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Sample records for barley powdery mildew1woa

  1. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  2. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    -o resistant barley was independent of the powdery mildew culture applied. This supports the hypothesis set forth as to why the ml-o mutants are resistant against all known cultures or races of barley powdery mildew, and why this resistance may be more durable than other powdery mildew resistances....... This is the 1st case where the effect of callose refers to the action of a specific gene. Six susceptible Japanese varieties formed large appositions but they were initiated as late as in other susceptible varieties, and their color was paler than in other barleys. Nine Hordeum spp. [H. capense, H. chilense, H...

  3. The effect of fungicide dose on the composition of laboratory populations of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Nielsen, B.J.; Østergård, Hanne

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the use of different doses of the fungicide fenpropimorph on populations of barley powdery mildew Blumeria (Erysiphe) graminis f. sp. hordei was investigated in a laboratory selection experiment. A sample from the Danish aerial population of powdery mildew was split into populations...... to explain why this resistance has evolved at a slower rate than resistance towards other fungicides....

  4. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  5. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  6. Spectrum of Resistance Conferred by ml-o Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1977-01-01

    /(4) in all tests. They were also resistant to field populations of the pathogen when scored in disease nurseries at more than 78 locations in 29 countries in Europe, the Near East, North and South America. New Zealand, and Japan. This indicates that the 11 genes confer the same, world-wide spectrum......Ten barley mutants and five Ethiopian barley lines representing 11 independently arisen powdery mildew resistance genes in the ml-o locus were tested at the seedling stage to cultures of the powdery mildew fungus from Europe, Israel, USA. Canada, and Japan. They were resistant with infection type 0...

  7. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...... penetration attempts. This number increased as the degree of resistance increased, i.e. the ESH frequency decreased. The penetration stage also invariably proved to be the limiting stage, where the largest proportion of fungal propagules was stopped....

  8. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren van; McGuffin, Liam J.;

    2012-01-01

    Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute...... requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease....

  9. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2012-01-01

    with PR17c was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses. Down-regulation and over-expression of PR17c in epidermal cells of barley confirmed that this protein is important for penetration resistance against the powdery mildew fungus. In line with this, PR17c was found...... to be apoplastic, localizing to the papillae formed in response to this fungus. The CSEP0055 transcript did not start to accumulate until 24 h after inoculation. This suggests that this gene is expressed too late to influence primary penetration events, but rather sustains the fungus at sites of secondary...

  10. PAMP-triggered immune responses in barley and susceptibility to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückelhoven, Ralph; Seidl, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) builds one of the first layers of plant disease resistance. In susceptible plants, PTI is overcome by adapted pathogens. This can be achieved by suppression of PTI with the help of pathogen virulence effectors. However, effectors may also contribute to modification of host metabolism or cell architecture to ensure successful pathogenesis. Barley responds to treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns flg22 or chitin with phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and an oxidative burst. RAC/ROP GTPases can act as positive or negative modulators of these plant immune responses. The RAC/ROP GTPase RACB is a powdery mildew susceptibility factor of barley. However, RACB apparently does not negatively control early PTI responses but functions in polar cell development during invasion of the pathogen into living host epidermal cells. Here, we further discuss the incomplete picture of PTI in Triticeae. PMID:27348336

  11. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    to the cytosol and the nucleus of barley epidermal cells. Furthermore, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 accumulated in the extrahaustorial matrix in Bgh-infected cells. This implies that their virulence targets may localize in the same cellular compartments. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, two barley small heat shock...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...... into the barley cell cytosol, nucleus and/or extrahaustorial matrix to interfere with the function of small heat shock protein machinery and other defence components to suppress plant immunity....

  12. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  13. Observed and predicted changes in virulence gene frequencies at 11 loci in a local barley powdery mildew population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, M.S.; Munk, L.; Østergård, H.

    1993-01-01

    a survey comprising 11 virulence loc. Predictions were based on a model where selection forces were estimated through detailed mapping in the local area of host cultivars and their resistance genes, and taking into account the changes in distribution of host cultivars during the year caused by growth......, the results imply that virulence survey data, which are based on random spore samples collected in regions with a uniform distribution of the different host cultivars, form the most favourable basis for predicting the changes in the genetic composition of aerial powdery mildew populations.......The aim of the present study was to investigate observed and predicted changes in virulence gene frequencies in a local aerial powdery mildew population subject to selection by different host cultivars in a local barley area. Observed changes were based on genotypic frequencies obtained through...

  14. Some Genetic, Biochemical and Morphological Analysis of Selected Powdery Mildew Strains at the Beginning of Sporulation on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA HLINKOVA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes some characteristics of four powdery mildew pathotypes, RU-3, Sk-5/11, Sk-12/1 and A-4/0, selected from the wild strains of BGH from Central European regions. Our results showed that the studied BGH strains differ in the virulence and avirulence genes in their genomes, in prolongation of their asexual phase of the growth and also in morphological and biochemical characteristics. Protein analysis confirmed the genetic differences between the studied powdery mildew pathotypes. Abundant acid glucanases in all studied BHG pathotypes were found between molecular weights Mr ? 25-35 kDa and 11-22kDa. Races RU-3 and A-4/0 also contained low molecular weight glucanases with Mr ? 9-14kDa. Immunological analyses showed higher specificity of pathogen chitinases to plant antibody compared to barley cultivars carrying different dominant/semidominant resistance genes. Rabbit antibody prepared against the plant interacellular acid chitinase Chi 14.4 (PR-4 gave the positive signal for two powdery mildew races, Sk-5/11 and A-4/0. These pathotypes were more aggressive compared to races Sk-12/1 and RU-3. Their genomes contained more virulence genes and asexual phase of the growth was shorter. Ultrastructural analyses of BGH body in the sensitive barley cultivar cells, showed presence of virus like particles, which probably play role by the synthesis of some PR-proteins with hydrolytic function. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that some powdery mildew pathotypes contain genes in their genome which are orthological to those in their hosts, which makes them suitable subjects for the future as a source of new resistance genes for plant breeding.

  15. Localization of the Laevigatum powdery mildew resistance gene to barley chromosome 2 by the use of RFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.; Holm-Jensen, A.G.; Jensen, H.P.;

    1993-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease resistance gene Ml(La) was found to belong to a locus on barely chromosome 2. We suggest that this locus be designated MlLa. Linkage analysis was carried out on 72 chromosome-doubled, spring-type progeny lines from a cross between the winter var 'Vogelsanger Gold' and t......' and the spring var 'Alf'. A map of chromosome 2 spanning 119 cM and flanked by two peroxidase gene loci was constructed. In addition to the Laevigatum resistance locus the map includes nine RFLP markers, the two peroxidase gene loci and the six-row locus in barley....

  16. A Transient Expression System for the Functional Assessment of Early Response Genes on the Powdery Mildew Infected Barley or Wheat Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-li

    2003-01-01

    The principle and the basic steps of the transient assay system for the functional assessment ofearly response genes on the powdery mildew infected barley or wheat leaves were summarized in brief. The development of this technology and its extensive application were reviewed. Future studies on this approach wererecommended in this paper.

  17. A high-throughput screening system for barley/powdery mildew interactions based on automated analysis of light micrographs

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    Schweizer Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To find candidate genes that potentially influence the susceptibility or resistance of crop plants to powdery mildew fungi, an assay system based on transient-induced gene silencing (TIGS as well as transient over-expression in single epidermal cells of barley has been developed. However, this system relies on quantitative microscopic analysis of the barley/powdery mildew interaction and will only become a high-throughput tool of phenomics upon automation of the most time-consuming steps. Results We have developed a high-throughput screening system based on a motorized microscope which evaluates the specimens fully automatically. A large-scale double-blind verification of the system showed an excellent agreement of manual and automated analysis and proved the system to work dependably. Furthermore, in a series of bombardment experiments an RNAi construct targeting the Mlo gene was included, which is expected to phenocopy resistance mediated by recessive loss-of-function alleles such as mlo5. In most cases, the automated analysis system recorded a shift towards resistance upon RNAi of Mlo, thus providing proof of concept for its usefulness in detecting gene-target effects. Conclusion Besides saving labor and enabling a screening of thousands of candidate genes, this system offers continuous operation of expensive laboratory equipment and provides a less subjective analysis as well as a complete and enduring documentation of the experimental raw data in terms of digital images. In general, it proves the concept of enabling available microscope hardware to handle challenging screening tasks fully automatically.

  18. Localization of powdery mildew resistance gene Ml-ra on barley chromosome 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the powdery mildew resistance gene called Ml-(41/145) represents a unique, unnamed locus, which we suggest to be designated Ml-ra with reference to variety 'Ragusa b' [Hordeum vulgare]. Ml-ra is located on the short arm of chormosome 5 near powdery mildew resistance locus...... Ml-a and the seed storage protein loci Hor1 and Hor2. The most likely order of the loci is Hor1, Ml-a, Ml-ra, and Hor2....

  19. Critical yield-point model to estimate damage caused by brown spot and powdery mildew in barley

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    Lenita Agostinetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgaris L. is the second most important winter crop in Southern Brazil. The excessive rainfall in this region during the crop-growing season increases the frequency and intensity of foliar fungal diseases. The research aimed to determine the damage function equations (DFE for the multiple pathosystem of barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on the relationship between grain yield and diseases intensity at different 'BRS Cauê' cultivar growth stages (GS during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons in Southern Brazil. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates. The disease gradients were generated by strobilurins and triazols fungicides rates and number of applications on barley cv. Cauê. The fungicide applications and disease incidence and severity assessments were performed at the 22, 31, 39, 45 and 56 plant GS. The DFE were obtained by variance analysis and linear regression between grain yield and diseases intensity. Significant and negative DFE were obtained and the damage coefficients (DC varied from 29.48 to 100.08 (2009 and from 36.08 to 113.57kg ha-1 (2010 for incidence, and from 219.5 to 6,276.6 (2009 and 102.3 to 5,292.5kg ha-1 (2010 for severity. The largest damage coefficients were obtained when diseases assessments were made on GS 22 and 31 on both growing seasons evaluated. DFE were used to calculate the economic damage threshold (EDT as a criterion to indicate the fungicide application moment to control the diseases in cultivars similar to 'BRS Cauê' in Southern Brazil.

  20. Evidence that the cAMP pathway controls emergence of both primary and appressorial germ tubes of barley powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, J; Dalvin, S; Bindslev, L; Hall, A; Gurr, S; Oliver, R

    2000-05-01

    Development of conidia of barley powdery mildew involves the formation of a primary germ tube (PGT), an appressorial germ tube (AGT), and an appressorium. Previously, it was found that cyclic AMP (cAMP) was involved in these developmental processes. Comparison of development on the host surface with two types of cellulose membrane revealed that frequency of PGT emergence was surface independent. On one type of cellulose, where the frequencies of both AGT and appressorial differentiation were similar to that on the host surface, cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activities had a biphasic pattern with peaks at 15 min and 4 h after inoculation (prior to PGT and AGT emergence, respectively). The effect of manipulating cAMP levels was tested on another type of cellulose membrane, which stimulated a lower degree of AGT and appressorial formation than the host surface. Cholera toxin and forskolin, activators of adenylyl cyclase, significantly increased PGT emergence, but cAMP did not. Cholera toxin, forskolin, and cAMP increased the frequency of AGT and appressorial formation, but in a time-dependent manner. PMID:10796015

  1. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    Barley is one of the major cereals grown worldwide. It is used not only as a food and fodder source, but also as a major ingredient in beer and whisky production. One of the most devastating diseases of barley - powdery mildew, can cause losses up to 40 %. Plants base their defence responses solely...

  2. Single-cell transcript profiling of barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, Torben; Hagedorn, Peter; Schweizer, Patrick;

    2007-01-01

    attacked at the same time may resist fungal penetration. To date, the mixed cellular responses seen even in susceptible host leaves have made it difficult to relate induced changes in gene expression to resistance or susceptibility in bulk leaf samples. By microextraction of cell-specific m......RNA and subsequent cDNA array analysis, we have successfully obtained separate gene expression profiles for specific mildew-resistant and -infected barley cells. Thus, for the first time, it is possible to identify genes that are specifically regulated in infected cells and, presumably, involved in fungal...... establishment. Further, although much is understood about the genetic basis of effective papilla resistance associated with mutant mlo barley, we provide here the first evidence for gene regulation associated with effective papilla-based nonspecific resistance expressed in nominally "susceptible" wild...

  3. Flor Revisited (Again):eQTL and Mutational Analysis of NB-LRR Mediated Immunity to Powdery Mildew in Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roger Wise; Priyanka Surana; Greg Fuerst; Ruo Xu; Divya Mistry; Julie Dickerson; Dan Nettleton

    2014-01-01

    Genes encoding early signaling events in pathogen defense often are identiifed only by their phenotype. Such genes involved in barley-powdery mildew interactions includeMla, specifying race-speciifc resistance;Rar1(Required for Mla12-speciifed resistance1), andRom1 (Restoration of Mla-speciifed resistance1). The HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 complex appears to function as chaperone in MLA-speciifed resistance, however, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise signaling underlying plant immunity. Genetic analyses of fast-neutron mutants derived from CI 16151 (Mla6) uncovered a novel locus, designated Rar3(Required for Mla6-specified resistance3).Rar3 segregates independent ofMla6 andRar1, andrar3 mutants are susceptible toBlumeria graminis f. sp.hordei (Bgh) isolate 5874 (AVRa6), whereas, wild-type progenitor plants are resistant. Comparative expression analyses of therar3 mutantvs. its wild-type progenitor were conductedvia Barley1 GeneChip and GAIIx paired-end RNA-Seq. Whereas Rar1affects transcription of relatively few genes; Rar3appearstoinlfuence thousands, notably in genes controlling ATP binding, catalytic activity, transcription, and phosphorylation; possibly membrane bound or in the nucleus. eQTL analysis of a segregating doubled haploid population identiifed over two-thousand genes as being regulated byMla(q value/FDR=0.00001), a subset of which are signiifcant inRar3 interactions. The intersection of datasets derived frommla-loss-of-function mutants,Mla-associated eQTL, andrar3-mediated transcriptome reprogramming are narrowing the focus on essential genes required forMla-speciifed immunity.

  4. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-AtPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finni, Christine; Andersen, Claus H; Borch, Jonas;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  5. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.;

    2002-01-01

    , or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  6. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.;

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring-a...

  7. Regulation of basal resistance by a powdery mildew-induced cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Jensen, Michael K; Maiser, Fabian;

    2012-01-01

    The receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) constitute a large and diverse group of proteins controlling numerous plant physiological processes, including development, hormone perception and stress responses. The cysteine-rich RLKs (CRKs) represent a prominent subfamily of transmembrane-anchored RLKs......, followed by a rather short 17-amino-acid transmembrane domain, which includes an AAA motif, two features characteristic of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted proteins and, finally, a characteristic putative protein kinase domain in the C-terminus. The HvCRK1 transcript was isolated from leaves inoculated....... We have identified a putative barley (Hordeum vulgare) CRK gene family member, designated HvCRK1. The mature putative protein comprises 645 amino acids, and includes a putative receptor domain containing two characteristic ‘domain 26 of unknown function’ (duf26) domains in the N-terminal region...

  8. 14CO2-assimilation, translocation of 14C, and 14C-carbonate uptake in different organs of spring barley plants in relation to adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cultivar Peruvian of spring barley, which is susceptible at all growth stages, and Asse, which exhibits adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew, were compared in 14CO2 assimilation, distribution of 14C, and 14C-carbonate uptake in different organs of healthy and infected plants. The reduction of 14CO2 assimilation in infected plants at the first and fourth leaf stages was greater in Peruvian than in Asse. In Peruvian, the 14C which was fixed by the infected third leaf of plants with mildew on the lower 3 leaves remained in the third leaves with very little translocation to other parts of the plant. Infection of the lower three leaves at the fourth leaf stage reduced 14CO2 assimilation in noninfected fourth leaves of Asse less than that of Peruvian, but the flow of 14C from the healthy fourth leaves into other plant parts such as leaf sheaths was markedly stimulated in Peruvian compared to Asse. Infection also reduced the uptake of 14C-carbonate by seedling roots, the reduction being greater in Peruvian than Asse. A greater proportion of the 14C absorbed by roots of Asse was translocated to the infected leaves than that of Peruvian. It was concluded that powdery mildew disrupted the normal pattern of photosynthesis and translocation of metabolites in a susceptible cultivar more markedly than in an adult-plant-resistant cultivar of spring barley. (author)

  9. Powdery Scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery scab (PS) is incited by a member of the Plamodiophorales, or parasitic slime molds, Spongospora subterranea. It invades the roots forming multinucleate plasmodia, release zoospores, and forms galls on the roots and lesions on the tuber skin. It is an emerging disease in the Pacific Northwe...

  10. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most o...

  11. Identification of genes affecting the response of tomato and Arabidopsis upon powdery mildew infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, D.

    2014-01-01

      Many plant species are hosts of powdery mildew fungi, including Arabidopsis and economically important crops such as wheat, barley and tomato. Resistance has been explored using induced mutagenesis and natural variation in the plant species. The isolated genes encompass loss-of-function susc

  12. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  13. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  14. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  15. Screening for spontaneous virulent mutants of erysiphe-graminis-f-sp-hordei on barley hordeum-vulgare lines with resistance genes ml-a-1 ml-a-6 ml-a-12 and ml-g

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, J.; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1985-01-01

    Seedlings of 4 barley lines with powdery mildew resistance genes Ml-al, Ml-a6, Mla12 or Ml-g were inoculated with powdery mildew culture CR3 which is avirulent to the 4 host lines. Inoculation density was 1.2 infectious conidia/mm2, and in total 50 million conidia were screened for the occurrence...

  16. Mechanistic and genetic overlap of barley host and non-host resistance to Blumeria graminis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, M.; Troeger, M.; Niks, R.E.; Kogel, K.H.; Huckelhoven, R.

    2004-01-01

    Non-host resistance of barley to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), an inappropriate forma specialis of the grass powdery mildew fungus, is associated with formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) at sites of attempted fungal penetration and a hypersensitive cell death reaction (HR) of sing

  17. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    was only effective against a proportion of the mildew population. Isolates of mildew were sampled according to a grid sampling scheme and their virulence spectra ascertained in order to group them according to pathotype. The populations were very diverse, and evidence for aggregation (quantified using join...

  18. Powdery mildew fungal effector candidates share N-terminal Y/F/WxC-motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmersen Jeppe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdery mildew and rust fungi are widespread, serious pathogens that depend on developing haustoria in the living plant cells. Haustoria are separated from the host cytoplasm by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane. They secrete effector proteins, some of which are subsequently transferred across this membrane to the plant cell to suppress defense. Results In a cDNA library from barley epidermis containing powdery mildew haustoria, two-thirds of the sequenced ESTs were fungal and represented ~3,000 genes. Many of the most highly expressed genes encoded small proteins with N-terminal signal peptides. While these proteins are novel and poorly related, they do share a three-amino acid motif, which we named "Y/F/WxC", in the N-terminal of the mature proteins. The first amino acid of this motif is aromatic: tyrosine, phenylalanine or tryptophan, and the last is always cysteine. In total, we identified 107 such proteins, for which the ESTs represent 19% of the fungal clones in our library, suggesting fundamental roles in haustoria function. While overall sequence similarity between the powdery mildew Y/F/WxC-proteins is low, they do have a highly similar exon-intron structure, suggesting they have a common origin. Interestingly, searches of public fungal genome and EST databases revealed that haustoria-producing rust fungi also encode large numbers of novel, short proteins with signal peptides and the Y/F/WxC-motif. No significant numbers of such proteins were identified from genome and EST sequences from either fungi which do not produce haustoria or from haustoria-producing Oomycetes. Conclusion In total, we identified 107, 178 and 57 such Y/F/WxC-proteins from the barley powdery mildew, the wheat stem rust and the wheat leaf rust fungi, respectively. All together, our findings suggest the Y/F/WxC-proteins to be a new class of effectors from haustoria-producing pathogenic fungi.

  19. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...... conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  20. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  1. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  2. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  3. Chromosome landing at the ¤Mla¤ locus in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.) by means of high-resolution mapping with AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Mohler, V.;

    1999-01-01

    The complex Mla locus of barley determines resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hol dei. With a view towards gene isolation, a population consisting of 950 F-2 individuals derived from a cross between the near-isogenic lines 'P01' (Mla1) and 'P10' (Mla12) was used to...

  4. Approaches for field assessment of resistance to leaf pathogens in spring barley varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, H.O.; Hovmøller, M. S.; Østergård, H

    2006-01-01

    The resistance of spring barley varieties to powdery mildew, leaf rust, leaf scald and net blotch was characterized by using results from inoculated small-plot nurseries and larger survey plots subject to natural infection. The experiments were conducted in different environments. Both trial types often yielded complementary results with respect to the ranking of varieties suggesting that a recommended variety characterization should include both naturally infected survey-type trials and nurs...

  5. A Compromised Mlo Pathway Affects the Response of Barley to the Necrotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus) and Its Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Hückelhoven, R; Beckhove, U; Nagarajan, S; Kogel, K H

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT In search of new durable disease resistance traits in barley to control leaf spot blotch disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus), we developed macroscopic and microscopic scales to judge spot blotch disease development on barley. Infection of barley was associated with cell wall penetration and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The latter appeared to take place in cell wall swellings under fungal penetration attempts as well as during cell death provoked by the necrotrophic pathogen. Additionally, we tested the influence of a compromised Mlo pathway that confers broad resistance against powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). Powdery mildew-resistant genotypes with mutations at the Mlo locus (mlo genotypes) showed a higher sensitivity to infiltration of toxic culture filtrate of Bipolaris sorokiniana as compared with wild-type barley. Mutants defective in Ror, a gene required for mlo-specified powdery mildew resistance, were also more sensitive to Bipolaris sorokiniana toxins than wild-type barley but showed less symptoms than mlo5 parents. Fungal culture filtrates induced an H2O2 burst in all mutants, whereas wild-type (Mlo) barley was less sensitive. The results support the hypothesis that the barley Mlo gene product functions as a suppresser of cell death. Therefore, a compromised Mlo pathway is effective for control of biotrophic powdery mildew fungus but not for necrotrophic Bipolaris sorokiniana. We discuss the problem of finding resistance traits that are effective against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens with emphasis on the role of the anti-oxidative system of plant cells.

  6. Controlling Powdery Scab: The Breeding Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery scab is a serious disease of potato caused by the fungus Spongospora subterranea. S. subterranea is a member of the Plasmodiophorales, also known as the parasitic slime molds. The primary diagnostic sign of the disease are cystosori, spongelike aggregates of cysts or resting spores. The ...

  7. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability.

  8. Arabidopsis phospholipase Dδ is involved in basal defense and nonhost resistance to powdery mildew fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinosa, Francesco; Buhot, Nathalie; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2013-01-01

    and biotic stress signaling. In this study, the involvement of PLD in the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) was investigated. This nonadapted pathogen is normally resisted by a cell wall-based defense, which stops...... the fungal hyphae from penetrating the epidermal cell wall. Chemical inhibition of phosphatidic acid production by PLD increased the penetration rate of Bgh spores on wild-type leaves. The analysis of transfer DNA knockout lines for all Arabidopsis PLD genes revealed that PLDδ is involved in penetration...... fluorescent protein fusion of PLDδ localized to the plasma membrane at the Bgh attack site, where it surrounded the cell wall reinforcement. Furthermore, in the pldδ mutant, transcriptional up-regulation of early microbe-associated molecular pattern response genes was delayed after chitin stimulation...

  9. Messages from Powdery Mildew DNA:How the Interplay with a Host Moulds Pathogen Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pietro D. Spanu

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of the barley,Arabidopsis and pea powdery mildew are signiifcantly larger than those of related fungi. This is due to an extraordinary expansion of retro-trasposons that are evident as repetitive elements in the sequence. The protein coding genes are fewer than expected due to an overall reduction in the size of gene families, a reduction in the number of paralogs and because of the loss of certain metabolic pathways. Many of these changes have also been observed in the genomes of other taxonomically unrelated obligate biotrophic pathogens. The only group of genes that bucks the trend of gene loss, are those encoding small secreted proteins that bear the hall marks of effectors.

  10. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis...... and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum...

  11. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a Mycoparasite of a Powdery Mildew Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama Kumar, P; Singh, Leena

    2009-12-01

    Powdery mildews on over 40 plants in Bangalore were screened during July-December of 2003~2008. Isolates from mycoparasitised Oidium caesalpiniacearum of Bauhinia purpurea comprised Lasiodiplodia theobromae, in addition to Ampelomyces quisqualis. Koch's postulates were satisfied to establish the mycoparasitism of L. theobromae. This is the first report that L. theobromae acts as a mycoparasite of a powdery mildew. PMID:23983554

  12. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a Mycoparasite of a Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Sreerama Kumar, P.; Singh, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Powdery mildews on over 40 plants in Bangalore were screened during July-December of 2003~2008. Isolates from mycoparasitised Oidium caesalpiniacearum of Bauhinia purpurea comprised Lasiodiplodia theobromae, in addition to Ampelomyces quisqualis. Koch's postulates were satisfied to establish the mycoparasitism of L. theobromae. This is the first report that L. theobromae acts as a mycoparasite of a powdery mildew.

  13. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer;

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic...... powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  14. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  15. Utilization of electric properties of granular and powdery materials

    OpenAIRE

    Z. HlaváÄÂová

    2005-01-01

    Determination of electrical properties is utilized in a wide range of disciplines and industries. A brief compendium of electrical properties utilization of granular and powdery agricultural and food materials is presented in this paper. Electrical properties of granular and powdery materials are influenced by various factors. The most important are moisture content and its distribution in materials, temperature, density, volume or bulk density. The relationships between the resistivity, cond...

  16. Damage Mapping of Powdery Mildew in Winter Wheat with High-Resolution Satellite Image

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Yuan; Jingcheng Zhang; Yeyin Shi; Chenwei Nie; Liguang Wei; Jihua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major winter wheat disease in China. Accurate delineation of powdery mildew infestations is necessary for site-specific disease management. In this study, high-resolution multispectral imagery of a 25 km2 typical outbreak site in Shaanxi, China, taken by a newly-launched satellite, SPOT-6, was analyzed for mapping powdery mildew disease. Two regions with high representation were selected for conducting a field survey of powdery mild...

  17. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  18. Differential gene expression in individual papilla-resistant and powdery mildew-infected barley epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, T.; Carver, Timothy L. W.; Skøt, Leif;

    2004-01-01

    separately. Contents of single epidermal cells (resistant, infected, and unattacked controls) were collected, and after cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification, the resulting sample was hybridized to dot-blots spotted with genes, including some previously reported to be induced upon pathogen attack. Transcripts...

  19. Complex Interplay of Future Climate Levels of CO2, Ozone and Temperature on Susceptibility to Fungal Diseases in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind

    Climate change will modify the environmental growth conditions for plants, and consequently also their physiology and susceptibility to diseases. However, there is a lack of experimental studies on the effect of climate change on plant diseases, which include several climatic factors in order...... to simulate realistic growth conditions. In this PhD thesis, the complex interplay of elevated CO2, temperature and ozone on the susceptibility of barley to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and the hemibiotrophic spot blotch fungus (Bipolaris sorokiniana) was revealed...

  20. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1 detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2 estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC. Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were weekly measured by a portable fluorescence sensor and spectroradiometer, respectively. Results showed that vegetation indices recorded at canopy level performed well for the early detection of slightly-diseased plants. The combined reflectance index, MCARI/TCARI, yielded the best discrimination between healthy and diseased plants across seven barley varieties. The blue to far-red fluorescence ratio (BFRR_UV and OSAVI were the best fluorescence and reflectance indices for estimating LCC, respectively, yielding R2 of 0.72 and 0.79. Partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVM regression models further improved the use of fluorescence signals for the estimation of LCC, yielding R2 of 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. Our results demonstrate that non-destructive spectral measurements are able to detect mild disease symptoms before significant losses in LCC due to diseases under natural conditions.

  1. Hop powdery mildew control through alteration of spring pruning practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1997, Podosphaera macularis, the causal agent of hop powdery mildew, has become a recurrent threat to hops in the Pacific Northwest because of the potential to reduce cone yield and quality. Disease management practices often involve preventative fungicide applications, but alternative approac...

  2. Effects produced by nuclear radiation in powdery milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical effects produced by the gamma rays and beta particles radiations on the powdery milk. This work treats on the Pre-dose analysis, sampling radiating, electron spin resonance, acidity, proteins, aminoacids, lactose, fatty acids, peroxides, as well as its experimental results. (Author)

  3. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  4. Antisense expression of peach mildew resistance locus O (PpMlo1) gene confers cross-species resistance to powdery mildew in Fragaria x ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwan, Derick; Roalson, Eric H; Main, Dorrie; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the major plant pathogens. The conventional method of PM control includes frequent use of sulfur-based fungicides adding to production costs and potential harm to the environment. PM remains a major scourge for Rosaceae crops where breeding approaches mainly resort to gene-for-gene resistance. We have tested an alternate source of PM resistance in Rosaceae. Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) has been well studied in barley due to its role in imparting broad spectrum resistance to PM. We identified PpMlo1 (Prunus persica Mlo) in peach and characterized it further to test if a similar mechanism of resistance is conserved in Rosaceae. Due to its recalcitrance in tissue culture, reverse genetic studies involving PpMloI were not feasible in peach. Therefore, Fragaria x ananassa LF9 line, a taxonomic surrogate, was used for functional analysis of PpMlo1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation yielded transgenic strawberry plants expressing PpMlo1 in sense and antisense orientation. Antisense expression of PpMlo1 in transgenic strawberry plants conferred resistance to Fragaria-specific powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis. Phylogenetic analysis of 208 putative Mlo gene copies from 35 plant species suggests a large number of duplications of this gene family prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots, early in eudicot diversification. Our results indicate that the Mlo-based resistance mechanism is functional in Rosaceae, and that Fragaria can be used as a host to test mechanistic function of genes derived from related tree species. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts at testing the potential of using a Mlo-based resistance strategy to combat powdery mildew in Rosaceae.

  5. Differential effects of D-mannose and 2-deoxym-D-glucose on attempted powdery mildew fungal infection of inappropriate and appropriate Gramineae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeyen, R.J.; Kruger, W.M.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged;

    2002-01-01

    Barley, oat and wheat were used as both inappropriate hosts (IH) and appropriate hosts (AH) for three formae speciales of the fungus Blumeria graminis, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Treatment with either the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG) or with D-mannose dramatically...... suppressed penetration resistance in IH and to a much lesser extent in AH combinations. Other effects of DDG and D-mannose were strikingly dissimilar. DDG greatly reduced localized autofluorescence at fungal attack sites on epidermal cells, and prevented hypersensitive epidermal cell death (HR). D......-mannose had little effect on autofluorescence or HR. DDG arrested the development of fungal haustoria and apparently prohibited biotrophy leading to secondary hyphae. D-mannose allowed haustorial development and functional biotrophy leading to the production of elongating secondary hyphae. This suggests...

  6. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  7. The white barley mutant albostrians shows enhanced resistance to the biotroph Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Langen, Gregor; Hess, Wolfgang; Börner, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2004-04-01

    We performed cytological and molecular analyses of the interaction between the biotrophic barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and white and green leaves of the barley albostrians mutant. The leaves have the same nuclear genotype but differ from each other in respect to plastid differentiation. White leaves showed enhanced penetration resistance to B. graminis f. sp. hordei, associated with higher epidermal H2O2 accumulation beneath the appressorial germ tubes and protein cross-linking in papillae. Very low basal salicylic acid content was found in white leaves, which further confirmed that H2O2 accumulation and penetration resistance in barley are independent of salicylic acid. Expression analysis of stress and defense-related genes, including such being involved in reactive oxygen species production and cell death regulation, revealed stronger constitutive or pathogen-induced transcript accumulation in white leaves. We discuss the data on the basis of the finding that white albostrians leaves exhibit a supersusceptible interaction phenotype with the hemibiotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.

  8. Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew on Resistant and Susceptible Flowering Dogwood Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pulchra (syn. Microsphaera pulchra) is an important disease on flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in the Eastern United States. Temporal progress of powdery mildew on flowering dogwood cultivars with different levels of resistance was investigated in the field in 2...

  9. DELAY OF EXPRESSION OF POWDERY MILDEW ON ZINNIA GROWN HYDROPONICALLY IN HOAGLAND'S SOLUTION FORTIFIED WITH SILICON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum, is one of the most common foliar diseases that occur in greenhouse bedding plant production. Although powdery mildews are somewhat host specific, E. cichoracearum is reported to have a wide host range which includes the commonly grown be...

  10. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  11. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  12. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from...... Illumina. Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  13. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects....... This was achieved by endosperm-specific overexpression of Solanum tuberosum GWD to generate hyper-phosphorylated (HP) starch and endosperm-specific RNAi suppression of all three starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms to generate amylose-only (AO) starch in barley (cv. Golden Promise). In first and second study......Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...

  14. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  15. Induced mutations for resistance to powdery mildew in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious diseases of wheat in the Yangtze River Valley in China are powdery mildew and scab. Breeding for disease resistance either using conventional methods or through mutation breeding is the best way of controlling these diseases. Mutation breeding may be valuable in obtaining genotypes with resistance or tolerance, or for breaking undesirable linkages involving existing genes for disease resistance. The following commercial varieties were used: Yangmai 3, Ningmai 3 and Ningmai 6. They are high-yielding varieties, but susceptible to powdery mildew. Seeds of these cultivars were treated with gamma-rays. The material was screened in the seedling stage in M2 in the greenhouse and under field conditions in M3-M4 and later generations. The seedlings were inoculated with a spore suspension of the powdery mildew fungus. The most resistant mutant selected from variety Ningmai 3 was the line 34080 with resistance to races 4, 16 and 20. According to the number of progenies in M2, the mutation frequency was 1.2x10-4. The other two mutants (34157, 34158) were screened from variety Yangmai 3. Mutant 34157 showed a stable resistance to races 4, 16 and 20; mutant 34158 was resistant to races 4 and 20 but susceptible to race 16. Tracing them back to M2 progeny, the mutation frequency was 1.0x10-4. From electrophoretic analysis of mildew resistant mutant lines of wheat we found that the zymogram of peroxidase in resistant lines 34080 and 34157 was different from their parents and that these lines do not have band 3A

  16. Powdery Mildew Control and Yield Response of Inodorus Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Camele

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud. in 2006 and 2007 at “Pantanello” Experimental Farm (40° 24’N; 16° 48’E; 10 m a.s.l.; Metaponto, southern Italy to evaluate the efficacy of a low environmental impact control strategy against powdery mildew of cucurbits. Winter melon was treated with a new anti-oidium formulation, called Stifénia, obtained from fenugreek seeds and stimulating the plant self-defence. The adopted experimental design included two control strategies (1. biological, using Stifénia and 2. conventional, using penconazole, myclobutanil and sulphur and an untreated control (treated with water alone applied to two cultivars of inodorus melon (cv ‘Amarillo’ and HF1 ‘Cocorito’, the latter a genotype resistant to powdery mildew. Stifénia applications were not effective against the disease; in fact, there were no differences in percentage of attacked plant surface between treated plots and untreated ones. The melon marketable yield was significantly higher with the conventional strategy respect to Stifénia and control. Repeated applications of Stifénia resulted in a significant decrease of marketable yield even in comparison with the untreated control. The cultivars significantly affected powdery mildew development, since the resistant one (‘Cocorito’ was attacked later and damaged always lower than the non-resistant genotype (‘Amarillo’. Laboratory analyses carried out on infected leaves always confirmed that Golovinomyces cichoracearum D.C. was responsible of the disease.

  17. Development of a compact powdery sample negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Tanabe, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sasao, Mamiko; Kawano, Hiroyuki

    1997-02-01

    A gas-feed-free compact negative ion source can be realized by utilizing the process of electron stimulated desorption from powdery sample. A negative ion source of this type is designed to be attached to a standard 1.33 inch copper-gasket-flange. The ion source is operated stable with LiH powder for more than 10 hours with the mass-separated negative hydrogen ion current of 1 nA. The source causes minute gas emission, and particularly suitable for ion beam applications in which a good vacuum is required. The present status of the compact ion source development is briefly described. (author)

  18. A high throughput barley stripe mosaic virus vector for virus induced gene silencing in monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yuan

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS, magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH, and plastid transketolase (TK gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5 also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies.

  19. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  20. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  1. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh. How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  2. Enhancement of removal of SO2 and NOx by powdery materials in radiation treatment of exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of powdery silica on radiation removal of SO2 and NOx from mixtures of SO2, NOx, water vapour, oxygen and nitrogen under irradiation by electron beams of 1.5 MeV at 1200C. The SO2 and NOx concentrations decreased when powdery silica was fed without irradiation. Decrements of SO2 and NOx concentrations were markedly enhanced when powdery silica was fed together with the irradiation. The enhancement of SO2- and NOx-removal is attributed to the adsorption of SO2 and NO on the water-covered surface of powdery silica, and the effective removal of NO2 due to the reaction with water adsorbed on the surface of powdery silica. The results obtained show that the addition of powdery silica under irradiation is an effective method of enhancing the removal of SO2 and NOx. (author)

  3. RESPONSE OF SEVERAL APPLE VARIETIES TO POWDERY MILDEW (PODOSPHAERA LEUCOTRICHA) ATTACK IN CENTRAL TRANSYLVANIA CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    SESTRAS, R.

    2003-01-01

    The response of apple cultivars to powdery mildew attack – Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Everh.) Salm. – on leaves and shoots, for seven years (1990-1996), emphasised a large variability for this character existing within 75 apple varieties tested in an experimental field at the Fruit Research Station in Cluj-Napoca, Central Transylvania, Romania. The experimental results confirmed that the cultivars of the Jonathan group are highly susceptible to powdery mildew (e.g. Jonathan, Jonne Spur,...

  4. Histochemical and molecular studies of the interaction of hop with the hop powdery mildew fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Oberhollenzer, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell interactions between the hop powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera macularis (Pm) and resistant hop genotypes were investigated to gain detailed knowledge about spatio-temporal aspects of resistance mechanisms in the German breeding program. Resistance of all genotypes relied on early and late, single and multicellular hypersensitive reactions. All genotypes showed a hair cell type-specific susceptibility to adapted (Pm) and non-adapted (Erysiphe cruciferarum) powdery mildew fungi tha...

  5. Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species

    OpenAIRE

    Menardo, Fabrizio; Praz, Coraline R; Wyder, Stefan; Ben-David, Roi; Bourras, Salim; Matsumae, Hiromi; McNally, Kaitlin E.; Parlange, Francis; Riba, Andrea; Roffler, Stefan; Schaefer, Luisa K; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Valenti, Luca; Zbinden, Helen; Wicker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the history of agriculture, many new crop species (polyploids or artificial hybrids) have been introduced to diversify products or to increase yield. However, little is known about how these new crops influence the evolution of new pathogens and diseases. Triticale is an artificial hybrid of wheat and rye, and it was resistant to the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) until 2001 (refs. 1,2,3). We sequenced and compared the genomes of 46 powdery mildew isolates cover...

  6. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring i...

  7. Screening for resistance to tomato powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides basic knowledge about a devastating disease of greenhouse tomato plants, namely tomato powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici), including information about its host range, sources of resistance to this pathogen within wild Lycopersicon spp., its pathogenic variability (a preliminary differential set is presented), the genetic background of resistance and mechanisms of resistance. The basic methods of pathogen isolation, cultivation and maintenance, and methods of preparation of experimental plants are briefly described. Two methods of resistance screening are described, leaf disk method (as modified from Mieslerova et al., 2000) and the whole plant method (as modified from Bai et al., 2003), including a description of the scales used for assessment of the degree of infection (DI). (author)

  8. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN MYCORRHIZAL WHEAT PROTECTION AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj; Reignault, Ph

    2014-01-01

    In France, the Ecophyto 2018 national action plan will set out to reduce the use of pesticides by 50% by 2018, if possible. To achieve this goal, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could be a potential alternative method allowing the control of crop diseases. The inoculation by AM fungi has been demonstrated to protect plants against soil-borne pathogens, but little is known about their effectiveness against aerial pathogens, such as the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) causing wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew. In the present study, wheat plants were grown in pots, under controlled conditions. Using various phosphorus (P) concentrations, the effectiveness of three AM inocula (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm)) and Solrize, a mixture of Ri and Fm) in Orvantis wheat cultivar, were tested. After 42 days of culture, mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were infected by Bgt. A satisfactory mycorrhizal rate was obtained with the phosphorus concentration P/5 (P corresponding to the dose used in wheat fields in = 62 mg/L). Our work shows, for the first time, (i) a protective effect of AM inoculation against wheat powdery mildew, reaching up to 73% with Fm inocula, and (ii) its ability to induce a systemic resistance in wheat. Thereafter, we investigated mechanisms involved in this protection. Control plants, M plants, infected plants by Bgt, and M-infected plants were compared at: (i) cytological level, our results revealed that papillae and whole-fluorescent cells presence was induced, conversely fungal haustorium formation in epidermal cells was reduced within M plants leaves (ii) enzymatic level-by assessing defense enzyme activities (lipoxygenase, peroxidase) known as defense markers were measured 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after infection (hai). The importance of these activities in the defense pathways induced in wheat by AM fungi will be discussed. PMID:26080475

  9. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  10. How Specific is Non-Hypersensitive Host and Nonhost Resistance of Barley to Rust and Mildew Fungi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niks R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full nonhost resistance can be deifned as immunity, displayed by an entire plant species against all genotypes of a plant pathogen. Interesting biological questions are, whether the genes responsible for the nonhost status of a plant species have a general or a specific effectiveness to heterologous (“nonhost”) pathogens? Is the nonhost resistance to pathogens of plant species that are related to the nonhost based onR-genes or on other types of genes?We study this question in barley (Hordeum vulgareL.), which is a near-nonhost to several rusts (Puccinia) of cereals and grasses. By crosses and selection we accumulated susceptibility and developed an experimental line, SusPtrit, with high susceptibility to at least nine different heterologous rust taxa such as the wheat andAgropyron leaf rusts (P. triticina andP. persistens, respectively). At the microscopic level there is also some variation among barley accessions in the degree that the heterologous wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminisf.sp.tritici) is able to form haustoria in epidermal cells. So, also the genetics of the variation in level of nonhost resistance to heterologous mildew fungi can be studied in barley. Our data obtained on mapping populations involving three regular nonhost-immune accessions (Vada, Cebada Capa and Golden Promise) suggest that nonhost resistance is the joined effect of multiple, quantitative genes (QTLs) and very occasionally a major gene (R-gene?) is involved. Most QTLs have effect to only one or two heterologous rusts, but some have a wider spectrum. This was conifrmed in a set of QTL-NILs. Those QTL-NILs are used to ifne-map the effective genes. In some cases, a QTL region with effectiveness to several heterologous rusts might be a cluster of genes with a more narrow spectrum of effectiveness. Our evidence suggests that nonhost resistance in barley to rust and powdery mildew fungi of related Gramineae is not due toR-genes, but to pathogen species-speciifc quantitative

  11. Structure-function analysis of barley NLR immune receptor MLA10 reveals its cell compartment specific activity in cell death and disease resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Bai

    Full Text Available Plant intracellular immune receptors comprise a large number of multi-domain proteins resembling animal NOD-like receptors (NLRs. Plant NLRs typically recognize isolate-specific pathogen-derived effectors, encoded by avirulence (AVR genes, and trigger defense responses often associated with localized host cell death. The barley MLA gene is polymorphic in nature and encodes NLRs of the coiled-coil (CC-NB-LRR type that each detects a cognate isolate-specific effector of the barley powdery mildew fungus. We report the systematic analyses of MLA10 activity in disease resistance and cell death signaling in barley and Nicotiana benthamiana. MLA10 CC domain-triggered cell death is regulated by highly conserved motifs in the CC and the NB-ARC domains and by the C-terminal LRR of the receptor. Enforced MLA10 subcellular localization, by tagging with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS or a nuclear export sequence (NES, shows that MLA10 activity in cell death signaling is suppressed in the nucleus but enhanced in the cytoplasm. By contrast, nuclear localized MLA10 is sufficient to mediate disease resistance against powdery mildew fungus. MLA10 retention in the cytoplasm was achieved through attachment of a glucocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domain (GR, by which we reinforced the role of cytoplasmic MLA10 in cell death signaling. Together with our data showing an essential and sufficient nuclear MLA10 activity in disease resistance, this suggests a bifurcation of MLA10-triggered cell death and disease resistance signaling in a compartment-dependent manner.

  12. Damage Mapping of Powdery Mildew in Winter Wheat with High-Resolution Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major winter wheat disease in China. Accurate delineation of powdery mildew infestations is necessary for site-specific disease management. In this study, high-resolution multispectral imagery of a 25 km2 typical outbreak site in Shaanxi, China, taken by a newly-launched satellite, SPOT-6, was analyzed for mapping powdery mildew disease. Two regions with high representation were selected for conducting a field survey of powdery mildew. Three supervised classification methods—artificial neural network, mahalanobis distance, and maximum likelihood classifier—were implemented and compared for their performance on disease detection. The accuracy assessment showed that the ANN has the highest overall accuracy of 89%, following by MD and MLC with overall accuracies of 84% and 79%, respectively. These results indicated that the high-resolution multispectral imagery with proper classification techniques incorporated with the field investigation can be a useful tool for mapping powdery mildew in winter wheat.

  13. Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley. I. Developing techniques and assessing allelopathy in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D L; Lovett, J V

    1993-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) were assessed using modified bioassays that reduced other environmental influences. In a Petri dish bioassay, germination of white mustard was delayed and the radicle lengths were significantly inhibited at a density of 0.5 barley seed/cm(2). In a 'siphoning' bioassay apparatus, when the two species were sown together, radicle elongation of white mustard was not inhibited one day after sowing but became increasingly inhibited as bioassay time increased. Barley allelochemicals were released from the roots in a hydroponic system for at least 70 days after commencement of barley germination. Solutions removed from the hydroponic system of growing barley delayed germination and inhibited growth of white mustard. The allelopathic activity of barley was further confirmed at a density of 0.3 barley seed/cm(2) in a modified stairstep apparatus. PMID:24248571

  14. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  15. Healthier cereal products: breadmaking with barley flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya Romero, Carolina; Novillo, Carmen; Rodríguez Badiola, Guillermo; Callejo González, Maria Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Promote consumption of barley breads, in order to improve intake of fibre and healthenhancing components: Instrumental evaluation of breads. Sensory consumer evaluation of breads. Bread-making performances of flours. Instrumental evaluation of barley substituted wheat Dough.

  16. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  17. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS IN HEVEA CLONES UNDER POWDERY MILDEW ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Cristina Gonzalez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810561The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Of Juss. Muell. Arg.] can be affected by the occurrence of the fungus Oidium heveae, which causes one of the most important diseases of rubber trees, powdery mildew. This work studied meet changes in photosynthetic pigments, an indicator of oxidative stress, in seedlings of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 600, GT1 and PR255, under infection in Oidium heveae. The experiment was conducted in an open environment under natural photoperiod conditions and at the beginning of the trial, the rubber plants would be inoculated were sprayed with an aqueous suspension containing O. heveae at a concentration of 16 x 104 conidia mL-1. On the day of inoculation and after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h leaf samples were collected for the determination of photosynthetic pigments. Degradation in photosynthetic pigments in the period of infection was observed in rubber tree clones studied; thus, there is oxidative stress in clones of rubber trees. No promising genetic material for genetic improvement work stress tolerance by Oidium heveae was identified.

  18. QTL Mapping for Adult Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Italian Wheat cv. Strampelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad Muhammad Azeem; BAI Bin; LAN Cai-xia; YAN Jun; XIA Xian-chun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2013-01-01

    The Italian wheat cv. Strampelli displays high resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to powdery mildew in a population of 249 F2:3 lines from Strampelli/Huixianhong. Adult plant powdery mildew tests were conducted over 2 yr in Beijing and 1 yr in Anyang and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used for genotyping. QTLs Qpm.caas-3BS, Qpm.caas-5BL.1, and Qpm.caas-7DS were consistent across environments whereas, Qpm.caas-2BS.1 found in two environments, explained 0.4-1.6, 5.5-6.9, 27.1-34.5, and 1.0-3.5%of the phenotypic variation respectively. Qpm.caas-7DS corresponded to the genomic location of Pm38/Lr34/Yr18. Qpm.caas-4BL was identified in Anyang 2010 and Beijing 2011, accounting for 1.9-3.5%of phenotypic variation. Qpm.caas-2BS.1 and Qpm.caas-5BL.1 contributed by Strampelli and Qpm.caas-3BS by Huixianhong, seem to be new QTL for powdery mildew resistance. Qpm.caas-4BL, Qpm.caas-5BL.3, and Qpm.caas-7DS contributed by Strampelli appeared to be in the same genomic regions as those mapped previously for stripe rust resistance in the same population, indicating that these loci conferred resistance to both stripe rust and powdery mildew. Strampelli could be a valuable genetic resource for improving durable resistance to both powdery mildew and stripe rust in wheat.

  19. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  20. Mildew-omics: How global analyses aid the understanding of life and evolution of powdery mildews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Veronique Bindschedler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The common powdery mildew plant diseases are caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. Their characteristic life style as obligate biotrophs renders functional analyses in these species challenging, mainly because of experimental constraints to genetic manipulation. Global large-scale (-omics approaches are thus particularly valuable and insightful for the characterisation of the life and evolution of powdery mildews. Here we review the knowledge obtained so far from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies in these fungi. We consider current limitations and challenges regarding these surveys and provide an outlook on desired future investigations on the basis of the various –omics technologies.

  1. Registration of ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean with resistance to soybean aphid and powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2 and resistance to powdery mildew was jointly released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) as a late maturity group (MG) II (2.9) foo...

  2. Molecular characterization of a new powdery mildew resistance gene Pm54 in soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew has caused increasing damage to wheat production in the southeastern USA. To combat the disease, there is a continuing need to discover new genes or quantitative trait loci for mildew resistance and promptly adopt those loci in breeding programs. Pioneer® variety 26R61 (shortened as 2...

  3. The genetics and mechanisms of resistance to tomato powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici) in Lycopersicon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Oidium neolycopersiciis the causal agent of the tomato powdery mildew disease. Besides a few recently released resistant cultivars, all tomato cultivars are susceptible to O. neolycopersici. Therefore, resistance to O. neolycopersici is an important trait in tomato breeding.<

  4. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  5. Nuclear technique for inducing new genetical sources of powdery mildew resistant mutants of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three varieties of winter wheat were treated with γ-rays, electron-beams, NaN3, EMS with various doses and intermittent irradiation of γ-rays respectively. 16 pure varieties and 12 hybrids were irradiated by γ-rays with appropriate doses (250∼300 Gy) for inducing mutation resistant to powdery mildew in winter wheat. γ-rays, electron-beams, NaN3 and EMS were effective mutagens for inducing powdery mildew resistant mutants. The latter two were more effective than the former. It showed that the appropriate doses were as follows: γ-rays 300∼350 Gy, electron-beams 100∼200 Gy, NaN3 1∼3 mmol/L, EMS about 0.3%. It also showed that the intermittent irradiation of γ-rays was more effective than the continuous irradiation for inducing powdery mildew resistant mutants. Irradiating hybrids were more effective materials than pure varieties for this purpose. 86 mutants with resistance to powdery mildew were obtained

  6. Meta-analysis reveals a critical period for management of powdery mildew on Hop cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of 28 field trials conducted over a 12-year period investigating management of hop powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera macularis were quantitatively summarized by meta-analysis to compare product efficacy and use patterns by mode of action as defined by Fungicide Resistance Action Committe...

  7. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides t

  8. Mechanisms involved in control of ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ in barley treated with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, H.; Collinge, D.B.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2002-01-01

    Treatment with mycelial extracts, prepared from liquid cultures of Bipolaris oryzae , Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer , protected barley (Hordeum vulgare ) against powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei . The mechanisms of this protection were studied...... using histopathological methods and molecular analysis. Germination and appressorial formation of B. graminis were generally reduced after treatment with mycelial extracts. Although this reduction (between 12 and 62% depending on treatment and experiment) was inconsistent and only occasionally...... associated with papilla formation was detected. However, a post-penetration effect was observed, as B. graminis colonies on mycelial extract-treated leaves produced 50% fewer hyphae than on controls. Northern blot analyses showed earlier accumulation of defence-related gene transcripts following treatment...

  9. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  10. Inheritance of the resistance to powdery mildew in a RIL population derived from the cross Xana/Cornell49242

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Vega, E.; Campa, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a devastating disease of common bean in northern Spain, particularly in the market class fabada. Its incidence is increasing in recent years. Control with fungicides is possible but uneconomic, what reinforce the need of powdery mildew resistant cultivars . Some sources of resistance to this pathogen have been identified (Schwartz et al, 1981) but there is little knowledge on inheritance of such resistance. Previous reports suggest a qualitative inheritance (Dundas, 1936; Be...

  11. Bacillus sp. BS061 Suppresses Gray Mold and Powdery Mildew through the Secretion of Different Bioactive Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Sook; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yeo, Woon-Hyung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-01-01

    A Bacillus sp. BS061 significantly reduced disease incidence of gray mold and powdery mildew. To identify the active principle, the culture filtrate was partitioned between butanol and water. The antifungal activity against B. cinerea was evident in the butanol-soluble portion, and active substances were identified as cyclic lipopeptides, iturin A series, by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) and mass analysis. Interestingly, antifungal activity against powdery mildew was observed ...

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira; Jorge Fernando Pereira; Caroline Turchetto; Euclydes Minella; Luciano Consoli; Carla Andréa Delatorre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag1...

  13. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  14. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  15. RESPONSE OF SEVERAL APPLE VARIETIES TO POWDERY MILDEW (PODOSPHAERA LEUCOTRICHA ATTACK IN CENTRAL TRANSYLVANIA CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R SESTRAS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of apple cultivars to powdery mildew attack – Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Everh. Salm. – on leaves and shoots, for seven years (1990-1996, emphasised a large variability for this character existing within 75 apple varieties tested in an experimental field at the Fruit Research Station in Cluj-Napoca, Central Transylvania, Romania. The experimental results confirmed that the cultivars of the Jonathan group are highly susceptible to powdery mildew (e.g. Jonathan, Jonne Spur, Jonathan Smith, Black John, Jonathan Watson, Nüred Jonathan, Delia, Aromat de vară, Roşu de Cluj. Cultivars Gloster, Starkrimson and Prima were registered with a low attack degree. None of the tested cultivars were included in the category “No attack”. Out of all varieties, 21 of them representing 28.0% were registered with a very high attack, both on leaves and shoots.

  16. Preparation of Powdery Carbon Nanotwist and Application to Printed Field Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hosokawa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an automatic production system with sequencer control for the synthesis of carbon nanofibriform based on catalytic CVD using a substrate was developed. The carbon nanotwist (CNTw, which is one of the helical carbon nanofibers, was then synthesized in powdery form with an Ni–SnO2-composed catalyst. The production rate was 5 400 times that of the conventional CVD system and Ni–Cu–In2O3 catalyst. The powdery CNTw was easily scraped off the substrate, then pasted with organic binder, and printed by a squeegee method on ITO glass substrate for an electron field emitter. The field emission performance was found to be better than that of the directly grown CNTw film in conventional CVD with Ni–Cu catalyst.

  17. Inhibition Effects of Silver Nanoparticles against Powdery Mildews on Cucumber and Pumpkin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang-Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Seok; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating diseases in cucurbits. Crop yield can decline as the disease severity increases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of silver nanoparticles against powdery mildew under different cultivation conditions in vitro and in vivo . Silver nanoparticles (WA-CV-WA13B) at various concentrations were applied before and after disease outbreak in plants to determine antifungal activities. In the field tests, the application of 100 ppm silver nanoparticles showed the highest inhibition rate for both before and after the outbreak of disease on cucumbers and pumpkins. Also, the application of 100 ppm silver nanoparticles showed maximum inhibition for the growth of fungal hyphae and conidial germination in in vivo tests. Scanning electron microscope results indicated that the silver nanoparticles caused detrimental effects on both mycelial growth and conidial germination. PMID:22783069

  18. Inhibitive Mechanisms of Two Silicon Compounds on Powdery Mildew of Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yu-rong; LIU Lei; ZHAO Hua; CHEN De-rong; BI Yang

    2005-01-01

    Seedlings of Yujinxiang melon were used to investigate the effect and inhibitive mechanism of sodium silicate and nanosized silicon oxide on powdery mildew. The results showed that the severity of powdery mildew on melon seedlings was lowered significantly by treatment with either of the two silicon compounds, although the effect of sodium silicate was more powerful than silicon oxide. Application of sodium silicate to the seedlings caused significant increases in the activity of peroxidase (POD) and of 3-1,3-glucosidase (GLU), both enzymes are known to be associated with the disease defence systems of plants. SEM-EDX analysis of sodium silicate-treated leaves of the melon seedlings showed an elevated level of silicon deposit at stomata and epidermis. Treatment with nanosized silicon oxide also resulted in a similar increase in silicon deposit, but the treatment did not cause a significant increase in POD activity.

  19. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM; Hazim Abd El-Rahman OBIADALLA ALI

    2012-01-01

    The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74%) was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82%) and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%). Neem seed oil...

  20. Insect damage and powdery mildew severity in soybean cultivars and lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenção André Luiz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean cultivars resistant to insects and diseases reduces the application of pesticides, decreasing production costs and promoting a sustainable agriculture. The damage of stink bugs and defoliators and the severity of powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa in soybean of three maturity groups were evaluated under field conditions, at Tarumã and Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Three experiments, one for each group, were carried out in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 growing seasons. In 1999/2000, the disease occurred in Tarumã; in that year, infestation of chrysomelids (Cerotoma sp. and Colaspis sp. was observed in Ribeirão Preto. Low infestations of stink bugs occurred in both years and locations, but in Tarumã, at the stage of plant maturation, the insect population exceeded the economic injury level. The severity of powdery mildew was evaluated using a scale varying from 1 (no symptom to 5 (more than 50% of leaves with symptoms. Chrysomelid injuries were estimated by the percentage of leaf area removed, and stink bug damage was evaluated by the percentage of leaf retention (LRP and yield. Within the early maturity group (110 days, IAC 94-2675 showed good yield levels, low LRP, and resistance to powdery mildew. In the genotypes of the 120-day maturity group, IAC 94-5, IAC 94-1172, IAC 94-1017, IAC 94-133, and IAC 94-745 presented good yield; the last two behaved as resistant to the disease. With regard to the genotypes of the 135-day maturity group, IAC 93-1564 and IAC 94-2939 showed good yield, low LRP, and resistance to powdery mildew.

  1. Development of partial ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew in hop cones and its management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Megan C; Wolfenbarger, Sierra N; Woods, Joanna L; Gent, David H

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of processes leading to crop damage is central to devising rational approaches to disease management. Multiple experiments established that infection of hop cones by Podosphaera macularis was most severe if inoculation occurred within 15 to 21 days after bloom. This period of infection was associated with the most pronounced reductions in alpha acids, cone color, and accelerated maturation of cones. Susceptibility of cones to powdery mildew decreased progressively after the transition from bloom to cone development, although complete immunity to the disease failed to develop. Maturation of cone tissues was associated with multiple significant affects on the pathogen manifested as reduced germination of conidia, diminished frequency of penetration of bracts, lengthening of the latent period, and decreased sporulation. Cones challenged with P. macularis in juvenile developmental stages also led to greater frequency of colonization by a complex of saprophytic, secondary fungi. Since no developmental stage of cones was immune to powdery mildew, the incidence of powdery mildew continued to increase over time and exceeded 86% by late summer. In field experiments with a moderately susceptible cultivar, the incidence of cones with powdery mildew was statistically similar when fungicide applications were made season-long or targeted only to the juvenile stages of cone development. These studies establish that partial ontogenic resistance develops in hop cones and may influence multiple phases of the infection process and pathogen reproduction. The results further reinforce the concept that the efficacy of a fungicide program may depend largely on timing of a small number of sprays during a relatively brief period of cone development. However in practice, targeting fungicide and other management tactics to periods of enhanced juvenile susceptibility may be complicated by a high degree of asynchrony in cone development and other factors that are situation-dependent.

  2. Development of partial ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew in hop cones and its management implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Twomey

    Full Text Available Knowledge of processes leading to crop damage is central to devising rational approaches to disease management. Multiple experiments established that infection of hop cones by Podosphaera macularis was most severe if inoculation occurred within 15 to 21 days after bloom. This period of infection was associated with the most pronounced reductions in alpha acids, cone color, and accelerated maturation of cones. Susceptibility of cones to powdery mildew decreased progressively after the transition from bloom to cone development, although complete immunity to the disease failed to develop. Maturation of cone tissues was associated with multiple significant affects on the pathogen manifested as reduced germination of conidia, diminished frequency of penetration of bracts, lengthening of the latent period, and decreased sporulation. Cones challenged with P. macularis in juvenile developmental stages also led to greater frequency of colonization by a complex of saprophytic, secondary fungi. Since no developmental stage of cones was immune to powdery mildew, the incidence of powdery mildew continued to increase over time and exceeded 86% by late summer. In field experiments with a moderately susceptible cultivar, the incidence of cones with powdery mildew was statistically similar when fungicide applications were made season-long or targeted only to the juvenile stages of cone development. These studies establish that partial ontogenic resistance develops in hop cones and may influence multiple phases of the infection process and pathogen reproduction. The results further reinforce the concept that the efficacy of a fungicide program may depend largely on timing of a small number of sprays during a relatively brief period of cone development. However in practice, targeting fungicide and other management tactics to periods of enhanced juvenile susceptibility may be complicated by a high degree of asynchrony in cone development and other factors that are

  3. Multiple evolutionary events involved in maintaining homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  4. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  5. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  6. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  7. Breeding and molecular cytogenetic identification of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition lines resistant to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Wheat-related species Th. intermedium was used to cross with common wheat Yannong 15. In the self progenies of the hybrid, two addition lines, Ⅱ-1-7-1 and Ⅱ-3-3-2, stable in cytology, were developed by cytology and powdery mildew resistance identification. Their chromosome number were 2n = 44 and formed 22 bivalents at PMC MI. In F1 of the two addition lines crossing with Yannong 15, there appeared about one univalent at PMC MI, respectively. Resistance identification in greenhouse and field using the No. 15 and mixed strains of E. gramnis f. sp. tritici showed that they were immune to powdery mildew. Chromosome number and resistance identification using the F2 single plants of the addition line crossing with Yannong 15 indicated that the resistant gene was located on the alien chromosomes. In situ hybridization using St and E genomic DNA as probe showed that the added chromosome in the two addition lines probably came from the E genome of Th. intermedium, which indicated that a pair of E genome chromosomes carried a new resistant gene to powdery mildew.

  8. Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Fabrizio; Praz, Coraline R; Wyder, Stefan; Ben-David, Roi; Bourras, Salim; Matsumae, Hiromi; McNally, Kaitlin E; Parlange, Francis; Riba, Andrea; Roffler, Stefan; Schaefer, Luisa K; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Valenti, Luca; Zbinden, Helen; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the history of agriculture, many new crop species (polyploids or artificial hybrids) have been introduced to diversify products or to increase yield. However, little is known about how these new crops influence the evolution of new pathogens and diseases. Triticale is an artificial hybrid of wheat and rye, and it was resistant to the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) until 2001 (refs. 1,2,3). We sequenced and compared the genomes of 46 powdery mildew isolates covering several formae speciales. We found that B. graminis f. sp. triticale, which grows on triticale and wheat, is a hybrid between wheat powdery mildew (B. graminis f. sp. tritici) and mildew specialized on rye (B. graminis f. sp. secalis). Our data show that the hybrid of the two mildews specialized on two different hosts can infect the hybrid plant species originating from those two hosts. We conclude that hybridization between mildews specialized on different species is a mechanism of adaptation to new crops introduced by agriculture. PMID:26752267

  9. Airborne hyperspectral imaging for the detection of powdery mildew in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jonas; Mewes, Thorsten; Menz, Gunter

    2008-08-01

    Plant stresses, in particular fungal diseases, show a high variability in spatial and temporal dimension with respect to their impact on the host. Recent "Precision Agriculture"-techniques allow for a spatially and temporally adjusted pest control that might reduce the amount of cost-intensive and ecologically harmful agrochemicals. Conventional stressdetection techniques such as random monitoring do not meet demands of such optimally placed management actions. The prerequisite is an accurate sensor-based detection of stress symptoms. The present study focuses on a remotely sensed detection of the fungal disease powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in wheat, Europe's main crop. In a field experiment, the potential of hyperspectral data for an early detection of stress symptoms was tested. A sophisticated endmember selection procedure was used and, additionally, a linear spectral mixture model was applied to a pixel spectrum with known characteristics, in order to derive an endmember representing 100% powdery mildew-infected wheat. Regression analyses of matched fraction estimates of this endmember and in-field-observed powdery mildew severities showed promising results (r=0.82 and r2=0.67).

  10. Fast neutron mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct a deletion mutant analysis of the barley genome, seeds of cultivar 'Steptoe' were irradiated in 1992 with two doses of fast neutrons, 3.5 Gy and 4.0 Gy at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf SNIF facility by Dr. H. Brunner. M1 seeds were grown at Pullman, Washington, USA in the field. Approximately 500 M2 spikes were picked from each treatment and the remainder harvested in bulk. Mutation rates were determined on 1000 bulk M2 seedlings (chlorophyll deficient) and 500 M2 head rows (chlorophyll deficient and morphological) per treatment. Chlorophyll-deficient mutations were observed at a frequency of 8.1% and 9.4% on M1 spike basis and 2.2% and 2.6% on M2 seedling basis for the 3.5 and 4.0 Gy treatments, respectively. Total mutations observed in the field were 19.0% and 20.8% on M1 spike basis for the two treatments. Approximately 2,500 M2 seedlings were assayed for nitrate reductasedeficient mutants and 12,000 M2 seeds screened for waxy mutants. Although several putative mutants were identified, none have been confirmed to date. The mutation frequencies observed are similar for both treatments and appear to be approximately the same as what we have previously observed with γ-radiation treatments. The absence of nitrate reductase-deficient and waxy mutants is most likely due to the small population size screened. The morphological mutants recovered include dwarfs, sterile, necrotic, glossy, elongated outer glume, winter type and some very interesting floral mutants such as multi-ovary and branched inflorescence. Mutants affecting functions of genes for which cloned DNA segments are available will be sought in order to identify specific molecular changes that have been induced by fast neutron radiation. (author)

  11. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  12. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant losses in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located on the short ...

  13. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  14. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  15. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  16. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  17. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R D; Steed, Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Goddard, Rachel; Lachaux, Clea; Bansal, Anuradha; Corbitt, Margaret; Gorniak, Kalina; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K M

    2015-02-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS. PMID:25040333

  18. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R D; Steed, Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Goddard, Rachel; Lachaux, Clea; Bansal, Anuradha; Corbitt, Margaret; Gorniak, Kalina; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K M

    2015-02-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS.

  19. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  20. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  1. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  2. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  3. Phylogeography and virulence structure of the powdery mildew population on its 'new' host triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troch Veronique

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdery mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major problem in cereal production as it can reduce quality and yield. B. graminis has evolved eight distinct formae speciales (f.sp. which display strict host specialization. In the last decade, powdery mildew has emerged on triticale, the artificial intergeneric hybrid between wheat and rye. This emergence is probably triggered by a host range expansion of the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici. To gain more precise information about the evolutionary processes that led to this host range expansion, we pursued a combined pathological and genetic approach. Results B. graminis isolates were sampled from triticale, wheat and rye from different breeding regions in Europe. Pathogenicity tests showed that isolates collected from triticale are highly pathogenic on most of the tested triticale cultivars. Moreover, these isolates were also able to infect several wheat cultivars (their previous hosts, although a lower aggressiveness was observed compared to isolates collected from wheat. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene regions identified two statistically significant clades, which to a certain extent correlated with pathogenicity. No differences in virulence profiles were found among the sampled regions, but the distribution of genetic variation demonstrated to be geography dependent. A multilocus haplotype network showed that haplotypes pathogenic on triticale are distributed at different sites in the network, but always clustered at or near the tips of the network. Conclusions This study reveals a genetic structure in B. graminis with population differentiation according to geography and host specificity. In addition, evidence is brought forward demonstrating that the host range expansion of wheat isolates to the new host triticale occurred recently and multiple times at different locations in Europe.

  4. Monitoring powdery mildew of winter wheat by using moderate resolution multi-temporal satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B, green (G, red (R and near infrared (NIR bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72. However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples, all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59. The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale.

  5. Monitoring Powdery Mildew of Winter Wheat by Using Moderate Resolution Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingcheng; Pu, Ruiliang; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jihua; Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Guijun

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B), green (G), red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite) to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72). However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples), all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59). The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale. PMID:24691435

  6. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tabata

    Full Text Available Powdery mildews (Erysiphales are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp. and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  7. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  8. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Horbach, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles ...

  9. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Bi Fu; Carolee Horbach

    2012-01-01

    Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-five informative p...

  10. Dissection of Barley Landraces Originated From Twelve Different

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahi, Hülya; Yumurtacı, Ayşen

    2015-01-01

    Landraces, as an important source of genetic diversity, are important for improvement of crop species. Investigating of genetic diversity among landraces is necessary to conserve genetic resources and develop future strategies on barley breeding. In this study, genetic diversity in barley landraces originating from twelve countries was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen SSR markers belong to the seven barley linkage groups revealed high genetic diversity. A total of 9...

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  12. A transgenic wheat with a stilbene synthase gene resistant to powdery mildew obtained by biolistic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Stilbene, a kind of phytoalexin, plays an important role in resistance to fungal and bacterial infection in plants. It strongly inhibits the growth of fungi and sprout of spore. Stilbene synthase gene (Vst1) obtained from grapevine has been transferred into common spring wheat Jinghong 5 by using the biolistic transformation method. Five transgenic plants (T0) were obtained from the bombarded 2014 immature embryos. One immune plantlet and 3 plantlets with mid-resistance to powdery mildew were identified from the transgenic plants of T3 generation which came from 2 T0 transgenic plants.

  13. Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhiqi; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Yong Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means induced by biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits of Cnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide with acceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72), but it also showed a significant prophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36) against pumpkin powdery mildew at a concentration of 100 μg·mL−1. In pumpkin leaves with/...

  14. Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jian Fan; Peng Zhang; Wei Zhou; Fei Wang; Zhiqi Shi

    2007-01-01

    Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means inducedby biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits ofCnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide withacceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72), but it also showed a significantprophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36) against pumpkin powdery mildew at aconcentration of 100 μg·mL-1. In pumpkin leaves with...

  15. Monitoring Powdery Mildew of Winter Wheat by Using Moderate Resolution Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingcheng; Pu, Ruiliang; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jihua; Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Guijun

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B), green (G), red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite) to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a...

  16. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  17. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA re...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development.......The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...

  18. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    Plants produce an impressive variety of bioactive natural products involved in defense, insect attraction and signaling. These compounds enable the plant to defend itself, communicate with the surroundings and survive in an environment with constant challenges and attackers. This study has focused...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits from...... the hydroxynitrile glucosides as recognition factors and nutrition compounds. Above this threshold hydroxynitrile glucosides or their breakdown or turn-over products reach toxic levels which lead to a stunted Bgh phenotype and abortion of colonies. A putative ROS quenching role of hydroxynitrile glucosides...

  19. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  20. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  1. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  2. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  3. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  4. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  5. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine;

    2007-01-01

    for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the...... length influenced stability but not efficiency of VIGS. Silencing was transient in most cases; however, the decrease in PDS mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR began earlier and lasted longer than the photobleaching. Occasionally, silencing persisted and could be transmitted through seed as well as via......Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...

  6. Effect Of Barley Fibres And Barley Intake On The Ileal Endogenous Nitrogen Losses In Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Souffrant, Wb.; Thewis, André

    2000-01-01

    Ileal endogenous N losses (ENL) were measured, using the 15N isotope dilution technique, in piglets (17 kg) fed different barley genotypes (naked, spring, winter with low/high beta-glucan content) or diets containing 330, 530, 730 or 930 g of a blend of barleys/kg diet. The apparent protein and amino acid digestibilities of the naked variety and the winter variety with a high beta-glucan content were, on average, significantly higher than those for the other two varieties. The ENL were invers...

  7. QTL identification in an interspecific grapevine cross segregating for resistance to Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew, Black Rot, and Phylloxera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine is a highly heterozygous plant with a complex genetic background. Here, we report the use of an F1 family (N = 125) from a cross of MN1264 × MN1246 made in 2010. The cross contains at least six Vitis species in its ancestry and segregates for resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)...

  8. Effects produced by nuclear radiation in powdery milk; Efectos producidos por radiaciones nucleares en leches en polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena N, F.; Reyes G, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical effects produced by the gamma rays and beta particles radiations on the powdery milk. This work treats on the Pre-dose analysis, sampling radiating, electron spin resonance, acidity, proteins, aminoacids, lactose, fatty acids, peroxides, as well as its experimental results. (Author)

  9. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey Partial Amphiploid Resistant to Powdery Mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Bing LIU; Hong-Gang WANG; Xue-Yong ZHANG; Xing-Feng LI; Da-Yong LI; Xia-Yu DUAN; Yi-Lin ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Wide cross and molecular cytogenetic methods were used to transfer the powdery mildew resistance gene from Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey to wheat. Among the progeny of crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yannong 15 with Th. intermedium, a partial amphiploid E990256, with resistance to powdery mildew, was developed. It had 56 chromosomes and could form 28bivalents in pollen mother cells at metaphase I of meiosis. Resistance verification by race 15 at the seedling stage and by mixed strains of Erysiphales gramnis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal at the adult stage showed it was immune to powdery mildew at both stages. Gene postulation via 21 isolates of E. gramnis f. sp. tritici and 29 differential hosts showed it was nearly immune to all the isolates used, and its resistance pattem was different from all the mildew resistance genes used, which indicated it probably contained a new resistance gene to powdery mildew. Biochemical verification showed it might convey different Th. intermedium chromosomes from those of the wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploids Zhong 1-5. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis by using St genomic DNA as the probe showed E990256 contained a recombination genome of St and E.

  10. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  12. A disulphide isomerase gene (PDI-V) from Haynaldia villosa contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Li, Yingbo; Arshad, Muhammad; Jiangyue, Cheng; Jia, Zhao; Wang, Zongkuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Yu, Feifei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we report the contribution of a PDI-like gene from wheat wild relative Haynaldia villosa in combating powdery mildew. PDI-V protein contains two conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active domains (a and a') and an inactive domain (b). PDI-V interacted with E3 ligase CMPG1-V protein, which is a positive regulator of powdery mildew response. PDI-V was mono-ubiquitinated by CMPG1-V without degradation being detected. PDI-V was located on H. villosa chromosome 5V and encoded for a protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Bgt infection in leaves of H. villosa induced PDI-V expression. Virus induced gene silencing of PDIs in a T. durum-H. villosa amphiploid compromised the resistance. Single cell transient over-expression of PDI-V or a truncated version containing the active TXR domain a decreased the haustorial index in moderately susceptible wheat cultivar Yangmai 158. Stable transgenic lines over-expressing PDI-V in Yangmai 158 displayed improved powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. By contrast over-expression of point-mutated PDI-V(C57A) did not increase the level of resistance in Yangmai 158. The above results indicate a pivotal role of PDI-V in powdery mildew resistance and showed that conserved TRX domain a is critical for its function.

  13. Genetic mapping of MlUM15: an Aegilops neglecta-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis DC f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cool and humid climates. Race-specific host plant resistance is a reliable, economical, and environmentally benign form of disease prevention. The identification of molecular m...

  14. Mapping of novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm53 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease in many areas of the world, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Host plant resistance is the preferred form of disease prevention because it is both economical and environmentally benign. Identification of new resi...

  15. ‘Appalachian Joy’ is a supernumery, white-bracted cultivar of cornus florida resistant to powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wholesale nursery industry in Tennessee contributes more than $200 million to the annual economy of the state and are in excess of $50 million annually for flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Two fungal diseases, dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew (Discula destructiva and Erysiphe pulchra, r...

  16. Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiqi; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Yong Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means induced by biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits of Cnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide with acceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72), but it also showed a significant prophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36) against pumpkin powdery mildew at a concentration of 100 μg·mL−1. In pumpkin leaves with/or without inoculation of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, osthol treatment induced the accumulation of chitinase and peroxidase and enhanced the transcription of chitinase gene in non-inoculated leaves. The potentiation of phenylalanine amonia-lyase activity in leaves by osthol application and following inoculation was absent in that with inoculation or osthol treatment, indicating that induced PAL in osthol-pretreated plants was inoculation-mediated. In conclusion, this natural compound could induce resistance response in the plant against powdery mildew.

  17. Characterization of Particle Size Distributions of Powdery Building Material Aerosol Generated by Fluidization and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Prasauskas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify particle size distributions (PSD of aerosol of powdery building materials commonly used in construction work (cement, chalk, clay, wood sawdust, wood grinding dust, gypsum, hydrated lime, masonry grout, quartz sand, sand and structural lime by two aerosolization methods: fluidization and gravitation. Fluidization and gravitation methods represent industrial activities such as pneumotransportation and unloading. Both particle resuspension mechanisms have been modelled in laboratory conditions. The particle size distributions of resuspended particulate matter from powdery building materials were rather similar identified by both fluidization and gravitation methods, with an exception of wood sawdust and sand. The PM10 fraction ranged between 30% and 87%, PM2.5 from 7% to 28% and PM1.0 from 3% to 7% of the total mass of particulate matter. The highest PM10/PMtotal ratio was calculated for masonry grout - 0.87, and the lowest ratio for quartz sand - 0.30. The highest ratio of PM2.5/PMtotal was calculated for sand - 0.23, the lowest for quartz sand - 0.07. Substantial quantities of PM2.5 were found to be emitted implying a potential threat to human health.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1519

  18. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA Markers Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene in Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker linked to powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm-I in melon PI 371795 was reported. However, the RAPD marker has problem in scoring. To detect powdery mildew resistance gene (Pm-I in melon accurately, the RAPD marker was cloned and sequenced to design sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers. SCAPMAR5 marker derived from pUBC411 primer yielded a single DNA band at 1061 bp. Segregation of SCAPMAR5 marker in bulk of F2 plants demonstrated that the marker was co-segregated with RAPD marker from which the SCAR marker was originated. Moreover, results of SCAR analysis in diverse melons showed SCAPMAR5 primers obtained a single 1061 bp linked to Pm-I in resistant melon PI 371795 and PMAR5. On the other hand, SCAPMAR5 failed to detect Pm-I in susceptible melons. Results of this study revealed that SCAR analysis not only confirmed melons that had been clearly scored for resistance to Pm-I evaluated by RAPD markers, but also clarified the ambiguous resistance results obtained by the RAPD markers.   Key words: Cucumis melo L., Pm-I, RAPD, SCAPMAR5

  19. Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jian Fan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means inducedby biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits ofCnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide withacceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72, but it also showed a significantprophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36 against pumpkin powdery mildew at aconcentration of 100 μg·mL-1. In pumpkin leaves with/or without inoculation ofSphaerotheca fuliginea, osthol treatment induced the accumulation of chitinase andperoxidase and enhanced the transcription of chitinase gene in non-inoculated leaves. Thepotentiation of phenylalanine amonia-lyase activity in leaves by osthol application andfollowing inoculation was absent in that with inoculation or osthol treatment, indicatingthat induced PAL in osthol-pretreated plants was inoculation-mediated. In conclusion, thisnatural compound could induce resistance response in the plant against powdery mildew.

  20. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Xu, Hao; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects (1) plant volatiles emitted in response to damage by a specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae; (2) the attraction of the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata and (3) the performance of P. brassicae and C. glomerata. Plant volatiles were significantly induced by herbivory in both healthy and mildew-infected plants, but were quantitatively 41% lower for mildew-infected plants compared to healthy plants. Parasitoids strongly preferred Pieris-infested plants to dually-infested (Pieris + mildew) plants, and preferred dually infested plants over only mildew-infected plants. The performance of P. brassicae was unaffected by powdery mildew, but C. glomerata cocoon mass was reduced when parasitized caterpillars developed on mildew-infected plants. Thus, avoidance of mildew-infested plants may be adaptive for C. glomerata parasitoids, whereas P. brassicae caterpillars may suffer less parasitism on mildew-infected plants in nature. From a pest management standpoint, the concurrent presence of multiple plant antagonists can affect the efficiency of specific natural enemies, which may in turn have a negative impact on the regulation of pest populations. PMID:27043839

  1. Essential oils and whole milk in the control of soybean powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Perina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils (EOs and cow's whole milk (CWM in order to control soybean powdery mildew and to estimate the most effective concentrations of these natural products in reducing the disease severity on soybean plants. Three experiments were carried out: The first experiment evaluated and selected the most effective treatments to reduce the severity of soybean powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions; the second experiment evaluated the effect of CWM and EOs of citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, cinnamon and tea tree on the pathogen through the ultrastructure analysis of soybean leaflets infected by Erysiphe diffusa using the scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscope (LM technology. In the third experiment, the most effective products were tested at several concentrations in order to define the most effective concentrations to reduce disease severity under greenhouse conditions. The treatments CWM (100mL L-1 and EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus (1.0mL L-1, reduced the disease severity from 67 to 74%. Direct effects from all natural products tested on the structures of E. diffusa were demonstrated through the SEM and LM analysis. Concentrations at 1.5mL L-1 for EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus and also at 180mL L-1 for the treatment CWM were the most effective against E. diffusa on soybean.

  2. Identification of QTL for adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew in Chinese wheat landrace Pingyuan 50

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad; Azeem; Asad; Bin; Bai; Caixia; Lan; Jun; Yan; Xianchun; Xia; Yong; Zhang; Zhonghu; He

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major wheat diseases worldwide. The Chinese wheat landrace Pingyuan 50 has shown adult-plant resistance(APR)to powdery mildew in the field for over 60 years. To dissect the genetic basis of APR to powdery mildew in this cultivar, a mapping population of 137 double haploid(DH) lines derived from Pingyuan 50/Mingxian 169 was evaluated in replicated field trials for two years in Beijing(2009–2010 and 2010–2011) and one year in Anyang(2009–2010). A total of 540 polymorphic SSR markers were genotyped on the entire population for construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Three QTL were mapped on chromosomes 2BS(QPm.caas-2BS.2), 3BS(QPm.caas-3BS),and 5AL(QPm.caas-5AL) with the resistance alleles contributed by Pingyuan 50 explaining 5.3%,10.2%, and 9.1% of the phenotypic variances, respectively, and one QTL on chromosome 3BL(QPm.caas-3BL) derived from Mingxian 169 accounting for 18.1% of the phenotypic variance.QPm.caas-3BS, QPm.caas-3BL, and QPm.caas-5AL appear to be new powdery mildew APR loci.QPm.caas-2BS.2 and QPm.caas-5AL are possibly pleiotropic or closely linked resistance loci to stripe rust resistance QTL. Pingyuan 50 could be a potential genetic resource to facilitate breeding for improved APR to both powdery mildew and stripe rust.

  3. Two major er1 alleles confer powdery mildew resistance in three pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suli Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.. The use of cultivars carrying powdery mildew resistance alleles at the er1 locus is the most effective and economical means of controlling this disease. The objectives of this study were to screen Chinese elite pea cultivars for resistance to E. pisi and to identify the responsible gene at the er1 locus. Among the 37 pea cultivars tested, three (Yunwan 8, Yunwan 21, and Yunwan 23 were immune to E. pisi infection in phenotypic evaluations. The full-length cDNA sequences of the er1 candidate gene, PsMLO1, from the three resistant cultivars and control plants were analyzed. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of 10 clones revealed differences among the powdery mildew-resistant cultivars, susceptible controls, and wild-type cultivar Sprinter. The observed resistance in Yunwan 8 plants resulted from a point mutation (C → G at position 680 of PsMLO1 that introduced a stop codon, leading to premature termination of protein synthesis. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–1. Powdery mildew resistance in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants was caused by identical insertions or deletions in PsMLO1. Three distinct PsMLO1 transcripts were observed in Yunwan 21 and Yunwan 23 plants. These transcripts were characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions, respectively. The responsible resistance allele was identified as er1–2. We have characterized two important er1 alleles in three E. pisi-resistant pea cultivars bred in Yunnan Province, China. These cultivars represent important genetic resources for the breeding of powdery mildew-resistant pea cultivars.

  4. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  5. Cytological, genetic and agronomic characterization of a barley reciprocal translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré Martinez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations (RT) are one of the most common structural chromosomal rearrangements occurring in plant species. Spontaneous RT are extremely uncommon in cultivated barley. In fact, ‘Albacete’ is the only extensively cultivated barley variety known to carry a RT without any ma

  6. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A;

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of Tibetan wild barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-Yun; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-10-01

    One hundred and six accessions of wild barley collected from Tibet, China, including 50 entries of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS), 29 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon (HA), and 27 entries of the six-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme (HL), were analyzed using 30 SSR markers selected from the seven barley linkage groups for studying genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship of the three subspecies of Tibetan wild barley to cultivated barley in China. Over the 30 genetic loci that were studied, 229 alleles were identified among the 106 accessions, of which 70 were common alleles. H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum possesses about thrice more private alleles (2.83 alleles/locus) than HS (0.93 alleles/locus), whereas almost no private alleles were detected in HL. The genetic diversity among-subspecies is much higher than that within-subspecies. Generally, the genetic diversity among the three subspecies is of the order HS > HL > HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the 106 accessions showed that all the accessions of HS and HA was clustered in their own groups, whereas the 27 accessions of HL were separated into two groups (14 entries with group HS and the rest with group HA). This indicated that HL was an intermediate form between HS and HA. Based on this study and previous works, we suggested that Chinese cultivated barley might evolve from HS via HL to HA. PMID:17046592

  8. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  9. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  10. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    proteases which could be responsible for proteolysis of β-amylases in the infected barley. In Chapter 4, the in vitro secretome of F. graminearum on the 2-D gels in the presence of substrates of barley or wheat grain was studied. Totally 69 unique fungal proteins identified were mainly cell......Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  11. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    /dark rhythm of ABA levels which were, however, not influenced by Bgh inoculation. The expression of the two ABA biosynthetic genes HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was compromised, and transcript levels of the ABA conjugating HvBG7 enzyme were elevated in the HvNAC6 RNAi lines, but this effect was not clearly associated...

  12. Proton extrusion is an essential signalling component in the HR of epidermal single cells in the barley-powdery mildew interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, F.S.; Andersen, C.H.; Burhenne, K.;

    2000-01-01

    between the epidermal cell and underlying mesophyll cells; (2) scavenger treatment reduces HR; (3) treatment of leaves with low-pH (3.5) citrate and succinate buffers causes more cells to undergo HR in the compatible interaction, while treatment with the same buffers at pH 5.5 reduces the number of HR...

  13. Convergent evidence for a role of WIR1 proteins during the interaction of barley with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douchkov, Dimitar; Johrde, A.; Nowara, D.; Himmelbach, A.; Lueck, S.; Niks, R.E.; Schweizer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogen attack triggers a multifaceted defence response in plants that includes the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins and their corresponding transcripts. One of these transcripts encodes for WIR1, a small glycine- and proline-rich protein of unknown function that appears to be specific

  14. Uncinula necator (Schow Burr., the Causal Agent of Grape Powdery Mildew: Economic Impact, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miladinović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an overview of what we know at present about the patogen Uncinula necator and the disease powdery mildew of grapevine, i.e. its economic status, inoculum source, microclimate conditions, vine susceptibility and principles of its protection.Powdery mildew is a major grapevine disease in terms of losses. It infects the plant’s green parts, reducing its fertility, spoiling the quality of grapes and wine and ruining plant vitality. The process additionally affects subsequent vegetation seasons. The disease occursevery year and its intensity depends on a number of factors.It had long been assumed that overwintering mycelium was the primary source of inoculum. More recent research, however, has revealed a crucial role of cleistothecia in many vineyards. They were found in our vine-growing regions long ago but their true role in the epidemiology of disease has been explained only recently.Microclimate conditions considerably affect the abundance and vitality of cleistothecia and the pathogen’s infection potential. Outbreaks and intensity of disease both depend on them, while vine susceptibility plays another important role, depending on cultivarand plant ontogenesis. Grapevine is most sensitive during flowering and bunch formation when conditions are generally good for the disease to appear and spread.Temperature, precipitation and relative air humidity may limit the occurrence of powdery mildew, but extreme values in that respect are a rarity. Their normal scope is more or less favourable for the disease, especially in Podgorica vineyards.Knowing the pathogen, especially its infection potential, environmental conditions, dynamics of host development and timely and good quality protection of vines, both preventive and chemical, is crucial for grapevine protection.Prevention is important but treatments with fungicides are crucial for U. necator control, and they can either focus on destroying the inoculum and delaying mildew outbreaks

  15. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  16. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide;

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  17. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... spectrometry (Q-TOF) proved the identity of the HMW proteins and sequencing the digested peptides also revealed possible post translational modifications of the identified HMW hordeins. Our results strongly indicate that the variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins of barley affect both...

  18. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  19. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  20. New Products against Apple Scab and Powdery Mildew Attack in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MITRE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridizations represent one of the apple breeding methods by which a wide variability can be achieved, useful for creating new cultivars. The study of 2190 interspecific hybrids, obtained from 25 combinations among crab apple species (Malus coronaria, M. floribunda, M. niedzwetzkyana, M. zumi, M. prunifolia and different apple cultivars, points out a large variability of the F1 seedlings for several traits, with significant importance in apple breeding programs. The first year of fructification, as mean per hybrid combination, varied from 6 (M. zumi x ‘Jonathan’ to 9.3 years; the average hybrid’s age for fructification was 7.4 years. The size of fruits among families varied from 1.5 (‘Starkrimson’ x M. prunifolia to 4.0 (‘Reinette Baumann’ x M. zumi, the mean being settled at 2.8 (therefore below mark 3, meaning ‘small fruits’. The lowest infection rate both for apple scab and powdery mildew attack was noticed at hybrids from M. coronaria x ‘Reinette Baumann’. On the whole, the hybrids with genitors of ‘species x cultivars’ type have had an early fruiting and a better resistance to scab and powdery mildew, compared to the ones from ‘cultivars x species’ combinations. The large variability of the studied traits gave the possibility to identify offsprings with desirable characteristics on nine hybrid combinations. Among these, 53 elite plants were selected, with a strength of selection of 2.42%, therefore a relative low value, correlated with the peculiarities of the interspecific population and the selection criteria for dessert apple.

  1. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bert

    Full Text Available Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001-2005. Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70-90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60% than in less heavily infected trees (85%. Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production.

  2. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. PMID:23689747

  3. MALDI-based intact spore mass spectrometry of downy and powdery mildews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupová, Jana; Sedlářová, Michaela; Helmel, Michaela; Rehulka, Pavel; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Sebela, Marek

    2012-08-01

    Fast and easy identification of fungal phytopathogens is of great importance in agriculture. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for analyzing microorganisms. This study deals with a methodology for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of downy and powdery mildews representing obligate biotrophic parasites of crop plants. Experimental approaches for the MS analyses were optimized using Bremia lactucae, cause of lettuce downy mildew, and Oidium neolycopersici, cause of tomato powdery mildew. This involved determining a suitable concentration of spores in the sample, selection of a proper MALDI matrix, looking for the optimal solvent composition, and evaluation of different sample preparation methods. Furthermore, using different MALDI target materials and surfaces (stainless steel vs polymer-based) and applying various conditions for sample exposure to the acidic MALDI matrix system were investigated. The dried droplet method involving solvent evaporation at room temperature was found to be the most suitable for the deposition of spores and MALDI matrix on the target and the subsequent crystallization. The concentration of spore suspension was optimal between 2 and 5 × 10(9) spores per ml. The best peptide/protein profiles (in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and number of peaks) were obtained by combining ferulic and sinapinic acids as a mixed MALDI matrix. A pretreatment of the spore cell wall with hydrolases was successfully introduced prior to MS measurements to obtain more pronounced signals. Finally, a novel procedure was developed for direct mass spectra acquisition from infected plant leaves. PMID:22899506

  4. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Didier; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Capdevielle, Xavier; Dugravot, Aline; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001–2005). Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area) at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70–90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60%) than in less heavily infected trees (85%). Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production. PMID:27177029

  5. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

  6. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat.......001) in faeces of barley compared to wheat-fed pigs. Ileal eubacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and Roseburia spp. linearly increased from period 1 to 8 for both cereals (P intestine, with barley increasing...... the Lactobacillus spp.:Enterobacteriaceae ratio, underlining its potential to beneficially manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem....

  7. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  8. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  9. Biological control of the grapevine diseases 'grey mold' and 'powdery mildew' by Bacillus B27 and B29 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maachia, Ben; Rafik, Errakhi; Chérif, M; Nandal, Preeti; Mohapatra, Trupti; Bernard, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Uncinula necator and Botrytis cinerea are the most destructive pathogens of the grapevine in Tunisia and elsewhere. We used two strains of Bacillus subtilis group, B27 and B29 to control powdery mildew and the grey mold disease of the grapevine. Green house experiments showed that B29 and B27 strains of the bacteria efficiently reduced the severity of powdery mildew up to 50% and 60%, respectively. Further, they decreased Botrytis cinerea development on grape leaf by 77% and 99%, respectively. The mode of action has been shown to be chitinolytic. These two bacteria showed significant production of total proteins discharged into the culture medium. Determination of some chitinolytic enzymes revealed the involvement of N-acetyl glucosaminidase (Nagase), the chitin-1,4-chitobiosidase (Biase) and endochitinase in degrading the mycelium of B. cinerea. PMID:25757242

  10. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed Sourour; Bouharb Ameni; Cherif Mejda

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel) through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours), on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours) and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours). Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germinat...

  11. Resistance against barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in West-European spring barley germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Niks, Rients; Walther, Ursula; Jaiser, Heidi; Martinez, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2000-01-01

    International audience The level and type of resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) was determined in modern spring barley germplasm. In field trials all over Europe most accessions were in some locations and years significantly less infected than the moderately resistant reference ,Grit'. Differentiating P. hordei isolates indicated that most accessions carried hypersensitivity (Rph) genes. A virulence survey indicated that among the known resistance genes, only Rph7 is still full...

  12. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  13. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Veerappan, Karpagam; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L.) and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs). Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon. PMID:27311063

  14. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L. and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs. Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  15. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eNesler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB, against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  16. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Veerappan, Karpagam; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L.) and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs). Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  17. Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Majka, M; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (S(l)S(l)) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid forms (2n = 6x = 42, UUSSRR) showed the presence of product that corresponded to Pm13 marker and the lower infection level compared to susceptible model, respectively. This study also describes the transfer of Ae. variabilis Eig. (2n = 4x = 28, U(v)U(v)S(v)S(v)) chromosomes, carrying powdery mildew resistance, into triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) using Ae. variabilis × S. cereale amphiploid forms. The individual chromosomes of Ae. variabilis, triticale 'Lamberto' and hybrids were characterized by genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH/FISH). The chromosome configurations of obtained hybrid forms were studied at first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) using GISH. The statistical analysis showed that the way of S-genome chromosome pairing and transmission to subsequent hybrid generations was diploid-like and had no influence on chromosome pairing of triticale chromosomes. The cytogenetic study of hybrid forms were supported by the marker-assisted selection using Pm13 marker and visual evaluation of natural infection by Blumeria graminis, that allowed to select the addition or substitution lines of hybrids carrying chromosome 3S(v) which were tolerant to the powdery mildew infection.

  18. Phylogeny and Cross-infectivity of Powdery Mildew Isolates (Podosphaera fuliginea s. lat.) on Cosmos and Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between the phylogeny and infectivity of isolates of Podosphaera fuliginea s. lat. (= Sphaerotheca fuliginea s. lat.) from cosmos and cucumber, more than 50 powdery mildew isolates from these two plants were subjected to nucleotide sequencing or PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and cross-inoculation tests. The isolates from both cosmos and cucumber are genetically monotypic, and there are six nucleotide substitutions in the rDN...

  19. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Veerappan, Karpagam; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L.) and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, ‘SCNU1154’, ‘Edisto47’, ‘MR-1’, and ‘PMR5’. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs). Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon. PMID:27311063

  20. Gene expression profiling related to powdery mildew resistance in wheat with the method of suppression subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    "Bainong 3217×Mardler" BC5F4 wheat line at the initial stage of inoculation with powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis DC) was used to construct a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. Totally 760 ESTs were obtained through sequencing. Similarity analysis of ESTs based on BLASTn and BLASTx with the sequences in GenBank, in combination with macroarray differential screening, revealed that 199 ESTs of 65 kinds were known to be functionally disease resistance related. Based on the gene expression profiling in the present study, it is postulated that salicylic acid (SA) and MAP-related signal transduction pathways were involved in powdery mildew resistance in wheat. System acquired resistance genes were predominant in terms of kinds and quantity. With the initiation of cell defense reaction, the genes conferring anti-oxida- tion substances were largely expressed and thus cell protection mechanism was activated. Much evidence revealed that phenylpropanes metabolic pathway was involved in phytoalexin synthesis in wheat powdery mildew resistance. Genes conferring some enzymes of structural modification of cell walls and proteinase inhibitors inhibiting pathogen growth were also detected. The genes controlling a few proteinases (mainly cysteine proteinase) had a considerable redundancy of expression.

  1. Mutation of the Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Enzyme Cytochrome P450 83A1 Monooxygenase Increases Camalexin Accumulation and Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simu; Bartnikas, Lisa M; Volko, Sigrid M; Ausubel, Frederick M; Tang, Dingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1), which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  2. Mutation of the glucosinolate biosynthesis enzyme cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase increases camalexin accumulation and powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simu eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1, which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew.

  3. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus

  4. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were......Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...

  5. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  6. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley

    OpenAIRE

    H. Samarah, Nezar

    2005-01-01

    International audience Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Mediterranean regions undergoes drought stress during the grain-filling period. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought stress on grain growth and yield of barley. Plants were exposed to three drought treatments at the beginning of grain filling: (1) well-watered at 100% field capacity, (2) mild drought stress at 60% field capacity, and (3) severe drought stress at 20% field capacity until grain maturity....

  7. Volatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms

    OpenAIRE

    Barsics, Fanny; Fiers, Marie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root...

  8. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  9. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  10. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  11. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  12. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wanic; Magdalena Jastrzębska; Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale), when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley), when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full ...

  13. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  14. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  15. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    using N-15-labelled residues. Field pea fixed 75% of its N requirement and the N-2 fixation almost balanced the N removed with the seeds. The barley crop recovered 80% of the N-15-labelled fertilizer N supplied and the N in the barley grain corresponded to 80% of the fertilizer N taken up by the crop....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  16. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  17. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  18. Genetic Diversity in A Core Subset of Wild Barley Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley [Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (C. Koch Thell.] is a part of the primary gene pool with valuable sources of beneficial genes for barley improvement. This study attempted to develop a core subset of 269 accessions representing 16 countries from the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC collection of 3,782 accessions, and to characterize them using barley simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Twenty-five informative primer pairs were applied to screen all samples and 359 alleles were detected over seven barley chromosomes. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.004 to 0.708 and averaged 0.072. More than 24% or 7% SSR variation resided among accessions of 16 countries or two regions, respectively. Accessions from Israel and Jordan were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Lebanon and Greece were most differentiated. Four and five optimal clusters of accessions were obtained using STRUCTURE and BAPS programs and partitioned 16.3% and 20.3% SSR variations, respectively. The five optimal clusters varied in size from 15 to 104 and two clusters had only country-specific accessions. A genetic separation was detected between the accessions east and west of the Zagros Mountains only at the country, not the individual, level. These SSR patterns enhance our understanding of the wild barley gene pool, and are significant for conserving wild barley germplasm and exploring new sources of useful genes for barley improvement.

  19. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

  1. Prediction Model for Predicting Powdery Mildew using ANN for Medicinal Plant—Picrorhiza kurrooa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivling, V. D.; Ghanshyam, C.; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Radhika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Atul; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Plant disease fore casting system is an important system as it can be used for prediction of disease, further it can be used as an alert system to warn the farmers in advance so as to protect their crop from being getting infected. Fore casting system will predict the risk of infection for crop by using the environmental factors that favor in germination of disease. In this study an artificial neural network based system for predicting the risk of powdery mildew in Picrorhiza kurrooa was developed. For development, Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm was used having a single hidden layer of ten nodes. Temperature and duration of wetness are the major environmental factors that favor infection. Experimental data was used as a training set and some percentage of data was used for testing and validation. The performance of the system was measured in the form of the coefficient of correlation (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error and root mean square error. For simulating the network an inter face was developed. Using this interface the network was simulated by putting temperature and wetness duration so as to predict the level of risk at that particular value of the input data.

  2. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  3. QTL molecular marker location of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The cucumber lines, S94 (Northern China open-field type, powdery mildew (PM) susceptible) and S06 (European greenhouse type, PM resistant), and their F6:7 populations were used to investigate PM re-sistance under seedling spray inoculation in 2005/Autumn and 2006/Spring. QTL analysis was under-taken based on a constructed molecular linkage map of the corresponding F6 population using com-posite interval mapping. A total of four QTLs (pm1.1, pm2.1, pm4.1 and pm6.1) for PM resistance were identified and located on LG 1, 2, 4 and 6, respectively, explaining 5.2%-21.0% of the phenotypic variation. Three consistent QTLs (pm1.1, pm2.1 and pm4.1) were detected under the two test conditions. The QTL pm6.1 was only identified in 2005/Autumn. The total phenotypic variation explained by the QTLs was 52.0% and 42.0% in 2005/Autumn and 2006/Spring, respectively. Anchor markers tightly linked to those loci (<5 cM) could lay a basis for both molecular marker-assisted breeding and map-based gene cloning of the PM-resistance gene in cucumber.

  4. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  5. Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Saghai Maroof, M A; Biyashev, R M; Yang, G P; Zhang, Q.; Allard, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the extent of genetic variation in barley simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and to study the evolutionary dynamics of SSR alleles. SSR polymorphisms were resolved by the polymerase chain reaction with four pairs of primers. In total, 71 variants were observed in a sample of 207 accessions of wild and cultivated barley. Analyses of wheat-barley addition lines and barley doubled haploids identified these variants (alleles) with four loci, each located on a diffe...

  6. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  7. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  8. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  9. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  10. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  11. Breeding of value added barley by mutation and protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has been bred for food, feed and beverages over the past 5000 years by selecting for spontaneous mutations and random hybrids. Crosses with defined parents (since the turn of the century) and induced mutations (since 1927) have provided variability in selecting for novel varieties. Genetic transformation of barley has been a routine procedure since 1994 and permits the introduction of tailored genes for adding quality values to the grain. It complements, but does not replace, existing efficient breeding methods. Radiation and chemically induced mutations, as well as genes introduced by transformation, have to be fitted into the genome, which may take 50 years of breeding effort and testing for agronomic and industrial performance. The mutation breeding strategy for proanthocyanidin free malt barley, which has led to the commercial varieties Caminant and NFC 8808, is presented. As an example of the breeding strategy to improve barley endosperm cell wall degradation, a description is given of the protein engineering of a (1-3, 1-4)-β-glucanase towards heat stability and the insertion of the gene encoding this enzyme by genetic transformation. It is expected that such barley varieties will extend the use of the grain for beverage and feed uses as well as for the production of renewable raw materials by malting and mashing processes. (author). 34 refs, 1 tab

  12. Simulation of in situ Root Decomposition of Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jing-gang; Duan Xue-jiao; Nooralla Juma

    2014-01-01

    Root C and root-released C are closely related to soil organic matter content and mechanistic simulation modeling has proven to be useful for studying root and soil organic C dynamics in plant-soil ecosystems. A computer model was designed in this study to simulate the dynamics of root C and root released C decomposition in situ and the dynamics of different forms of C in soil under two barley cultivars (Abee and Samson). The results showed that on the 15th day, about 48%of the total 14C fixed in roots was respired for Abee and 42%for Samson. This indicated that the turnover rate of root 14C of Abee was higher than that of Samson. The percentage of water-soluble organic 14C, active microbial 14C and stable 14C over the total fixed 14C were not different between two barley cultivars. From the analysis of the model for two barley cultivars, the total 14C transformed into different soil pools (excluding CO2-C and root C pools) for the two barley cultivars was similar (26%for Abee and 25%for Samson), but the difference of 14C remaining in soil between the two barley cultivars was mainly because of the difference of 14C remaining in roots which have not been yet decomposed. Some of the information which could not be measured in the laboratory conditions was obtained in this study.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-03-01

    Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Rosset Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC, with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  16. Supplementary List No. 1 (to Master List of Barley Genes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1982-01-01

    The present list of about 150 symbols for genes for reaction to powdery mildew genes is prepared from the gene symbols listed by Nilan (1964), to which we have added the gene symbols that we have found in the literature since about 1960. The list is arranged so that all Reg- symbols are mentioned......-synonym and/or a reference. Within each group of symbols the list is arranged according to locus designation and according to allele designation, both in numerical or alphabetical order....

  17. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  18. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  19. Foliar Treatments of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid for Control of Common Scab in Potato Have Beneficial Effects on Powdery Scab Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Katherine Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment.

  20. Foliar treatments of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for control of common scab in potato have beneficial effects on powdery scab control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah Katherine; Tegg, Robert Stephen; Corkrey, Ross; Wilson, Calum Rae

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that applications of the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) to the foliage of potato plants can reduce common scab. Here field and glasshouse trials suggest that 2,4-D foliar treatments may also reduce the biologically distinct tuber disease, powdery scab. Significant correlations between suppression of common and powdery scab from the field trials suggested an interaction between the two diseases or possible additional broad spectrum mechanisms of enhanced defence against pathogen invasion provided by 2,4-D treatment. PMID:25009832

  1. Identification and Mapping of Two New Genes Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew from Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Di Liu; Hai-Quan Zhang; Na-Xin Huo; Rong-Hua Zhou; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Two powdery mildew resistance genes were Identified from Aegilops tauschii accessions Y201 and Y212and mapped using two different F2 populations derived from the crosses between susceptible accession Y2272 and Y201, and susceptible accession Y2263 and Y212. Genetic analysis of resistance to powdery mildew indicated that the resistance of Y201 was controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas the resistance of Y212 was controlled by a single recessive gene. We have temporarily designated these genes as PmY201 and PmY212, respectively. By bulk segregation analysis, six microsatellite markers including Xgwm174, cfd26, cfd57, cfd102, Xgwm583 and Xgwm639 were found to be linked to PmY201 with genetic distances of 5.2, 7.7, 9.6, 12.5, 20.2 and 22.1 cM, respectively. Five SSR markers, including cfd57, Xgwm182,cfd7, cfd102, and cfd12, were found to be linked to PmY212 with distances of 5.6, 7.2, 11.5, 14.7, and 18.5 cM,respectively. According to the locations of the linked markers, the two resistance genes were located in the 5DL region. Based on the chromosomal locations and the resistance patterns of the two genes, we propose that PmY201 and PmY212 are two novel powdery mildew resistance genes, and are suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  2. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  3. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    from barley coleoptiles. P9.3 and P7.3 had Reinheitszahl values of 3.31 and 2.85 and specific activities (with 2,2'-azino-di-[3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], pH 5.5, as the substrate) of 11 and 79 units/mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption....../ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry peptide analysis identified the P9.3 peroxidase activity as due to Prx7. Tissue and subcellular accumulation of Prx7 was studied using activity-stained isoelectric focusing gels and immunoblotting. The peroxidase activity due to Prx7 accumulated in barley leaves 24 h...... is responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal compounds known as hordatines, which accumulate abundantly in barley coleoptiles....

  4. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN3, MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  5. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants. PMID:26540161

  6. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  8. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  9. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba;

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  10. BACILLUS SUBTILIS FOR THE CONTROL OF POWDERY MILDEW ON CUCUMBER AND ZUCCHINI SQUASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTIOL WAGNER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of concentrated metabolites of Bacillus subtilis - CMBS - (5,000 µg/mL one and 24 h before or after inoculation of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (3 x 104 conidia/mL reduced the number of lesions on cucumber leaves by 90-99%. The average number of lesions on control plants was 16.7 per leaf. A wettable powder product formulated with cells (10% and metabolites (10% of B. subtilis (WPBS, and CMBS sprayed on cucumber plants (1,000 µg/mL and 10,000 µg/mL twice a week totally controlled powdery mildew. In the control treatment, 18 days after the first spray, the percent leaf surface covered by lesions was 99.0 and 46.7%, on the cotyledonary and expanded leaves, respectively. In the control treatment, 30 days after the first spray, the percent leaf surface with lesions was 26.1%, while leaves sprayed with CMBS presented no lesions. The fresh weight per plant was 4.3 g in the control treatment; 12.2 g, and 10.2 g for plants sprayed with CMBS at the concentration of 1,000 and 10,000 µg/mL, respectively; and 9.7 g and 10.1 g for plants sprayed with WPBS 1,000 and 10,000 µg/mL, respectively. For zucchini squash, CMBS (5,000 µg/mL sprayed every 2, 4, and 6 days showed reductions in lesioned leaf surface of 100.0, 98.3, and 94.7%, respectively.

  11. TOTAL IMPORTS AND IMPORT PATTERNS OF BARLEY INTO JAPAN: Implications of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Makus, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    A two-stage budgeting procedure was employed to analyze (1) the Japanese import demand for barley and (2) allocation of Japanese barley imports between North America (Canada and the United States) and Australia. It was found that the import demand for barley was price inelastic and corn was a substitute for barley. Japanese barley imports were also influenced by size of the cattle herd and the number of cattle slaughtered. Price competition played a significant role in import allocation and b...

  12. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  13. The Lr46 gene conditions partial adult-plant resistance to yellow rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew in Thatcher wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease resistance is a critical goal for many wheat improvement programs. Wheat cultivars are often attacked by multiple diseases, including the rusts and powdery mildew. F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Thatcher*3/CI13227 that had been previously characterized as having...

  14. Genetic modification of European winegrapes with genes from an American wild relative confers resistance to the major diseases powdery and downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete, downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). These pathogens, endemic to North America, were introduced into Europe in t...

  15. Effects of Powdery Mildew on 1 000-Kernel Weight, Crude Protein Content and Yield of Winter Wheat in Three Consecutive Growing Seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-ren; YAO Dong-ming; DUAN Xia-yu; LIU Wei; FAN Jie-ru; DING Ke-jian; ZHOU Yi-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impact posed by wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) on the yield and yield components in different epidemic seasons, ifeld trials were conducted in three growing seasons, 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, in Langfang City, Hebei Province, China. The relationships between 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield and disease index (DI), as well as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) were studied. The models of the percentage of loss of 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content and yield were constructed using DI at critical point (CP) of growth stages (GS) and AUDPC in the three growing seasons, respectively. The CPs for estimating 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield of wheat caused by powdery mildew were GS 11.1, GS 10.5.3 and GS 10.5.3, respectively. Models based on DI at CP to estimate the percentage of loss of 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield were better than models based on AUDPC. And models of the percentage of loss of 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content and yield for 2011-2012 season were signiifcant different from these for 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. These results indicated that besides powdery mildew, weather conditions also had inlfuence on 1 000-kernel weight, crude protein content of grain and yield loss of wheat when powdery mildew occurred.

  16. Mapping of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV and powdery mildew resistant gene in black gram [Vigna mungo(L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Anjum,K. Sanjeev Gupta and Subhojit Datta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Black gram, one of the important species of Asian Vigna group of grain legumes, is widely grown in South Asia and is animportant source of dietary protein. The two main biological constraints particularly Mungbean Yellow Mosaic IndiaVirus(MYMIV and powdery mildew pose a major threat to black gram production in India. Several reports on mappingmungbean yellow mosaic virus disease and powdery mildew resistant genes on black gram using parental lines suitable forcountries viz. Australia and Japan are available. However, to achieve precision in plant breeding, it is important that mappingof traits are done using parental lines which are best suited for the target area/country. Microsatellite markers facilitateeffective screening of mapping population and marker assisted selection for target traits such as disease resistance in manycrops. Linkage mapping for identification of genes conferring resistance to these target traits in the crop is underway. Theparents selected for MYMIV mapping population are DPU 88-31 as resistant source and AKU 9904 as susceptible one. Forestablishment of powdery mildew mapping population RBU 38 was used as resistant and DPU 88-31 as the susceptible one.Parental polymorphism was assessed using 363 SSR and 24 RGH markers. Efforts are being made to identify the markerstightly linked to the genes responsible for resistance which will be useful for marker assisted breeding for developingMYMIV and powdery mildew resistant cultivars in black gram.

  17. Application of a new approach for characterization and denomination of races of cucurbit powdery mildews – a case study on the Czech pathogen population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Gc) and Podosphaera xanthii (Px) (Ascomycetes, Erysiphaceae) are the most important fungal species causing cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM), a serious disease of field and greenhouse cucurbits. Both species are highly variable, as indicated by the existence of large number ...

  18. THE FIRST REPORT OF POWDERY MILDEW AND RUST FUNGI IN THE TERRITORY OF RESERVED NATURAL BOUNDARY «KISHEVO» (ODESSA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytnianska V. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 20 species of obligate parasitic phytotrophic Erysiphales and Pucciniales fungi had been found in the reserved natural boundary «Kishevo» (Baltskyi region, Odessa oblast. These species parasitized on 29 species of host plants of 24 genera and 14 families. This is the first report of species composition of powdery mildew and rust fungi in this boundary

  19. Powdery mildew of ornamental species caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli in Brazil Oídio em plantas ornamentais, causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli, no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ailton Reis; Leonardo Silva Boiteux; Milton Luiz Paz-Lima

    2007-01-01

    Oidiopsis haplophylli (syn. Oidiopsis sicula) was identified as the causal agent of powdery mildew diseases occurring on five ornamental species in Brazil. This disease was observed in plastic house-grown lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum: Gentianaceae), in nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus: Tropaeolaceae) cultivated under open field conditions and in greenhouse-grown calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica: Araceae), impatiens (Impatiens balsamina: Balsaminaceae) and balloon plant (Asclepias physocarp...

  20. Control of powdery mildew on glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurms, K.V.; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very serious disease affecting glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands. Control is limited because of resistance to existing fungicides. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and soybean oil (SBO) emulsions were evaluated for control of PM in roses and tomatoes. Both AM

  1. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  2. Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L H; Osmeloski, J F; Wettlaufer, S H; Galston, A W

    1987-01-01

    In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

  3. Introgression of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Conferred by Chromosome 2R by Crossing Wheat Nullisomic 2D with Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using the nullisomic back-cross procedure, four wheat-rye chromosome substitution 2R (2D) lines with different agronomic performance, designated WR02-145-1, WR01-145-2, WR02-145-3, and WR02-145-4, were produced from a cross between 2D nullisomic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Xiaoyan 6") and rye (Secale cereale L. cv. "German White"). The chromosomal constitution of 2n=42=21 in WR02-145 lines was confirmed by cytological and molecular cytogenetic methods. Using genomic in situ hybridization on root tip chromosome preparations, a pair of intact rye chromosomes was detected in the WR02-145 lines. PCR using chromosome-specific primers confirmed the presence of 2R chromosomes of rye in these wheat-rye lines, indicating that WR02-145 lines are disomic chromosome substitution lines 2R (2D). The WR02-145 lines are resistant to the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici E. Marchal) isolates prevalent in northern China and may possess gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differ from the previously identified Pm7 gene located on chromosome 2RL. The newly developed "Xiaoyan 6"- "German White"2R (2D) chromosome substitution lines are genetically stable, show desirable agronomic traits, and are expected to be useful in wheat improvement.

  4. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  5. Molecular Characterization of a New Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Translocation Line with Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Stripe Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixian Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line CH13-21 was selected from the progenies derived from a cross between wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7047 and wheat line Mianyang11. CH13-21 was characterized by using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, multicolor-GISH (mc-GISH, multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH and chromosome-specific molecular markers. When inoculated with stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, CH13-21 displayed novel resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust which inherited from its Thinopyrum parent. The chromosomal counting analyses indicated that CH13-21 has 42 chromosomes, with normal bivalent pairing at metaphase I of meiosis. GISH probed by Th. intermedium genomic DNA showed that CH13-21 contained a pair of wheat-Th. intermedium translocated chromosomes. Sequential mc-FISH analyses probed by pSc119.2 and pAs1 clearly revealed that chromosome arm 6BS of CH13-21 was replaced by Thinopyrum chromatin in the translocation chromosome. The molecular markers analysis further confirmed that the introduced Th. intermedium chromatin in CH13-21 belonged to the long arm of homoeologous group 6 chromosome. Therefore, CH13-21 was a new T6BS.6Ai#1L compensating Robertsonian translocation line. It concludes that CH13-21 is a new genetic resource for wheat breeding programs providing novel variation for disease resistances.

  6. Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L. H.; Osmeloski, J. F.; Wettlaufer, S. H.; Galston, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

  7. Gel-combustion synthesis of CoSb2O6 and its reduction to powdery Sb2Co alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA JOVIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb2Co alloy in powdery form was synthesized via reduction with gaseous hydrogen of the oxide CoSb2O6, obtained by the citrate gel-combustion technique. The precursor was an aqueous solution of antimony nitrate, cobalt nitrate and citric acid. The precursor solution with mole ratio Co(II/Sb(V of 1:2 was gelatinized by evaporation of water. The gel was heated in air up to the temperature of self-ignition. The product of gel combustion was a mixture of oxides and it had to be additionally thermally treated in order to be converted to pure CoSb2O6. The reduction of CoSb2O6 by gaseous hydrogen yielded powdery Sb2Co as the sole phase. The process of oxide reduction to alloy was controlled by thermogravimetry, while X-ray diffractometry was used to control the phase compositions of both the oxides and alloys.

  8. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  9. Physiological tests for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological tests for characterizing drought tolerance in barley (H. vulgare L.) and durum wheat (T. durum L.) were evaluated. These tests involved: 1) germination in osmotic solution (-13 atm by d-mannitol); 2) thermal stress on seedlings (42 deg. C for 5 hours); 3) stability of the cellular membrane under osmotic stress (PEG 6000 at 43%). For both species genotypic variability which was associated with drought tolerance in the field was identified by the laboratory evaluation techniques. Based on these procedures, the two-row barley types were more drought tolerant than six-row types. In durum wheat, only some local populations and some varieties, bred in drought environments, showed high laboratory test values. Weak and not significant correlations were found between the physiological tests indicating that the genetic mechanisms which control these traits may be independent and process-specific. Yield trials, in barley, have been carried out in environments with drought conditions and the correlation between grain and physiological tests were significant. Of the three procedures evaluated in this study, the dry matter increase after a period of thermal stress and electrolyte leakage seemed to be most reliable and potentially useful for screening for drought tolerance in barley and durum wheat. (author). 13 refs, 6 tabs

  10. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore the obje...... modifications of the identified hordein which needs further investigation. Our results strongly indicate genetic variations in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the amino acid compositions and baking quality.......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the total AA composition and the hordein pattern indicated that there are genetic variations not only in the distributions of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins affecting the AA compositions. The free AA composition in the grain may also provide us...

  11. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    Full Text Available Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling. Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%, intron retention (32%-34% and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21% were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  12. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  13. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  14. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  15. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially the...

  16. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  17. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing;

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...

  18. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  19. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    In vitro digestibility of protein was measured with pepsin/pancreatin in 321 spring barley lines grown in the field. The variation in digestibility was far less than the variation in the protein content. A small environmental influence on the digestibility was found. Two entries had slightly...

  20. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    , the field-grown barleys per se differed too little for the accuracy to be confirmed. The other cereals tested, oats, rye, maize, wheat, and rice, gave unsatisfactory results with pepsin/pancreatin, and also with pepsin, pancreatin, or pronase used separately. The ranking of the cereals according to in vitro...

  1. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementa...

  2. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.;

    2009-01-01

    with amphiphilicity and low abundance of membrane proteins. A fraction enriched in plasma membranes was prepared from embryos dissected from 18 h germinated barley seeds using aqueous two-phase partitioning. Reversed-phase chromatography on C-4 resin performed in micro-spin columns with stepwise elution by 2-propanol...

  3. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  4. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  5. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  6. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  7. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 400, subpart G. (b) Approved malting variety. A variety of barley specified as... and Drug Administration when determining concentrations of mycotoxins or other substances or... organization of the United States for substances or conditions, including mycotoxins, that are identified...

  8. 新疆甜瓜(Cucumis meloL.)白粉病抗性育种研究%A Research on Powdery Mildew Resistance Breeding of Xiniiang Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文强; 王豪杰; 李俊华; 伊鸿平; 冯炯鑫; 王登明; 张学军; 李寐华; 张龑

    2011-01-01

    [目的]选育具有白粉病抗性的新疆甜瓜育种材料.[方法]以1个肉质松脆、高感白粉病的新疆甜瓜品种与高抗白粉病的美国Cantaloupe类型甜瓜品种为原始亲本进行杂交,采用植株田间自然抗性筛选结合果实品质鉴定的方法,经回交和自交,转育肉质松脆、高抗白粉病的新疆甜瓜育种材料.[结果]选育出个3高抗白粉病新疆甜瓜类型纯系材料.[结论]利用引进抗性资源进行新疆甜瓜白粉病抗性转育是必要且可行的途径.%[Objective] The project aims to breed new Xingjiang melon lines with resistance to powdery mildew. [ Method ] One Xinjiang Melon variety with highly susceptible to powdery mildew and one American cantaloupe melon variety with high resistance to powdery mildew were taken as the primary parents and then they were upgraded. Using the method of plant resistance screen in field combined with fruit quality screen after backcross and sellings, a new Xinjiang melon variety with high resistance to powder mildew and crisp and sweet flesh was transformed. [ Result ] Three Xinjiang Melon lines with high resistance to powdery mildew were obtained. [ Conclusion ] The way of breeding Xinjiang melon lines with the introduced resources with high resistance to powdery mildew is necessary and feasible.

  9. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  10. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  11. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  12. Towards a more sustainable agriculture: wheat mycorrhization to protect against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Reignault, Ph; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj

    2013-01-01

    One of the means to reduce the use of pesticides, which are harmful for humans and the environment, is the development of alternative methods to control crop diseases. In this context, arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation possesses a great potential for crop production by a more sustainable agriculture. Our work aims to (i) determine the optimal conditions for wheat mycorrhization (ii) study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on a foliar disease of wheat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, Bgt), (iii) evaluate the stimulation of natural defences of wheat (Triticuma estivum). Therefore, this work consisted firstly of defining the parameters, affecting the establishment of wheat mycorrhization, such as: phosphorus concentration (62, 12.5, 6.2 mg/L), culture time (4, 5, 6, 7 weeks), arbuscular mycorrhizal species used as an inoculum (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Glomus masseae (Gm) and the mixture of (Ri+Gm)) and wheat cultivars (Orvantis and Lord, sensitive and moderately resistant to Bgt, respectively). Secondly, the protective effect of mycorrhizal inoculation against Bgt was estimated by comparing infection rates of wheat seedlings subjected and non-subjected to AMF. Finally, to better understand the biochemical mechanisms involved in the protection, two enzymatic activities described as defense markers [lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxidase (POX)] were also assessed. Extensive mycorrhization (about 31%) was obtained at P/5 concentration (12.5 mg/L) when wheat plants were 6 weeks old. The highest colonization rate was obtained when wheat was inoculated with Gm compared to SZE and Ri. The higher resistance level of Lord wheat cultivar against Bgt did not affect the mycorrhizal rate compared to the more susceptible cultivar Orvantis. Our work showed a significant protection level in mycorrhizal (M) wheat plants against Bgt, estimated to about 25 and 43% with Ri and SZE respectively compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) Orvantis plants. The

  13. Accumulation of genes for susceptibility to rust fungi for which barley is nearly a nonhost results in two barley lines with extreme multiple susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza, G.A.; Jafary, H.; Niks, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Nonhost resistance is the most common type of resistance in plants. Understanding the factors that make plants susceptible or resistant may help to achieve durably effective resistance in crop plants. Screening of 109 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions in the seedling stage indicated that barley

  14. Development and Identification of Wheat Haynaldia villosa 6DL/6VS Translocation Lines with Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Chen Xiao; Xin Zhiyong; Ma Youzhi; Xu Huijun

    2000-01-01

    Wheat-H. villosa 6DL/6VS translocation lines, Pm97033, Pm97034 and Pm97035 developed by(TH3/4 ×Wan7107)F1 young embryo and anther culture, were evaluated by powdery mildew resistance test, cytogenetic analysis, biochemical analysis, and in situ hybridization respectively. Pm97033 and its hybrids crossing with susceptible cultivar Wan7107, 6D/6V substitution line and double ditelocentric lines (DDT) of Chinese Spring(C S)6A, 6B and 6D were all immune to powdery mildew through the growing period. It was with the somatic chromosome number of 42 and twenty-one bivalents at M I in pollen mother cells (PMCs M I ). The configurations at pMCs M I in hybrids F1 of Pm97033 with either susceptible cultivar or 6D/6V substitution line were 21 biva lents. In hybrids F1 between Pm97033 and C S 6A, 6B DDT, twenty bivalents and one allo-trivalent (t I t)composing of one univalent and two telocentric chromosomes were observed at PMCs M I . The configuration between Pm97033 and C S 6D DDT was twenty bivalents, one allo-bivalent (I t)and one telocentric chromosome. The results of cytogenetic analysis showed that Pm97033 was a translocation line , and the translocation was related to chromosome 6D. The results of in situ hybridization between probe labeled with biotin of H. villosa total DNA and the chromosomes showed that the three lines were all Robertsonian translocation lines. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)isozyrme analyses showed that the translocation lines expressed the same pattern with C S,and without the specific band of 6VL of H. villas compared with substitution line and addition line. In α-zone of gliadin-2 pattern, all lines resistant to powdery mildew expressed an identical specific band encoded by the gene located on 6VS of H. villosa. All the cytogenetic and biochemical analysis confirmed that Pm97033, etc. were 6DL/6VS translocation lines with the substitution of 6VS for 6DS.

  15. Inheritance of microsatellite alleles in pedigrees of Latvian barley varieties and related European ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, T G; Rashal, I; Röder, M S

    2003-02-01

    Genetic diversity and inheritance of 65 microsatellite (SSR) loci were studied in a set of 37 barley varieties involved in the pedigrees of seven Latvian barley varieties: Abava, Agra, Balga, Imula, Linga, Priekulu 1 and Stendes. Cluster analysis divided all the varieties into two large groups according to their geographic distribution. Moravian, Swedish and Danish varieties clustered separately from varieties from Norway and Finland. The pattern of subgroups of both European and Latvian varieties was in accordance with their pedigree information. Graphical genotypes of microsatellite alleles of all seven barley chromosomes were determined for all the 37 varieties studied. Parental inheritance and transmission of microsatellite alleles through the generations of the pedigrees were analysed. The results confirmed the importance and informative value of microsatellite markers for genetic studies in barley and their utility for barley breeding and other applications in fundamental and applied barley genetics. PMID:12589555

  16. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  17. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  18. Identification of Co-Segregating RAPD Marker Linked to Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm 18 in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-li; GU Feng; LI Tao; GAO Ju-rong; WANG Hong-gang

    2004-01-01

    The Pm18 gene of wheat confers resistance to the powdery mildew which is oneof the most serious diseases in many regions of the world. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to develop randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Pml8 gene. Three hundred and twenty decamer primers were screened and one of them was identified as RAPD marker (S411600) linked to Pml8. Using the F2 mapping population from the cross Pml8 × Chancellor, the marker S411600 was shown to co-segregate with the gene Pml8. This marker can be conveniently used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs for the identification or pyramiding of Pml8 with other resistance genes.

  19. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2013-01-01

    and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER...... the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effector proteins into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides....... Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol....

  20. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  1. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... initial decomposition of residues was remineralized later in the barley than in the pea residue treatment. Balances were established for the amounts of barley and mature pea residue N remaining in the 0-10 cm soil layer and taken up in ryegrass after 2 years of decomposition. About 24% of the barley...

  2. Genotypic and Environmental Variations of Arabinoxylan Content and Endoxylanase Activity in Barley Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-qin; XUE Da-wei; WU Fei-bo; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) content in barley grains is an important quality determinant when barley is used as raw material of malt or beer production. The cultivar and environmental variations of total arabinoxylan (TAX), water extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) and endoxylanase activity (EA) were investigated using eight barley cultivars growing at seven locations with diverse environmental conditions. The results showed that both barley cultivar and location significantly affected the TAX, WEAX and EA levels, but the variations of TAX content and EA were mainly attributed to cultivar, while the impact of location on WEAX content was greater than that of cultivar. Correlation analysis indicated that TAX was significantly correlated to WUAX.

  3. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  4. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  5. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  6. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  7. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  8. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  9. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 105 to ca. 6 x 103 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  10. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  11. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley α-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (ΔGg) and excited (ΔGe) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley α-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  12. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio......, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  14. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...... classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI95%: 29–35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI95%: 0–15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model...

  15. Microbes in the tailoring of barley malt properties

    OpenAIRE

    Laitila, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Microbes have a decisive role in the barley-malt-beer chain. A major goal of this thesis was to study the relationships between microbial communities and germinating grains during malting. Furthermore, the study provided a basis for tailoring of malt properties with natural, malt-derived microbes. The malting ecosystem is a dynamic process, exhibiting continous change. The first hours of steeping and kilning were the most important steps in the process with regard to microbiological qual...

  16. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  17. SOMACLONAL VARIABILITY AND BARLEY BREEDING ON RESISTANCE TO ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Shirokikh; S.Yu. Ogorodnikova; O.N. Shupletsova; I.N. Shchennikova

    2011-01-01

    In barley callus culture on acid selective media with aluminum the authors selected the resistant lines, from which the regenerated plants were obtained. During a growing on acid sod-podzol soil the seed progeny of regenerated lines was compared with initial varieties on biochemical parameters, on determinants of productivity and yield. It was revealed, that hereditable in regenerated progeny the determinants of somaclonal variability can be used for creation of high productive and resistant ...

  18. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  19. Alcohol Yield of Oat, Barley and Wheat Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    PIKL, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Major part of ethanol production for industrial use in Czech Republic is made from cereals. Effect of acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis after thermopressure preparation takes part in the paper. The most promising alternative is enzymatic hydrolysis. Especially efficiency of different hydrolytic enzymes towards different species of cereals takes the main part of the simulations. Local farm products, oats, barley and wheat were prepaired by steam explosion in different pressure. After hydro...

  20. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  1. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  2. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  3. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry....... Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase was observed in three spots differing in pI suggesting that post-translational modification of the transgene product had occurred....

  4. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  5. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  6. Molecular and structural characterization of barley vernalization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Jarislav; Szucs, Péter; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Yan, Liuling; Francia, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Casas, Ana; Chen, Tony H H; Hayes, Patrick M; Skinner, Jeffrey S

    2005-10-01

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from the vegetative to reproductive state, is an evolutionarily and economically important trait in the Triticeae. The genetic basis of vernalization in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) can be defined using the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model. We analyzed the allelic characteristics of HvBM5A, the candidate gene for VRN-H1, from ten cultivated barley accessions and one wild progenitor accession (subsp. spontaneum), representing the three barley growth habits - winter, facultative, and spring. We present multiple lines of evidence, including sequence, linkage map location, and expression, that support HvBM5A being VRN-H1. While the predicted polypeptides from different growth habits are identical, spring accessions contain a deletion in the first intron of HvBM5A that may be important for regulation. While spring HvBM5A alleles are typified by the intron-localized deletion, in some cases, the promoter may also determine the allele type. The presence/absence of the tightly linked ZCCT-H gene family members on chromosome 4H perfectly correlates with growth habit and we conclude that one of the three ZCCT-H genes is VRN-H2. The VRN-H2 locus is present in winter genotypes and deleted from the facultative and spring genotypes analyzed in this study, suggesting the facultative growth habit (cold tolerant, vernalization unresponsive) is a result of deletion of the VRN-H2 locus and presence of a winter HvBM5A allele. All reported barley vernalization QTLs can be explained by the two-locus VRN-H1/VRN-H2 model based on the presence/absence of VRN-H2 and a winter vs. spring HvBM5A allele. PMID:16235110

  7. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  8. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  9. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  10. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  11. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  12. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai;

    2014-01-01

    pollination. However, among the MT grain transcripts MT2c was the most abundant, whereas MT4 was the least abundant. Excess Cu up-regulated three out of the six MTs expressed in leaves of young barley plants. In contrast, most MTs were down-regulated by excess Zn or Cd. Zn starvation led to up-regulation of......, the root-specific gene MT1b1 was 1000-fold up-regulated. Immunolocalizations provided the first evidence for accumulation of MT1a and MT2a proteins in planta, with correlation to transcript levels. In developing grains, MT2a and MT4 expression increased 4- and 300-fold over a 28-day-period after...... MT1a, whereas Cu starvation up-regulated MT2a, which has two copper-responsive elements in the promoter. Arabidopsis lines constitutively overexpressing barley MT2a showed increased sensitivity to excess Cd and Zn but no Cu-induced response. We suggest that barley MTs are differentially involved in...

  13. Expression of a Grapevine NAC Transcription Factor Gene Is Induced in Response to Powdery Mildew Colonization in Salicylic Acid-Independent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zsofia; Winterhagen, Patrick; Kalapos, Balazs; Su, Yingcai; Kovacs, Laszlo; Kiss, Erzsebet

    2016-01-01

    Tissue colonization by grape powdery mildew (PM) pathogen Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr triggers a major remodeling of the transcriptome in the susceptible grapevine Vitis vinifera L. While changes in the expression of many genes bear the signature of salicylic acid (SA) mediated regulation, the breadth of PM-induced changes suggests the involvement of additional regulatory networks. To explore PM-associated gene regulation mediated by other SA-independent systems, we designed a microarray ex...

  14. The powdery mildew resistance gene REN1 co-segregates with an NBS-LRR gene cluster in two Central Asian grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Morgante Michele; Kovács László; Kozma Pál; Hoffmann Sarolta; Cipriani Guido; Copetti Dario; Coleman Courtney; Testolin Raffaele; Di Gaspero Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Grape powdery mildew is caused by the North American native pathogen Erysiphe necator. Eurasian Vitis vinifera varieties were all believed to be susceptible. REN1 is the first resistance gene naturally found in cultivated plants of Vitis vinifera. Results REN1 is present in 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara', two grapevines documented in Central Asia since the 1920's. These cultivars have a second-degree relationship (half sibs, grandparent-grandchild, or avuncular),...

  15. Reprint of "Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-01

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (reading frames (ORFs) encoding a putative coat protein (CP) and an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), while one sequence (RPaTV9) showed similarity to another totivirus, Ustilago maydis virus H1 (UmV-H1) that encodes a single polyprotein (CP-RdRp fusion). Similar to yeast totiviruses, each ScV-L-A-like RPaTV contains a -1 ribosomal frameshift site downstream of a predicted pseudoknot structure in the overlapping region of these ORFs, suggesting that the RdRp is translated as a CP-RdRp fusion. Moreover, several ScV-L-A-like sequences were also found by searches of the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) libraries from rust fungi, plants and insects. Phylogenetic analyses show that nine ScV-L-A-like RPaTVs along with ScV-L-A-like sequences derived from TSA libraries are clustered with most established members of the genus Totivirus, while one RPaTV forms a new distinct clade with UmV-H1, possibly establishing an additional genus in the family. Taken together, our results indicate the presence of diverse, novel totiviruses in the powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field. PMID:27208846

  16. Powdery mildew of Ruta graveolens in Brazil caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli Oídio de Ruta graveolens no Brasil causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Liberato; Robert Weingart Barreto

    2006-01-01

    Oidiopsis haplophylli is described causing powdery mildew on Ruta graveolens for the first time in Brazil (Viçosa, MG). The fungus causes yellowing of infected leaves accompanied by the presence of a whitish mycelial colony abaxially. The following combination of characters typical of this species was observed on the specimens collected in Viçosa: mycelium hypophyllous, hemiendophytic (partly external and partly internal), entering the leaves through the stomata; conidiophores hypophyllous, p...

  17. Effect of Barleys Having Different Liter Weights on Performance, Economic Value, Ruminal Fermentation of Lambs, and Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Talat; ŞAHİN, Kazım; ÇERÇİ, İ.Halil; ERTAS, O. Nihat

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing barleys having different liter weights (It wt) on average daily gain, feed efficiency, profit margins, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics of lambs and diet digestibility. 16 Akkaraman lambs approximately 8 mo old (averaging 30 kg) were used in a randomized design. Treatment groups consisting of barley grains and barley grains were classified to liter weights as follows: 1. Barley has 643 g lt wt (Grou...

  18. 伞房决明白粉病的初次报道%First report of powdery mildew caused by Oidium cassiae-siameae on Cassia corymbosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂华; 李德伟; 席刚俊

    2010-01-01

    Cassia corymbosa is an introduced ornamental shrub in the Yangtze River Delta area.Severe powdery mildew occurred on C.corymbosa from late August to mid-November.It caused early defoliation and some infected plants failed to survive in the following year.The powdery mildew is caused by Oidium cassiae-siameae.The pathogen did not develop teleomorph under field observation in the last three years.This is the first report of C.corymbosa,as a new host of powdery mildew caused by Oidium cassiae-siameae.This fungus is a newly reported species in mainland China.%伞房决明是长江三角洲地区的园林绿化木本植物,在每年8月下旬至11月中旬会发生严重的白粉病,造成提前落叶,导致次年部分植株死亡.该病由 Oidium cassiae-siameae 引起.经过3年多的野外观察,未发现有性世代.初次报道伞房决明为 Oidium cassiae-siameae 白粉菌的新寄主.此真菌为中国大陆的初次记载.

  19. Biological control of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by means of the epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis and parasitism as a mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eGafni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.

  20. 秦岭主要林区白粉菌分类研究初报%Preliminary Study on Taxonomy of Powdery Mildews in Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白露超; 曹支敏; 代拴法; 姚三中

    2012-01-01

    依据国际新的白粉菌分类系统,采用传统形态学分类与无性型个体发育及其超微结构相结合的方法,对采自秦岭主要林区的白粉菌进行了分类鉴定.共鉴定出白粉菌5族、9属、61种,并列出了白粉菌名录,涉及森林植物36科、72属、112种,其中1种为白粉菌的寄主新纪录.%Based on the new classification system of Erysiphales, a total of 5 tribes, 9 genera, 61 species of powdery mildew from Qinling Mountains were identified) classified by traditional morphology, the ontogenesis and the ul-trastructures of conidia. A checklist was provided Thirty six families, 72 genera, 112 species, in which 1 species (Duchesnea indica) is new record of powdery mildew, of host plants and their geographical distributions were reported in the checklist pertain to 61 species of powdery mildew.

  1. Identification and characterization of wheat long non-protein coding RNAs responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress by using microarray analysis and SBS sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huiru

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as powdery mildew infection and high temperature, are important limiting factors for yield and grain quality in wheat production. Emerging evidences suggest that long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNAs are developmentally regulated and play roles in development and stress responses of plants. However, identification of long npcRNAs is limited to a few plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize, no systematic identification of long npcRNAs and their responses to abiotic and biotic stresses is reported in wheat. Results In this study, by using computational analysis and experimental approach we identified 125 putative wheat stress responsive long npcRNAs, which are not conserved among plant species. Among them, some were precursors of small RNAs such as microRNAs and siRNAs, two long npcRNAs were identified as signal recognition particle (SRP 7S RNA variants, and three were characterized as U3 snoRNAs. We found that wheat long npcRNAs showed tissue dependent expression patterns and were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress. Conclusion Our results indicated that diverse sets of wheat long npcRNAs were responsive to powdery mildew infection and heat stress, and could function in wheat responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses, which provided a starting point to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in the future.

  2. Biological control of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by means of the epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis and parasitism as a mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Aviva; Calderon, Claudia E; Harris, Raviv; Buxdorf, Kobi; Dafa-Berger, Avis; Zeilinger-Reichert, Einat; Levy, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis as mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew. PMID:25814995

  3. Cloning of a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene from a Triticum aestivum-Elytrigia elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Daoyi; WANG Honggang

    2005-01-01

    Shannong 551, a T. aestivum-E. elongatum alien substitution line with resistance to powdery mildew, was inoculated with pathogenic spores of powdery mildew. The leaf samples were prepared 48 h after inoculation for scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that germination of spores and growth of young mycelia on leaves of Shannong 551 were suppressed at the early stage of infection. At the same time, RNAs were prepared from the leaves for the cloning of WRP1 and RPW2 by cDNA RDA and RACE technology. BLAST analysis of the sequences indicated that both WRP1 and RPW2 were novel genes. WRP1 contains no complete ORF. RPW2 contains the conserved structure domain of aminotransferase, and its DNA sequence shares high homology with genes of phosphateserine aminotransferase in many organisms. Therefore, it is speculated as a novel phosphateserine aminotransferase gene. The results of Northern blot suggested that expression of RPW2 occurred at the early stage of infection by powdery mildew. Southern blot using the probe of RPW2, in which there was strong hybridizing signals in both genome of Shannong 551 and E. elongatum, but not in those of Jinan 13 and Lumai No.5, indicated that RPW2 derived from the genome of E. elongatum.

  4. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  5. Agronomic effects of a reciprocal translocation in a widely grown Spanish barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Visioni, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Jansen, J.

    2012-01-01

    A large spontaneous reciprocal translocation is present in a widely grown Spanish barley cv. ‘Albacete’. It has been hypothesized that high popularity of ‘Albacete’ with farmers, particularly in semi-arid areas where barley is grown under rainfed conditions, may be due to the presence of this transl

  6. Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

  7. USE OF BARLEY OZONIZED GRAIN AND PROBIOTICS FOR INCREASING BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temiraev R. B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents experimental data indicating that for the optimization of biological and food processing meat value at risk of aflatoxicosis in feeding chicken-broilers with barley-wheat and sunflower type one should include hullless barley grain at exposure of ozone of 3.0 hour complex with Bifidumbacterinum probiotics

  8. A promising low beta-glucan barley mutation of m351 for better bioethanol production use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol is an important liquid fuel complement. Barley is an alternative raw material for ethanol production and its byproduct is a nutritious feed. The barley m351mutant line, which has a mutation for low beta-glucan content, was tested for its ethanol production efficiency and feed fraction qua...

  9. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  10. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  11. Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

  12. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... secreted proteins which may be involved in Fusarium head blight....

  13. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  14. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B;

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  15. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.;

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  16. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...

  17. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  18. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  19. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity between Qinghai-Tibetan wild and Chinese landrace barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Westcott, Sharon; Li, Chengdao; Yan, Guijun; Lance, Reg; Sun, Dongfa

    2009-10-01

    Fifty-two SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 33 Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley accessions, 56 landraces collected primarily from other parts of China, and 1 Israeli wild barley accession. At the 52 SSR loci, 206 alleles were detected for the 90 accessions, among which 111 were common alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9, with an average of 4.0. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.856 among all the markers, with an average of 0.547. The PIC value of Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley varied from 0 to 0.813 with an average of 0.543, while in landraces, the markers showed a range of 0 to 0.790 with an average of 0.490. The SSR markers could clearly differentiate the Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley from the landraces. Twenty-four unique alleles were observed in Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley, and the frequency of unique alleles in Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley was about 2.1 times higher than that in the landraces, on average. Five of the 7 chromosomes had more unique alleles in the Qinghai-Tibetan wild barley, but chromosome 2H had more unique alleles in the landraces. The presence of many unique alleles may reflect the adaptation of this barley germplasm to diverse environments and production systems. PMID:19935909

  20. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  1. Genetic characterization of a reciprocal translocation present in a widely grown barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Cuadrado, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Schubert, I.; Comadran, J.; Jansen, J.; Romagosa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously d

  2. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  4. Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, S; Igartua, Ernesto; Moralejo, M; Ramsay, L; Molina-Cano, J L; Ciudad, F J; Lasa, J M; Gracia, M P; Casas, A M

    2008-01-01

    The pool of Western Mediterranean landraces has been under-utilised for barley breeding so far. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic diversity in a core collection of inbred lines derived from Spanish barley landraces to establish its relationship to barleys from other origins, and to correlate the distribution of diversity with geographical and climatic factors. To this end, 64 SSR were used to evaluate the polymorphism among 225 barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) genotypes, comprising two-row and six-row types. These included 159 landraces from the Spanish barley core collection (SBCC) plus 66 cultivars, mainly from European countries, as a reference set. Out of the 669 alleles generated, a large proportion of them were unique to the six-row Spanish barleys. An analysis of molecular variance revealed a clear genetic divergence between the six-row Spanish barleys and the reference cultivars, whereas this was not evident for the two-row barleys. A model-based clustering analysis identified an underlying population structure, consisting of four main populations for the whole genotype set, and suggested further possible subdivision within two of these populations. Most of the six-row Spanish landraces clustered into two groups that corresponded to geographic regions with contrasting environmental conditions. The existence of wide genetic diversity in Spanish germplasm, possibly related to adaptation to a broad range of environmental conditions, and its divergence from current European cultivars confirm its potential as a new resource for barley breeders, and make the SBCC a valuable tool for the study of adaptation in barley. PMID:18026712

  5. Improvement of barley for drought tolerance by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (cultivar Ardhaoui) is a traditional cereal adapted to the agroclimatic and abiotic stresses of South Tunisia. It is used by local communities as the food plant and source of proteins for animals. It is a heterogeneous mixtures of land races and represent the adapted natural germplasm which needs to be improved in yield, quality and tolerance to stress (especially drought). Irradiation technique is used in this work for the selection of barley lines tolerant to drought. Building on the obtained results, the technique will be used to develop barley lines matching specific environments prevailing in the south of Tunisia. The obtained mutants are characterized by the increased of grain yield and water use efficiency through a greater tolerance to drought. On the level of the physiological behavior, the mutants are more efficient regarding the values of rate of photosynthesis A, the stomatic conductance gs, the rate of transpiration E, chlorophyl rate and the internal CO2 concentration Ci. The content of proline shows that this amino acid is strongly concentrated at the irradiated lines. The analysis of nutritional behavior shows that the content of (Ca+Mg) in irradiated lines decreases by increasing the stress. The phosphorus content was also assigned by the water stress. On the contrary, the potassium content increases with the intensity of stress. Under water deficit, the growth parameter, the grain production and the number of spike and tillers are significantly reduced for the control (the reduction reached 42 to 50%). This reduction does not exceed 25% for the irradiated lines. The availability of these improved mutant seeds can contribute to increase food security for the local population. (author)

  6. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, T S; Rossnagel, B G; Pozniak, C J; Scoles, G J

    2008-02-01

    Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from the cross CDC Dolly (susceptible)/TR251 (resistant) were screened as seedlings in controlled environments with net-form net blotch (NFNB) isolates WRS858 and WRS1607 and spot-form net blotch (SFNB) isolate WRS857. The population was also screened at the adult-plant stage for NFNB resistance in the field in 2005 and 2006. A high-density genetic linkage map of 90 DH lines was constructed using 457 DArT and 11 SSR markers. A major NFNB seedling resistance QTL, designated QRpt6, was mapped to chromosome 6H for isolates WRS858 and WRS1607. QRpt6 was associated with adult-plant resistance in the 2005 and 2006 field trials. Additional QTL for NFNB seedling resistance to the more virulent isolate WRS858 were identified on chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A seedling resistance QTL (QRpts4) for the SFNB isolate WRS857 was detected on chromosome 4H as was a significant QTL (QRpt7) on chromosome 7H. Three QTL (QRpt6, QRpts4, QRpt7) were associated with resistance to both net blotch forms and lines with one or more of these demonstrated improved resistance. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers tightly linked to QRpt6 and QRpts4 were identified and validated in an unrelated barley population. The major 6H QTL, QRpt6, may provide adequate NFNB field resistance in western Canada and could be routinely selected for using molecular markers in a practical breeding program. PMID:18071668

  8. Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kegui Chen; Yong-Qiang Charles An

    2006-01-01

    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than downregulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination.Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.

  9. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...... were synthesised at 10 d after anthesis and hercafter an increase was observed for all polypeptides. A fivefold increase in total hordein was observed within the N range tested. Hordein-1 increased considerably more than hordein-2 with increased N nutrition, and hordein-1 synthesis exceeded...

  10. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  11. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  12. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  13. 大麦雄性不育的遗传研究%Genetic Study on Barley Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 刘志萍; 包海柱

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research the genetic mechanism of barley male sterility, and provide the theoretical reference for breeding strong heterosis hybrid of barley. [Method] Fertility segregation phenomenon, morphological characteristics and main agronomic characters of male sterility character of 4 kinds of barley male sterility materials 2001-17, 2001-37, 2001-84 and 2001-116 and their derived lines were observed and researched. [Result] Barley male sterility existed genetic phenomenon of single dominant nuclear gene caused by environmental stimulation, its sterility controlled by MS, the sterile genotype was MSms. There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility which was controlled by cytoplasmic male sterile gene S and nuclear gene rr, and its genotype was S(rr), this male sterility belonged to CMS type sterility. Temperature had no effect on fertility. [Conclusion] There was stable nucleo-cytoplasmic inheritance on barley male sterility, this result played a positively promoting role in barley practical production.

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-10-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China. PMID:20872987

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  17. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  18. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ri Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L. contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n=51. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n=25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years and the other consumed placebo capsules (n=26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL- cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p=0.415 and p=0.351, resp. and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  19. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.. Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence imaging system. The analysis of chlorophyll content and osmotic potential served as reference. Based on our results, the fluorescence indices “Nitrogen Balance Index” and “Simple Fluorescence Ratio” responded quite sensitively to drought stress and mildew infection. Moreover, the blue-to-far-red fluorescence ratio revealed significant stress-induced alterations in the plant physiology. In all, fluorescence indices might be used as single or combined indices for successful stress sensing. However, a robust stress differentiation by using only one fluorescence ratio could not be accomplished.

  20. Property changes of powdery polyacrylonitrile synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization during heat-treatment process under air atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-qi; Wang, Cheng-guo; Bai, Yu-jun; Chen, Guo-wen; Jing, Min; Zhu, Bo

    2009-01-01

    High molecular weight powdery polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymers were prepared by aqueous suspension polymerization employing itaconic acid (IA) as comonomer and alpha,alpha(')-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator at 60 degrees C. PAN polymers obtained with different monomer ratios were characterized by EA, DSC, FTIR and XRD. It is investigated that the oxygen element content in PAN polymers increased with the increase of required IA amounts in the feed and heat-treatment temperatures. DSC curves of PAN copolymers exhibited the triplet character, owing to the exothermic cyclization and oxidative reactions during heat-treatment process. Introduction of IA in the feed relaxed exothermic reactions of PAN polymers under air atmosphere. Structure and crystallinity changes were affected by required IA amounts in the feed and enhancement of heat-treatment temperatures. The characteristic functional groups (including C[triple bond]N, C=O, CH(2)) presented in FTIR spectra of PAN polymers indicated copolymerization reaction of AN and IA. Existence of some organic groups (C-O, C=C and/or C=N) indicated formation of ladderlike structure during heat-treatment process. PAN homopolymer had the better crystallinity (mainly peak intensity and peak area around 2theta = 17 degrees) than most RT-PAN copolymers. When heat-treatment temperature is around 210 degrees C, peak intensity, peak area, L(c) and CI of HT-PAN polymers corresponding to samples 1# and 2# got maxima, while crystallinity became weak at higher heat-treatment temperatures. PMID:18922543

  1. How barley growing conditions and its output change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Erdélyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that climate change has started. It is very important to make effort in developing impact analyses and adaptation strategies. First we were investigated how theproduction risk of winter barley is changing with time using the E,V efficiency criterion. Based on the regional yearly production data of the crop, we can conclude that beside other non-climatic effects, the changing climate has considerable impact on crops yield; its variability is increasing with the variability of meteorological parameters. We have used production data from 1951 to nowadays. Next, using comparison analyses for climate scenarios, we predict what we can expect in the future. For detecting the reasons of risk increase in the past, and forecasting the potential main points of future risk we have analysed statistically whether the climate needs of winter barley will be satisfied ornot in its important periods of growing. Frequency calculations were made based on the daily meteorological data. The situation doesn’t show big change, but It is no doubt that the anomalies of the indicators have been becoming more and more frequent. The morefrequent the extreme weather events are, the more we can be convinced of uncertainty.

  2. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  3. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  4. [Microsatellite markers and applications in the barley genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zong-yun; Zhang, Yi-zheng; Ling, Hong-qing

    2002-11-01

    Microsatellites, also called simple sequence repeats (SSR), are simple, tandemly repeated DNA sequences with a repeat length of a few base pairs,and are very ideally used as molecular markers because of their abundance, high level of polymorphism, co-dominance and ease of assay with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by selecting primers as the conserved DNA sequences flanking the SSRs,as well as better stability. The experiments showed that SSRs are randomly distributed throughout the barley genome,and there are 3-18 alleles at a single SSR locus,up to 37 alleles/locus. SSR markers have being widely applied in the construction of molecular genetic map, the study of genetic diversity,the identification of germplasm, gene mapping for important traits and molecular marker-assisted selection. Meanwhile,most of markers are strongly clustered around the centromeric regions of all seven linkage groups. As a result of the clustering,genome coverage with SSRs remains incomplete with an obvious lack of markers on the long arms of chromosomes 1H and 5H and short arm of chromosome 6H. Therefore,it is very potential and necessary to further develop SSR markers in barley. PMID:15979979

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in barley using autoSNPdb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Chris; Appleby, Nikki; Vardy, Megan; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline

    2009-05-01

    Molecular markers are used to provide the link between genotype and phenotype, for the production of molecular genetic maps and to assess genetic diversity within and between related species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant molecular genetic marker. SNPs can be identified in silico, but care must be taken to ensure that the identified SNPs reflect true genetic variation and are not a result of errors associated with DNA sequencing. The SNP detection method autoSNP has been developed to identify SNPs from sequence data for any species. Confidence in the predicted SNPs is based on sequence redundancy, and haplotype co-segregation scores are calculated for a further independent measure of confidence. We have extended the autoSNP method to produce autoSNPdb, which integrates SNP and gene annotation information with a graphical viewer. We have applied this software to public barley expressed sequences, and the resulting database is available over the Internet. SNPs can be viewed and searched by sequence, functional annotation or predicted synteny with a reference genome, in this case rice. The correlation between SNPs and barley cultivar, expressed tissue type and development stage has been collated for ease of exploration. An average of one SNP per 240 bp was identified, with SNPs more prevalent in the 5' regions and simple sequence repeat (SSR) flanking sequences. Overall, autoSNPdb can provide a wealth of genetic polymorphism information for any species for which sequence data are available. PMID:19386041

  6. DIFFERENTIATION OF BARLEY GENOTYPES BASED ON DNA POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tomka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Information about the origin of varieties can help farmers in selecting appropriate varieties to specific growing conditions or end use of crops. A set of ten microsatellite markers was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 30 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes. A total of 55 different alleles were amplified using ten SSR markers localized on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, 6H, 7H with an average number of 5.5 alleles per locus. On the basis of allele frequencies we have calculated diversity index, polymorphic information content and index of probability, which have mean values of 0.664; 0.643 and 0.126 respectively. These values indicate high differentiation ability of SSR markers. In the created dendrogram using hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm we were able to differentiate all 30 barley genotypes. The results show that DNA markers are suitable for the identification and differentiation of genotypes and indicated the effectiveness of microsatellite markers to describe genetic diversity.

  7. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  8. Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, D.T.H.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic acid. The accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity is sustained or quickly restored when cordycepin is added simultaneously or some time after abscisic acid, indicating that the response of aleurone layers to abscisic acid depends on the continuous synthesis of a short lived RNA. By analysis of the newly synthesized proteins by gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate, it was observed that the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase is decreased in the presence of abscisic acid while the synthesis of most of the other proteins remains unchanged. From the rate of resumption of ..cap alpha..-amylase production in the presence of cordycepin and abscisic acid, it appears that abscisic acid does not have a measurable effect on the stability of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA.

  9. Analysis on Interaction between Genotype of Four Main Flavonoids of Barley Grain and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao YANG; Chengli DUAN; Yawen ZENG; Juan DU; Shuming YANG; Xiaoying PU; Shengchao YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the interaction between genotype of flavonoids of barley grain and environment, to increase the flavonoid content of barley grain in cultivation and breeding. [Method] In this study, the content of cate- chin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol of barley grain planted in Kunming, Qujing and Baoshan were determined by HPLC, and the genotype, environment, genotype- environment interaction of the flavonoid content of barley grain were analyzed. [Result] According to the experimental results, the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction variance of catechin and kaempferol contents show the same trend: genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance, envi- ronmental variance and G × E interaction variance of quercetin and total flavonoid contents show the same trend: genetype variation 〉 G × E interaction variation 〉 environmental variation, which all reach a extremely significant level; the genotype variance and environmental variance of myricetin content both reach a extremely sig- nificant level, while the G × E interaction variance reaches a significant level, showing an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation; the genotype variance, environmental variance and G x E interaction vari- ance of total flavonoid content show an order of genotype variation 〉 environmental variation 〉 G × E interaction variation. Among different barley varieties, Ziguang- mangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai in Qujing, Kunming and Baoshan have relatively high content of quercetin, while other barley varieties barely contain any quercetin. The grains of Ziguangmangluoerling and Kuanyingdamai are purple, while the grains of other barley varieties are yellow. [Conclusion] Four main flavonoids and the total flavonoids of barley grain are mainly under genetic control and

  10. Competition and dry matter yield in intercrops of barley and legume for forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLLAH JAVANMARD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For increasing land use efficiency intercropping plays a pivotal role. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., vetch (Vicia villosa, and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER,competitive ratio (CR, relative crowding coefficient (RCC, aggressivity (A, actual yield loss (AYL, monetary advantage index (MAI and intercropping advantage (IA.The experimental was arranged asa randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications.The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grass pea75 (5.44 t ha-1 mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1. The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64 than intercropped legumes (K=1.20, indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

  11. SSR Inheritance Analysis and Screening for Linked Marker of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)%黄瓜白粉病抗性遗传分析与连锁标记筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂京涛; 潘俊松; 何欢乐; 司龙亭; 蔡润

    2011-01-01

    In order to accelerate molecular marker assisted breeding process of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) , in this paper, high susceptible cucumber inbred line M 12,abd high resistant inbred line M3 to powdery mildew were taken as parent and their hybrid, F2 populations and BC1 populations were used as experimental materials.We identified the seedlings inoculated with powdery mildew fungus and probed into the genetic regulation of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.Combing with BSA method and SSR technology, SSR markers linked to the major resistant gene of powdery mildew in cucumber was obtained.The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew was mainly controlled by a single recessive gene.By analyzing F2 single plant with SSR technique, a marker SSR15592 linked to the resistant gene was identified.The genetic distance between this marker and resistant gene was 7.62 cM.%以黄瓜高感、高抗白粉病自交系M12、M3为亲本组合得到的F2群体和BC1群体为试材,采用苗期接种鉴定,探讨了黄瓜白粉病抗性的遗传规律;结合BSA法和SSR技术,获得了与黄瓜白粉病抗性主效基因连锁的SSR标记.结果表明,供试亲本间白粉病抗性主要受一隐性单基因控制.对F2单株进行SSR分析,鉴定出1个与黄瓜白粉病抗性基因连锁的标记SSR15592,该标记与抗性基因间的遗传距离为7.62 cM.

  12. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.;

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  13. Infection of barley protoplasts with rice hoja blanca tenuivirus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M; Kormelink, R; Goldbach, R; Haenni, A L

    1999-01-01

    A barley protoplast system has been established that supports replication of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV). Following polyethylene glycol-mediated RHBV inoculation of barley protoplasts, newly synthesized viral RNAs and proteins could be detected. Time course analyses revealed de novo synthesis of genome length viral RNA4, as well as subgenomic-sized RNA4 molecules of both polarities. Two proteins, N and NS4, encoded by viral complementary RNA3 and viral RNA4 respectively, were detected by Western immunoblot analysis. The barley protoplast system thus constitutes a promising tool for in vivo studies of the sequential steps involved in the multiplication cycle of RHBV. PMID:10603179

  14. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  15. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  16. Screening for Barley Waterlogging Tolerance in Nordic Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence on Hydroponically-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging can reduce crop yield by 20%–50% or more, and lack of efficient selection methods is an obstacle in plant breeding. The methods currently used are mainly indices based on germination ability in Petri dishes and leaf chlorosis in plants grown in waterlogged soils. Cultivation in oxygen-depleted nutrient solution is the ultimate waterlogging system. Therefore methods based on root growth inhibition and on fluorescence in plant material hydroponically grown in oxygen-depleted solution were evaluated against data on biomass accumulation in waterlogged soils. Both traits were correlated with waterlogging tolerance in soil, but since it was easier to measure fluorescence, this method was further evaluated. A selection of F2 plants with high and low fluorescence revealed a small but significant screening effect in F3 plants. A test of 175 Nordic cultivars showed large variations in chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves from oxygen-stressed seedlings, indicating that adaptation to waterlogging has gradually improved over the past 40–50 years with the introduction of new cultivars onto the market. However, precipitation also increased during the period and new cultivars may have inadvertently been adapted to this while breeding barley for grain yield. The results suggest that the hydroponic method can be used for screening barley populations, breeding lines or phenotyping of populations in developing markers for quantitative trait loci.

  17. Suppression of edr2-mediated powdery mildew resistance, cell death and ethylene-induced senescence by mutations in ALD1 in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhen Nie; Yingying Wu; Chunpeng Yao; Dingzhong Tang

    2011-01-01

    EDR2 is a negative regulator of the defense response and cell death in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function of EDR2 leads to enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. To identify new components in the EDR2 signal transduction pathway, mutations that suppress edr2 resistant phenotypes were screened. Three mutants, edts5-1, edts5-2 and edts5-3 (edr (t)wo (s)uppressor 5), were identified. The EDTS5 gene was identified by map-based cloning and previously was shown to encode an aminotransferase (ALD1). Therefore we renamed these three alleles ald1-10, ald1-11 and ald1-12, respectively. Mutations in ALD1 suppressed all edr2-mediated phenotypes, including powdery mildew resistance, programmed cell death and ethylene-induced senescence. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in edr2 was also suppressed by ald1 mutation. The expression of defense-related genes was up-regulated in the edr2 mutant, and the up-regulation of those genes in edr2 was suppressed in the edr2/ald1 double mutant. The ald1 single mutant displayed delayed ethylene-induced senescence. In addition, ald1 mutation suppressed edr1-mediated powdery mildew resistance, but could not suppress the edr1/edr2 double-mutant phenotype. These data demonstrate that ALD1 plays important roles in edr2-mediated defense responses and senescence, and revealed a crosstalk between ethylene and salicylic acid signaling mediated by ALD1 and EDR2.

  18. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  19. 粉状炸药大产能自动装药机研究%Analysis on Automatic Charging Machine of Plastic Tube Powdery Explosive of Large Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文忠; 任卫东; 刘静; 齐印川; 王木申

    2014-01-01

    Although its flowing disperse is good of powdery explosive, but it cannot finish the small cartridge charging just by its own gravity. For the purpose of rapid reload, the core technology of this research is to increase the flowing disperse during bulking of powdery explosive by using the theory of vibration of deflector and vibration punning. Besides, it cannot satisfy the charge density and the weight requirement of powdery explosive of loading in the medicine tube, it also need to vibration energy transfer to punning powdery explosive, eventually get the charge density conforms to the technological requirement. By using this way to realize propellant intrinsically safe, vibration propellant abolish the single tube driving structure in addition, and further simplification of the equipment, in theory, it can unlimitedly increase propellant tube number, conducive to productivity improvement.%粉状炸药的流散性较好,但不能仅仅依靠自身的重力完成小药卷装药。核心就是利用“振动导流、振动夯实”的原理,提高粉状炸药灌装时的流散性,而达到快速装填的目的。此外,装入药管内的粉状药,仅靠自流堆积填满,是无法满足装药密度及重量要求,也需要振动传递的能量来“夯实”药粉,最终获得符合工艺要求的装药密度。采用该途径来完成炸药灌装作业,彻底消除了摩擦生热的安全隐患,实现了装药本质安全,此外,震动装药取消了单管驱动结构,设备更加简化,理论上可以无限制增加装药管数量,有利于产能提高。

  20. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  1. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  2. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    digestibility of barley from 40 to 60% (Pfeed phosphate supplementation and P excretion to environment. Studies are needed to evaluate the overall...... effect when reconstituted cereals are mixed with other feedstuffs in formulated diets....

  3. Observations of xenon gas-treated barley cells in solution by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T; Sotome, I; Ohtani, T; Isobe, S; Oshita, S; Maekawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Barley cells cut from a sprout were exposed to either air or high-pressure xenon gas for 3 days and the surface of those cells was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine the effect of the gas treatment. This method enabled the direct observation of the fresh surface of the barley cells in solution at high resolution. The cuticle layer was preserved on the primary cell wall of 0.48 MPa xenon gas-treated barley cells, while air-treated barley cells lost the cuticle layer from the primary cell wall. These findings indicate that the high-pressure xenon gas treatment is effective to preserve the cuticle layer attached to the primary cell wall. AFM is a powerful tool for the observation of the surface structure of living plant cells in solution. PMID:11108038

  4. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  5. Genotypes-Independent Optimization of Nitrogen Supply for Isolated Microspore Cultures in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruiju; Chen, Zhiwei; Gao, Runhong; He, Ting; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Hongwei; Guo, Guimei; Li, Yingbo

    2016-01-01

    To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration. Based on the great effects of organic nitrogen on callus induction, the medium of N6-ANO1/4-2000 might be the best choice for the microspore culture system. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were clear differences of genetic backgrounds among these barley genotypes, and it also suggested that this medium for microspore culture had widespread utilization in different barley genotypes. PMID:27525264

  6. BARLEY LEAF RUST (PUCCINIA HORDEI OTTH. PATHOGEN IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS: SPREAD AND RASE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilova A. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spread of barley dwarf rust pathogen has been studied in five agro-climatic zones of North Caucasus in 2012-2013. The race composition of the North Caucasian pathogen population was identified

  7. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  8. Some cytogenetic effects induced in barley by the treatments with hydroalcoholic rosemary extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ionela Mierlici; Gogu Giorghita; Gabriela Capraru

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some results regarding the cytogenetic effects induced in barley by the treatments with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis). It was proved that the treatment with this extract upon the barley caryopses had as effect the stimulation of the mitotic division in the radicle apex of the species and did not lead to important cytogenetic changes (chromosome aberrations) in the ana-thelophase of the radicle mitoses.

  9. A fitful fungus from a hot, arid climate increases grain yield in cool-cultivated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Fiona M Doohan; HODKINSON, TREVOR R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The fungus Piriformospora indica was first isolated from plants growing in arid, hot desert conditions and has been shown to have significant potential as a biocontrol and biofertilising organism in barley under optimal growth conditions. However, it was not thought to be effective in plants grown in low temperatures and has consequently not been well tested in cold-stressed crops. This study sought to determine the effects of inoculating barley plants with this f...

  10. Digestion of Barley, Maize, and Wheat by Selected Species of Ruminal Bacteria †

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Tim A.; Cheng, K.-J.; Rode, Lyle M.; Forsberg, Cecil W.

    1990-01-01

    Differences in the digestion of barley, maize, and wheat by three major ruminal starch-digesting bacterial species, Streptococcus bovis 26, Ruminobacter amylophilus 50, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, were characterized. The rate of starch digestion in all cereal species was greater for S. bovis 26 than for R. amylophilus 50 or B. fibrisolvens A38. Starch digestion by S. bovis 26 was greater in wheat than in barley or maize, whereas starch digestion by R. amylophilus 50 was greater in barl...

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Tibetan Wild and Cultivated Barleys

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Chen, Xianhong; Zhang, Mian; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation t...

  12. A new allele of acid soil tolerance gene from a malting barley variety

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Miao; Jin, Xiaoli; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhou, Gaofeng; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Sun, Dongfa; Li, Chengdao

    2015-01-01

    Background Acid soil is a serious limitation to crop production all over the world. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations in acid soil inhibit root growth and reduce yield. Although a gene tolerant to acid soil has been identified, it has not been used in malting barley breeding, which is partly due to the acid soil tolerance gene being linked to unfavorable malting quality traits. Results A Brazilian malting barley variety Br2 was identified as tolerant to acid soil. A doubled haploid (DH) population...

  13. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  14. Influence of barley straw and submerged macrophytes on fishpond wastewater quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ghobrial, M.G.; Okbah, M.A.; Gharib, S.M.; A. M. Soliman

    2007-01-01

    Barley straw has received, recently, considerable attention as an algicide, which could be used to control algal growth in fishponds. It is regarded as cost-effective, user friendly and environmentally sounds. On the other hand, the submerged wetland macrophytes are crucial for the stabilization of clear water state in shallow lakes, by their active production of anti-algal compounds (allelochemicals) through allelopathy. Microcosm experiments using barley straw and the submerged macrophytes:...

  15. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz P. Kurowski; Marek Marks; Agnieszka Kurowska; Krzysztof Orzech

    2012-01-01

    The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment), no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff), and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil) on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley) in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation se...

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

    2011-01-01

    Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal...

  17. Genetically engineered stem rust resistance in barley using the Rpg1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Henriette; Rostoks, Nils; Brueggeman, Robert; Steffenson, Brian; von Wettstein, Diter; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2002-01-01

    The stem-rust-susceptible barley cv. Golden Promise was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos with the Rpg1 genomic clone of cv. Morex containing a 520-bp 5′ promoter region, 4,919-bp gene region, and 547-bp 3′ nontranscribed sequence. Representatives of 42 transgenic barley lines obtained were characterized for their seedling infection response to pathotype Pgt-MCC of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Golden Promise was converte...

  18. Transgenic Production of an Anti HIV Antibody in the Barley Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz Hensel; Doreen M Floss; Elsa Arcalis; Markus Sack; Stanislav Melnik; Friedrich Altmann; Twan Rutten; Jochen Kumlehn; Eva Stoger; Udo Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Barley is an attractive vehicle for producing recombinant protein, since it is a readily transformable diploid crop species in which doubled haploids can be routinely generated. High amounts of protein are naturally accumulated in the grain, but optimal endosperm-specific promoters have yet to be perfected. Here, the oat GLOBULIN1 promoter was combined with the legumin B4 (LeB4) signal peptide and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SE)KDEL. Transgenic barley grain accumulated up...

  19. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Naeem; Lynn Dahleen; Bushra Mirza

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by P...

  20. Effects of Harvesting Time on Nutritional Value of Hydroponic Barley Production

    OpenAIRE

    AKBAĞ, Hande Işıl; TÜRKMEN, Onur Sinan; BAYTEKİN, Harun; Yurtman, İsmail Yaman

    2014-01-01

    In this study aimed that the effects of different harvesting times on the nutritional value of barley fodder producing in hydroponic system. Barley fodders were harvested on the 4th, 7th, 10th and 13th days following sowing date. Analysis performed for determining the chemical composition and organic matter digestibility (OMD) and ME content with in vitro gas production technique. It was determined that the DM content was decreased, the CP content was not changed significantly, cell wall cont...

  1. A Single Locus Is Responsible for Salinity Tolerance in a Chinese Landrace Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rugen Xu; Junmei Wang; Chengdao Li; Peter Johnson; Chao Lu; Meixue Zhou

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs. METHODS: This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant), and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive), to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance. RESULTS: Four QTLs ...

  2. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen;

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and oth...... targets in the starchy endosperm. Here we have applied a thiol-specific labeling approach to identify specific disulfide targets of barley thioredoxin in proteins released from barley aleurone layers incubated in buffer containing gibberellic acid....

  3. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  4. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  5. Molecular Variability in Barley Structural Mutants Produced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to survey gamma ray induced genetic variation in a set of 13 originally produced structural barley (H. vulgare L.) mutants from cv. Freya; including 8 single translocation lines, 3 double translocation lines and 2 multiple reconstructed karyotypes. Both marker systems contributed to the evaluation of the radiation induced DNA alterations and revealed in general 0.49% polymorphisms in the studied genotypes. AFLPs were observed with 3 out of 10 PstI/MseI primer combinations. Transmissible microsatellite instability at loci with perfect (AT)n repeats located in the introns of the rubisco activase and waxy was documented in three mutant lines. The results emphasize that in addition to point mutations, small indels (2bp) form the major group of the gamma induced DNA alterations. (author)

  6. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  7. Modelling phytate degradation kinetics in soaked wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Strathe, A B; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    the contact between phytate and plant phytases. The lack of effect of additions of Phytase 1 or Phytase 2 on the phytate degradation in the cereals was possible due to a poor access of the microbial phytases to phytate. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about processing technologies that increase the access...... or Phytase 2 had no effect on the degradation of phytate. The F0 was greater in the heat-treated barley compared with the heat-treated wheat (0.19 vs. 0.14; P=0.02; Phytase 1). Heat-treatment of the cereals increased the F0 from 0.05 to 0.15 (P=0.0007; Phytase 2). The K was lower in the non...

  8. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  9. The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2011-02-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

  10. The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops.

  11. The effect of irradiation treatment on Beta-Glucan and protein quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of barley (hordeum vulgare L) grains were tested for nutritional value after being irradiated at dose levels of 10, 20, and 30 KGy. The gross composition of raw and irradiated beans was similar. Soluble protein was reduced by 16.76%, 28.84% and 44.76% when barley grains were irradiated at 10, 20, and 30 KGy, respectively, The amount of water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was increased linearly from 1.76 to 2.40 g/100 g of sample as a function of dose. Meanwhile, the effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan (3.90 g/100 g) was insignificant while the level of insoluble beta-glucan was decreased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of processed barley grains at the doses applied was increased by 6.38%, 12.77%, and 1135%, respectively as compared with the value for raw grains. The data showed that the radiation processing of raw barley grains increased the solubility of beta-glucan, the most anti nutritional factor in the grains and improved the PER in rats. Therefore it could be concluded thal the irradiation treatment (up tp 30 KGy) up-grade the biological value of barley through increase the solubility of Beta-glucan that affect the performance of animals

  12. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

  13. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  14. Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghai Maroof, M A; Biyashev, R M; Yang, G P; Zhang, Q; Allard, R W

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the extent of genetic variation in barley simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and to study the evolutionary dynamics of SSR alleles. SSR polymorphisms were resolved by the polymerase chain reaction with four pairs of primers. In total, 71 variants were observed in a sample of 207 accessions of wild and cultivated barley. Analyses of wheat-barley addition lines and barley doubled haploids identified these variants (alleles) with four loci, each located on a different chromosome. The numbers of alleles detected at a locus corresponded to the number of nucleotide repeats in the microsatellite sequences. The numbers of alleles at two loci were 28 and 37; to our knowledge these are the largest numbers of alleles for single Mendelian loci reported in plants. Three alleles were resolved by each of the other two loci. Allelic diversity was greater in wild than in cultivated barley and surveys of two generations (F8 and F53) of Composite Cross II, an experimental population of cultivated barley, showed that few of the alleles present in the 28 parents survived into generation F53, whereas some infrequent alleles reached high frequencies. Such changes in frequency indicate that the chromosomal segments marked by the SSR alleles are under the influence of natural selection. The SSR variants allow specific DNA sequences to be followed through generations. Thus, the great resolving power of SSR assays may provide clues regarding the precise targets of natural and man-directed selection. PMID:8202509

  15. Advances in the use of mutation induction for genetic improvement of barley and native grains in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley seeds of two varieties were treated with several doses of gamma rays and sodium azide. Seeds of a quinoa (Chenopodium) variety were treated with three doses of gamma rays. Yield trials were conducted also for doubled haploid lines of barley derived from earlier mutagenic treatments. Some promising new barley mutant lines were identified in the yield trials. The results from the Chenopodium trials facilitate the determination of the optimum dose of gamma rays for the PRQ-22 variety. (author)

  16. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  17. Fine mapping of a dominantly inherited powdery mildew resistance major-effect QTL, Pm1.1, in cucumber identifies a 41.1 kb region containing two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a severe fungal disease in cucumber, but the molecular genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are still poorly understood. In this study, through marker-assisted backcrossing with an elite susceptible inbred line D8, we developed a single segment substitution line SSS...

  18. Loss of actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, severely compromises non-host resistance in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Byung-Wook; Atkinson, Helen A; Gaborit, Charlotte; Greenland, Andy; Read, Nick D; Pallas, Jacqueline A; Loake, Gary J

    2003-06-01

    Plant immunity against the majority of the microbial pathogens is conveyed by a phenomenon known as non-host resistance (NHR). This defence mechanism affords durable protection to plant species against given species of phytopathogens. We investigated the genetic basis of NHR in Arabidopsis against the wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Both primary and appressorial germ tubes were produced from individual Bgt conidia on the surface of the Arabidopsis leaves. Attempted infection occasionally resulted in successful penetration, which led to the development of an abnormal unilateral haustorium. Inoculation of a series of Arabidopsis defence-related mutants with Bgt resulted in the attenuation of reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence gene expression in eds1, pad4 and nahG plants, which are known to be defective in some aspects of host resistance. Furthermore, Bgt often developed bilateral haustoria in the mutant Arabidopsis lines that closely resembled those formed in wheat. A similar decrease in NHR was observed following treatment of the wild-type Arabidopsis plants with cytochalasin E, an inhibitor of actin microfilament polymerisation. In eds1 mutants, inhibition of actin polymerisation severely compromised NHR in Arabidopsis against Bgt. This permitted completion of the Bgt infection cycle on these plants. Therefore, actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, are major contributors to NHR in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew.

  19. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. PMID:27181943

  20. The sexed shape of Helminthosporium gramineum Rabh. fungus involved in increasing disease damage of torn leaves in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel FLORIAN

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The onset of some sclerotic formations are reported on barley straws on which the following microscopic investigations and biometrical measurements peritecia, ascia and ascospores of Pyrenophora graminea (Rabh. Ito et Kurib. were detected, representing the sexed multiplication of fungus Helminthosporium gramineum, the pathogenic factor causing leaf tearing in barley, a condition rarely encountered in nature. Owing to the great number of peritecia on barley straw residues, we are of the opinion that the sexed multiplication of fungus represents a real danger in barley cultivation assigning the efficient control steps against this pest.

  1. Development and Characterization of Polymorphic EST-SSR and Genomic SSR Markers for Tibetan Annual Wild Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Zhang; Weihua Mao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic variation. This study was aimed at the exploitation of new SSRs for the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of wild barley by data mining. We developed 49 novel EST-SSRs and confirmed 20 genomic SSRs for 80 Tibetan annual wild barley and 16 cultivated barley accessions. A total of 213 alleles were generated from 69 loci with an average of 3.14 alleles per locus. The trimeric repeats were the most abundant motifs (40.82%) among the EST-SSRs...

  2. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    -vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general......, the cover crop developed poorly and did not affect barley or E. repens. Barley yield was only affected by treatments in the first season, where yield was negatively correlated with E. repens shoot biomass. The concept has potential for the control of severe E. repens infestations, but future research...

  3. 打瓜白粉病药剂防治技术研究%Study on the Technique of Controling Seed- used Watermelon Powdery Mildew with Bactericides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛; 李新辉; 于建新; 王艳; 杨渡; 李承业; 潘竟海; 李妍娥; 杨静飞; 严丽; 刘同业; 侯秀芳

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] Because seed - used watermelon powdery mildew induced serious damage in Xinjiang Region, we study the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed - used watermelon powdery mildew in the field. [Method] Comparison of the control efficacy of six bactericides to seed -used watermelon powdery mildew was made in the field plot experiment. [Result]Fourteen days after using these bactericides twice, thecontrol efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 5 ,000 times solution is 73. 80% , achieving the highest control efficacy in all the six used bactericides And the control efficacy of 10% ZJ0712 wp 1,0000 times solution, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG 3 ,000 times solution, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC 7 ,500 times solution and 25% Ethirimol wp 1,500 times solution are also effective, reaching the effect of 69. 69% , 69.56% , 68. 48% , and 67. 32% respectively after being used 14 days later. [ Conclusion]The control efficacy of ZJ0712 wp, 50% Kresoxim - methyl WG, 400 g/L Flusilazole EC and 25% Ethirimol wp are quite effective, so it is suggested that they could be used in production by turn, and the rule for controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is made. The primary sources of infection and suitable time for controlling this disease have been clearly made, too. The key to controlling seed - used watermelon powdery mildew is to spray effective bactericide in time.%[目的]针对打瓜白粉病在新疆严重危害的现状,研究6种杀菌剂对打瓜白粉病的田间防治效果.[方法]采用田间小区试验,比较6种药剂的防效差异.[结果]两次施药后第14 d,10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂5000倍液防效最高,防效达73.80%.10%苯醚菌酯悬浮剂10 000倍液、50%醚菌酯水分散粒剂3 000倍液、400 g/L氟硅唑乳油7 500倍液和25%乙嘧酚悬浮剂1 500倍液的防效也较好,药后14 d分别达69.69%、69.56%、68.48%和67.32%.[结论]4种药剂防效较好,推荐在生产中交替使用.提出了打瓜白粉病防治原则,明

  4. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  5. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation and Irradiation of Barley on Broiler Chicks Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were conducted to study the influence of irradiation treatment at dose levels of 0.20 and 60 kGy on barley beta-glucan and the effect of enzyme supplementation and irradiation of barley on broiler chicks performance. The amount of total and water-soluble beta-glucan in raw barley was 36 kg-1, respectively. The effect of irradiation treatment on total beta-glucan was insignificant while the level of soluble beta-glucan was increased with increasing the dose levels of irradiation. The effect of irradiation treatment and enzyme supplementation of barley diets on growth and conversion performance of broiler chicks indicated that birds fed raw barley diet had lower body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Irradiation of barley at dose of 20 kGy did not affect the chick performance (feed consumption, weight gain feed-gain ratio) that received the B 20 diet from 7 to 21 days of age, but when bird maintained on B 20 diet from 7 28 days of age, only feed-gain ratio was improved by 14.4%. The results indicate that there was a significant effect of irradiation of barley at 60 kGy (B 60) on feed -gain ratio of chicks when were fed B 60 diet from 7 to 21 days of age. The corresponding improvement in feed-gain ratio was 16.4%. When birds were fed B 60 diet from 7-28 days of age, the improvement in body weight and feed-gain ratio was 25.5 and 19.6%, respectively

  6. Mapping genes in barley for resistance to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and to P. striiformis from brome, wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Alemu, Sisay K.; Marcel, T.C.; Heyzen, van Skye

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations have been developed that are useful to study the inheritance of quantitative resistance to adapted and unadapted rust fungi. In a recent host range study, we found that the parents of those mapping populations also differed in their resistance to th

  7. Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus VPg Is the Determinant Protein for Breaking eIF4E-Mediated Recessive Resistance in Barley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huangai; Kondo, Hideki; Kühne, Thomas; Shirako, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus) factor(s) responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6) in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10) and rym5-non-breaking (JK05) isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg) is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120, and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants. PMID:27746794

  8. Effects of sulfur nutritional level on cadmium toxicity in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yichang; Huerta, A.J. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The effects of S levels on Cd toxicity were studied in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv.UC 476). Barley was grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland's solution containing either 100% or 10% S in a growth chamber at constant 20 C, 290 umole M[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] light intensity, and a 16/18 hour light/dark period. Five days after the first true leaf appeared, 15 uM Cd was added to the nutrient solutions where appropriate. At 14 days after beginning of Cd treatment, plants were analyzed for photosynthetic characteristics. The photosynthetic characteristics measured were CO[sub 2] response curves (measured with a LICOR 6200 portable photosynthesis system), and fluorescence measurement system. At 21 days they were analyzed for morphological and biomass measurements. The CO[sub 2] response curves for leaves of plants treated with 10% S did not significantly differ from those of plants treated with 100% S. Treatment with Cd significantly reduced the CO[sup 2] saturated rates of photosynthesis and the reduction was more significant in the 10% S than in the 100% S plants. Photochemical efficiency of PSII (FV/FM) and fluorescence quenching capacity (FQ) were not affected by 10% S as compared to 100% S treatment. Interestingly, treatment with Cd significantly increased both FV/FM and FQ as compared to control., However, S level had no effect on the fluorescence parameters of Cd-treated plants. Leaf and root length, leaf area, root and shoot dry weight were only slightly affected (increased or decreased) by 10% S as compared to 100% S but very significantly reduced by treatment with Cd. Our results agree with the previous reports which show that S (an important component of glutathione and phytochelatins which are low molecular weight Cd binding proteins), is important in regulating Cd detoxification in plants. However, we are continuing to conduct experiments as even lower S concentrations and different Cd concentrations.

  9. Differentially expressed genes between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive barley genotypes in response to drought stress during the reproductive stage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, P; Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Ceccarelli, S.; Bai, G.; Li, R; Von Korff, M; Varshney, R.,; Graner, A.; Valkoun, V.

    2009-01-01

    Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas worldwide. Identification of the genes responsible for drought tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also facilitate the genetic improvement of barley through marker-assisted selection or gene transformation. To monitor the changes in gene expression at the transcriptional level in barley leaves during the repro...

  10. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders. PMID:26809053

  11. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders.

  12. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments. PMID:27533879

  13. EFFECTS OF BARLEY PROCESSING ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES IN FATTENING WEANED LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VOIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our researches was to observe the nutritive and productive effect of the ratio, offered at discretion, composed of alfalfa hay and barley under the following presentation forms: whole grains, roughly ground (4mm with and without addition of yeast, strain Yea-Sacc1026, to lambs submitted for fattening. The experiment lasted 54 days, the biological material was represented by Turcana lambs, grouped in three lots (n=12. Growth performances were significant bigger (p< 0.04 for the final body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain, but the specific intake was decreased with 0.49 UNC in lambs that consumed ground barley prior to those that consumed whole barley grains. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain Yea-Sacc1026 in the ground barley at 4 mm has a more productive and evident effect (p<0.02 regarding final body weight, total weight and average daily weigh compared to the lambs fed with whole barley grains, with a specific intake lower with 0.89 UNC.

  14. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  15. Histochemical characterization of early response to Cochliobolus sativus infection in selected barley genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Decuadro, Susana; Silva, Paula; Bentancur, Oscar; Gamba, Fernanda; Pritsch, Clara

    2014-07-01

    Much effort is being made to breed barley with durable resistance to leaf spot blotch incited by Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus). We hypothesized that susceptibility and resistance traits in 11 diverse barley genotypes inoculated with a single C. sativus isolate might specify a range of distinct host cell responses. Quantitative descriptions of interaction microphenotypes exhibited by different barley genotype seedlings after infection with C. sativus are provided. Early oxidative responses occurring in epidermis and mesophyll leaf tissue were monitored by histochemical analysis of H2O2 accumulation at 8, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Cell wall apposition (CWA) in epidermal cells and hypersensitive reaction (HR) of epidermal or mesophyll tissue were early defenses in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. There were differences in level, duration, and frequency of occurrence for CWA and HR for the different barley genotypes. Occurrence of HR in epidermal cells at post-penetration stages was indicative of compatibility. Patterns of cell responses were microphenotypically diverse between different resistant and susceptible genotypes. This suggests that timing and level of response are key features of microphenotypic diversity that distinguish different functional mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility present in barley.

  16. [Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2007-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster. PMID:18186193

  17. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  18. Barley-derived beta-D-glucan induces immunostimulation via a dectin-1-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Rui; Ikeda, Futoshi; Aoki, Kosuke; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Kato, Yuya; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Tanioka, Asuka; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Tsubaki, Kazufumi; Ohno, Naohito

    2009-04-27

    Barley-derived beta-glucan, a linear mixed-linkage beta-glucan composed of 1,3- and 1,4-beta-D-glucopyranose polymers, binds to dectin-1. However, whether it can trigger signal transduction via dectin-1 remains unclear. In this study, we used a reporter gene assay to determine whether barley-derived beta-d-glucan can activate NF-kappaB via dectin-1-mediated signaling when dectin-1 is cotransfected with Syk, CARD9, and Bcl10 in 293T cells. We found that barley-derived beta-D-glucan can activate NF-kappaB leading to cytokine production when dectin-1, Syk, CARD9, and Bcl10 are coexpressed in the cells. We also found that barley-derived beta-D-glucan can induce the phosphorylation of Syk and production of IL-6 in thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages. These results indicated that the immunostimulatory effects of barley-derived beta-d-glucan might be exerted, at least in part, via dectin-1. PMID:19428562

  19. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, F; Lister, R M; Fattouh, F A

    1991-04-01

    ELISA, cDNA dot blot hybridization and transmission by vector aphids were used to investigate the occurrence and degree of cross-protection produced in oat plants by virus isolates representing five strains or serotypes of barley yellow dwarf virus, namely PAV, MAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. Generally, the degree of cross-protection was positively correlated with the serological relatedness between the isolates. A high degree of cross-protection occurred between NY-MAV and MAV-PS1, two isolates of the MAV serotype; cross-protection was moderate between MAV-PS1 and either P-PAV (a Purdue isolate of the PAV serotype) or NY-SGV; cross-protection between P-PAV and NY-SGV was low. Cross-protection did not occur in other paired inoculations and did not persist in some plants, the challenge virus eventually becoming detectable. The persistence of cross-protection depended on the interval between inoculations with protecting and challenge viruses; longer inoculation intervals enhanced the persistence of cross-protection. Results obtained by ELISA and dot blot hybridization were usually consistent, indicating that cross-protection affected both viral capsid and RNA synthesis. PMID:2016594

  20. Numerical simulation static-bed drying of barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandas, N. [Universita di Cagliari (Italy). Dipartimento d' Ingegneria Meccanica; Habte, M. [Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia). Mechanical Engineering Department

    2002-07-01

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in mathematical modelling and numerical simulation in areas related with fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer. This is because of the increasingly widespread use of powerful, low-cost digital computers. Future efforts should be directed towards developing computer codes that can be implemented by users who may not be well versed in computational skills. Here a computer program has been developed, for simulating a non-equilibrium mathematical model for static-deep-bed drying of barley. The model consists of a set of four non-linear partial differential equations as a result of mass and energy balances and heat transfer equations, together with appropriate diffusion equation. The set of equations is solved by means of a finite-difference method, using a second-order iterative predictor-corrector process to solve the first two equations in the time domain, and a first-order iterative process for the second two, in the space domain. Published experimental results are used to validate the model. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data relative to heated-air drying system, and the prediction accuracy is enhanced with respect to equilibrium models. (author)

  1. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  2. Mechanisms of Induced Resistance in Barley Against Drechslera teres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngs Jørgensen, H J; Lübeck, P S; Thordal-Christensen, H; de Neergaard, E; Smedegaard-Petersen, V

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT Quantitative and qualitative histopathological methods and molecular analyses were used to study the mechanisms by which preinoculation with either of the nonbarley pathogens, Bipolaris maydis and Septoria nodorum, inhibited growth of Drechslera teres. Collectively, our data suggest that induced resistance is the principal mechanism responsible for impeding the pathogen. The enhancement of resistance in the host was primarily manifested during penetration by D. teres, and after penetration, where growth of D. teres ceased soon after development of infection vesicles. Thus, 24 h after pretreatment with B. maydis or S. nodorum, the penetration frequency from D. teres appressoria was reduced from 42.7% in the controls to 9.5 and 14.8%, respectively. The reductions were associated with increased formation of fluorescent papillae in induced cells (early defense reaction). The postpenetrational inhibition of D. teres completely stopped fungal growth and was apparently linked to an enhancement of multicellular hypersensitive responses in inducer-treated leaves (late defense reaction). Papillae formation and multicellular hypersensitive reactions were also observed in fully susceptible, noninduced control leaves, but they were inadequate to stop fungal progress. Northern blots from leaves treated with either inducer alone support the conclusion that induced resistance is involved in suppression of D. teres by increased formation of papillae and hypersensitive reactions. Thus, the blots showed strong expression of several defense response genes that are involved in these reactions in barley attacked by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei.

  3. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.;

    1996-01-01

    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas...... as substrate, Complexes of these proteinase with BSZx resisted boiling in SDS, and amino acid sequencing showed that cleavage in the reactive center loop only occurred after P-1 Arg. Activated protein C and leukocyte elastase were slowly inhibited by BSZx (k(ass) = 1-2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) whereas factor XIIa...... and leukocytes, a fungal trypsin and three subtilisins, Thrombin, plasma kallikrein, factor VIIa/tissue factor and factor Xa were inhibited by BSZx at heparin independent association rates (k(ass)) of 4.5 x 10(3)-1.3 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at 22 degrees C. Only factor Xa turned a significant fraction of BSZx over...

  4. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Shonima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

  5. 粉末状和颗粒状有机膨润土对克百威的吸附%Adsorption of carbofuran on powdery and granular organobentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春姬; 肖波; 任娟; 杨平; 王金俊

    2011-01-01

    用十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTMAB)和十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)制得粉末状CTMAB阳离子有机膨润土(简称CTMAB-膨润土)和CTMAB-SDBS阴阳离子有机膨润土(简称CTMAB-SDBS-膨润土),并利用聚乙烯醇(PVA)包埋固定化技术将2种粉末状有机膨润土制成颗粒状有机膨润土,研究了粉末状与颗粒状有机膨润土对水中克百威的吸附性能.结果表明:粉末状CTMAB-膨润土和CTMAB-SDBS-膨润土对克百威的吸附效果较好,最终去除率分别为90.9%和92.5%,颗粒状CTMAB-膨润土和CTMAB-SDBS-膨润土对克百威的最终去除率分别为55.5%和60.3%;有机膨润土对克百威的吸附等温线符合Freundlich方程;颗粒状有机膨润土吸附克百威最多可重复利用6次.%Two kinds of powdery organobentonite (CTMAB-bentonite and CTMAB-SDBS-bentonite) were synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as raw material respectively. These powder-organobentonites were embed-immobilization treated by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for preparation of granular organobentonite. The batch removal of carbofuran from aqueous solutions by adsorption on these organobentonite was investigated to compare the adsorptive capacity of powdery and granular organobentonites. The results showed that the powder-organobentonite presented better performance for carbofuran adsorption,with the carbofuran removal rate of powdery CTMAB-bentonite and CTMAB-SDBS-bentonite were 90. 9% and 92. 5% ,and the correlated carbofuran removal rate for granule-organobentonite were 55. 5% and 60. 3% ,respectively. While for gran-ule-organobentonite,the solid-liquid separation was easy to implement after adsorption and it could be reused for several times. The adsorption of carbofuran on powder-organobentonites and granule-organobentonites could be described by Freundich isotherms absorption model.

  6. Study on Indicators Related with Pea Powdery Mildew Resistance%豌豆白粉病抗性相关指标的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 杨晓明; 陆建英; 王昶

    2015-01-01

    It is studied the relations between pea powdery mildew resistance and physiological indicators. Selected 4 kinds of pea with different resistance to pea powdery mildew. The content of soluble sugar and chloroplast changes in activity of specific enzymes such as SOD,CAT,POD,PPO and PAL are detected. The result shows that the content of chloroplast and the activity of POD,PPO and PAL are decreased as the resistance weakened,the activity of CAT was increased as the resistance weakened,while there is no significant correlation in content of the activity of SOD.The result of variance analysis illustrated the significant difference in the content of chloroplast and the activity of PPO,PAL and CAT between different cultivars (P<0.01). So it is confirmed that the content of chloroplast and the activity of PAL and CAT could used as indicator for resistance to pea powdery mildow.%为研究豌豆白粉病抗病性与各生理指标间的关系,选取4种抗性不同的豌豆品种为试材,测定各品种间叶绿素和可溶性糖含量以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)和苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性变化。结果表明,不同抗性品种中叶绿素含量、POD、PPO活性和PAL活性随豌豆白粉病抗性减弱而降低;CAT活性随豌豆白粉病抗性减弱而升高;SOD活性与豌豆白粉病抗性没有明显变化规律。方差分析结果显示,不同抗感病品种间叶绿素含量、PPO活性、PAL活性和CAT活性差异极显著(P<0.01),因此可以用叶绿素含量、PPO活性、PAL活性和CAT活性来反映对豌豆白粉病抗性的强弱。

  7. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  8. Sequencing of 15,622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework....

  9. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 da...

  10. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.;

    2001-01-01

    was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of barley...

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  12. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  13. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  14. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  15. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  16. Evaluation of Different Levels of Barley and Replace it Instead of Corn on Performance of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hosein Eshrati Bahar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In isoenergetic - isonitrogenous diets, barley at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % was substituted for corn and its effects on broiler chicken performance was studied. This study was carried out with 5 levels of barley (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %, 3 replicates and 14 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. In this experiment 300 day old broiler chicks (Lohman were used for 42 days. The results showed that barley up to 25% substitution had no adverse effect on broiler performance. It is concluded that in diet supplementation with barley until 25% could done without any adverse effects on performance, although enzyme supplementation should be considered in the ration to decrease NSP in the barley

  17. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  18. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  19. Transformation of TrxS Gene into Barley by Particle Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li; YIN Jun; KONG Wei-wei; REN Jiang-ping; LI Lei; LIU Lei

    2005-01-01

    The production of malting barley in China can't meet the demand of beer industries because of poor quality and it becomes a bottleneck problem in beer manufacture industry. In this paper, TrxS gene cloned from Phalaris coerulescens was transferred into barley cultivar Yupi 1 (YP1)via biolistic bombardment. 1206 immature embryos were bombarded and seven transgenic plants carrying TrxS gene were confirmed by PCR and PCR-Southern blotting analysis. TrxS gene was expressed in transgenic plants by RT-PCR analysis. The activity of Trxh and αt-amylase of transgenic line were higher than that of non-transgenic line, which is helpful to improve malting quality of barley.

  20. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L (R) from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw...... generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose...... straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid...