Co-Segregating RAPD Marker Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm 18 in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-li; GU Feng; LI Tao; GAO Ju-rong; WANG Hong-gang

    2004-01-01

    The Pm18 gene of wheat confers resistance to the powdery mildew which is oneof the most serious diseases in many regions of the world. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to develop randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Pml8 gene. Three hundred and twenty decamer primers were screened and one of them was identified as RAPD marker (S411600) linked to Pml8. Using the F2 mapping population from the cross Pml8 × Chancellor, the marker S411600 was shown to co-segregate with the gene Pml8. This marker can be conveniently used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs for the identification or pyramiding of Pml8 with other resistance genes.

  12. Chromosome substitutions in progeny of hybrids Triticum aestivum x Triticum timopheevii resistant to brown rust and powdery mildew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaeva, E.D. [Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Badaev, N.S. [Bioengineering Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Enno, T.M.; Peusha, H.O. [Institute of Experimental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeller, F.J. [Institut fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    By the C-banding technique, chromosome analysis of introgressive wheat lines derived from the tetraploid species T. timopheevii and T. militinae, with complex immunity to pathogens, was performed. It is shown that all hybrid lines possess genetic material of T. timopheevii and are stable in chromosome number (2n = 6x = 42) and composition. In the lines studied, the number of substitutions per genome varied from one to three; variation in the spectrum of chromosome substitutions was observed. Karyotypes of lines 146-155-T, SMT 30, SMT 34, SMT 37, and SMT 45, resistant to brown rust and powdery mildew, had one common chromosome substitution 6B(6G). It is suggested that the resistance to pathogens of these lines is determined by chromosome 6G of T. timopheevii.

  13. Biotesting of radioactively contaminated forest soils using barley-based bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel’nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

  14. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...... to finish germination in saturated air. It is shown that exposure of germinating barley to PEF affects radicle emergence without significantly affecting the seeds’ gross metabolic activity, as quantified by isothermal calorimetry. An exploration of protein 2-DE profiles of both the embryo and the starchy...

  15. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  16. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  17. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  18. Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Ouyang

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90 via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172.

  19. Resistance to powdery mildew in the pea cultivar Xucai 1 is conferred by the gene er1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suli Sun; Zhongyi Wang; Haining Fu; Canxing Duan; Xiaoming Wang; Zhendong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is a major constraint to pea production worldwide. The pea cultivar Xucai 1 has shown high resistance to E. pisi under greenhouse and field conditions. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in Xucai 1. Three crosses, Qizhen 76 × Xucai 1,Bawan 6 × Xucai 1, and Xucai 1 × Bawan 6, were made to generate populations for genetic analysis. The resistance to E. pisi and segregation ratios in the F1, F2, and F2:3populations suggested a single recessive gene conferring the resistance of Xucai 1. Bulked segregant analysis was used to map the resistance gene using two F2 populations. The resistance gene was close to markers AD60 and c5 DNAmet on linkage group VI with genetic distances of9.9 c M and 15.4 c M in the Xucai 1 × Bawan 6 F2 population and 8.7 c M and 8.1 c M in the Qizhen 76 × Xucai 1 F2 population, respectively, suggesting that the resistance gene was an er1 allele. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparison of the c DNA sequences of the Ps MLO1 gene between the parents and the Ps MLO1 wild type. Three distinct types of transcripts in Xucai 1, characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions,were detected, consistent with the structure of the er1-2 allele. We concluded that resistance in Xucai 1 was conferred by er1-2 and that its linked markers will be useful in pea breeding programs.

  20. The occurrence and the chemical control of powdery mildew of Lagerstroemia indica Lina%紫薇白粉病的发生及药剂防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏秀梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper probed into the occurrence and the chemical control of powdery mildew of lagerstroemia indica as well as the effect of 7 caixin bactericides on powdery mildew through experiments.The results indicated that Xiansheng had the best effect when these bactericides were used alone and the mixture of Jiajituobujin and Siansheng worked the best when they were mixed.%7种杀菌剂单独喷施和混合喷施对紫薇白粉病的防治效果。结果表明:单独喷施一种杀菌剂时,仙生防效最好;混合喷施两种杀菌剂时,以甲基托布津+仙生防效最佳。

  1. Effect Study of Different Fungicides on Wheat Powdery Mildew%不同杀菌剂防治小麦白粉病药效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓慧; 章诚

    2013-01-01

    研究不同杀菌剂对小麦白粉病的防治效果,结果表明:25%丙环唑乳油、50%醚菌酯水分散粒剂对小麦白粉病的防治效果较好,平均防治效果分别达到84.72%、86.05%。%Effect of different fungicides on wheat powdery mildew was studied.The results showed that 25% propiconazole EC and 50%Kresoxim-methyl WG had better control effects on wheat powdery mildew ,the average control effect reached 84.72%,86.05%,respectively.

  2. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  3. Chromosomal location and comparative genomics analysis of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm51 in a putative wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Haixian; Li, Guangrong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Guo, Huijuan; Gong, Wenping; Jia, Juqing; Qiao, Linyi; Ren, Yongkang; Yang, Zujun; Chang, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs.

  4. Occurrence and Control Experiments on Powdery Mildew of Corylus heterophylla%平榛白粉病的发生与防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠; 左慧

    2015-01-01

    论述了平榛白粉病的发病规律,利用不同浓度的代森铵、多菌灵、甲基托布津、三唑酮和百菌清药剂对平榛白粉病进行防治试验,比较了不同种类和不同浓度的药剂对平榛白粉病的防治效果。结果表明:平榛白粉病初期发病为5月下旬至6月初,发病高峰期为6月下旬至7月下旬;代森铵、甲基托布津、多菌灵、百菌清、三唑酮等药剂对平榛白粉病的防治均有不同程度的效果,以25%三唑酮可湿性粉剂防治效果最好,可达到80%以上。%The pathogenesis regularity on powdery mildew of Corylus heterophylla was discussed.Different concen-trations of dyson ammonium,carbendazim,thiophanate-methyl,triadimefon and chlorothalonil pesticides were used to control of powdery mildew C.heterophylla.Control effects of different types and concentrations on powdery mil-dew of C.heterophylla were compared.Result shows that early stage of powdery mildew of C.heterophylla is from late May to early June,the peak incidence is in late June to late July;dyson ammonium,thiophanate-methyl, carbendazim,chlorothalonil and triadimefon have effects with varying degrees;25% triadimefon WP can obtain the optimal control effect,being above 80%.

  5. E3 ubiquitin ligase gene CMPG1-V from Haynaldia villosa L. contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Li, Yingbo; Fei, Fei; Wang, Zongkuan; Wang, Wei; Cao, Aizhong; Liu, Yuan; Han, Shuang; Xing, Liping; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Tang, Sanyuan; Huang, Xiahe; Shen, Qianhua; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2015-10-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating wheat fungal diseases. A diploid wheat relative, Haynaldia villosa L., is highly resistant to powdery mildew, and its genetic resource of resistances, such as the Pm21 locus, is now widely used in wheat breeding. Here we report the cloning of a resistance gene from H. villosa, designated CMPG1-V, that encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Expression of the CMPG1-V gene was induced in the leaf and stem of H. villosa upon inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) fungus, and the presence of Pm21 is essential for its rapid induction of expression. CMPG1-V has conserved key residues for E3 ligase, and possesses E3 ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. CMPG1-V is localized in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and partially in trans-Golgi network/early endosome vesicles. Transgenic wheat over-expressing CMPG1-V showed improved broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance at seedling and adult stages, associated with an increase in expression of salicylic acid-responsive genes, H2 O2 accumulation, and cell-wall protein cross-linking at the Bgt infection sites, and the expression of CMPG1-V in H. villosa was increased when treated with salicylic acid, abscisic acid and H2 O2 . These results indicate the involvement of E3 ligase in defense responses to Bgt fungus in wheat, particularly in broad-spectrum disease resistance, and suggest association of reactive oxidative species and the phytohormone pathway with CMPG1-V-mediated powdery mildew resistance.

  6. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  7. The effect of hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley on forced swimming test in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Ju-Young; Go, Hoyeon; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-11-01

    Spirulina is a true puree of a filamentous, spiral-shaped blue alga and exerts the useful properties as a source of many biochemicals. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley on the forced swimming test in mice. After the forced swimming test, we examined the levels of several blood biochemical parameters in mice. The effect of the hydrolyzed Spirulina by malted barley-treated group for 2 weeks on the immobility time was significantly reduced in comparison with the control group (p Spirulina by malted barley-treated group compared with the control group (p Spirulina by malted barley might be a candidate among antidepressant agents.

  8. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...... categories, except human and freshwater eco-toxicity, are higher when the barley is produced under climatic circumstances representative for 2050. Comparison of the 2010 and 2050 climatic scenarios indicates that a predicted decrease in barley yields under the 2050 climatic conditions is the main driver...

  9. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  10. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  11. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... was obtained.The absence of cluster sharing allows the recognition in the barley plant of 8 mutually exclusive mutant sectors which never had a mutant cluster in common. The anatomical analysis proves that the barley embryo contains at least 6 separate shoot meristems or prospective shoot meristems, which...... will constitute mutually exclusive mutant sectors in the plant. The combined genetical and anatomical analysis reveals that in large seeds there are always 9 meristems leading to 9 mutually exclusive mutant sectors. Up to 7 additional meristems leading to mutually exclusive mutant sectors can be present...

  12. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.;

    2009-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out into pea–barley intercropping in northern Europe. The two objectives were (a) to compare pea–barley intercropping to sole cropping in terms of grain and nitrogen yield amounts and stability, and (b) to explore options for managing pea–barley intercropping systems...... Kingdom and France), and using 10 years of weather records. A preliminary stage evaluated the STICS intercrop model's ability to predict grain and nitrogen yields of the two species, using a 2-year dataset from trials conducted at the three sites. The work was carried out in two phases, (a) the model......) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height...

  13. THE MALT EXTRACT, RELATIVE EXTRACT AND DIASTATIC POWER AS A VARIETAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MALTING BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Dráb

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality of barley depends on genetic and agro-ekological factors. Chemical composition of malting barley and its technological parameters are very important for malting and brewing, due to this fact the quality of barley must be strictly evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of variety, locality and year of production on the 5 technological parameters of malt: extract, relative extract at 45 °C, Kolbach index, diastatic power and friability. It was found out that the barley variety significantly influenced the following parameters: extract, relative extract and diastatic power. The growing locality weakly influenced qualitative parameters i.e. Kolbach index and relative extract at 45°C. The study confirmed the most significant impact of the year on the Kolbach index and friability.

  14. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    To determine chemical composition, physical characteristics and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids (AA) in eight current hulled barley genotypes, an experiment with growing pigs has been conducted. These genotypes included Yool, Campanile, Lomerit, Travira, Anisette...

  15. Biological control of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by means of the epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis and parasitism as a mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eGafni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.

  16. Cloning of a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene from a Triticum aestivum-Elytrigia elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Daoyi; WANG Honggang

    2005-01-01

    Shannong 551, a T. aestivum-E. elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew, was inoculated with pathogenic spores of powdery mildew. The leaf samples were prepared 48 h after inoculation for scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that germination of spores and growth of young mycelia on leaves of Shannong 551 were suppressed at the early stage of infection. At the same time, RNAs were prepared from the leaves for the cloning of WRP1 and RPW2 by cDNA RDA and RACE technology. BLAST analysis of the sequences indicated that both WRP1 and RPW2 were novel genes. WRP1 contains no complete ORF. RPW2 contains the conserved structure domain of aminotransferase, and its DNA sequence shares high homology with genes of phosphateserine aminotransferase in many organisms. Therefore, it is speculated as a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene. The results of Northern blot suggested that expression of RPW2 occurred at the early stage of infection by powdery mildew. Southern blot using the probe of RPW2, in which there was strong hybridizing signals in both genome of Shannong 551 and E. elongatum, but not in those of Jinan 13 and Lumai No.5, indicated that RPW2 derived from the genome of E. elongatum.

  17. 伞房决明白粉病的初次报道%First report of powdery mildew caused by Oidium cassiae-siameae on Cassia corymbosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂华; 李德伟; 席刚俊

    2010-01-01

    Cassia corymbosa is an introduced ornamental shrub in the Yangtze River Delta area.Severe powdery mildew occurred on C.corymbosa from late August to mid-November.It caused early defoliation and some infected plants failed to survive in the following year.The powdery mildew is caused by Oidium cassiae-siameae.The pathogen did not develop teleomorph under field observation in the last three years.This is the first report of C.corymbosa,as a new host of powdery mildew caused by Oidium cassiae-siameae.This fungus is a newly reported species in mainland China.%伞房决明是长江三角洲地区的园林绿化木本植物,在每年8月下旬至11月中旬会发生严重的白粉病,造成提前落叶,导致次年部分植株死亡.该病由 Oidium cassiae-siameae 引起.经过3年多的野外观察,未发现有性世代.初次报道伞房决明为 Oidium cassiae-siameae 白粉菌的新寄主.此真菌为中国大陆的初次记载.

  18. 秦岭主要林区白粉菌分类研究初报%Preliminary Study on Taxonomy of Powdery Mildews in Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白露超; 曹支敏; 代拴法; 姚三中

    2012-01-01

    依据国际新的白粉菌分类系统,采用传统形态学分类与无性型个体发育及其超微结构相结合的方法,对采自秦岭主要林区的白粉菌进行了分类鉴定.共鉴定出白粉菌5族、9属、61种,并列出了白粉菌名录,涉及森林植物36科、72属、112种,其中1种为白粉菌的寄主新纪录.%Based on the new classification system of Erysiphales, a total of 5 tribes, 9 genera, 61 species of powdery mildew from Qinling Mountains were identified) classified by traditional morphology, the ontogenesis and the ul-trastructures of conidia. A checklist was provided Thirty six families, 72 genera, 112 species, in which 1 species (Duchesnea indica) is new record of powdery mildew, of host plants and their geographical distributions were reported in the checklist pertain to 61 species of powdery mildew.

  19. Identification and characterization of wheat long non-protein coding RNAs responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress by using microarray analysis and SBS sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huiru

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as powdery mildew infection and high temperature, are important limiting factors for yield and grain quality in wheat production. Emerging evidences suggest that long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNAs are developmentally regulated and play roles in development and stress responses of plants. However, identification of long npcRNAs is limited to a few plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize, no systematic identification of long npcRNAs and their responses to abiotic and biotic stresses is reported in wheat. Results In this study, by using computational analysis and experimental approach we identified 125 putative wheat stress responsive long npcRNAs, which are not conserved among plant species. Among them, some were precursors of small RNAs such as microRNAs and siRNAs, two long npcRNAs were identified as signal recognition particle (SRP 7S RNA variants, and three were characterized as U3 snoRNAs. We found that wheat long npcRNAs showed tissue dependent expression patterns and were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress. Conclusion Our results indicated that diverse sets of wheat long npcRNAs were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress, and could function in wheat responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses, which provided a starting point to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in the future.

  20. Biological control of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by means of the epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis and parasitism as a mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Aviva; Calderon, Claudia E; Harris, Raviv; Buxdorf, Kobi; Dafa-Berger, Avis; Zeilinger-Reichert, Einat; Levy, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis as mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.

  1. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  2. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and other...... targets in the starchy endosperm. Here we have applied a thiol-specific labeling approach to identify specific disulfide targets of barley thioredoxin in proteins released from barley aleurone layers incubated in buffer containing gibberellic acid....

  3. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Background In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. Results In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong doubl...

  4. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  5. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  6. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition......The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... silencing cassette for HvAgl97, alpha-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the alpha-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing...

  7. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.;

    1996-01-01

    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas...... as substrate, Complexes of these proteinase with BSZx resisted boiling in SDS, and amino acid sequencing showed that cleavage in the reactive center loop only occurred after P-1 Arg. Activated protein C and leukocyte elastase were slowly inhibited by BSZx (k(ass) = 1-2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) whereas factor XIIa......, urokinase and tissue type plasminogen activator, plasmin and pancreas kallikrein and elastase were not or only weakly affected, The inhibition pattern with mammalian proteinases reveal a specificity of BSZx similar to that of antithrombin III. Trypsin from Fusarium was not inhibited while interaction...

  8. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  9. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...... and higher viscosity than malt wort. Furthermore, the use of 100 % unmalted grains resulted in a decrease in the levels of colour and brightness, as well as higher alcohols and esters in the final beers. Consequently, the study provides valuable information for exploring beer brewing with 100 % unmalted...

  10. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

    nutrient solution containing the markers for phloem (rubidium) and xylem (strontium) transport. Cd concentration in each part of detached spikes increased with external Cd levels, and Cd concentration in various organs over the three Cd levels of 0.5, 2, 8 μM Cd on 15-day Cd exposure was in the order: awn...... Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...... dramatic reduction in Cd transport to developing grains. The results indicated that awn, rachis and glume may involve in Cd transport into developing grains, and suggested that Cd redistribution in maturing cereals be considered as an important physiological process influencing the quality of harvested...

  11. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    In vitro cultures of zygotes and small embryos carry a lot of potential for studying plant embryogenesis and are also highly relevant for plant biotechnology. Several years ago we established an in vitro ovule culture technique for barley that allows the regeneration of plants from zygotes (Holm et...... al., 1995, Sex. Plant. Reprod. 8:49-59). This culture system proved to be highly effective and indications for genotype independency was obtained. To further sustain this we recently investigated the ovule culture response in the cultivar Golden Promise and three cultivars known for low tissue...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  12. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  13. Combinatorial pooling enables selective sequencing of the barley gene space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lonardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the vast majority of species - including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.

  14. Dynamics of Microbial Functional Groups in Rhizosphere of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant rhizosphere is the portion of soil which is in direct contact with the plant roots. From the microbiological point of view, this area is characterized by strong dynamic of functional groups with high specificity towards the substrate available. Spring barley is a crop with high requirements to the composition of the microflora in the rhizosphere, disturbances produced by agronomic inputs affecting the stability of rhizospheric contact interfaces and ultimately the plant growth. Analysis of changes within the microbial community was carried out with the purpose of defining the disruptive impact of mineral inputs and potential of zeolite to reduce these disruptions. Microbial functional groups were analyzed on the basis of the CO2 export under the specific conditions of soil inoculation on specific substrates over a time period of incubation. Microresp detection plates allow evaluation of a large number of samples under identical conditions of inoculation and the establishment of dynamics of the entire microbial community. The dynamics of the entire microbial communities (basal respiration is stimulated to increase in case of unilateral application of zeolite and zeolite as a buffer for urea fertilization. General growth trend of microbial communities follows proportional the associated application of zeolite with urea, the most powerful non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation processes being stimulated by this combination of fertilizers. Simultaneously, an increase in the dynamics of denitrifiers was observed, also the decomposition of lignin and cellulose and biological crust formation due to the proliferation of cyanobacteria. Rhizosphere of barley plants is characterized by the presence of actinomycetes as dominant in functional microbial community of all experimental variants analyzed with a high capacity for biological degradation and raised mineralization of organic matter.

  15. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  16. The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops.

  17. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  18. Transcriptomics analysis of hulless barley during grain development with a focus on starch biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Wang, Yulin; Bai, Lijun; Xu, Qijun; Wei, Zexiu; Yuan, Hongjun; Nyima, Tashi

    2017-01-01

    Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed. The results showed that 38 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the barley grain development. Of those, the proteins encoded by most of those DGEs were found, such as alpha-amylase-related proteins, lipid-transfer protein, homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip), NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y, subunit B (NF-YBs), as well as MYB transcription factors. More interestingly, two genes Hvulgare_GLEAN_10012370 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10021199 encoding SuSy, AGPase (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10033640 and Hvulgare_GLEAN_10056301), as well as SBE2b (Hvulgare_GLEAN_10018352) were found to significantly contribute to the regulatory mechanism during grain development in both genotypes. Moreover, six co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M6) were identified by consensus co-expression network. Significantly enriched pathways of those module genes showed difference in both genotypes. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of starch synthesis during barley grain development.

  19. Intake and digestion of whole-crop barley and wheat silages by dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.

  20. The effect of fungicidal treatment on selected quality parameters of barley and malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlová, Pavla; Lancová, Katerina; Vánová, Marie; Havel, Josef; Hajslová, Jana

    2006-02-22

    Protection of barley grain against contamination by fungi such as Fusarium spp., particularly by those producing mycotoxins, secondary metabolites with adverse health effects, is of principal importance. Fungicides applied immediately after full heading of spring barley is one method of direct protection. In this work, extensive two-year field experiments combined with a detailed chemical laboratory analysis (barley and malt) were performed with the aim to study the effect of previous crops, different fungicides, and other conditions on the selected barley and malt quality parameters (content of beta-glucans, pentosans, oxalic acid, deoxynivalenol, and gushing), while the main task was to follow the effect of the fungicide (used as a treatment to protect against pathogens, mostly Fusarium) on changes of the chemical composition in barley and malt, and gushing. It was found that the relationship between the studied factors and the parameters usually applied to the evaluation of barley and malt quality is quite complex and not straightforward. The responses show typical features of a multifactorial influence with both positive and negative correlations resulting in a decrease or increase in grain quality (concentrations of beta-glucans, pentosans, deoxynivalenol, and other studied parameters). The role of previous crops was also found to be important. The fungicides should be applied at the time of heading but not at the very beginning of this period.