WorldWideScience

Sample records for barley plants hordeum

  1. Auxin effects on somaclonal variation and plant regeneration from mature embryo of barley (hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, M.; Taspinar, M. S.; Arslan, E.; Sigmaz, B.; Agar, G.

    2015-01-01

    Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), immature embryos are the most commonly used as explant source for In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation but, mature embryos are alternative to immature embryo due to the fact that they have advantages such as easy storage and ready availability throughout the year. The effects of different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg/l) of three auxins (2,4-D, dicamba and picloram) were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Calli, embryogenic calli and regenerated plants were observed in all of the studied auxins. The MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium) containing 12 mg/l dicamba was found to be the most effective for embryogenic callus, responded embryogenic callus and regeneration efficiency. Plant tissue culture can bring about genetic changes that are known as somaclonal variation. Genetic and epigenetic changes were examined by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and CRED-RA (Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification) techniques, respectively. Increased auxin concentration led to the decrease in the GTS (Genomic Template Stability) value. DNA hypermethylation occurred in higher concentrations of 2,4-D and picloram, while DNA hypomethylation was observed in dicamba. (author)

  2. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  3. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  4. [ Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup] of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importance of loose Smut [ Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup] of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in western Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ... with selected fungicides need to be promoted to tackle loose smut and to sustain barley production. Keywords: Barley; Hordeum vulgare; Loose Smut; Seed Treatment; Ustilago nuda ...

  5. Structural Equation Model as a Tool to Assess the Relationship Between Grain Yield Per Plant and Yield Components in Doubled Haploid Spring Barley Lines (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mańkowski Dariusz R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and characterize the relationships between yielding factors and grain yield per doubled haploid (DH plant of spring barley as well as relation between yield components and duration of each stage of plant development. To describe these relations structure equation modeling was used. The study included plants of doubled haploid spring barley lines (Hordeum vulgare L. derived from two-rowed form of Scarlett cultivar. The SAS® system was used to analyze the model of relationships between grain yield per plant and yield components. Our results indicate that the number of spikes per plant and grain yield per spike had a direct and decisive influence on the grain yield of the investigated DH plants of spring barley. Based on the path model analysis it was found that the most important factor determining grain yield per DH plants of spring barley was the number of spikes per plant and the duration of tillering and shooting stages.

  6. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  8. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to assess interrelationship among these measures and to identify high-yield and stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in 11 environments during 2001 - 2003 in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Significant differences were observed among barley cultivars for grain yield, ...

  9. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive se...

  11. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-02-01

    As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9-13, 14-18, 19-23 and 24-28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lp(r)). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lp(r) of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lp(r) of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lp(r) values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lp(r) of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lp(r) of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative development.

  12. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum. Vulgare L.) landraces based on microsatellite markers. El-Awady A. M. Mohamed 1,2 and El-Tarras A. E. Adel1,2. 1Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Research Unit, Scientific Research Center, College of Medicine, Taif.

  13. Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat ( Avena sativa L.) weeds. ... Furthermore, the commonly used herbicide price is soaring from time to time and out of the reach of the poor farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, this method is an ...

  14. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  15. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene. Promoter and Using Sequencing Analaysis. For The Identification of Conserved Regulatory. Elements By Bioinformatic Tools. Kobra Nalbandi1, Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz2*, Khalil Alami Saeed1 and Ashraf. Gholizadeh3. 1Ramin Agricultural ...

  16. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  17. comparison of the frost resistance of barley (hordeum vulgare l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley is the most important crop in the highlands of Ethiopia at altitudes above 2600 m, where its productivity is limited by cold stress. We studied 25 Ethiopian barley landraces in order to identify cold tolerant types and to describe characteristics and acclimation potentials of these landraces to cold stress. Barley plants ...

  18. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  19. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoying; Sela, Hanan; Jiao, Genlin; Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Weiner, Dmitry; Sakuma, Shun; Krugman, Tamar; Nevo, Eviatar; Komatsuda, Takao; Korol, Abraham; Chen, Guoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populatio...

  20. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  1. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  3. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  4. Barley (Hordeum vulgare in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leipe

    Full Text Available This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island, the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  5. A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and narbon vetch ( Vicia narbonensis L.) in intercropping and sole cropping system under the interference and control of weeds in dry land farming...

  6. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... the photosynthetically productive period of the crop plant. Improving the process of senescence by genetic means rather than by increasing the amount of fertiliser is one potential approach towards a higher sustainable productivity. In several species of plants, the NAC transcription factors have been shown to regulate...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  7. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyararo M Hove

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare. The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

  8. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  9. Phytotoxicity of Chitosan and SiO2 Nanoparticles to Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride BEHBOUDI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants such as wheat and barley that are strategically important crops need to be considered to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles (NPs. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and SiO2 NPs on wheat and barley plants. Two factorial experiments (seeds priming and direct exposure were performed based on a completely randomized design in four replications. Results showed that the seeds priming with the NPs had not significant effect on germination parameters such as Germination Percentage (GP, Germination Rate (GR, Germination Value (GV, Mean Germination Time (MGT, Pick Value (PV and Mean Daily Germination (MDG. In contrast, exposure of the seeds to the NPs had significant effects on these parameters. In both experiments, treatments had significant effects on shoot, seedling, root length, fresh and dry weight, as well as vigor indexes as compared to the control. In most traits, the best concentration of NPs was 30 ppm, whereas applications of the NPs with 90 ppm displayed adverse effects on majority of the studied traits. According to these results, selectivity in applications of NPs with suitable concentration and method is essential for different plant species.

  10. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  11. Nitrogen uptake by Azospirillum brasilense inoculated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as influenced by N and P fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, Mahima; Tilak, K.V.B.R.; Sachdev, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a sandy-loam soil under potted conditions revealed that application of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the population of Azospirillium in the barley rhizosphere. A two fold increase was observed in the Azospirillium population at 80 days compared to that at 40 days of plant growth. The unsterilized inoculated roots had more population than the surface sterilized inoculated roots. Increased drymatter production of barley was obtained in A. brasilense inoculated N 0 P 1 (0 kg N and 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) treatment than uninoculated control. Also N and P uptake was higher in A. brasilense inoculated plants in the presence of both N and P fertilizers. The 15 N data revealed that at harvest nearly 36 per cent of the total N uptake was from the nitrogen fixed by A. brasilense irrespective of P treatment. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Determination of Local Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    , 0.88 and. 0.68 kg m. -3 ... irrigated barley fields. This could be due to lack of information on water requirement of local barley. General crop coefficient values for various crops including for barley are available in ..... Soil salinity and barley.

  13. The Hordeum Toolbox: The Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project Genotype and Phenotype Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Blake

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of DNA markers in public sector plant breeding is now the norm. Such markers are common across breeding programs and this commonality enables and enhances collaboration. Therefore, large collaborative research projects that measure several phenotypes across multiple environments coupled with the expanding amount of genotype data attainable with current marker technologies are on the rise and these projects demand efficient data delivery. However, development of computational tools for advanced data integration, visualization, and analysis is still a bottleneck, even though these resources have the greatest potential impact for users who are extracting and developing hypothesis-based solutions. The Hordeum Toolbox (THT was developed as a data resource for the Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP with the novel capability of constructing user-defined downloadable sets of phenotype and/or genotype data for downstream analysis. Internal tools in THT enable users to create clusters of a selected group of lines based on genotype data, parse pedigrees, and select germplasm based on haplotype, phenotype, and agronomic properties. The Hordeum Toolbox can be adapted to breeding programs or collaborations to assist researchers in germplasm selection, genotype data visualization, and the integration of complex data sets for statistical analysis.

  14. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  15. Comparison of selection efficiency for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under organic and conventional farming conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokare, Aina; Legzdina, Linda; Maliepaard, Chris; Niks, Rients E.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze whether selection under conventional conditions (indirect selection) is as effective as selection under organic conditions (direct selection) to develop varieties suitable for organic farming systems. Two F3 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations

  16. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Akdeniz H, Keskin B, Yılmaz I, Oral E (2004). A Research on yield and yield components of some barley cultivars. J. Agric. Sci. 14:119-125. Alemayehu F, Parlevliet JE (1997). Variation between and within. Ethiopian barley landraces Euphytica 94:183-189. Asfaw Z (1988). Variation in the morphology of the ...

  17. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye...

  18. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces five leucine-derived hydroxynitrile glucosides (HNGs), of which only epiheterodendrin is a cyanogenic glucoside. The four non-cyanogenic HNGs are the β-HNG epidermin and the γ-HNGs osmaronin, dihydroosmaronin and sutherlandin. By analyzing 247 spring barley...

  19. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Eslami Khalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University during 2009. The first factor was two seed ratios include D1: 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (optimum seed ratio and D2: 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (high seed ratio and the second factor consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of faba bean, P2: 50% faba bean + 50 % barley, P3: 75% faba bean + 25% barley, P4: 25% faba bean + 75% barley, P5: sole cropping of barley. Land equivalent ratio (LER indicated that intercropping of 25% faba bean + 75% barley was better than 50% faba bean + 50% barley. According to significant interaction effects of density and intercropping ratio in terms of seed yield and some competitive indices for both crop species, the highest barley and faba bean yield (3306.66 and 4884.56 kg.ha-1, respectively were observed in sole cropping with high density. In this experiment, the 75 % faba bean + 25 % mixture with high density was recorded highest intercropping yield, barley aggressivity value and 27% yield increases of barley in mix-proportion compared to sole crops. Also, the most of faba bean aggressivity value and faba bean yield increases in mix-proportion compared to sole crop were obtained when 25% faba bean + 75% barley mixture with optimum density was used. Furthermore the 75% faba bean + 25% barley treatment plus optimum seed ratio had highest system productivity index.

  20. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  1. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Barley, genotype x environment interaction, parametric and nonparametric measures, dynamic and static stability. INTRODUCTION ... evaluated in multi-environment trials (METs) to test their performance over different ...... (2) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and pea (Pisum sativum. L.). Adugna and ...

  2. Genetic variability in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 44 barley landraces comprising collections and farmers' cultivars from north Shewa, Ethiopia were studied for variability in morphological characters and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins. The phenotypic frequencies of morphological characters ...

  3. Registration of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Variety HB 1307 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six-rowed food type barley, HB 1307, was developed by Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) from a cross between a landrace line and exotic germplasm (Awra gebs-1 x IBON93/91) and released in 2006 for mid and high altitude areas. The three consecutive years\\' (2002-2004) tests proved its superiority in grain ...

  4. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  6. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent......' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  7. Determination of Local Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Crop Coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average economic water productivity (EWP) of barley for the very wet, wet, normal, dry and very dry seasons scenario were 0.99, 0.7, 0.65, 0.57, and 0.44 USD m-3, respectively, whereas the corresponding crop water productivity (CWP) values for grain were 1.53, 1.08, 1.0, 0.88 and 0.68 kg m-3, respectively. The EWP ...

  8. The Mystery of Spot Blotch Disease Caused by the Fungal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana on Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjendal, Nele

    was investigated. In this PhD work it could be shown that light dependent disease symptoms were associated with less fungal colonization, while suppressing the rate of photosynthesis by keeping plants in darkness made them super-susceptible to B. sorokiniana colonization. Likewise, partial suppression......The fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana causes a wide spectrum of diseases including spot blotch disease. To achieve a better understanding of the biology of the fungus, the interaction of B. sorokiniana with the host barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and the resulting disease spot blotch...... of photosynthesis with DCMU (3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) reduced the formation of necrosis after infection and led to increased susceptibility, strongly implying that active photosynthesis is involved in disease symptom formation and that these symptoms negatively affect fungal colonization...

  9. The Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Cadmium on Tolerance Index and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, as a bioabsorbant to ameliorate the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety ‘Sahra’, a factorial pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. Trichoderma harzianum withtwo levels (with and without inoculation and cadmium nitrate with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L-1 were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed that there was a significant interaction between Trichoderma and cadmium nitrate in terms of biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, spike number per plant and seed number per spike. Mean comparisons showed that Trichoderma inoculation at all Cd levels significantly improved both biological and straw yields. Trichoderma at 50 and 100 mg.L-1 of Cd also increased the spike number per plant (up to 120 and 66%, respectively significantly. Increasing Cd levels decreased seed yield (19%, 1000 seed weight (18%, partitioning coefficient (57% and tolerance index (23% significantly. Inoculation of Trichoderma into growth medium had a significant effect on seed yield and tolerance index (up to 17 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, Trichoderma harzianum inoculation at lower concentrations of Cd (50 and 100 mg.L-1 could be effective to improve growth parameters of barley plant.

  10. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting

  11. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  12. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  13. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, PB 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia; Department of Plant Breeding, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon; Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, The Lebanese University, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Leba; International Centre for Agricultural Research in ...

  14. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, PB 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia; Department of Plant Breeding, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon; Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, The Lebanese University, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Leba; International Centre for Agricultural Research in ...

  15. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  16. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biotechnology of bread making: unravelling and manipulating the multi-protein gluten complex. Biotechnology 13, 1185–1190. Shewry P. R. 1995 Plant storage proteins. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 70, 375–426. Sipahi H., Akar T., Yildiz M. A. and Sayim I. 2010 Determina- tion of genetic variation and relationship in ...

  17. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This method is thought to be often influenced by environmental conditions .... traits such as plant height, ear attitude, waxiness, purpose of cultivation ... Disease resistance. Region and. M ajor. Height. Ear. F eed. /malt. 1000. Y ellow. S pot. No. Genotype sowing condition. P edigree characteristics. (cm) attitude. W axiness.

  18. Isolating Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoters play the most important role in determining the temporal and spatial expression pattern and transcript level of a gene. Some strong constitutive promoters, such as cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter, are widely used in plant genetic engineering research. However, the expression levels of the foreign genes in ...

  19. Multielement analysis of pakistani barley (hordeum vulgare l) varieties by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Shar, L.A.; Kazi, T. G.; Arain, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) is widely known due to its nutritional potential, in Pakistan it is only grown at a few agricultural experimental stations. There is no published data about the chemical composition of Pakistani barley varieties; however, research laboratories have studied their agronomical characteristics. The mineral concentration of five Pakistani barley varieties and their soil were studied, namely Sadabahar, Bajawar -2000, Frontier-87, Sonober-96, Soorab-96 and the soil of two agricultural plots, namely Wheat Research Institute Faisalabad and National Agriculture Research Centre Islamabad. The analysis included: 15 macro and micronutrients and they varied in concentration from 0.22-8285.1 mg kg-1 in barley seed and soil concentration in both of above plots varies from 1.63-14719.8 mg kg-1. Among all the varieties; Sadabahar showed the highest Mg, Zn and Cr content (2686.6, 39.19, 1.22 mg kg-1) respectively. Bajawar -2000, showed the highest Na, K, Ca, Fe, and Ni content (1768.0, 8285.1, 891.0, 937.02, and 4.56 mg kg-1) respectively. Frontier-87 showed the highest Ba content (18.58 mg kg-1), Sonober-96 showed the highest Co, Pb and Cd content (4.41, 1.45, 0.29 mg kg-1), Sorab-96 showed the highest Al content 39.50 mg/kg. Since all varieties were grown under two environmental conditions i.e. Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad and National Agriculture Research Centre Islamabad. These results may be useful in the food industry for the selection of hull barley varieties for human consumption and to produce substantially mineral contents. (author)

  20. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and its effect on selected physiological and morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriama Kopernická

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and other toxic elements in the environment, mainly located in soil and groundwater, have a significant effect on plant and its productivity that has a huge attention in recent years. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil cause toxicity to plants, and contaminate the food chain. The industrial areas, as well as developing countries have been contaminated with high concentration of heavy metals. Main sources of contamination are mining and other industrial processes, as well as military and or lanfills, sludge dumps or waste disposal sites. The heavy metals are very dangerous to environment and pose serious danger to public health by entering throught the food chain or into drinking water. Phytoextraction is one way how to remove the contaminants from soil by plants. Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a technology that has been studied for several years. It is more ecological and cheaper way how to clean our environment.Several plant species are known becauce they hyperaccumulate a high contents of metals from the soil. The accumulators are mainly herbaceous species, crops and nowadays angiosperm trees with a high growth such as poplars or willows. We have focused on the determination of some morphological (lenght and weight of roots and biomass and physiological (contents of dry mass and number of lief stomata characteristics and the determination of the bioaccumulation factor and the translocation factor of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Imprints of leaves were evaluated using an optical microscope Axiostar Plus, Carl Zeiss, lens CP Achromat 40x/0.65, eyepiece PI 10x / 18, Canon Utilities Software Zoom Browser EX 4.6 and hardware Acer Travel Mate 4600, Canon Power Shot A95. The density of stomata was evaluated on an area of 1 mm2. Samples of the dried plants (leaves and roots were mineralized by acid digestion using microwave digestion device MARS X - press 5. The end of determination to obtain the cadmium content was

  1. A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, S.; Bornman, J.F.; Weissenböck, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to define the role of soluble flavonoids as UV-B protectants in the primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose we used a mutant line (Ant 287) from the Carlsberg collection of proanthocyanidin-free barley containing only 7% of total extractable flavonoids in the primary leaf as compared to the mother variety (Hiege 550/75). Seven-day-old leaves from plants grown under high visible light with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for the determination of UV-B sensitivity. UV-B-induced changes were assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II, including initial and maximum fluorescence, apparent quantum yield, and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. A quartz fibre-optic microprobe was used to evaluate the amount of potentially harmful UV-B (310 nm radiation) penetrating into the leaf as a direct consequence of flavonoid deficiency. Our data indicate an essential role of flavonoids in UV-B protection of barley primary leaves. In leaves of the mutant line grown under supplementary UV-B, an increase in 310nm radiation in the mesophyll and a strong decrease in the quantum yield of photosynthesis were observed as compared to the corresponding mother variety. Primary leaves of liege responded to supplementary UV-B radiation with a 30% increase in the major flavonoid saponarin and a 500% increase in the minor compound lutonarin. This is assumed to be an efficient protective response since no changes in variable chlorophyll fluorescence were apparent. In addition, a further reduction in UV-B penetration into the mesophyll was recorded in these leaves

  2. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, K.; Park, M.R.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, C.A.; Rehman, S.; Steffenson, B.; Lee, K.J.; Yun, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  3. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  4. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  5. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  6. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  7. Detection of QTLs for seedling characteristics in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under hydroponic culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qifei; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Du, Binbin; Li, Chengdao; Sun, Dongfa

    2017-11-07

    Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions. Of them, leaf age (LAG), shoot height (SH), maximum root length (MRL), main root number (MRN) and seedling fresh weight (SFW) were investigated at the 13th, 20th, 27th, and 34th day after germination. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying these seedling characteristics using a high-density linkage map and to reveal the QTL expression pattern by comparing the QTLs among four different seedling growth stages. A total of 70 QTLs were distributed over all chromosomes except 4H, and, individually, accounted for 5.01%-77.78% of phenotypic variation. Out of the 70 detected QTLs, 23 showed a major effect on 14 seedling-related characteristics. Ten co-localized chromosomal regions on 2H (five regions), 3H (two regions) and 7H (three regions) involved 39 QTLs (55.71%), each simultaneously influenced more than one trait. Meanwhile, 9 co-localized genomic regions involving 22 QTLs for five seedling characteristics (LAG, SH, MRL, MRN and SFW) at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-old seedling were common for two or more growth stages of seedling. QTL in the vicinity of Vrs1 locus on chromosome 2H with the favorable alleles from Huadamai 6 was found to have the largest main effects on multiple seedling-related traits. Six QTL cluster regions associated with 16 seedling-related characteristics were observed on chromosome 2H, 3H and 7H. The majority of the 29 regions identified for five seedling characteristics were

  8. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...... into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on quatitative characters of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, T.C.; Gonzalez, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Seeds od f a barley line were irradiated with doses ranging from O to 64 Kr of gamma radiation for three consecutive generations (R1,R2 and R3). From these, several mutant generations were obtained in the field, planting at a commercial density and without selection. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  11. Production and meiotic pairing behaviour of new hybrids of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Láng, M; Linc, G; Logojan, A; Sutka, J

    2000-12-01

    New winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hybrids produced using cultivated varieties (wheat 'Martonvásári 9 krl'(Mv9 krl) x barley 'Igri', Mv9 krl x 'Osnova', 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas') were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Meiotic analysis of the hybrids Mv9 krl x 'Igri' and 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and their in vitro regenerated progenies with the Feulgen method revealed 1.59 chromosome arm associations per cell in both initial hybrids. The number of chromosome arm associations increased after in vitro culture to 4.72 and 2.67, respectively, in the two combinations. According to the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, wheat-barley chromosome arm associations made up 3.6% of the total in the initial Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrid and 6.6% and 16.5% of the total in in vitro regenerated progenies of the 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrids, respectively. The demonstration by GISH of wheat-barley chromosome pairing in the hybrids and especially in their in vitro regenerated progenies proves the possibility of producing recombinants between these two genera, and thus of transferring useful characters from barley into wheat. In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants.

  12. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma membrane bound beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase. assumed to be involved in the resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), was partially purified from a microsomal fraction of green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plasma membranes were enriched...... by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning of the microsomal fraction.in a polyethylene glycol 3350/Dextran T-500 system. The plasma membrane bound callose synthase was dependent on uridine 5' diphosphate (UDP)-glucose (K(m) 0.39 mM) and was activated by Ca2+, digitonin, cellobiose and polyamines. The enzyme...

  13. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoying; Sela, Hanan; Jiao, Genlin; Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Weiner, Dmitry; Sakuma, Shun; Krugman, Tamar; Nevo, Eviatar; Komatsuda, Takao; Korol, Abraham; Chen, Guoxiong

    2012-09-24

    The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric 'African Slope' of "Evolution Canyon") formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121-128 and 121-134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123-128,125-128, and 123-125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed sequence variation of HvABCG31 promoter. Abiotic

  14. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaoying

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71 from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon” formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22 were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2% than among populations (45.8%. Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin, Dof (DNA binding with one finger, and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important

  15. An evaluation of the impact of the endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica on some traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghabouli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which make one of the most important classes of soil microorganisms, induce genetic, physiological and ecological alterations in their host plant and thus increase its yield and enable its cultivation in saline or dry soils or in climates facing biotic and abiotic stresses. The endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica exhibits a high effect in plant growth and increased resistance against environmental tensions like drought and salinity, as well as against phytopathogens. This work was intended to study the potential of P. indica in enhancing growth and elevating drought resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during 2010. A greenhouse trial of completely randomized design with two fungal treatments (inoculated vs. non-inoculated and three drought levels (F.C., 50% F.C. and 25% F.C. with four repeats was conducted in greenhouse of Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute (Isfahan. The results indicate that the fungus P. indica has accompanied biomass increments of both shoot and root parts in the inoculated plant compared to the control, as in inoculated plant, total shoot dry weight and root dry weight were increased by 39 and 46 percent, respectively. Also, in stress conditions RWC in inoculated plant was greater. In addition to the growth increasing activity, the effective role of the fungus in enhancing barley growth and yield under drought conditions (especially at the 25% F.C. level is evident. According to the results, and to the fact that the fungus can be cultured on artificial (host-plant-free growth medium, this fungus can be contemplated as making a growth stimulating agent and in producing biological fertilizer for use in crops; and it might take a significant role toward a sustainable agriculture. The application of this fungus can also be beneficial in increasing growth and production of crops such as barley and wheat under the dry conditions widely encountered in Iran.

  16. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    mixoploid with respect to alien chromosomes (19-22). In one combination, chromosome no. 7 was duplicated. Meiosis in triple hybrids showed low, but variable pairing (1.3-5.5 chiasmata per cell). The syndesis probably did not include the barley chromosomes. Direct backcrosses to di- and tetraploid......-chromosomic plant in which the male parental genome was absent. We suspect that this plant may have arisen through parthenogenetic development of a reduced female gemete. The other cross with a diploid line ('9208/9') resulted in plant with 2n = 51-53. The most likely explanation for this second plant...... is that an unreduced gamete from the amphiploid was fertilized by a normal gamete from the backcross parent, and during early embryo development, some chromosomes were eliminated....

  17. Broadly conserved fungal effector BEC1019 suppresses host cell death and enhances pathogen virulence in powdery mildew of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, is an ideal model to address fundamental questions in host resistance and susceptibility. Effector proteins secreted by B. graminis act to inhibit, induce, or accelerate host pr...

  18. Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with Salmonella enterica and Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutter, Stefan; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Colonization of barley plants by the food-borne pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and three Listeria spp. (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua) was investigated in a monoxenic system. Herbaspirillum sp. N3 was used as a positive control and Escherichia coli HB101 as a negative control for endophytic root colonization. Colonization of the plants was tested 1-4 weeks after inoculation by determination of CFU, specific PCR assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Both S. enterica strains were found as endophytic colonizers of barley roots and reached up to 2.3 x 10(6) CFU per g root fresh weight after surface sterilization. The three Listeria strains had 10-fold fewer cell numbers after surface sterilization on the roots and therefore were similar to the results of nonendophytic colonizers, such as E. coli HB101. The FISH/CSLM approach demonstrated not only high-density colonization of the root hairs and the root surface by S. enterica but also a spreading to subjacent rhizodermis layers and the inner root cortex. By contrast, the inoculated Listeria spp. colonized the root hair zone but did not colonize other parts of the root surface. Endophytic colonization of Listeria spp. was not observed. Finally, a systemic spreading of S. enterica to the plant shoot (stems and leaves) was demonstrated using a specific PCR analysis and plate count technique.

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci and Maternal Effects Affecting the Strong Grain Dormancy of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Nakamura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum has strong grain dormancy, a trait that may enhance its survival in non-cultivated environments; by contrast, cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare has weaker dormancy, allowing uniform germination in cultivation. Malting barley cultivars have been bred for especially weak dormancy to optimize their use in malt production. Here, we analyzed the genetic mechanism of this difference in seed dormancy, using recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between the wild barley accession ‘H602’ and the malting barley cultivar ‘Kanto Nakate Gold (KNG’. Grains of H602 and KNG harvested at physiological maturity and dried at 30°C for 7 days had germination of approximately 0 and 100%, respectively. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting grain dormancy identified the well-known major dormancy QTL SD1 and SD2 (located near the centromeric region and at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 5H, respectively, and QTL at the end of the long arm of chromosome 4H and in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 5H. We designated these four QTL Qsd1-OK, Qsd2-OK, Qsdw-4H, and Qsdw-5H, and they explained approximately 6, 38, 3, and 13% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. RILs carrying H602 alleles showed increased dormancy levels for all QTL. The QTL acted additively and did not show epistasis or QTL–environment interactions. Comparison of QTL locations indicated that all QTL except Qsdw-5H are likely the same as the QTL previously detected in the doubled haploid population from a cross between the malting cultivar ‘Haruna Nijo’ and ‘H602.’ We further examined Qsd2-OK and Qsdw-5H by analyzing the segregation of phenotypes and genotypes of F2 progenies derived from crosses between RILs carrying specific segments of chromosome 5H from H602 in the KNG background. This analysis confirmed that the two genomic regions corresponding to these QTL are involved in

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci and Maternal Effects Affecting the Strong Grain Dormancy of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgaressp.spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Sameri, Mohammad; Sato, Kazuhiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum ) has strong grain dormancy, a trait that may enhance its survival in non-cultivated environments; by contrast, cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare ) has weaker dormancy, allowing uniform germination in cultivation. Malting barley cultivars have been bred for especially weak dormancy to optimize their use in malt production. Here, we analyzed the genetic mechanism of this difference in seed dormancy, using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between the wild barley accession 'H602' and the malting barley cultivar 'Kanto Nakate Gold (KNG)'. Grains of H602 and KNG harvested at physiological maturity and dried at 30°C for 7 days had germination of approximately 0 and 100%, respectively. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting grain dormancy identified the well-known major dormancy QTL SD1 and SD2 (located near the centromeric region and at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 5H, respectively), and QTL at the end of the long arm of chromosome 4H and in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 5H. We designated these four QTL Qsd1-OK , Qsd2-OK , Qsdw-4H , and Qsdw-5H , and they explained approximately 6, 38, 3, and 13% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. RILs carrying H602 alleles showed increased dormancy levels for all QTL. The QTL acted additively and did not show epistasis or QTL-environment interactions. Comparison of QTL locations indicated that all QTL except Qsdw-5H are likely the same as the QTL previously detected in the doubled haploid population from a cross between the malting cultivar 'Haruna Nijo' and 'H602.' We further examined Qsd2-OK and Qsdw-5H by analyzing the segregation of phenotypes and genotypes of F 2 progenies derived from crosses between RILs carrying specific segments of chromosome 5H from H602 in the KNG background. This analysis confirmed that the two genomic regions corresponding to these QTL are involved in the regulation of

  1. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

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    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  2. Cell size and cell number in dwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonstein, A.D.; Gale, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen height mutants, induced by sodium azide treatment of the two-rowed barley variety Proctor, have been used to investigate the relationship between the extent and nature of stem shortening with alterations in cell size and cell number, and the pleiotropic effects of dwarfing genes on vegetative development and agronomic performance. The studies on epidermal cell number and cell length in the developmentally earliest and latest elongated vegetative tissues - the coleoptile and peduncle resprectively - suggest that cell number may be the primary determinant of plant height. One semi-prostrate and one erectoides mutant are used to illustrate different cell number/cell size strategies and their relationships with gibberellin sensitivity, growth rate and lodging resistance are discussed. (author)

  3. Exogenous silicon (Si) increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongchao; Chen, Qin; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Wenhua; Ding, Ruixing

    2003-10-01

    Two contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, i.e. Kepin No.7 (salt sensitive) and Jian 4 (salt tolerant), were grown hydroponically to study the effect of exogenous silicon (Si) on time dependent changes of the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and of lipid peroxidation in roots under salt stress. Enzymes included: superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR). Three treatments with three replicates were investigated consisting of a control (basal nutrients with neither NaCl nor Si added), 120 mmol/L-1 NaCl, and 120 mmol/L-1 NaCl +1.0 mmol/L-1 Si. Plant roots were harvested 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment and assayed for activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and electrolytic leakage percentage (ELP). The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in roots of salt-stressed plants were significantly stimulated at Day 2 compared to control plants, but considerably decreased at Day 4 and onward. GR activity in roots of salt-stressed plants remained unchanged at Day 2, but significantly decreased at Day 4 and onward. However, exogenous Si significantly enhanced these enzyme activities in roots of salt-stressed plants compared to Si-deprived salt treatments. This Si effect was time-dependent and became stronger as the experiments continued. The tendency of change in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of GSH coincided with the concentration of MDA, the end product of lipid peroxidation, and the ELP. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, and higher concentration of GSH, but lower concentration of MDA and lower ELP were noted in cultivar Jian 4 compared to Kepin No. 7, implying genotypic differences with Jian 4 being less susceptible to stress-dependent membrane lipid peroxidation. The effects of Si-enhanced salt tolerance are discussed with respect to cell membrane integrity, stability and function in barley.

  4. A Substantial Fraction of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Low Phytic Acid Mutations Have Little or No Effect on Yield across Diverse Production Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Raboy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield. This has given rise to the perception that the lpa trait is tightly correlated with reduced yield in diverse crop species. Here we report a powerful test of this correlation. We measured grain yield in lines homozygous for each of six barley (Hordeum vulgare L. lpa mutations that greatly differ in their seed phytic acid levels. Performance comparisons were between sibling wild-type and mutant lines obtained following backcrossing, and across two years in five Idaho (USA locations that greatly differ in crop yield potential. We found that one lpa mutation (Hvlpa1-1 had no detectable effect on yield and a second (Hvlpa4-1 resulted in yield losses of only 3.5%, across all locations. When comparing yields in three relatively non-stressful production environments, at least three lpa mutations (Hvlpa1-1, Hvlpa3-1, and Hvlpa4-1 typically had yields similar to or within 5% of the wild-type sibling isoline. Therefore in the case of barley, lpa mutations can be readily identified that when simply incorporated into a cultivar result in adequately performing lines, even with no additional breeding for performance within the lpa line. In conclusion, while some barley lpa mutations do impact field performance, a substantial fraction appears to have little or no effect on yield.

  5. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. yield with normal and coated urea in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Lema-Aguirre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the response of barley production to nitrogenized fertilization (NF and its impact on the protein content of the grain and the availability of nutrients on the soil. The study was carried out in two sites in Hacienda Valencia, in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador, between March 2014 and February 2015. A variety of INIAP Cañicapa 2003 was used, and the NF was done with normal urea and polymerized (urea + tiophosphate of N-nbutiltriamida. An experimental design of randomized full blocks in four repetitions of divided lots [the urea (normal and polymerized was used in the main lot and the NF (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, y 150 kg N/ha in the sub-lot]. 110 kg/ha of seed was used; 50% of the NF was applied three weeks after planting (broadcast and 50% eight weeks after. The type of urea did not affect the production (p>0,10, although the average was different between two sites (4,33 y 2,08 t/ha for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Excess of rain could have limit the effect on the urea type. On average a cuadratic response to NF was obtined, with an optimum dose of N (DON of 90 kg N/ha and a production of 3,41 t/ ha. This DON was similar to the dose of N recomended for barley in Ecuador. The NF augmented the protein content up to 14,50% (p<0,01 and acidi ed the ground, because the urea nitri cation produces H+.

  7. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...... of hybrid and haploid tillers were investigated....

  8. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  9. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar

  10. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the range for desirably modified barley grain on malting. The varieties ... Key words: Diastatic tendency, malt extract, FAN, malt barley qualities, net blotch, propiconazole, starch flour pasting. ... phate was applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha (blanket recommen- dation). Weeds ...

  11. [Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum)-triticum aestivum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Belova, L I; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Kravtsova, L A

    2009-10-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1Hmr((IB), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7Hma(7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BCIF8- and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (=H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x T. aestivum L.) (2n = 42) (Pyrotrix 28), respectively. Moreover, the alloplasmic wheat-barley ditelosomic addition line 7HLma' isolated among plants from the BC1F6 progeny of a barley-wheat amphiploid was studied, which in this work corresponds to BC2F10 and BC2F11 progeny. It was ascertained that when grown in the field, these alloplasmic lines manifest stable self-fertility. Plants of the given lines are characterized by low height, shortened ears, the fewer number of stems and ears, and of spikelets in the ear, by decreased grain productivity and weight of 1000 grains, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28. The inhibition of trait expression in alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines may be connected not only with the influence of wild barley chromosomes functioning in the genotypic environment of common wheat, but also with the effect of the barley cytoplasm. The alloplasmic line with substitution of chromosomes 1Hmar(1B), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D) or the alloplasmic line 7HLmar with ditelosomic addition have, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28, an increased grain protein content, which is explained by the effect of wild barley H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromosomes.

  12. Relationships in the barley genus (Hordeum): An electrophoretic examination of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between all known Hordeum species except H. guatemalense were inferred from the electrophoresis of the six enzyme systems Got, 6-Pgd, Mdh, Idh, .alpha.- and.beta.- amylases. A total of eleven loci were scored for in these systems. Maximum likelihood clusters and Wagner networks ...... originated as alloploids. Phylogenetic links between diploid and polyploid taxa are suggested from the enzyme phenotypes. An evolutionary theory for the genus Hordeum is proposed, with two centres of differentiation, in South-West Asia and South America, respectively....... calculated from the electrophoretic data divided the genus into three groups, viz. the "H. vulgare group", the "H. marinum group" and the "H. pubiflorum group". Only one of these groups was recognized in the morphological sectioning of the genus. Most of the polyploid cytotypes in the genus seemed to have...

  13. Iron deficiency in barley plants: phytosiderophore release, iron translocation and DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eBocchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms require iron (Fe to carry out many crucial metabolic pathways. Despite its high concentrations in the geosphere, Fe bio-availability to plant roots can be very scarce. To cope with Fe shortage, plants can activate different strategies. For these reasons, we investigated Fe deficient Hordeum vulgare L. plants by monitoring growth, phytosiderophores (PS release, iron content and translocation, and DNA methylation, with respect to Fe sufficient ones. Reductions of plant growth, roots to shoots Fe translocation, and increases in PS release were found. Experiments on DNA methylation highlighted significant differences between fully and hemy-methylated sequences in Fe deficient plants, with respect to Fe sufficient plants. Eleven DNA bands differently methylated were found in starved plants. Of these, five sequences showed significant alignment to barley genes encoding for a glucosyltransferase, a putative acyl carrier protein, a peroxidase, a β-glucosidase and a transcription factor containing a Homeodomin. A resupply experiment was carried out on starved barley re-fed at 13 days after sowing (DAS, and it showed that plants did not recover after Fe addition. In fact, Fe absorption and root to shoot translocation capacities were impaired. In addition, resupplied barley showed DNA methylation/demethylation patterns very similar to that of barley grown in Fe deprivation. This last finding is very encouraging because it indicates as these variations/modifications could be transmitted to progenies.

  14. Sink-source proximity affecting photosynthate distributive pattern in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath-Kothiala, Neeta; Mishra, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Yielding ability of cereals is an interplay of source-sink capacities and is controlled presumably by physiological events at different growth stages. The translocation of 14 C-sucrose from the flag leaf to the ears and other plant parts of the main tiller of barley (H. vulgare L. cv 292) were studied at its appearance (I), maturation (II) and senescence initiation (III) stages. At every stage, there was preferentially higher 14 C-translocation from the flag leaf to the ears in comparison to other plant parts, indicating thereby the crucial role played by sink-source proximity in PHS'ate(photosynthate) Partg(partitioning). In order to ascertain such Partg behaviour of the different leaves on the main tiller at stage-II, the leaves starting basipetally, from flag to the fifth leaf, were labelled with 14 C-sucrose and their relative translocation to the ears and roots were determined. There was a differential 14 C-translocation to the sinks due to the change in the sink-source proximity, viz. >90% 14 C were translocated to the ears from flag leaf, which declined to ≤5% only from the fifth leaf, the reverse being true for the roots. Further, spikelet's central grains preferentially accumulated more 14 C-assimilates than the peripheral ones, probably due to being in close proximity to the unloading points. Thus, the distributive pattern of photoassimilates showed stage-specific quantitative changes and that the sink-source proximity played a crucial role in the PHS'ate Partg. (author). 3 figs., 29 refs

  15. A native QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in North American barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) independent of height, maturity, and spike type loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G T; Franckowiak, J D; Neate, S M; Zhang, B; Horsley, R D

    2010-02-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch), is one of the major diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in eastern China, the Upper Midwest of the USA, and the eastern Prairie Provinces of Canada. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling FHB resistance, a recombinant inbred line population (F6:7) was developed from the cross Zhenongda 7/PI 643302. The population was phenotyped for resistance to FHB in two experiments in China and four experiments in North Dakota. Accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol was determined in one experiment in China and two in North Dakota. Simplified composite interval mapping was performed on the whole genome level using the software MQTL. The QTL FHB-2 from PI 643302 for FHB resistance was found on the distal portion of chromosome 2HL in all six FHB screening environments. This QTL accounted for 14% of phenotypic variation over six environments and was not associated with heading date or plant height. The FHB resistance QTL FHB-2 detected near the end of chromosome 2HL is in a different location from those found previously and is therefore probably unique. Because the QTL was not contributed by the Chinese cultivar Zhenongda 7, it is likely a native QTL present in North American barley. The QTL FHB-2 represents the first reported QTL for native FHB resistance in North American germ plasm and has been given the provisional name Qrgz-2H-14. This QTL should be considered for pyramiding with other FHB QTL previously mapped.

  16. [Hordein locus polymorphism in near eastern local populations of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2008-06-01

    Electrophoresis in starch gel has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by loci Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F in 140 local barley populations from the Near East, including 60, 34, 33, 8, and 5 populations from Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine, and Israel, respectively. Fifty-seven Hrd A, 87 Hrd B, and 5 Hrd F alleles have been found. The alleles of these loci considerably differ in frequencies and distribution in populations from different Near Eastern countries. Cluster analysis of the matrix of the frequencies of hordein locus alleles in barley populations from the Near East, North Africa, Ethiopia, and South Arabia has yielded two clusters. The first cluster includes barley populations from Israel, Palestine, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Egypt; the second cluster, populations from Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Yemen, and Ethiopia.

  17. Competition between spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. under different water supply conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment with an additive design and three series was conducted to test competition between spring barley and Italian ryegrass under different soil moisture conditions. The experimental factors were as follows: 1. type of sowing – mixed sowing and pure sowing; 2. water supply – plants supplied with water to meet their full requirements and 50% water supply reduction. The study covered five phenological development stages (BBCH of spring barley: emergence (10–13, tillering (22–25, stem elongation (33–37, heading (52–55, and ripening (87–91. The competitive effects were evaluated based on relative yield (RY, relative yield total (RYT, competitive balance (CB, and relative efficiency index (REI. Spring barley and Italian ryegrass competed for resources throughout the growing season. Competition intensity was found to increase until the heading stage, and it decreased towards the end of the growth cycle. More intense competition was observed under reduced water supply. Spring barley dominated over Italian ryegrass from the tillering stage to the ripening stage. In mixed populations, Italian ryegrass captured the available resources more effectively than spring barley from the stem elongation stage until the end of the growing season, particularly in the treatment with optimal water supply.

  18. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Bodapati P.; Aspinall, Donald; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings. PMID:16668700

  19. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  20. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    the supernatant were performed by Ni2+-affininty chromatography. The purified fractions were analyzed via SDS-PAGE, western blotting for confirming the presence of HvEPB2 and via activity assaying. Incubation of purified HvEPB2 with Osborne fractionated barley seed storage proteins for 12 hrs revealed after SDS-PAGE...

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci for ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.; Ribot, S.A.; Dolstra, O.; Niks, R.E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ion homeostasis is considered to be one of the most important mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. We used the Steptoe × Morex barley doubled haploid population to screen for genetic variation in response to salinity stress at an early development stage in a hydroponics system, focusing on

  3. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas Michel René; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  4. Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers were applied under three water regimes to 'Sasa' barley variety using split - split plot design with three replications ..... (1999) on maize. Increasing the dosage of both fertilizers was not necessarily increase grain yield of the crop though significant increase was obtained over the ...

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL MEXICO: IMPACT ON BARLEY PRODUCTION (Hordeum vulgare IN TLAXCALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Calderón-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical production of barley for ten years (2003-2012 as well as under climate change scenarios for near future (2015-2039 and for near future (2075-2099 in Calpulalpan, Tlaxcala was evaluated. An assessment of suitable regions for production was performed as well as historical performance and barley considering future climate change scenarios through the model AquaCrop (FAO also was estimated. Finally, the average production costs in the region were estimated through surveys with barley producers. The results show that over 70% of the area of the municipality has some degree of aptitude for producing barley. Climate change scenarios indicate increases proficiency in 2% of the surface and reductions of up to 16%. The production model shows very close results with those obtained by farmers in the municipality yields (2.53 t/ha, thus estimated future changes show a decline in yields of about 5% up to 100% depending on the future horizon. Considering current production costs, the benefit-cost relationship could be reduced from 1.4 and to 0.0 in the future. This will certainly affect the economy of the producers in the region.

  6. Olive mill waste water spreading in southern Tunisia: effects on a barley crop: (Hordeum Vulgare. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Dakhli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to assess the impact of different concentrations of Olive Mill Waste Water (OMWW on the phenological behavior of a local barley variety (Arthaoui: Hordem vulgare L. during three consecutive crop years. For developing this work, a complete randomized block design was installed with four amounts of OMWW equivalent to 0 m³/ha (T0, 15 m³/ha (T1, 30 m³/ha (T2 and 45 m³/ha (T3, a local barley variety (Arthaoui and 3 replications. The results showed a highly significant reduction as well as of the tiller and ears number compared to the control according to the increase of OMWW concentration especially for the highest amounts either T2 and T3 respectively 30 m³/ha and 45 m³/ha. This reduction was although observed but it was less accentuated for the treatment with an amount of 15 m³/ha compared to the other rates. In addition, barley yield components were negatively affected by “OMWW” in particular yields plots that received higher doses as 30 m³/ha and 45 m³/ ha. Obviously, the straw and seed yield are catastrophically affected with relatively different degrees depending on the dose applied but also on the cumulative effect of successive applications during the three years of study. Indeed, richness of these effluents on salts especially in sodium and chlorides, on polyphenols and other compounds with variable toxicity is causing physiological disturbances that are negatively reflected at different phenological stages of barley as tillering, stem elongation and heading giving the catastrophic results in terms of seed yield. Keywords: OMWW, Barley, tiller number, ear number.

  7. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  8. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  9. Dynamic regulation of the root hydraulic conductivity of barley plants in response to salinity/osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Horie, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Yoshiki; Tsuji, Nobuya; Shibasaka, Mineo; Katsuhara, Maki

    2015-05-01

    Salinity stress significantly reduces the root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) of several plant species including barley (Hordeum vulgare). Here we characterized changes in the Lpr of barley plants in response to salinity/osmotic stress in detail using a pressure chamber. Salt-tolerant and intermediate barley cultivars, K305 and Haruna-nijyo, but not a salt-sensitive cultivar, I743, exhibited characteristic time-dependent Lpr changes induced by 100 mM NaCl. An identical response was evoked by isotonic sorbitol, indicating that this phenomenon was triggered by osmotic imbalances. Further examination of this mechanism using barley cv. Haruna-nijyo plants in combination with the use of various inhibitors suggested that various cellular processes such as protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and membrane internalization appear to be involved. Interestingly, the three above-mentioned barley cultivars did not exhibit a remarkable difference in root cell sap osmolality under hypertonic conditions, in contrast to the case of Lpr. The possible biological significance of the regulation of Lpr in barley plants upon salinity/osmotic stress is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barleyHordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...

  11. Analysis of chlorophyll mutations induced by γ-rays in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-06-01

    Thirty varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with 137 Cs γ-rays. Dose-effect relations of chlorophyll mutation frequency in M 2 seedling and differences resulting from cultured types or radiosensitive types were investigated. Experimental results show that the relations between chlorophyll mutation frequency and doses can be fitted by a linear regression equation Y = A + BX. According to analysis of covariance, there is no considerable difference in various cultured types, but the difference of five different radiosensitive types is remarkable. The sensitive and intermediate types need much lower doses than other types to induce maximum chlorophyll mutation

  12. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adaptability and stability of yield of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgar L. in moderate areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram bahrami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the stability and determine the highest yielding variety, 20 genotypes of hulless barley were studied in this research. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replication in six locations (Karaj, Esfahan, Nyshaboor, Yazd, Birjand, Zarghan for two years (2001-2003. Simple and combined analysis of variances showed that there were significant different between genotypes, In order to evaluate interactions and determine the adaptation of genotypes study in cluding: Environment variance, Environmental coefficient of variation, Eberhart and Russell’s regression method, Lin and Binn’s years within location mean squares method, the years within location environmental coefficient of variation and Non-parametric methods of deviation from rank and yield index. The obtained results through all these methods were nearly analogous. ICNB93-328 and ALELI/4/MOLA/2 genotypes were identified as stable genotypes. GLORIA genotype was recognized specially for the unpropitious weak areas.

  14. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawher, M.; Arabi, I. E.

    1998-03-01

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  15. Mycoflora Of Barley Hordeum Vulgare L. At Different Locations In Hail Area- Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 400 grain samples collected from barley fields in Hail area at the northern part of Saudi Arabia was used for this study. Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association ISTA using YGCA medium. A total of 265 of external mycoflora and 517 of internal mycoflora were grouped into five fungal genera namely Aspergillus Alternaria Penillium Fusarium and Ulocladium spp. were isolated. Comparsion between frequencies and relative densities of external and internal mycoflora was carried out among the species of the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger reaveled high Fr. and RD of external mycoflora A. flavus Fr.60.9 - 40.5 RD 48.3 - 40.9and A. niger Fr. 52.7- 48.6- and RD 38.7- 41.9 as external internal mycoflora mycoflora respectively. All the species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were predominant as internal mycoflora .The most predominant species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were U. atrium Fr 89 -75.5and RD -79- 62.5 as internal external mycoflora respectively and Alternaria alternate Fr. 60 - 46.6 and RD. 55-32.3as externalinternal mycoflora respectively.

  16. [Cold induced cDNA library construction of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) using suppression subtractive hybridization technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Jia, Jing Fen

    2008-12-01

    Cold-induced genes of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) were studied using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. The cDNA from the materials treated with 4 degrees C was used as "tester", and that from the materials growing in green house (20+/-2 degrees C) as "driver". A subtractive library of highland barley including 640 cDNA clones was constructed in this study. Enzyme digestion of 32 clones chosen randomly from the library indicated that 87.5% of them contained inserts. The cDNA inserts of 16 clones were sequenced. Blast search analyses showed that these cDNAs were homologies to genes encoding the following proteins: metallothionein, protein kinase, ethylene signal transcription factor, bZIP transcription factor, zing finger transcription factor, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, ribosomal protein, sodium: hydrogen antiporter, catalase, NADPH-cytochrome reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, DNA binding protein, and sugar transporter-like protein. These results indicated that the cDNA clones in the library were related to cold-induced genes, and suggested that the cold-tolerant mechanism of highland barley might be a complicated, interactive system involving multiple approaches and genes. Construction of subtractive cDNA library provided an advantage for further studies to isolate and clone cold-induced genes in highland barley.

  17. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

     Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor irrigation management and climate change. Improving salt tolerance in crops is for these reasons an important target for plant breeding in the near future. However, salinity tolerance in plants is n...

  18. Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Luxor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Hynek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

  19. Induced androgenesis in vitro in mutated populations of barley, Hordeum vulgare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vagera, Jiří; Novotný, J.; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2004), s. 55-61 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF4133; GA ČR GA521/03/0113; GA MZe QE1093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : anther culture * chlorophyll mutations * enhanced embryogenesis Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 1.028, year: 2004

  20. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

     Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor

  1. Introgression of LTP2 gene through marker assisted backcross in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Mikołajczak

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: BC6 lines developed in this study can serve as a unique and adequate plant material to dissect the role of LTP2 gene. Due to its role in lipid transfer, the LTP2 may be crucial in lipidome modification in response to abiotic stress.

  2. Construction of a map-based reference genome sequence for barley, Hordeum vulgare L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beier, S.; Himmelbach, A.; Colmsee, C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Barrero, R. A.; Hastie, A.; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, S.; Zhou, G.; Poland, J.; Bellgard, M. I.; Houben, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, S.; Lonardi, S.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Mascher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, APR 27 (2017), č. článku 170044. ISSN 2052-4463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES * PHYSICAL MAP * LIBRARIES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.836, year: 2016

  3. Expression of dehydrin 5 during the development of frost tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Holková, L.; Prášil, I.T.; Prášilová, P.; Bradáčová, M.; Vítámvás, P.; Čapková, Věra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 11 (2008), s. 1142-1151 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3191; GA MZe 1G57060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold acclimation * Dehydrin 5 * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2008

  4. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor

  5. Colocalization of barley lectin and sporamin in vacuoles of transgenic tobacco plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, M.R.; Borkhsenious, O.N.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Matsuoka, K.; Nakamura, K. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    Various targeting motifs have been identified for plant proteins delivered to the vacuole. For barley (Hordeum vulgare) lectin, a typical Gramineae lectin and defense-related protein, the vacuolar information is contained in a carboxyl-terminal propeptide. In contrast, the vacuolar targeting information of sporamin, a storage protein from the tuberous roots of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), is encoded in an amino-terminal propeptide. Both proteins were expressed simultaneously in transgenic tobacco plants to enable analysis of their posttranslational processing and subcellular localization by pulse-chase labeling and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical methods. The pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that processing and delivery to the vacuole are not impaired by the simultaneous expression of barley lectin and sporamin. Both proteins were targeted quantitatively to the vacuole, indication that the carboxyl-terminal and amino-terminal propeptided are equally recognized by the vacuolar protein-sorting machinery. Double-labeling experiments showed that barley lectin and sporamin accumulate in the same vacuole of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf and root cells. 35 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Bengtsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012–2014 in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  7. [Features of the formation of self-fertile euploid lines (2n = 42) by self-pollination of the 46-chromosome barley-wheat BC1 hybrid Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheeva, N V; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2006-12-01

    We studied some features of the development of self-fertile 42-chromosome lines on the base of self-pollination progeny of 46-chromosome plants obtained by backcrossing of barley--wheat hybrids Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42). The stabilization of karyotypes, resulting in 42-chromosome plants of the wheat type was generally completed by generation BC1F10. The plants of all self-pollination progenies, including BC1F10, showed some phenotypic traits characteristic of wild barley. Plants of BC1F10 with the chromosome sets 2n = 42 and 2n = 42 + t were analyzed by RAPD with a set of 115 primers. Fragments of the wild barley genome were detected in RAPD patterns with 19 primers. Cross-hybridization confirmed that these fragments belonged to the wild barley genome. We raised four phenotypically different 42-chromosome lines from grains obtained from plants of generation BC1F10, and these lines proved to be cytogenetically stable and self-fertile when grown in the field.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen and Different Intercropping Arrangements of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Pea (Pisum sativum L. on Forage Yield and Competitive Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping, the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time, is an old and commonly used cropping practice which aims to match efficiently crop demands to the available growth resources (Agegnehu et al., 2006; Dhima et al., 2007. Intercropping of chickpea with linseed reduced the chickpea yield by 60.3%, although linseed occupied only 33% of the total area. The loss of chickpea yield was compensated by the additional yield of linseed, and thus the system productivity of chickpea + linseed intercropping was increased by 43.4% compared with sole chickpea (Ahlawat & Gangaiah, 2010. The objectives of the present study were to study the competition indices of barley and pea intercropping and effects of nitrogen and different intercropping arrangements on forage yield. Materials and methods In order to evaluate effects of nitrogen and different intercropping arrangements of barley and pea on yield and competitive indices, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications on farm research on Gonbad Kavous University (37°26’N, 55°21’E, and 45m above sea level in 2011-2012. Different intercropping arrangement levels were a sole crop of barley, intercropping of one line barley and one line pea, intercropping of two lines of barley and two lines of pea, intercropping of three lines of barley and three lines of pea and sole crop of pea and nitrogen consumption was in four levels of none application of nitrogen and application of 25, 50 and 75 kg.ha-1. Seed planting was done during the first week of December 2011. Sowing was performed manually by planting twice more seeds of pea than the expected plant density. Sole barley (cv. Sahra planted at the rate of 160 kg.ha-1 and sole pea (cv. Sungro planted at the rate of 500000 plants.ha-1. Row spacing was 20 cm. The experimental plots for a sole crop of barley, a sole crop of pea and one

  9. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  10. Localisation of genes for resistance against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and Puccinia graminis in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, G; Madsen, L H; Jaiser, H; Stougaard, J; Herz, M; Mohler, V; Jahoor, A

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used for the infection in this experiment. Moreover, powdery mildew disease severity was observed in the field at two different epidemic stages. In addition to other DNA markers, the map included 13 RGA (resistance gene analog) loci. The structure of the data demanded a non-parametric QTL-analysis. For each of the four observations, two QTLs with very high significance were localised. QTLs for resistance against powdery mildew were detected on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H and 7H. QTLs for resistance against leaf rust were localised on 2H and 6H. Only one QTL was common for two of the powdery mildew related traits. Three of the seven QTLs were localised at the positions of the RGA-loci. Three of the five powdery mildew related QTLs are sharing their chromosomal position with known qualitative resistance genes. All detected QTLs behaved additively. Possible sources of the distorted segregation observed, the differences between the results for the different powdery mildew related traits and the relation between qualitative and quantitative resistance are discussed.

  11. Direct Effects of Physcion, Chrysophanol, Emodin, and Pachybasin on Germination and Appressorium Formation of the Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) Powdery Mildew Fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (DC.) Speer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Marsell, Alexander; Riederer, Markus

    2018-04-04

    Several anthraquinone derivatives are active components of fungicidal formulations particularly effective against powdery mildew fungi. The antimildew effect of compounds such as physcion and chrysophanol is largely attributed to host plant defense induction. However, so far a direct fungistatic/fungicidal effect of anthraquinone derivatives on powdery mildew fungi has not been unequivocally demonstrated. By applying a Formvar-based in vitro system we demonstrate a direct, dose-dependent effect of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, and pachybasin on conidial germination and appressorium formation of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (DC.) Speer, the causative agent of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) powdery mildew. Physcion was the most effective among the tested compounds. At higher doses, physcion mainly inhibited conidial germination. At lower rates, however, a distinct interference with appressorium formation became discernible. Physcion and others may act by modulating both the infection capacity of the powdery mildew pathogen and host plant defense. Our results suggest a specific arrangement of substituents at the anthraquinone backbone structure being crucial for the direct antimildew effect.

  12. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...

  13. Development and Validation of a Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid, and Abscisic Acid in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakurte, Ilva; Keisa, Anete; Rostoks, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of plant hormones in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The method includes extraction in aqueous organic solvent followed by solid-phase extraction, sample evaporation, and reversed-phase HPLC analysis in a general purpose UV-visible (abscisic acid (ABA)) and fluorescence detection (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)), high-performance liquid chromatography system. The separation was carried out on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column (150  ×  4.6  mm I.D) with a mobile phase composed of methanol and 1% acetic acid (60 : 40 v/v) in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1). The detection was monitored at 270 nm (ABA) and at 282 nm (Ex) and 360 nm (Em) (IAA, IPA). The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness. The determined validation parameters are in the commonly acceptable ranges for that kind of analysis.

  14. Can barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) adapt to fast climate changes? A controlled selection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley......The projected future climate will affect the global agricultural production negatively, however, to keep abreast of the expected increase in global population, the agricultural production must increase. Therefore, to safeguard the future crop yield and quality, the adaptive potential of crops......] and temperature, contrary to previous results from oilseed rape. The two barley accessions analyzed presented almost the same response pattern in a given treatment, though the modern cultivar had the highest yield in the climate scenarios, while the landrace was superior in yield under present day climate...

  15. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 days...... function was identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed a correlation between high gene expression and detection of the corresponding proteins. Fungal genes encoding alkaline protease and endothiapepsin were expressed during 1-3 days after inoculation, making them...

  16. The inter-relationship between processing-induced molecular structure features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled and hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Fangyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the microwave irradiation (MIR)-induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to the truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept raw or were irradiated with microwaves for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated using the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance). Molecular structure changes as a result of processing were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation region. Compared to the raw samples, MIR processing decreased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable microbial crude protein and increased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein and endogenous protein supply without affecting the total truly absorbed protein supply to the small intestine (DVE) and degraded protein balance (OEB) in ruminant livestock systems. Changes in protein molecular structure (spectral intensities) were highly correlated with the changes in the truly absorbed protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. The results of the present study show that the changes in protein molecular structure as a result of MIR feed processing were associated with the truly absorbed protein supply to ruminant livestock systems. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mřížová, K.; Jiskrová, E.; Vyroubalová, Š.; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, L.; Pospíšilová, H.; Frébort, I.; Harwood, W.A.; Galuszka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MASS-SPECTROMETRY * TRANSGENIC BARLEY * ARABIDOPSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  18. Weed infestation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. depending on the cover crop and weed control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this 3-year field study was to evaluate the effect of some stubble crops and weed control methods on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds in a spring barley crop grown in short-term monoculture. The study was conducted in the period 2009–2011 at the Uhrusk Experimental Farm, on mixed rendzina soil classified as very good rye soil complex. It included stubble crops which were ploughed under in each year (control treatment without cover crop, white mustard, lacy phacelia, a mixture of legumes – narrow-leaf lupin + field pea and 3 weed control methods used in spring barley crops (mechanical, mechanical and chemical, chemical weed control. Veronica persica was the weed species that occurred in greatest numbers in the spring barley crop sown after stubble crops. All cover crops reduced the numbers of Avena fatua which was the dominant species in the control treatment. Chemical as well as chemical and mechanical weed control significantly reduced the numbers of Avena fatua compared to the treatment where only double harrowing was used for weed control. The stubble crops did not reduce weed infestation of spring barley. Compared to the control treatment, the ploughing-in of white mustard and the mixture of legumes reduced the dry weight of weeds by 49.1 and 22.7%, respectively. Mechanical weed management proved to be less effective in reducing the number and dry weight of weeds compared to the other weed control methods. A significant negative correlation was found between the dry weight of weeds in the spring barley crop and the dry weight of the ploughed-in white mustard cover crop under the conditions of chemical weed control as well as in the case of the mixture of legumes when complete mechanical and chemical weed control was used.

  19. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  20. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  1. Expression of phytoglobin affects nitric oxide metabolism and energy state of barley plants exposed to anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Devin W; Shah, Jay K; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2017-12-01

    Class 1 plant hemoglobins (phytoglobins) are upregulated during low-oxygen stress and participate in metabolism and cell signaling via modulation of the levels of nitric oxide (NO). We studied the effects of overexpression and knockdown of the class 1 phytoglobin gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under low-oxygen stress. The overexpression of phytoglobin reduced the amount of NO released, while knockdown significantly stimulated NO emission. It has previously been shown that NO inhibits aconitase activity, so decreased aconitase activity in knockdown plants acts as a biomarker for high internal NO levels. The overexpression of phytoglobin corresponded to higher ATP/ADP ratios, pyrophosphate levels and aconitase activity under anoxia, while knockdown of phytoglobin resulted in the increased level of protein nitrosylation, elevation of alcohol dehydrogenase and nitrosoglutathione reductase activities. The overexpressing plants showed various signs of stunted growth under normoxia, but were the only type to germinate and survive under hypoxia. The results show that overexpression of phytoglobin protects plant cells via NO scavenging and improves their low-oxygen stress survival. However, it may not be useful for cereal crop improvement since it comes with a significant interference with normoxic NO signalling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  3. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chunji

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  4. Resistance of barley landraces and wild barley populations to powdery mildew in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdel-Ghani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landraces and 12 wild barley (H. spontaneum populations, collected from diverse eco-geographical regions of Jordan, were screened for resistance to powdery mildew. The average powdery mildew disease score (based on a 0 to 4 severity scale was <1 in all tested barley landraces. Disease scores in wild barley populations ranged from 1.2 to 3.8. Most barley landraces of all tested lines were highly resistant to powdery mildew. The percentage of wild barley lines exhibiting high resistance was 19%, while 45% of the lines were moderately resistant and 36% susceptible to powdery mildew. There was no significant correlation between weather variables (precipitation, temperature and altitude and the disease scores of either the barley landraces or the wild barley populations. However, resistance in wild barley was more common in humid districts and at higher altitudes. Both barley landrace and wild barley accessions could serve as potential donors for powdery mildew resistance genes to be transferred to barley varieties improved by plant breeding.

  5. Nonhost resistance of barley is successfully manifested against Magnaporthe grisea and a closely related Pennisetum-infecting lineage but is overcome by Magnaporthe oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellerhoff, N.; Jarosch, B.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Schaffrath, U.

    2006-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a major pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) but is also able to infect other grasses, including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Here, we report a study using Magnaporthe isolates collected from other host plant species to evaluate their capacity to infect barley. A nonhost type of

  6. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  7. Cultivate In Vitro Of Anthers Of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Vars. UNAGRO V-PM6 And DISSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquinez Casas, Xavier

    1994-01-01

    The barley is a autonomous cereal originated of the wild subspecies H. vulgare L. Only at the end of last century it acquired commercial importance with the establishment of the industry brewer (Chaparro and Moreno 1894); at the moment its national production is far from supplying the demand of the market. The Andean area is the most appropriate region for its cultivation in Colombia, mainly between 1800 and 3200 meters on the level of the sea, in the Boyaca, Cundinamarca and Narino departments. Their production is dedicated in a 80 at 85 for the industry brewer and malt industry and of the 15 at 20 for seeds, human food and animal

  8. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 4-D y CMU) sobre la actividad fotosintetica de plantular de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Prieto, M. P.

    1979-07-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs.

  9. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  10. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  11. Biochemical characterization of protein composition of high-lysine mutant ML-109 of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapala, A.; Yankoulov, M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present studies was to determine the biochemical basis of a high lysine content in the mutant ML-109. The protein composition of kernels of high-lysine mutant of winter barley and its initial breeding line were analysed. The portion of individual fractions differing by their solubility in total proteins as well as amino acid composition of kernel protein and separated main protein fractions were also determined. The performed studies showed that a high lysine content in the kernels of the analysed mutant results from a decrease in the hordein level and from an increase in the portion of salt soluble proteins - albumins and globulins. Besides that, the obtained results indicate that the amino acid composition of the main protein fractions of the analysed mutant was advantageously changed; these fractions contained more lysine and other exogenic amino acids. (author). 15 refs, 6 tabs

  12. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  13. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  14. HorTILLUS—A Rich and Renewable Source of Induced Mutations for Forward/Reverse Genetics and Pre-breeding Programs in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Szurman-Zubrzycka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the HorTILLUS (Hordeum—TILLING—University of Silesia population created for spring barley cultivar “Sebastian” after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU. The population comprises more than 9,600 M2 plants from which DNA was isolated, seeds harvested, vacuum-packed, and deposited in seed bank. M3 progeny of 3,481 M2 individuals was grown in the field and phenotyped. The screening for mutations was performed for 32 genes related to different aspects of plant growth and development. For each gene fragment, 3,072–6,912 M2 plants were used for mutation identification using LI-COR sequencer. In total, 382 mutations were found in 182.2 Mb screened. The average mutation density in the HorTILLUS, estimated as 1 mutation per 477 kb, is among the highest mutation densities reported for barley. The majority of mutations were G/C to A/T transitions, however about 8% transversions were also detected. Sixty-one percent of mutations found in coding regions were missense, 37.5% silent and 1.1% nonsense. In each gene, the missense mutations with a potential effect on protein function were identified. The HorTILLUS platform is the largest of the TILLING populations reported for barley and best characterized. The population proved to be a useful tool, both in functional genomic studies and in forward selection of barley mutants with required phenotypic changes. We are constantly renewing the HorTILLUS population, which makes it a

  15. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  16. N-acyl-homoserine lactone uptake and systemic transport in barley rest upon active parts of the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sieper, T.; Forczek, Sándor; Matucha, Miroslav; Kraemer, P.; Hartmann, A.; Schroeder, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 2 (2014), s. 545-555 ISSN 1469-8137 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : barley (Hordeum vulgare) * monoclonal antibodies * N-acyl-homoserine lactones (HSLs) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  17. Genetic Study of the Manganese Use Efficiency Trait in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Genome- Wide Association and Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, Florian Jean Victor

    efficiency remained elusive. This PhD study aimed to understand better the genetic determination of the trait and propose new insights for plant breeding purposes. Two genome-wide approaches were used in a winter barley collection to characterize the genetic control of the trait. First, a Genome...... functionality in Mn dependent pathways and processes. In a the second step, a genuine statistical method to assist breeding programs in selecting new varieties, named Genomic Selection (GS), was applied. It was demonstrated that GS is an effective tool to be used in breeding programs for selecting more...

  18. Effect of cadmium on free amino acid, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations in two barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Bo; Chen, Fei; Wei, Kang; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2004-11-01

    Hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of three Cd levels on glutathione (GSH), free amino acids (FAA), and ascorbic acid (ASA) concentration in the different tissues of 2 barley cultivars with different Cd tolerance. Cadmium concentration in both roots and shoots increased with external Cd level, while biomass and ASA concentration declined, and Wumaoliuling, a Cd-sensitive genotype was more affected than ZAU 3, a Cd-tolerant genotype. The effect of Cd on GSH concentration was dose- and time-dependent. In the 5 d exposure, root GSH concentration increased in 0.5 microM Cd treatment compared with control, but decreased significantly in 5 microM Cd treatment, irrespective of genotypes. However, in the 10 d exposure, GSH concentration in all plant tissues decreased with increasing Cd levels in the culture medium, and Wumaoliuling was much more affected than ZAU 3. Cadmium treatment greatly altered FAA concentration and composition in plants. The effect of Cd on glutathione (Glu) concentration in roots varied with genotypes. ZAU 3 showed a steady increase in root Glu concentration in both 0.5 and 5 microM Cd treatments, while Wumaoliuling was decreased by 38.0% in 5 microM Cd treatment, compared with the control. The results indicate that GSH and ASA are attributed to Cd tolerance in barley plants, and the relative less reduction in GSH concentration in ZAU 3 under Cd stress relative to the control may account for its higher Cd tolerance.

  19. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, P; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5

  20. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  1. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  2. BarleyBase—an expression profiling database for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Gong, Jian; Caldo, Rico A.; Nettleton, Dan; Cook, Dianne; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    BarleyBase (BB) (www.barleybase.org) is an online database for plant microarrays with integrated tools for data visualization and statistical analysis. BB houses raw and normalized expression data from the two publicly available Affymetrix genome arrays, Barley1 and Arabidopsis ATH1 with plans to include the new Affymetrix 61K wheat, maize, soybean and rice arrays, as they become available. BB contains a broad set of query and display options at all data levels, ranging from experiments to individual hybridizations to probe sets down to individual probes. Users can perform cross-experiment queries on probe sets based on observed expression profiles and/or based on known biological information. Probe set queries are integrated with visualization and analysis tools such as the R statistical toolbox, data filters and a large variety of plot types. Controlled vocabularies for gene and plant ontologies, as well as interconnecting links to physical or genetic map and other genomic data in PlantGDB, Gramene and GrainGenes, allow users to perform EST alignments and gene function prediction using Barley1 exemplar sequences, thus, enhancing cross-species comparison. PMID:15608273

  3. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulti Tesso Obsa

    Full Text Available Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF, Commander x WI4304 (CW, and Fleet x WI4304 (FW developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  4. Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger B; Wendt, Toni; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Deleuran, Lise C; Starker, Colby G; Voytas, Daniel F; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating the importance of a specific promoter region of the PAPhy_a gene which contains three overlapping cis-acting regulatory elements (GCN4, Skn1 and the RY-element) known to be involved in gene expression during grain filling. The results confirm that the barley PAPhy_a enzyme is the main contributor to the MGPA as grains of knock-out lines show very low MGPA. Additionally, the analysis of the HvPAPhy_a promoter region containing the GCN4/Skn1/RY motif highlights its importance for HvPAPhy_a expression as the MGPA in grains of plant lines with mutations within this motif is significantly reduced. Interestingly, lines with deletions located downstream of the motif show even lower MGPA levels, indicating that the GCN4/SKn1/RY motif is not the only element responsible for the level of PAPhy_a expression during grain maturation. Mutant grains with very low MPGA showed delayed germination as compared to grains of wild type barley. As grains with high levels of preformed phytases would provide more readily available phosphorous needed for a fast germination, this indicates that faster germination may be implicated in the positive selection of the ancient PAPhy gene duplication that lead to the creation of the PAPhy_a gene.

  5. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils with ...

  6. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barleyHordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.

    2000-01-01

    to leaf rust by means of artificial infection, heading date, plant height and Kernel weight were assessed. For leaf rust resistance, 4 QTLs were localised, that explained 96.1% of the genetic variation. One QTL on chromosome 4H confirmed a position found in another genetic background and one mapped...

  7. Root plasma membrane transporters controlling K+/Na+ homeostasis in salt-stressed bBarley1[C][W

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhonghua; Pottosin, Igor I.; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    Plant salinity tolerance is a polygenic trait with contributions from genetic, developmental, and physiological interactions, in addition to interactions between the plant and its environment. In this study, we show that in salt-tolerant genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), multiple mechanisms ...

  8. Comparative transcriptome profile of the leaf elongation zone of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum eibi1 mutant and its isogenic wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The naturally occurring wild barley mutant eibi1/hvabcg31 suffers from severe water loss due to the permeable leaf cuticle. Eibi1/HvABCG31 encodes a full ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter, HvABCG31, playing a role in cutin deposition in the elongation zone of growing barley leaves. The eibi1 allele has pleiotropic effects on the appearance of leaves, plant stature, fertility, spike and grain size, and rate of germination. Comparative transcriptome profile of the leaf elongation zone of the eibi1 mutant as well as its isogenic wild type showed that various pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the eibi1 mutant. The known cuticle-related genes that we analyzed did not show significant expression difference between the mutant and wild type. These results suggest that the pleiotropic effects may be a compensatory consequence of the activation of defense genes in the eibi1 mutation. Furthermore, we were able to find the mutation of the eibi1/hvabcg31 allele by comparing transcript sequences, which indicated that the RNA-Seq is useful not only for researches on general molecular mechanism but also for the identification of possible mutant genes.

  9. Fungal Endophytes of Wild Barley and their Effects on Diuraphis noxia Population Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.M. Davitt

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in four plant introduction (PI) lines of wild barley (Hordeum) infected with different species or strains of endophytic fungi (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae, Neotyphodium gen. nov. [formerly...

  10. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  11. Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai ePedas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of manganese (Mn deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Addition of a pulse of KH2PO4 rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a similar P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels.

  12. Engineering of the aspartate family biosynthetic pathway in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by transformation with heterologous genes encoding feed-back-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Galili, G.; Sørensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In order to modify the flux through the aspartate family pathway in barley and enhance......, no differences were observed in the composition of total amino acids. The introduced genes were inherited in the T1 generation where enzymic activities revealed a 2.3-fold increase of AK activity and a 4.0-9.5-fold increase for DHPS. T1 seeds of DHPS transformants showed the same changes in free amino acids...... as observed in T0 seeds. It is concluded that the aspartate family pathway may be genetically engineered by the introduction of genes coding for feed-back-insensitive enzymes, preferentially giving elevated levels of lysine and methionine....

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  14. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára eKosová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins as a group of Late embryogenesis abundant II (LEA-II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity. In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum, durum wheat (Triticum durum and barley (Hordeum vulgare plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analysed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization. Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as posttranslational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined.

  15. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined.

  16. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity – what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T.

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined. PMID:25071816

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ma

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective.In this study, a double haploid (DH population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1 and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD and waterlogged (SalinityW conditions at two different sowing times.Three quantitative trait loci (QTL located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs.

  18. Identification of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Autophagy Genes and Their Expression Levels during Leaf Senescence, Chronic Nitrogen Limitation and in Response to Dark Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a cereal of primary importance for forage and human nutrition, and is a useful model for wheat. Autophagy genes first described in yeast have been subsequently isolated in mammals and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis and maize it was recently shown that autophagy machinery participates in nitrogen remobilization for grain filling. In rice, autophagy is also important for nitrogen recycling at the vegetative stage. In this study, HvATGs, HvNBR1 and HvATI1 sequences were identified from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC, complementary DNA (cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. The gene models were subsequently determined from alignments between genome and transcript sequences. Essential amino acids were identified from the protein sequences in order to estimate their functionality. A total of twenty-four barley HvATG genes, one HvNBR1 gene and one HvATI1 gene were identified. Except for HvATG5, all the genomic sequences found completely matched their cDNA sequences. The HvATG5 gene sequence presents a gap that cannot be sequenced due to its high GC content. The HvATG5 coding DNA sequence (CDS, when over-expressed in the Arabidopsis atg5 mutant, complemented the plant phenotype. The HvATG transcript levels were increased globally by leaf senescence, nitrogen starvation and dark-treatment. The induction of HvATG5 during senescence was mainly observed in the flag leaves, while it remained surprisingly stable in the seedling leaves, irrespective of the leaf age during stress treatment.

  19. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  20. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  1. Development of mutants of local barley bakur (T. Hordeum vulgare. c v Bakkur L.) with good quantitative and qualitative traits under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A. A.; Al-Shamiri, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Seeds of local barley bakur were exposed to 150 Gy of gamma rays from cobalt 60 source irradiated seeds were planted in rows as M1.From M1 magnetized population plants , the main spike of each plants were collected, threshed and planted head to row method in 2008 winter season as M2. Evaluation of mutants was done for the increase in long spike and level of resistance to loading in compare with mother variety (untreated) resulted in selecting fifty mutated plants. These plants were planted as plant/ row method along with the mother variety and evaluated for grain yield and level of resistance for lodging which consequent y resulted in selecting of twenty four mutant lines which were varied in plant height long spike and yield. These lines were planted in the research farm during 2009 and the research farm during 2009 and 2011 winter season as M4 and M5 for two consecutive season resulted in selecting eight mutant lines which were distinguished of others in respect of level of resistance and increase of yield. These mutant lines were planted in plots in Kawkban and Bani-Mater locations during 2010 and 2011 seasons along with mother variety and improved variety Kawkban-1 which dominated in the region. Data were collected from the trail analyzed them separate y over each location. Results showed that the mutant line Al-e rra-B-008-15 was the best in grain yield and early maturity followed by Al-erra-B-008-20 and Al-erra-B-008-20. In the meantime these mutant line showed resistance to loading compare with other including the mother variety. There fore it can be recommended to register these mutants as a new varieties for Kawkaban Bain-Mater regions as well as for similar areas in the central and northern regions. This research summarizing results obtained from the trail conducted in both research farm and in farmer fields at Kawkaban and Bani-Mater locations. (Author)

  2. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    -terminal sequence (24 residues) this enzyme was identified as the previously described beta-1,3-endoglucanase GII from germinating barley grain. The results suggest that secretion of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase from the embryogenic cell suspensions of barley corresponds to accumulation of the same enzymes...... chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p......I at 8.7. Further analysis showed that this enzyme is also expressed in barley grain. The amino acid composition and five partial amino acid sequences covering 93 residues of chitinase K were determined. A high similarity was found between chitinase K and barley chitinase T and C as well as basic...

  3. Evaluation of recurrent radiation with Cobalt 60 gamma rays on agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) in the R2M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega G, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of recurrent radiation on agronomic traits in two barley varieties. The research was carried out at experimental fields pertaining to the Instituto de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Acuicola y Forestal of the Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX). The biological material was irradiated in the Gamma Cell 220 at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The experimental design was divided plots in the randomized blocks, with four replications. The factor varieties (Cerro Prieto and Puebla) was assigned to the big plots mean while in the factor doses was assignated to the small plots (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays). The variables under study were: germination, number of shoots, plant height, incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, spike length and yield. The analysis of variance exhibited no significant differences between varieties for all the studied variables. Regarding to dose, most of the studied variables exhibited significant differences, except for incidence of Puccinia striiformis and days to flowering. The interaction variety x doses showed significance only for the variable days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. The mean separation by Tukey test at 0.05 and the regression analysis showed that the variables: germination, number of shoots, plant height, spike length and yield decreased as the dose increased. On the other hand in the variables incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering and days to physiological maturity exhibited a direct relationship with the dose. (Author)

  4. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  5. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  6. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  7. Protective effect of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L.) on restraint stress-induced decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tanaka, Riho; Bi, Yuanyuan; Fukata, Hideki; Oishi, Nobuo; Sato, Hiromi; Mori, Chisato; Ueno, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    Many health experts support the hypothesis that stressful lifestyles are the leading cause of illness, like depression. Therefore, from the standpoint of preventive medicine, it is important to reduce stress. Young green barley leaves are a good natural source of vitamins and minerals, and their juice is widely consumed as a functional food for health reasons in Japan. This study investigated the protective effect of young green barley leaves for stress control. ICR outbred mice were exposed to 3-h sessions of restraint stress. Young green barley leaves (400 and 1,000 mg/kg) were administered orally 1 h before the sessions for 5 days. To analyze voluntary behavior, wheel-running activity was monitored during the dark period. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the whole hippocampus was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Restraint stress resulted in a significant decrease in voluntary wheel-running behavior, but this decrease was ameliorated by the administration of young green barley leaves. The leaves also enhanced the decreased levels of BDNF mRNA induced by restraint stress; in particular, a significant protective effect was shown in the exon IV variant as compared to vehicle control mice. The findings suggest that young green barley leaves have potent anti-stress properties, as evidenced by preventing decreases in the levels of voluntary wheel-running activity and hippocampal BDNF mRNA in response to restraint stress. Our findings support the possibility that supplementation with young green barley leaves might be beneficial for preventing stress-related psychiatric disorders like depression.

  8. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  9. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations from the countries of East Asia (China, Nepal, Pakistan, India)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2012-08-01

    In this study, starch gel electrophoresis was used to examine polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci in 201 accessions of barley landraces from China (including Tibet), Nepal, Pakistan, and India. Altogether, 50 alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.2269 were determined for the Hrd A locus, 65 alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.1612 were determined for the Hrd B locus, and five alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.4537 were determined for the Hrd Flocus. In barley populations from these countries, irregular distribution of alleles and allele frequencies was observed. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in populations from known sampling sites revealed cluster structure of local barley populations within each country. Local populations formed five differently sized clusters in Nepal, four such clusters in India, three clusters in China, and three clusters, in Pakistan. These results suggest that variation and allele frequency distribution of the hordein-coding loci in the countries of East Asia resulted from the introduction and spreading of barley forms through the husbandmen migrations.

  10. Competition and niche differentiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) mixtures under rainfed conditions in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.; Bastiaans, L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Barley and wheat mixtures were grown in the field using additive and replacement ratios at two locations (Halhale and Mendefera) in Eritrea during the 1997 and 1998 seasons. The aim was to assess yield advantage and to analyse competition and niche differentiation using a hyperbolic regression

  11. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    of knotted1 from maize was isolated from barley seedlings and expressed as a maltose binding protein fusion in E. coli. The purified HvH21-fusion protein selected DNA fragments with 1-3 copies of the sequence TGAC. Gel shift experiments showed that the TGAC element was required for binding and the results...

  12. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... was obtained.The absence of cluster sharing allows the recognition in the barley plant of 8 mutually exclusive mutant sectors which never had a mutant cluster in common. The anatomical analysis proves that the barley embryo contains at least 6 separate shoot meristems or prospective shoot meristems, which...... in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment. Except...

  13. Studies on 32P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on 32 P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed

  14. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  15. Detection of duplicates among repatriated Nordic spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) accessions using agronomic and morphological descriptors and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birgitte; Ortiz, Rodomiro; von Bothmer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Duplicate accessions in gene banks may be increasing while funding resources to maintain them are not always available. This research investigated the ability of agronomic and morphological descriptors for detecting duplicates among 138 repatriated putative Nordic barley germplasm and compared...... their use with results from previous research with microsatellite markers. These accessions were initially grouped into 36 potential duplicates according to passport data but further analysis with microsatellites reduce them to 22 genetically homogeneous groups. The analysis with 26 agronomic...... and morphological descriptors of putative Nordic spring barley accessions from nine gene banks was compared with a previous study with microsatellites. Each agronomic and morphological descriptor was weighed relative to its genetic determination with the aim of reducing the effect of environmental errors on genetic...

  16. The effect of reduced rates of crop protection agents and adjuvants on productivity, weed infestation and health of spring barley (Hordeum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on the cultivation of spring barley was carried out in the period 2009–2011 at the Experimental Farm in Czesławice (central Lublin region on grey-brown podzolic soil derived from loess (soil quality class II. The study included 3 rates of herbicides, growth retardant and fungicides (100%, 75% and 50% as well as different types of adjuvant (oil, surface-active, mineral. Plots without adjuvant were the control treatment. A hypothesis was made that the reduction in rates of crop protection agents by 25–50%, with the simultaneous addition of adjuvants, would allow spring barley productivity to be maintained at a level similar to that obtained under the conditions when recommended rates are applied without adjuvant. It was also assumed that particular types of adjuvant would show different interactions with specific groups of crop protection agents. It has been proved that a rational reduction in rates of crop protection agents is up to a limit of 25%, especially when an adjuvant is added to such reduced rates. This allows spring barley productivity to be maintained at the level obtained after the application of full rates (without adjuvant. But a further reduction in rates of crop protection agents by 50%, in spite of the interaction of adjuvants, results in a significant deterioration of all spring barley yield components, since such conditions lead to increased occurrence of agricultural pests (weeds, fungal diseases as well as increased crop lodging. Among the group of adjuvants tested in the present experiment, the oil adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC showed the best interaction with crop protection agents used.

  17. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-04

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  18. The intensity of competitive interactions between spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori et. Paol and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. under different fertilisation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Treder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive interactions between spring wheat and spring barley were traced based on a pot experiment. In the years 2003-2004, three cycles of the experiment were carried out in a greenhouse. Two spring cereals - wheat and barley, sown in a mixture and in a monoculture, with different mineral fertilisation levels, were the object of evaluation and comparison. The experiment was set up according to the additive scheme, determining dry weight values for both species in 5 growth stages (emergence, tillering, shooting, heading and ripening. Results were used to determine relative yields and competition ratios. It was demonstrated that competition between the cereals started already from the emergence stage and lasted till the end of vegetation, manifesting itself with the greatest strength at the heading stage, but thereafter it weakened in the NPK poorer environment. Access to a larger pool of macroelements resulted in the intensification of competitive interactions. Spring barley used the limited growth factors better than wheat from shooting till the ripening period, and a reverse relation was exhibited only at the tillering stage.

  19. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  20. Estimation of essential macro-nutrients in sixteen barley cultivars (hordeum vulgare l.) and its soil, grown at wheat research station Tandojam, Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Arain, S.A.; Kazi, T.G.; Sahito, S.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of macro nutrients accumulation in soil and barley cultivars grown at wheat Research Station Tandojam, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The samples of different varieties of barely as well as soil samples of agricultural plot where all these varieties of barely were grown, They all are treated with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide followed by dissolution in deionized water. The great range of each elements were observed in (mg/kg). The sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium determined in barley cultivars were found to be in the range of 892.86-2312.45 (Na), 4718.89-9514.51(K), 6.42-122.45 (Ca), and 1157.42-2570.97(Mg), in B-1 to B-16 respectively. The concentration in (mg/kg) of the specific plot was observed 4424.1 +- 291.12 (Na), 14181.0 +- 556.5 (K), 3404.4 +- 327.0 (Ca), and 3975.2 +- 3847.8 (Mg). The validity of acid digestion method was checked by employing certified reference sample of Spinach NBS-1570. The measured values of elements are in closed agreement with certified values. A study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of macro nutrients accumulation in soil and barley cultivars grown at wheat Research Station Tandojam, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The samples of different varieties of barely as well as soil samples of agricultural plot where all these varieties of barely were grown , They all are treated with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide followed by dissolution in deionized water. The great range of each elements were observed in (mg/kg). The sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium determined in barley cultivars were found to be in the range of 892.86-2312.45 (Na), 4718.89-9514.51 (K), 6.42-122.45 (Ca), and 1157.42-2570.97(Mg), in B-1 to B-16 respectively. The concentration in (mg/kg) of the specific plot was observed 4424.1 +- 291.12 (Na), 14181.0 556.5 (K), 3404.4 +- 327.0 (Ca), and 3975.2 +- 3847.8 (Mg). The validity of acid digestion method was

  1. [The influence of root excretions of germinating barley seed (Hordeum vulgare L.) on qualitative and quantitative composition of soil organic components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, O I

    2010-01-01

    The data from scientific publications on excretory activity of herbs root endings were analyzed, along with the data on the role of polyvalent metals cations in stabilization of humus substances (HS) of soil organic mineral complex. On the base of the analysis a working hypothesis was proposed considering root endings influence on fractional composition of soil organic components. To detect the changes taking place in soil HS, the chromatographic fractionation method was chosen. The soil aggregates stuck to root endings of germinating barley seed were washed off, and the washouts were used as the samples for the analysis. The soil from the weighed portion was dissolved directly with extenuating concentrations of LiCl and Li2SO4 alkaline solution. The fractionation was carried out in a chromatographic column. Some changes were detected in optical density of chernozem and dark-grey forest soil leached out after 1-2 days of barley seeds germination. Besides, the experiment showed that the content of organic carbon in HS changes as well.

  2. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  3. Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina; Dandler, Jörg; Zoller, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Background The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Methods Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated. Results The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a

  4. Efeitos de potenciais de água no solo, em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. Effects of soil water potentials at different phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Urchei

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de défices hídricos, em três estádios fonológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., foi conduzido experimento em vasos, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram utilizados nove tratamentos decorrentes da combinação dos potenciais mínimos de água no solo de -0,05, -0,20 e -1,50 MPa, com os estádios fenológicos de máximo perfilhamento, florescimento e grão leitoso, permanecendo uniformizados durante o restante do ciclo, entre os potenciais de -0,01 a -0,05 MPa. Os resultados de produção, peso e teor de proteína dos grãos, tamanho de espigas, número total e número de espigas chochas, mostraram que os efeitos de défices hídricos variaram com a intensidade, duração e estádio fenológico da cultura, onde o estádio de florescimento mostrou-se mais sensível ao défice de água. A ocorrência de défice hídrico intenso, em cada um dos estádios, bem como ciclos repetidos de défices moderados ou intensos, levaram à diminuições significativas na produção de grãos, além de ocorrer tendência ao aumento do teor de protema dos grãos. O manejo da irrigação na cultura da cevada, quando se busca a máxima eficiência no uso da água, deve levar em conta os diferentes estádios fenológicos.The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effects of water deficits in three phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.. Pots were arranged in a randomized block design with nine treatments. They originated from the combination of minimum soil water potentials of -0,05, -0,20 and -1,50 MPa, with the phenological phases of maximum tillering, flowering and milky grain, having been hold uniformly along the rest of the cycle, between -0,01 and -0,05 MPa potentials. Weight of grain, protein content, spike sizes, spike total number and number of hollow spikes, showed that water deficit effects varied with the intensity, duration and

  5. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded by two loci, Horl and Hor2, was analyzed electrophoretically in seeds from 123 individual plants of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. The test was conducted in two topographically different 100 meter...... transects in Israel, each equally divided into basalt and terra rossa soil types. Altogether 15 Horl and 16 Hor2 phenotypes were detected; 7 phenotypes in Horl and 5 in Hor2 were common. Significant differentiation of both Horl and Hor2 phenotypes and their associations was found with soil type...... and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  6. Response of barley plants to foliar application of growth regulators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained results revealed that either foliar spraying by the growth regulators mixture or Zinc concentrations had a significant promotive effect on the studied growth and yield as well as the physiological and chemical parameters of barley when compared with the control treatment. While the highest values of the previous ...

  7. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous ...

  8. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  9. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  10. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the

  11. COMPARISON OF THE FROST RESISTANCE OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    immediate recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield after freezing. Landraces which showed the highest cold tolerance were found to acclimatize best. Key words/phrases: Barley, chlorophyll fluorescence, cold acclimation, Ethiopia, frost tolerance. INTRODUCTION. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a traditional crop.

  12. Purification, characterization and stability of barley grain peroxidase BP1, a new type of plant peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christine B; Henriksen, Anette; Abelskov, A. Katrine

    1997-01-01

    The major peroxidase of barley grain (BP 1) has enzymatic and spectroscopic properties that are very differeant from those of other known plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) and can therefore contribute to the understanding of the many physiological functions ascribed to these enzymes. To study...

  13. RDX in Plant Tissue: Leading to Humification in Surface Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The intractable fractions are defined as Humin -mineral com- ponent, and the supernatant is defined as Fulvic-mineral component. An outline of this...Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Gerbel) Leaves. Plant Physiology, 106: 187–193. Rice, J., and P. McCarthy. 1989. Isolation of humin by liquid-liquid

  14. Heterogeneity of Powdery Mildew Resistance Revealed in Accessions of the ICARDA Wild Barley Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiseitl, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    The primary genepool of barley comprises two subspecies – wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley H. vulgare. subsp. vulgare. The former originated 5.5 million years ago in southwest Asia and is the immediate ancestor of cultivated barley, which arose around 10,000 years ago. In this study, the specific resistance of a set of 146 wild barley accessions, maintained by the International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), to 32 isolates of barley powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei was evaluated. The set comprised 146 heterogeneous accessions of a previously tested collection. Seed was obtained by single seed descent and each accession was usually represented by five single plant progenies. In total, 687 plant progenies were tested. There were 211 phenotypes of resistance among the accessions, 87 of which were found in single plants, while 202 plants contained the eight most common phenotypes. The most frequent phenotype was found in 56 plants that were susceptible to all pathogen isolates, whereas the second most frequent phenotype, which occurred in 46 plants, was resistant to all isolates. The broad resistance diversity that was revealed is of practical importance and is an aid to determining the extent and role of resistance in natural ecosystems. PMID:28261253

  15. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However...... regimes. To reach the objective, integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis complemented with AAs profiling have been undertaken....

  16. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms confe...

  17. Changes in isovitexin-O-glycosylation during the development of young barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, Dominic; Porzel, Andrea; Schumann, Erika; Pillen, Klaus; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Phenylpropanoids are a class of plant natural products that have many biological functions, including stress defence. In barley, phenylpropanoids have been described as having protective properties against excess UV-B radiation and have been linked to resistance to pathogens. Although the phenylpropanoid composition of barley has recently been addressed in more detail, the biosynthesis and regulation of this pathway have not been fully established. Barley introgression lines, such as the S42IL-population offer a set of genetically diverse plants that enable the correlation of metabolic data to distinct genetic regions on the barley genome and, subsequently, identification of relevant genes. The phenylpropanoid profiles of the first and third leaf of barley seedlings in Scarlett and four members of the S42IL-population were obtained by LC-MS. Comparison of the leaf profiles revealed a change in the glycosylation pattern of the flavone-6-C-glucoside isovitexin in the elite cultivar Scarlett. The change was characterized by the stepwise decrease in isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin) and an increase in isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucoside content. The lines S42IL-101-, -177 and -178 were completely devoid of isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucoside. Parallel glucosyltransferase assays were consistent with the observed metabolic patterns. The genetic region responsible for this metabolic effect was located on chromosome 1H between 0.21 and 15.08 cM, encompassing 505 gene candidates in the genome of the sequenced cultivar Morex. Only one of these genes displayed sequence similarity with glucosyltransferases of plant secondary metabolism that possessed the characteristic PSPG motif. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting Changes of Rainfed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Farming Calendar using Downscaling LARS-WG and HadCM3 Models in Lorestan Province in 2011-2030 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The results of climate change studies in recent years confirm this phenomenon occurrence in Iran. The climatic characteristics (potential and limitations of climate are considered in the long run, to determine the pattern of cultivation and distribution of different plant species. Unfortunately, the agricultural sector due to the low speed and power compliance, will suffer the greatest impact of climate change. General circulation models provide accurate tools to predict future climatic conditions, and the necessary data for the implementation of simulation models and the development of crops under climate change conditions. The study of the effects of climate change on the agricultural sector seems to be necessary due to increase the demand for agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate change on the rainfed barley farming calendar in Lorestan province as an effective pole in cereal cultivation in Iran. Materials and methods In order to study the effects of climate change on the rainfed barley farming calendar, outputs from the HadCM3 model simulations were used. After evaluating the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator model using performance indicators and ensure the suitability of the model, this model was applied to downscale HadCM3 model outputs. A2 scenario was chosen to evaluate climate impacts for the period 2011–2030. In this study, due to the suitable temperature for germination in the region, has been emphasized only on the precipitation to find the most suitable time for barley cultivation. Planting date was calculated by Weibull probability with 50 and 75% confidence intervals. Growing degree days (GDD were used to calculate the phenological stages. For the forecast period, the same method was used to determine the farming calendar. Results Discussion The results showed that in the observation period, the earliest planting date was observed in northern province in

  19. Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Yasuda, Yukihiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke

    2010-12-15

    Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24 h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that in the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. Concentrations of ethanol and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the anoxic rice coleoptiles were also greater than those of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles, suggesting that ethanolic fermentation may be more active in the rice coleoptiles than in the barley and oat coleoptiles, where glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation are the main source of ATP production. Soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. However, α-amylase, which catabolizes reserve starch to soluble sugars, was active in anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms, and soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms was not significantly different. Therefore, anoxia stress may inhibit soluble sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles in barley and oat more than in rice. Since the availability of soluble sugar is essential for operation of glycolysis and fermentation in plant cells, ability for sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles may be one means to distinguish the coleoptile growth of these plant species in anoxia and anoxia tolerance of these plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding. A growing population and a considerable increase in living standards worldwide are increasing the demand on the primary production. At the same time, climate change is projected to lower the primary production due to increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]), rising temperatures and extreme climate events such as floods, storms and heatwaves. These prediction...

  1. Elevated atmospheric CO2 decreases the ammonia compensation point of barley plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Pedas, Pai; Eriksson, Ulf Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia compensation point (chi(NH3)) controls the direction and magnitude of NH3 exchange between plant leaves and the atmosphere. Very limited information is currently available on how chi(NH3) responds to anticipated climate changes. Young barley plants were grown for 2 weeks at ambient (400......) at elevated CO2 reflected a lower N concentration (-25 in the shoot dry matter. The activity of nitrate reductase also declined (-45 to -60, while that of glutamine synthetase was unaffected by elevated CO2. It is concluded that elevated CO2 increases the likelihood of plants being a sink for atmospheric NH3...

  2. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  3. Influence of biologically-active substances on 137Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglov, Stanislav; Filipas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on 137 Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in 137 Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced 137 Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p 137 Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of 137 Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of 137 Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

  4. High-frequency generation and characterization of intergeneric hybrids and haploids from new wheat-barley crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgári, Dávid; Cseh, András; Szakács, Éva; Jäger, Katalin; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Sági, László

    2014-08-01

    Hybrid plants and a high frequency of maternal haploids were obtained using an efficient wheat-barley hybridization system (with new genotype combinations) and confirmed by several cytological and molecular tools. An efficient hybridization system between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is presented on the basis of three new genotype combinations. A particularly high, 14% frequency of plant regeneration per florets was achieved in the wheat-barley genotype combination of 'Sichuan' × 'Morex'. The genome composition in 42 of the 95 plants regenerated by embryo rescue was determined using ploidy analysis, genomic in situ hybridization and the application of chromosome arm-specific molecular markers (SSR and STS). A high overall frequency (76%) of maternal (wheat) haploids was observed in all the tests for all three cross combinations. A major implication of this observation is that this new hybridization system represents a useful tool to study the mechanism of uniparental chromosome elimination in cereals.

  5. Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

    Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

  6. Comparative Germination of Barley Seeds (Hordeum Vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where-as the rate of germination for the solutions of NaOH and NaHCO3 remained the same as that of the water. The influence in length of rootlets was also examined as a function of the nature of the soaking solutions. Sharp increase in the length was observed in case of Mg (OH)2 and KOH while in NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and ...

  7. Barley yellow mosaic virus VPg is the determinant protein for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance in barley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangai Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus factor(s responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6 in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10 and rym5-non-breaking (JK05 isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120 and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants.

  8. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, in eighteen Hordeum species from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System was examined using light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Seventeen plant inventory accessions...

  9. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1% straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses u...

  10. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  11. Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus Sativus: Causer of barley leaf lesions and root rot in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karov Ilija K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, were noticed in the area of Kumanovo, Bitola, Probistip, Skopje and Kocani, at the beginning of March, 2006. Our investigations were carried out in the period from 2006 to 2009. The plants were highly diseased, probably in the stage of germination, dwarfed with necrotic leaves and with poorly developed root. A rotten root collar was noticed notice in some plants, which could be easily pulled out from the soil. Plants infected in a later developing stage became yellow from the top of the leaf, and many brown-olive, oval shape lesions were noticed. Conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoen., were isolated from symptomatic lesions. Pseudothecia with asci and ascospores from teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus, were found on the barley straw in the same field the previous year.

  12. Studies on /sup 32/P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on /sup 32/P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed.

  13. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  14. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  15. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  16. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of the old world agriculture and was one of the first domesticated cereals. The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of genotype x environment interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing areas of Tigray. Eight.

  17. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  18. Barley Benefits from Organic Nitrogen in Plant Residues Applied to Soil using 15N Isotope Dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.; Abd El-Haleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in pots (sandy soil cultivated with Barley plant) under greenhouse conditions, at Inshas, Egypt. The aim was to evaluate the transformation of nitrogen applied either as mineral form ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or as organic-material-N (plant residues) .Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labeled 15 N as( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (5 % a.e) or plant residues (ground leuceana forage, compost, and mixture of them) were applied at a rate of 20 kg N/ ha). 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer use efficiency. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design under greenhouse conditions. The obtained results showed that the dry weight of barley shoots was positively affected by reinforcement of mineral- N with organic-N. On the other hand, the highest dry weight was estimated with leuceana either applied alone or reinforced with mineral N. Similar trend was noticed with N uptake but only with organic N, while with treatment received 50% organic-N. plus 50% mineral- N. the best value of N uptake was recorded with mixture of leuceana and compost. The amount of Ndff was lowest where fertilizer 15 N was applied alone. Comparing Ndff for the three organic treatments which received a combination of fertilizer- 15 N+organic-material-N, results showed that the highest Ndff was occurred with mixture of leuceana and compost, whereas the lowest was induced with individual leuceana treatment. 15 N recovery in shoots of barley ranged between 22.14 % to 82.16 %. The lowest occurred with application of mineral 15 N alone and; the highest occurred where mineral 15 N was mixed with compost or leucaena-compost mixture

  19. Changes of primary and secondary metabolites in barley plants exposed to CdO nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřová, Kristýna; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Oravec, Michal; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tříska, Jan; Urban, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 218, NOV (2016), s. 207-218 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15039 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Barley * CdO nanoparticles * Gas chromatography * High performance liquid chromatography * Mass spectrometry * Plant metabolites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  20. Labeled Azospirillum brasilense wild type and excretion-ammonium strains in association with barley roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adrian Richard Schenberger; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Furmam, Rafaela Wiegand; Freitas, Denis Leandro de; Santos, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Ayub, Ricardo Antônio; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Galvão, Carolina Weigert

    2017-09-01

    Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A. brasilense Sp7 derivative inside the root hair cells of barley and highlight the promising use of A. brasilense HM053 as plant growth-promoting bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...... agreement with the classification system which suggests the division of the genus into four major groups, containing the genomes I, X, Y, and H. However, our investigation also supports previous molecular studies of barley species where the unique position of H. bulbosum has been pointed out. In our...... experiments, H. bulbosum generally had hybridization patterns different from those of H. vulgare, although both carry the I genome. Based on our results we present a hypothesis concerning the possible origin and phylogeny of the polyploid barley species H. secalinum, H. depressum and the H. brachyantherum...

  3. Purification, characterization and stability of barley grain peroxidase BP1, a new type of plant peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christine B; Henriksen, Anette; Abelskov, A. Katrine

    1997-01-01

    -protoporphyrin IX, which is characteristic of plant peroxidases. BP 1 is stable from pH 3 to 11, indicating that its unusual spectral characteristics do not result from enzyme instability. The thermostability is also normal with a melting temperature of 75 degrees C at pH 6.6, and 67 degrees C at pH 4.0 and 8......The major peroxidase of barley grain (BP 1) has enzymatic and spectroscopic properties that are very differeant from those of other known plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) and can therefore contribute to the understanding of the many physiological functions ascribed to these enzymes. To study.......3. It is clear that the unusual properties of BP 1 are genuine, and reflect a novel regulation of plant peroxidase function....

  4. Systemic responses of barley to the 3-hydroxy-decanoyl-homoserine lactone producing plant beneficial endophyte Acidovorax radicis N35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcai Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing auto-inducers of the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL type produced by Gram-negative bacteria have different effects on plants including stimulation on root growth and/or priming or acquirement of systemic resistance in plants. In this communication the influence of AHL production of the plant growth promoting endophytic rhizosphere bacterium Acidovorax radicis N35 on barley seedlings was investigated. A. radicis N35 produces 3-hydroxy-C10-homoserine lactone (3-OH-C10-HSL as the major AHL compound. To study the influence of this QS autoinducer on the interaction with barley, the araI-biosynthesis gene was deleted. The comparison of inoculation effects of the A. radicis N35 wild type and the araI mutant resulted in remarkable differences. While the N35 wild type colonized plant roots effectively in microcolonies, the araI mutant occurred at the root surface as single cells. Furthermore, in a mixed inoculum the wild type was much more prevalent in colonization than the araI mutant documenting that the araI mutation affected root colonization. Nevertheless, a significant plant growth promoting effect could be shown after inoculation of barley with the wild type and the araI mutant in soil after two months cultivation. While A. radicis N35 wild type showed only a very weak induction of early defense responses in plant RNA expression analysis, the araI mutant caused increased expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes. This was corroborated by the accumulation of several flavonoid compounds such as saponarin and lutonarin in leaves of root inoculated barley seedlings. Thus, although the exact role of the flavonoids in this plant response is not clear yet, it can be concluded, that the synthesis of AHLs by A. radicis has implications on the perception by the host plant barley and thereby contributes to the establishment and function of the bacteria-plant interaction.

  5. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  6. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  7. The Localization of Eceriferum Loci in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil

    1974-01-01

    Three different 3-point tests have been made for gene distances on chromosome 1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In all cases eceriferum, cer-f9, and albina, ac2, were examined with erectoides as the third gene. The erectoides, ert, genes are ert-a23, ert-d33 and ert-m40, respectively. The analyses...

  8. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  9. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar

    2011-01-01

    to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling...... molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted...... analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms....

  10. Uptake and distribution of 14C-nicotinic acid in barley seeds and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.; Bandzhyulene, R.S.; Mateikene, I.K.; Ozheraitene, M.V.; Shimkunas, R.A.; Bluzmanas, P.I.

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated uptake and distribution of 14 C-nicotinic acid in seeds and seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It is established that nicotinic acid can enter barley plants in different ways depending upon the method of treatment, being capable of entering both dry seeds (through the endosperm) and seedlings (through roots and leaves equally well). Distribution of this acid throughout the plant was practically the same regardless of the method of introduction and was characterized by weak entry into stem growing points, absence of translocation into leaves with completed growth, and accumulation in young leaves. It may be hypothesized that nicotinic acid entering growing leaves is intensively converted to other compounds. However, the conversion products do not lose their mobility, since the radioactive label is detected in reproductive organs at the end of vegetation

  11. Micro-PIXE evaluation of Fe distribution in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Povh, B.; Strasser, O.; Gierth, M.; Przybylowicz, W.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Churms, C.; Schuessler, A.

    1999-01-01

    High Fe concentrations were reported from roots of plants grown in soil. This has been discussed as a possible Fe source for plants, since the concentrations shown in the roots were much higher than in the shoots. There are, however, also some indications that soil contamination at the root surface of soil grown plants could have led to an overestimation of the Fe concentration in roots. Fe distribution in root cross sections of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Alexis) has been studied to investigate this hypothesis. Micro-PIXE analyses in point and mapping mode were complemented by the STIM technique. Based on the correlation between Fe and soil-related elements (Ti, Al and Si), most of Fe located at the root surface could be attributed to soil contamination. It could also be shown that this soil contamination leads to an overestimation of Fe concentration in roots. (author)

  12. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J

    1995-01-01

    cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco....... Transgenic tobacco lines were generated with tandemly arranged genes coding for RIP and CHI as well as GLU and CHI. The performance of tobacco plants co-expressing the barley transgenes GLU/CHI or CHI/RIP in a Rhizoctonia solani infection assay revealed significantly enhanced protection against fungal attack......cDNAs encoding three proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a class-II chitinase (CHI), a class-II beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and a Type-I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) were expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the CaMV 35S-promoter. High-level expression of the transferred genes...

  13. Lipoic acid and redox status in barley plants subjected to salinity and elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, U.; Robredo, A.; Mena-Petite, A.; Munoz-Rueda, A. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Bilbao (Spain)); Lacuesta, M. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)); Sgherri, C.; Navari-Izzo, F. (Univ. di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Pisa (Italy))

    2010-02-15

    Future environmental conditions will include elevated concentrations of salt in the soil and an elevated concentration of CO{sub 2}in the atmosphere. Because these environmental changes will likely affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant metabolism in opposite ways, we analyzed changes in cellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolite [lipoic acid (LA), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH)] content induced by salt stress (0, 80, 160 or 240 mM NaCl) under ambient (350 mumol mol-1) or elevated (700 mumol mol-1) CO{sub 2}concentrations in two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) that differ in sensitivity to salinity (cv. Alpha is more sensitive than cv. Iranis). Under non-salinized conditions, elevated CO{sub 2}increased LA content, while ASA and GSH content decreased. Under salinized conditions and ambient CO{sub 2}, ASA increased, while GSH and LA decreased. At 240 mM NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased in Alpha and decreased in Iranis. When salt stress was imposed at elevated CO{sub 2}, less oxidative stress and lower increases in ASA were detected, while LA was constitutively higher. The decrease in oxidative stress could have been because of less ROS formation or to a higher constitutive LA level, which might have improved regulation of ASA and GSH reductions. Iranis had a greater capacity to synthesize ASA de novo and had higher constitutive LA content than did Alpha. Therefore, we conclude that elevated CO{sub 2}protects barley cultivars against oxidative damage. However, the magnitude of the positive effect is cultivar specific. (author)

  14. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  15. Genotype-Dependent Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Cd-induced Changes in Antioxidative Metabolism, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthetic Performance in Barley Seedlings (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Dong 17) and Cd-tolerant (Weisuobuzhi) barley seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Results showed that 5 μ...

  16. Cytogenetisch en embryologisch onderzoek aan kruisingen tussen Hordeum vulgare en H. bulbosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, W.

    1969-01-01

    Crosses between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bulbous barleygrass ( H.bulbosum) could be valuable for the transfer of such properties as resistance to cold or diseases from H. bulbosum to H. vulgare. From the literature it was known that difficulties arose in the cross: seed abortion necessitating

  17. The genetics and mechanism of avoidance of rust infection in Hordeum chilense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a perennial species occurring in Chile and Argentina. This wild barley species shows a very wide range of variation of morphological and agronomic characters and crosses easily with other members of the Triticeae

  18. Patterns of Evolutionary Trajectories and Domestication History within the Genus Hordeum Assessed by REMAP Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, Georgi; Dusinský, Roman; Hauptvogel, Pavol; Švec, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    The patterns of genetic diversity related to the taxonomy and domestication history of 85 accessions representing the main four species of the genus Hordeum were examined by retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers based on the retrotransposon BARE-1. A substantial level of genetic polymorphisms at among- and within-species level was observed showing that this retrotransposon family and its adjacent genomic regions has been a target for genome dynamics during the evolution and domestication of barley. The obtained data are consistent with the current taxonomic status within the genus Hordeum. Similar level of genetic diversity was observed between the wild and the domesticated barley accessions suggesting that transposable elements` activity and accumulation may counteract the decrease of genome-wide diversity following domestication. In addition, eco-geographical sub-genome pools of the cultivated barley were identified in support to the theory of multiple origins of domestication within the genus Hordeum. We also provide conclusions about the relationship between accessions of different species and the putative routes of barley domestication. In conclusion, the retrotransposon BARE-1 stands as a reliable and perspective DNA marker for the assessment of the phylogenetic and domestication history in the genus Hordeum and other crop species.

  19. Prospects for exploitation of disease resistance from Hordeum chilense in cultivated cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubiales, D.; Niks, R.E.; Carver, T.L.W.; Ballesteros, J.; Martin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a South American wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae. In the present paper we consider the resistance of H. chilense to several fungal diseases and the prospects for its transference to cultivated

  20. Induced variations in brassinosteroid genes define barley height and sturdiness, and expand the green revolution genetic toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockter, Christoph; Gruszka, Damian; Braumann, Ilka; Druka, Arnis; Druka, Ilze; Franckowiak, Jerome; Gough, Simon P; Janeczko, Anna; Kurowska, Marzena; Lundqvist, Joakim; Lundqvist, Udda; Marzec, Marek; Matyszczak, Izabela; Müller, André H; Oklestkova, Jana; Schulz, Burkhard; Zakhrabekova, Shakhira; Hansson, Mats

    2014-12-01

    Reduced plant height and culm robustness are quantitative characteristics important for assuring cereal crop yield and quality under adverse weather conditions. A very limited number of short-culm mutant alleles were introduced into commercial crop cultivars during the Green Revolution. We identified phenotypic traits, including sturdy culm, specific for deficiencies in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling in semidwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare). This set of characteristic traits was explored to perform a phenotypic screen of near-isogenic short-culm mutant lines from the brachytic, breviaristatum, dense spike, erectoides, semibrachytic, semidwarf, and slender dwarf mutant groups. In silico mapping of brassinosteroid-related genes in the barley genome in combination with sequencing of barley mutant lines assigned more than 20 historic mutants to three brassinosteroid-biosynthesis genes (BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC DWARF, and DIMINUTO) and one brassinosteroid-signaling gene (BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 [HvBRI1]). Analyses of F2 and M2 populations, allelic crosses, and modeling of nonsynonymous amino acid exchanges in protein crystal structures gave a further understanding of the control of barley plant architecture and sturdiness by brassinosteroid-related genes. Alternatives to the widely used but highly temperature-sensitive uzu1.a allele of HvBRI1 represent potential genetic building blocks for breeding strategies with sturdy and climate-tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Lead action on activity of some enzymes of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyov, A.N.; Koshkaryova, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Lead action on activity of some enzymes of young plants of barley double-row (Hordeum distichon L.) families of cereals (Grominea). It is established that activity urease, catalase, ascorbatoxidase is in dependence as from a lead dose in a nutritious solution, and term ontogenesis. At later stages ontogenesis the increase in concentration of lead in an inhabitancy leads to sharp decrease in activity ascorbatoxidase. In the same conditions activity urease and catalase raises.

  2. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    . Earlier seedling emergence gave barley an initial growth advantage, assessed using the relative efficiency index (REIc), whereas pea was in general more growth efficient once the initial growth phase had been passed. This reversal in relative growth efficiency along with the observation that early barley...... of the growing period and more so in the pea dominated intercrop. At the final harvest land equivalent ratios (LER) of 0.9-1.2 express resource complementarity in almost all studied intercrops, complementarity that was not directly affected by changes in plant density or relative frequency. Intercropped pea did...... or specific grain yield composition are wanted. Keywords: Competition dynamics; Grain quality; Hordeum vulgare; Intercropping; Nitrogen use; Organic farming; Pisum sativum; Weeds; Yield Abbreviations: IC, mixed intercropping; LER, land equivalent ratio; N, nitrogen; REIc, relative efficiency index; SC, sole...

  3. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp....... spontaneum from Israel, Iran and Turkey. Seventeen out of twenty-one studied cDNA and gDNA probes distributed across all seven barley chromosomes revealed polymorphism when DNA was digested with one of four restriction enzymes. A tree based on genetic distances using frequencies of RFLP banding patterns...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....

  4. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp. sponta...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....... was estimated and the barley lines clustered into five groups reflecting geographical origin. The geographical groups of land-race lines showed less intragroup variation than the geographical groups of spontaneum lines. The group of European varieties, representing large variation in agronomic traits, showed...

  5. Changes of primary and secondary metabolites in barley plants exposed to CdO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večeřová, Kristýna; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Oravec, Michal; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tříska, Jan; Urban, Otmar

    2016-11-01

    The environmental fate of airborne nanoparticles and their toxicity to plants is not yet fully understood. Pot-grown barley plants with second leaves developed were therefore exposed to CdO nanoparticles (CdONPs) of ecologically relevant size (7-60 nm) and concentration (2.03 ± 0.45 × 10 5  particles cm -3 ) in air for 3 weeks. An experiment was designed to test the effects of different treatments when only leaves (T1); leaves and soil substrate (T2); and leaves, soil, and water supply were exposed to nanoparticles (T3). A fourth, control group of plants was left without treatment (T0). Although CdONPs were directly absorbed by leaves from the air, a part of leaf-allocated Cd was also transported from roots by transpiration flow. Chromatographic assays revealed that CdONPs had a significant effect on total content of primary metabolites (amino acids and saccharides) but no significant effect on total content of secondary metabolites (phenolic compounds, Krebs cycle acids, and fatty acids). In addition, the compositions of individual metabolite classes were affected by CdONP treatment. For example, tryptophan and phenylalanine were the most affected amino acids in both analysed organs, while ferulic acid and isovitexin constituted the polyphenols most affected in leaves. Even though CdONP treatment had no effect on total fatty acids content, there were significant changes in the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in both the roots and leaves of treated plants. Although the results indicate the most pronounced effect in T3 plants as compared to T1 and T2 plants, even just leaf exposure to CdONPs has the potential to induce changes in plant metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150μM thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150μM to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uptake and translocation of [14C]-monoethanolamine in barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, H.; Bergmann, H.; Reissmann, P.

    1988-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of 14 C-monoethanolamine (EA) and its hydrochloride were investigated after application to an unwounded part of the fifth leaf from the main shoot of intact spring barley plants. After 48 and 72 h, resp., the free EA base was both absorbed rapidly and translocated out of the feeding leaf. The absorbed 14 C preferably migrated to the tillers, which resulted in an approximately uniform distribution of the radioactivity in the above ground parts of the plant after the uptake phase (similar 14 C concentrations in the main shoot and tillers), whereas only few radioactivity moved to the roots. On the other hand, the protonated EA (EA-HCl) exhibited both a reduced uptake and a restricted mobility. The bulk of radioactivity remained in the main shoot. As a consequence of the principally analogous metabolism of EA and its protonated form, the translocation differences are compensated during ontogenesis. When the plants reached maturity, similar distribution patterns could be found in which the kernels represented a considerable sink. (author)

  8. NJ cluster analysis of the SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF genes in Tibetan hulless barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H J; Wang, Y L; Wei, Z X; Xu, Q J; Zeng, X Q; Tang, Y W; Nyima, T S

    2016-11-03

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway is known as one of the most important signaling pathways in plants and is mediated by multiple regulators. The genes SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF are relevant to both ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. To elucidate the profile of these genes from Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.), we collected available sequences from RNA-Seq data, together with NCBI data from five other model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa, and Sorghum bicolor). Gene trees of SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF were constructed using a neighbor joining (NJ) method. For all genes, we identified a dominant group in which all six species were represented. Three, four, and five groups were found in the NJ trees of SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF, respectively. For each gene, Tibetan hulless barley was divided into three groups. Our analyses indicated that Tibetan hulless barley was associated with B. distachyon. The NJ cluster analysis also suggested that Tibetan hulless barley was affiliated with S. bicolor (SnRK2), A. thaliana (PYR/PYL/RCAR), and O. sativa (ABF). These results illustrate a diverse expression of genes SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF, and suggest a relationship among the six species studied. Collectively, our characterization of the three components of the ABA signaling pathway may contribute to improve stress tolerance in Tibetan hulless barley.

  9. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED A. BAKHETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bakheta MA, Hussein MM. 2014. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 39-44. Pot experiments were carried out during two growth seasons 2010 / 2011 under greenhouse conditions of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to investigate the response of barley plants (Hordium vulgare L grown under salinity stress (2500 or 5000 ppm to spraying with solutions of uniconazole at 150 or 200 ppm. The obtained results showed that irrigation with saline solutions caused increases in the amounts of abscisic acid (ABA, crude protein, total soluble-protein and proline contents. The results showed that spraying barley plants grown under saline solutions with uniconazole increased endogenous hormone contents of ABA, cytokinins, crude protein, total soluble protein and proline but caused decreases in the amounts of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. High protection of abscisic acid in treating plants with uniconazole and under salt stress (interaction effect increases proline, proteins and soluble protein which has been proposed to act as compatible solutes that adjust the osmotic potential in the cytoplasm. Thus, these biochemical characters can be used as a metabolic marker in relation to salinity stress.

  10. Barley ROP Binding Kinase1 Is Involved in Microtubule Organization and in Basal Penetration Resistance to the Barley Powdery Mildew Fungus1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, Christina; Reiner, Tina; Hoefle, Caroline; Preuss, Jutta; Jurca, Manuela E.; Domoki, Mónika; Fehér, Attila; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Certain plant receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases were reported to interact with small monomeric G-proteins of the RHO of plant (ROP; also called RAC) family in planta and to be activated by this interaction in vitro. We identified a barley (Hordeum vulgare) partial cDNA of a ROP binding protein kinase (HvRBK1) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screenings with barley HvROP bait proteins. Protein interaction of the constitutively activated (CA) barley HvROPs CA HvRACB and CA HvRAC1 with full-length HvRBK1 was verified in yeast and in planta. Green fluorescent protein-tagged HvRBK1 appears in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, but CA HvRACB or CA HvRAC1 can recruit green fluorescent protein-HvRBK1 to the cell periphery. Barley HvRBK1 is an active kinase in vitro, and activity is enhanced by CA HvRACB or GTP-loaded HvRAC1. Hence, HvRBK1 might act downstream of active HvROPs. Transient-induced gene silencing of barley HvRBK1 supported penetration by the parasitic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, suggesting a function of the protein in basal disease resistance. Transient knockdown of HvRBK1 also influenced the stability of cortical microtubules in barley epidermal cells. Hence, HvRBK1 might function in basal resistance to powdery mildew by influencing microtubule organization. PMID:22415513

  11. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley.

  12. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 3-D y CMU) sobre el contenido en azucares de hohas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, P.

    1979-07-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions. for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained In maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs.

  13. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  14. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  15. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF SPRAY RETENTION BY A 3D BARLEY PLANT: EFFECT OF FORMULATION SURFACE TENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massinon, M; De Cock, N; Salah, S Ouled Taleb; Lebeau, F

    2015-01-01

    A spray retention model was used in this study to explore theoretically the effect of a range of mixture surface tension on the spray retention and the variability of deposits. The spray retention model was based on an algorithm that tested whether droplets from a virtual nozzle intercepted a 3D plant model. If so, the algorithm determined the contribution of the droplet to the overall retention depending on the droplet impact behaviour on the leaf; adhesion, rebound or splashing. The impact outcome probabilities, function of droplet impact energy, were measured using high-speed imaging on an excised indoor grown barley leaf (BBCH12) both for pure water (surface tension of 0.072 N/m) and a non-ionic super spreader (static surface tension of 0.021 N/m) depending on the surface orientation. The modification of spray mixture properties in the simulations was performed by gradually changing the spray the droplet impact probabilities between pure water and a solution with non-ionic surfactant exhibiting super spreading properties. The plant architecture was measured using a structured light scanner. The final retention was expressed as the volume of liquid retained by the whole plant relative to the projected leaf surface area in the main spray direction. One hundred simulations were performed at different volumes per hectare and flat-fan nozzles for each formulation surface tension. The coefficient of variation was used as indicator of variability of deposits. The model was able to discriminate between mixture surface tension. The spray retention increased as the mixture surface tension decreased. The variability of deposits also decreased as the surface tension decreased. The proposed modelling approach provides a suited tool for sensitivity analysis: nozzle kind, pressure, volume per hectare applied, spray mixture physicochemical properties, plant species, growth stage could be screened to determine the best spraying characteristics maximizing the retention. The

  16. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  17. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability and inheritance of endosperm-specific expression of two transgenes in progeny from crossing independently transformed barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae-Woon; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Lemaux, Peggy G; Cho, Myeong-Je

    2009-08-01

    To study stability and inheritance of two different transgenes in barley, we crossed a homozygous T(8) plant, having uidA (or gus) driven by the barley endosperm-specific B(1)-hordein promoter (localized in the near centromeric region of chromosome 7H) with a second homozygous T(4) plant, having sgfp(S65T) driven by the barley endosperm-specific D-hordein promoter (localized on the subtelomeric region of chromosome 2H). Both lines stably expressed the two transgenes in the generations prior to the cross. Three independently crossed F(1) progeny were analyzed by PCR for both uidA and sgfp(S65T) in each plant and functional expression of GUS and GFP in F(2) seeds followed a 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio and transgenes were localized by FISH to the same location as in the parental plants. FISH was used to screen F(2) plants for homozygosity of both transgenes; four homozygous plants were identified from the two crossed lines tested. FISH results showing presence of transgenes were consistent with segregation ratios of expression of both transgenes, indicating that the two transgenes were expressed without transgene silencing in homozygous progeny advanced to the F(3) and F(4) generations. Thus, even after crossing independently transformed, homozygous parental plants containing a single, stably expressed transgene, progeny were obtained that continued to express multiple transgenes through generation advance. Such stability of transgenes, following outcrossing, is an important attribute for trait modification and for gene flow studies.

  19. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  20. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005 ...... and so is an obvious target for the fine-tuning of gene expression in future attempts to improve nutrient remobilization related to the senescence process in barley....

  1. Changes in growth and 14CO2 fixation of Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris induced by UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. A field experiment was concluded to study the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on growth parameters, photosynthetic efficiency (14CO2-fixation) and biochemical characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plants grown under ambient UV-B radiation were compared with those grown without UV-B by excluding ambient UV-B radiation. To exclude solar ambient UV-B radiation, the sunlight was filtered through a polyester film that selectively absorbed UV-B. For ambient UV-B effects, plants were grown under polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters that transmitted the complete light spectrum. The results indicated increased shoot length, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, leaf area ratio and specific leaf weight in plants of both the crops grown without UV-B compared with those grown under ambient UV-B. Similarly, the rate of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, nitrates reductase (NR) enzyme activity and sugar content. The effect of UV-B exclusion was clearer in common bean compared with that in barley. We conclude that monocot species may be less sensitive to increased solar UV-B due to ozone depletion than with dicots

  2. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds...

  3. Oxirapentyns A, B and E from the marine-derived strain of Isaria felina KMM 4639 as stimulators of initial stages of development of agricultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Mikhail M; Chaikina, Elena L; Smetanina, Olga F; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh

    2014-06-01

    Oxirapentyn A (1), oxirapentyn B (2), and oxirapentyn E (3) were examined for their ability to stimulate growth of seedling roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), corn (Zea mays L.), soy {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It was shown that the stimulatory effects depend on the chemical structure of the oxirapentyns and on the plant species. Compounds 1, and 2 are efficient for growth of seedling roots of barley, and wheat, whereas compound 3, at different concentrations, stimulates growth of seedling roots of maize, soy, and wheat. These compounds can be recommended for field study as plant growth stimulators.

  4. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  5. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley 'Agordino'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio; Galla, Giulio; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2017-03-01

    The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L.) that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR) loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which could be rapidly

  6. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  7. Registration of ‘Muir’ spring feed barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Muir’ (Reg. No. CV-357, PI 674172) is a two-row, spring, hulled feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed and evaluated as 07WA-601.6, and released in 2013 by Washington State University (WSU). Muir was derived from the cross ‘Baronesse’/‘Bob’ and selected through singleseed descent from ...

  8. Analysis of Genetic diversity and reltionships in local Tunisian barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Genetic diversity and environmental associations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in Turkey. Genetica, 68: 203-213. Nagaoka T, Ogihara Y (1997). Applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphism in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparison to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94: 597-602.

  9. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  10. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  11. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  12. Effect of drought stress on barley-wheat intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.; Kropff, M.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of drought or moisture stress (MS1- no stress; MS2- stress at seedling stage and MS3- stress at heading stage) was studied for different crop ratios of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) mixtures sown in additive and replacement series at Halhale Research Station

  13. A Barley ROP GTPase ACTIVATING PROTEIN Associates with Microtubules and Regulates Entry of the Barley Powdery Mildew Fungus into Leaf Epidermal Cells[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefle, Caroline; Huesmann, Christina; Schultheiss, Holger; Börnke, Frederik; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the function of host factors involved in disease susceptibility. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) ROP (RHO of plants) G-protein RACB is required for full susceptibility of the leaf epidermis to invasion by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei. Stable transgenic knockdown of RACB reduced the ability of barley to accommodate haustoria of B. graminis in intact epidermal leaf cells and to form hairs on the root epidermis, suggesting that RACB is a common element of root hair outgrowth and ingrowth of haustoria in leaf epidermal cells. We further identified a barley MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED ROP-GTPASE ACTIVATING PROTEIN (MAGAP1) interacting with RACB in yeast and in planta. Fluorescent MAGAP1 decorated cortical microtubules and was recruited by activated RACB to the cell periphery. Under fungal attack, MAGAP1-labeled microtubules built a polarized network at sites of successful defense. By contrast, microtubules loosened where the fungus succeeded in penetration. Genetic evidence suggests a function of MAGAP1 in limiting susceptibility to penetration by B. graminis. Additionally, MAGAP1 influenced the polar organization of cortical microtubules. These results add to our understanding of how intact plant cells accommodate fungal infection structures and suggest that RACB and MAGAP1 might be antagonistic players in cytoskeleton organization for fungal entry. PMID:21685259

  14. Aminopeptidases of Germinated and Non-Germinated Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Vukelić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In processes of barley plant development, various endo- and exopeptidases are involved. To determine the type and number of aminopeptidases that could participate in barley seed germination and tissue growth, their activities in extracts of non-germinated and germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Angora grains and young tissues have been examined, and some of their properties determined. Aminopeptidases (AP hydrolysing 2-naphthylamides of various amino acids were present in dry and germinated grains, roots, seedlings and leaves, showing preferences for amino acids phenylalanine (Phe, arginine (Arg, leucine (Leu and methionine (Met, and lower activity towards alanine (Ala, proline (Pro, glycine (Gly and histidine (His. Levels and ratios of AP activities changed during germination and tissue development, indicating that APs of different specificities are required at different stages of germination and in young tissues. Thus, the increase of all aminopeptidase activities during the first 24 hours of germination and subsequent decrease show significant involvement in seed primary metabolism restoration. The activities of Arg- and HisAP are equally important in green malt. Seedlings and leaves have pronounced substrate specificity for Phe, Leu, Ala and Pro, while roots have the lowest AP specific activities. From the activities and determined properties, the presence of at least six aminopeptidases optimally active at pH=7.4–8.2 could be discerned in dry and germinated grains, and young tissues of Angora barley. Two aminopeptidases are most probably of broad substrate specificity, three show narrow preference with dominating Leu, Phe, or Pro/His, while one is specific for Arg.

  15. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  16. Possible role for abscisic acid in regulation of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.P.; Tsonev, T.D.; Vaklinova, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on carbon metabolism, rate of photorespiration, and the activity of the photorespiratory enzymes ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase and glycolate oxidase in 7-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Alfa) was investigated. Plants treated with ABA had enhanced incorporation of labeled carbon from 14 CO 2 into glycolic acid, glycine, and serine, while 14 C incorporation into 3-phosphoglyceric acid and sugarphosphate esters was depressed. Parallel with this effect, treated plants showed a rise in activity of RuBP oxygenase and glycolic acid oxidase. The rate of photorespiration was increased twofold by ABA treatment at IO -6 molar while the CO 2 -compensation point increased 46% and stomatal resistance increased more than twofold over control plants

  17. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracte...

  18. Haplotype divergence and multiple candidate genes at Rphq2, a partial resistance QTL of barley to Puccinia hordei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo Kuok San, Freddy; Wang, Y.; Vozabova, Tereza; Huneau, C.; Leroy, P.; Chalhoub, B.; Qi, X.Q.; Niks, R.E.; Marcel, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Key message: Rphq2, a minor gene for partial resistance toPuccinia hordei, was physically mapped in a 188 kbp introgression with suppressed recombination between haplotypes ofrphq2andRphq2barley cultivars.Abstract: Partial and non-host resistances to rust fungi in barley (Hordeum vulgare) may be

  19. Registration of STARS 1501B and STARS 1502B barley germplasm with Rsg2 resistance to greenbug

    Science.gov (United States)

    STARS 1501B (Reg. No. GP- , PI 675335) greenbug-resistant, six-rowed, spring, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and STARS 1502B (Reg. No. GP-, PI 675336) greenbug-resistant, six-rowed, winter, feed barley germplasm, tested as GR 001 and GR 010 respectively, were developed and released by US...

  20. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Improving drought and salinity tolerance in barley by application of salicylic acid and potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Ali Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Gustoe grown in soil cultures were evaluated to recognize the ameliorative role of salicylic acid (SA and KNO3 against the negative effects of salt and water deficit stresses. Barley plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl (50, 100 and 150 mM, three levels of water stress (80%, 70% and 50% of the soil water content (SWC and the combination of 150 mM NaCl + 50 μM SA, 150 mM NaCl + 10 mM KNO3, 50% SWC + 50 μM SA and 50% SWC + 10 mM KNO3 for two weeks. Salt and water deficit stresses reduced the shoot growth, leaf photosynthetic pigments, K+ contents and provoked oxidative stress in leaves confirmed by considerable changes in soluble carbohydrate, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and Na+ contents. Leaf soluble protein of salt and water deficit treated plants was unaffected. The Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing salt and water deficit treated plants. Application of 50 μM SA or 10 mM KNO3 to150 mM NaCl and/or 50% SWC treated plants improved these attributes under salt and water stresses. Soluble carbohydrates in stressed plants may have a significant role in osmotic adjustment. It can be concluded that the addition of SA or KNO3 can ameliorate the oxidative stress in barley stressed plants. This ameliorative effect might be maintained through low MDA contents and decreased Na+/K+ ratio in leaves. This study also provided evidence for the ability of barley cultivation in salt and water deficit soils due to its capacity for osmotic adjustment.

  2. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cellulose synthase-like D2 gene (HvCslD2) mediates penetration resistance to host-adapted and nonhost isolates of the powdery mildew fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douchkov, Dimitar; Lueck, Stefanie; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Johrde, Annika; Doblin, Monika S.; Beahan, Cherie T.; Kopischke, Michaela; Fuchs, René; Lipka, Volker; Niks, Rients E.; Bulone, Vincent; Chowdhury, Jamil; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls and cellular turgor pressure shape and suspend the bodies of all vascular plants. In response to attack by fungal and oomycete pathogens, which usually breach their host's cell walls by mechanical force or by secreting lytic enzymes, plants often form local cell wall appositions

  3. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid leads to increased antioxidant capacity in leaves of barley plants exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananieva, Elitsa Antonova; Christov, Kaloyan Nikolov; Popova, Losanka Petrova

    2004-03-01

    Our previous study suggests that salicylic acid mediates tolerance in barley plants to paraquat (Ananieva et al. 2002). To further define the role of SA in paraquat induced responses, we analysed the capacity of the antioxidative defence system by measuring the activities of several antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), and guaiacol peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7). Twelve-day-old barley seedlings were supplied with 500 micromol/L SA or 10 micromol/L Pq via the transpiration stream and kept in the dark for 24 h. Then they were exposed to 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PAR and samples were taken 6 h after the light exposure. Treatment of seedlings with 10 micromol/L Pq reduced the activity of APX and GR, did not affect the activity of POX and DHAR but caused over a 40% increase in the activity of CAT. Pre-treatment with 500 micromol/L SA for 24 h in the dark before Pq application increased the activities of the studied enzymes in both the chloroplasts (SOD activity) and the other compartments of the cell (POX, CAT activity). The effect of SA pre-treatment was highly expressed on DHAR and POX activity. The data suggest that SA antagonizes Pq effects, via elicitation of an antioxidative response in barley plants.

  4. Stable gene replacement in barley by targeted double-strand break induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Breier, Ulrike; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schubert, Ingo; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Gene targeting is becoming an important tool for precision genome engineering in plants. During gene replacement, a variant of gene targeting, transformed DNA integrates into the genome by homologous recombination (HR) to replace resident sequences. We have analysed gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare) using a model system based on double-strand break (DSB) induction by the meganuclease I-SceI and a transgenic, artificial target locus. In the plants we obtained, the donor construct was inserted at the target locus by homology-directed DNA integration in at least two transformants obtained in a single experiment and was stably inherited as a single Mendelian trait. Both events were produced by one-sided integration. Our data suggest that gene replacement can be achieved in barley with a frequency suitable for routine application. The use of a codon-optimized nuclease and co-transfer of the nuclease gene together with the donor construct are probably the components important for efficient gene targeting. Such an approach, employing the recently developed synthetic nucleases/nickases that allow DSB induction at almost any sequence of a genome of interest, sets the stage for precision genome engineering as a routine tool even for important crops such as barley. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Variable Levels of Tolerance to Water Stress (Drought and Associated Biochemical Markers in Tunisian Barley Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dbira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley (Hordeum vulgare is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought in nine accessions of “Ardhaoui” barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone. The analysis of growth parameters and biochemical markers in the water stress-treated plants in comparison to their respective controls indicated great variability among the studied accessions. Accession 2, from El May Island, displayed high tolerance to drought. Increased amounts of proline in water-stressed plants could not be correlated with a better response to drought, as the most tolerant accessions contained lower levels of this osmolyte. A good correlation was established between the reduction of growth and degradation of chlorophylls and increased levels of malondialdehyde and total phenolics. These biochemical markers may be useful for identifying drought tolerant materials in barley.

  6. Prediction of malting quality traits in barley based on genome-wide marker data to assess the potential of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Malthe; Kollers, Sonja; Maasberg-Prelle, Anja; Großer, Jörg; Schinkel, Burkhard; Tomerius, Alexandra; Graner, Andreas; Korzun, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Genomic prediction of malting quality traits in barley shows the potential of applying genomic selection to improve selection for malting quality and speed up the breeding process. Genomic selection has been applied to various plant species, mostly for yield or yield-related traits such as grain dry matter yield or thousand kernel weight, and improvement of resistances against diseases. Quality traits have not been the main scope of analysis for genomic selection, but have rather been addressed by marker-assisted selection. In this study, the potential to apply genomic selection to twelve malting quality traits in two commercial breeding programs of spring and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed. Phenotypic means were calculated combining multilocational field trial data from 3 or 4 years, depending on the trait investigated. Three to five locations were available in each of these years. Heritabilities for malting traits ranged between 0.50 and 0.98. Predictive abilities (PA), as derived from cross validation, ranged between 0.14 to 0.58 for spring barley and 0.40-0.80 for winter barley. Small training sets were shown to be sufficient to obtain useful PAs, possibly due to the narrow genetic base in this breeding material. Deployment of genomic selection in malting barley breeding clearly has the potential to reduce cost intensive phenotyping for quality traits, increase selection intensity and to shorten breeding cycles.

  7. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, C.; Fekete, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Forczek, Sándor; Fuksová, Květoslava; Li, X.; Englmann, M.; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, A.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 5 (2007), s. 1447-1457 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : UPLC * FTICR-MS * tritium autoradiography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.867, year: 2007

  8. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment...... with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1% straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and a coarse sandy subsoil. In the sandy loam...

  9. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, A.; Todorovska, E.; Trifonova, A.; Petrova, M.; Marinova, E.; Gramatikova, M.; Valcheva, D.; Zaprianov, S.; Mersinkov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  10. Flavone Glucoside Uptake into Barley Mesophyll and Arabidopsis Cell Culture Vacuoles. Energization Occurs by H+-Antiport and ATP-Binding Cassette-Type Mechanisms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangne, Nathalie; Eggmann, Thomas; Koblischke, Carsten; Weissenböck, Gottfried; Martinoia, Enrico; Klein, Markus

    2002-01-01

    In many cases, secondary plant products accumulate in the large central vacuole of plant cells. However, the mechanisms involved in the transport of secondary compounds are only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the transport mechanisms for the major barley (Hordeum vulgare) flavonoid saponarin (apigenin 6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside) are different in various plant species: Uptake into barley vacuoles occurs via a proton antiport and is competitively inhibited by isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucoside), suggesting that both flavone glucosides are recognized by the same transporter. In contrast, the transport into vacuoles from Arabidopsis, which does not synthesize flavone glucosides, displays typical characteristics of ATP-binding cassette transporters. Transport of saponarin into vacuoles of both the species is saturable with a Km of 50 to 100 μm. Furthermore, the uptake of saponarin into vacuoles from a barley mutant exhibiting a strongly reduced flavone glucoside biosynthesis is drastically decreased when compared with the parent variety. Thus, the barley vacuolar flavone glucoside/H+ antiporter could be modulated by the availability of the substrate. We propose that different vacuolar transporters may be responsible for the sequestration of species-specific/endogenous and nonspecific/xenobiotic secondary compounds in planta. PMID:11842175

  11. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The uptake of soil-derived N by a test crop (N catch crop) of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown in the autumn was higher after pea than after barley. The N uptake in the test crop was reduced by 27% and 34% after pea and barley residue incorporation, respectively, probably due to N immobilization....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  12. Climate Change Effects to Plant Ecosystems - Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    ([O3]), rising temperatures and extreme climate events such as floods, storms and heatwaves. These predictions are compounded by the projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which state that the world is heading towards a worst-case climate scenario unless actions are taken......) elevated temperature and [CO2] in combination and 3) a 10 day-heatwave (33 °C) around the time of flowering in addition to elevated levels of temperature and [CO2]. The responses in grain yield, number of grains, number of ears, biomass, harvest index, grain protein concentration and stability over...... yield of barley was found to decrease by 29 % and harvested grain protein by 22 %. With an additional 10 dayheatwave around flowering grain yield was decreased by 52 %, revealing sombre forecasts to the future primary production. However, vast variation was identified within the individual barley...

  13. The influence of flooding on soil proportion and plant growth. 1. The influence on root development and growth of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study the extent of root and shoot of barley exposed to flooding at various time of flooding. Several parameters were used in the experiment, namely the percentage of 86 Rb in the root system, dry weight of root as well as shoot, increase of leaf size, number of leaves and tillers and nitrogen content in leaf tissue. Radioactive 86 Rb-Cl was used in the experiment and injected into the plant 24 hours before harvest. The plants were harvested 2, 6, and 20 days after flooding. From the result obtained, it turned out that flooding conditions apparently reduced root development in the lower part of soil layer, while in the top layer a proper development of root was concentrated. Injury symptoms were mainly observed in the shoot; where leaf yellowing occured and started with the first leaf five days after flooding and subsequently reduced the number of leaves and tillers. (author)

  14. Barley Brassinosteroid Mutants Provide an Insight into Phytohormonal Homeostasis in Plant Reaction to Drought Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gruszka, D.; Janeczko, A.; Dziurka, M.; Pociecha, E.; Oklešťková, Jana; Szarejko, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, DEC 2 (2016), č. článku 1824. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : abscisic-acid * arabidopsis-thaliana * jasmonic-acid * gibberellin biosynthesis * constitutive activation * abiotic stresses * brassica-napus * rice * responses * tolerance * barley * brassinosteroids * drought * homeostasis * mutants * phytohormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  15. Untangling nucleotide diversity and evolution of the H genome in polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species based on the single copy of nuclear gene DMC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfa Sun

    Full Text Available Numerous hybrid and polypoid species are found within the Triticeae. It has been suggested that the H subgenome of allopolyploid Elymus (wheatgrass species originated from diploid Hordeum (barley species, but the role of hybridization between polyploid Elymus and Hordeum has not been studied. It is not clear whether gene flow across polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species has occurred following polyploid speciation. Answering these questions will provide new insights into the formation of these polyploid species, and the potential role of gene flow among polyploid species during polyploid evolution. In order to address these questions, disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1 data from the allopolyploid StH Elymus are analyzed together with diploid and polyploid Hordeum species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some Elymus are very close to the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some polyploid Hordeum species, indicating either that the H genome in theses Elymus and polyploid Hordeum species originated from same diploid donor or that gene flow has occurred among them. Our analysis also suggested that the H genomes in Elymus species originated from limited gene pool, while H genomes in Hordeum polyploids have originated from broad gene pools. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences on H genome from polyploid species (π = 0.02083 in Elymus, π = 0.01680 in polyploid Hordeum is higher than that in diploid Hordeum (π = 0.01488. The estimates of Tajima's D were significantly departure from the equilibrium neutral model at this locus in diploid Hordeum species (P<0.05, suggesting an excess of rare variants in diploid species which may not contribute to the origination of polyploids. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences in Elymus polyploid species (π = 0.02083 is higher than that in polyploid Hordeum (π = 0.01680, suggesting that the degree of relationships between two parents of a polyploid might be a factor

  16. Isolation and purification of a papain inhibitor from Egyptian genotypes of barley seeds and its in vitro and in vivo effects on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-02-01

    The cysteine inhibitors that are known as cystatin have been identified and characterized from several plant species. In the current study, 44 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes including 3 varieties and 41 promising lines were screened for their potential as protease inhibitors. The barley genotypes showed low inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes with a mean of 4.15 TIU/mg protein and 4.40 CIU/mg protein. The barley variety, Giza 123, showed strong papain inhibitory activity of 97.09 PIU/mg proteins and was subjected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Barley purified proteins showed two bands on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 12.4-54.8 kDa. The purified barley PI was found to be stable at a temperature below 80 °C and at a wide range of pH from 2 to 12. Barley PI was found to have higher potential inhibitory activity against papain enzyme compared to the standard papain inhibitor, E-64 with an IC50 value of 21.04 µg/ml and 25.62 µg/ml for barley PI and E-64, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition with a Ki value of 1.95 × 10(-3 )µM. The antimetabolic effect of barley PI was evaluated against C. maculatus by incorporating the F30-60 protein of the purified inhibitor into the artificial diet using artificial seeds. Barley PI significantly prolonged the development of C. maculatus in proportion to PI concentration. Barley PI significantly increased the mortality of C. maculatus and caused a significant reduction in its fecundity. On the other hand, barley PI seemed to have non-significant effects on the adult longevity and the adult dry weight. The in vitro and in vivo results proved the efficiency of the papain inhibitory protein isolated from barley as a tool for managing the cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Barley disease susceptibility factor RACB acts in epidermal cell polarity and positioning of the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Björn; Schnepf, Vera; Galgenmüller, Carolina; Ranf, Stefanie; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    RHO GTPases are regulators of cell polarity and immunity in eukaryotes. In plants, RHO-like RAC/ROP GTPases are regulators of cell shaping, hormone responses, and responses to microbial pathogens. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RAC/ROP protein RACB is required for full susceptibility to penetration by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the barley powdery mildew fungus. Disease susceptibility factors often control host immune responses. Here we show that RACB does not interfere with early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses such as the oxidative burst or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. RACB also supports rather than restricts expression of defence-related genes in barley. Instead, silencing of RACB expression by RNAi leads to defects in cell polarity. In particular, initiation and maintenance of root hair growth and development of stomatal subsidiary cells by asymmetric cell division is affected by silencing expression of RACB. Nucleus migration is a common factor of developmental cell polarity and cell-autonomous interaction with Bgh RACB is required for positioning of the nucleus near the site of attack from Bgh We therefore suggest that Bgh profits from RACB's function in cell polarity rather than from immunity-regulating functions of RACB. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

    2014-04-01

    The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF SPRING BARLEY VARIETIES WITH DIFFERENT POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCES IN DENMARK FROM 1960 TO 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J.

    1978-01-01

    In Denmark powdery mildew susceptible spring barley varieties were replaced by major gene resistant varieties in between 1963-1974. Varieties with resistance from Hordeum laevigatum covered about 1/3 of the barley area in 1968-1974, and 51 and 71% in 1975 and 1976, respectively. The severity...... each spring from overwintering barley crops in Germany and the UK, the distribution of the resistances on the barley area in Denmark, and the selective advantage of the matching virulences. Because the virulences matching the above 3 resistances apparently are present in the initial inoculum...

  20. Developing and validating a high-throughput assay for salinity tissue tolerance in wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Stefano, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Camilla; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    Leaf tissue tolerance was strongly and positively correlated with overall salt tolerance in barley, but not in wheat where the inability of sensitive varieties to exclude Na(+) is compensated by their better ability to handle Na(+) accumulated in the shoot via tissue tolerance mechanisms. A new high-throughput assay was developed to use the excised leaves to eliminate the confounding contribution of sodium exclusion mechanisms and evaluate genetic variability in salinity tissue tolerance in a large number of wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions. The changes in relative chlorophyll content (measured as chlorophyll content index, CCI) in excised leaves exposed to 50 mM NaCl for 48 h were found to be a reliable indicator of leaf tissue tolerance. In both wheat and barley, relative CCI correlated strongly with the overall plant salinity tolerance (evaluated in glasshouse experiments). To a large extent, this tissue tolerance was related to more efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in leaf mesophyll, as revealed by fluorescent Na(+) dye imaging experiments. However, while in barley this correlation was positive, tissue tolerance in wheat correlated negatively with overall salinity tolerance. As a result, more salt-sensitive durum wheat genotypes possessed higher tissue tolerance than bread wheat plants, and this negative correlation was present within each of bread and durum wheat clusters as well. Overall, these results indicate that the lack of effective Na(+) exclusion ability in sensitive wheat varieties is compensated by their better ability to handle Na(+) accumulated in the shoot via tissue tolerance mechanisms. Implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity tolerance are discussed.

  1. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Danny N.P.; Rudi, Heidi; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed. PMID:10557246

  2. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan; Rudi; Olsen

    1999-11-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed.

  3. Catabolism of [1-14C]Levulinic Acid by Etiolated and Greening Barley Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Jeffrey X.; Meller, Erna; Gassman, Merrill L.

    1981-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA), a competitive inhibitor of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.24), has been used extensively in the study of ALA formation during greening. When [1-14C]LA is administered to etiolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Larker) shoots in darkness, 14CO2 is evolved. This process is accelerated when such tissues are incubated with 2 millimolar ALA or placed under continuous illumination. Label from the C-1 of LA becomes incorporated into organic acids, amino acids, sugars, lipids, and proteins during a 4-hour incubation in darkness or in the light. This metabolism is discussed in relation to the use of LA as a tool in the study of chlorophyll synthesis in higher plants. PMID:16662002

  4. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    the 1-3 year period, residual organic labelled N from different residues declined at similar rates, mean decay constant: 0.18 yr(-1). After 3 years, 45% of the barley and on average 32% of the pea residue N were present as soil organic N. The proportion of residue N remaining in the soil after 3 years...... of decomposition was most strongly correlated with the total and soluble N concentrations in the residue. The ratio (% inorganic N derived from residues):(% organic N derived from residues) was used as a measure of the rate residue N stabilization. From initial values of 3-7 the ratios declined to on average 1...... and 35% of the pea residue N were unaccounted for. Since these apparent losses are comparable to almost twice the amounts of pea and barley residue N taken up by the perennial ryegrass crop, there seems to be a potential for improved crop residue management in order to conserve nutrients in the soil...

  5. Mapping genes in barley for resistance to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and to P. striiformis from brome, wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Alemu, Sisay K.; Marcel, T.C.; Heyzen, van Skye

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations have been developed that are useful to study the inheritance of quantitative resistance to adapted and unadapted rust fungi. In a recent host range study, we found that the parents of those mapping populations also differed in their resistance to

  6. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective ex situ and in situ germplasm conservation strategies. Evaluation of genetic diversity levels among ..... comparable magnitude in protein variability did not reveal high differentiation among lines. On the other hand SDS-PAGE .... broad segregation of the characters concerned. Figure 1. Frequency (%) distribution of ...

  8. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1173. NEPZ,. N. WPZ. (IR). Saline soils. BYT. -LRA-. 3. (1994-95). /. NDB. 217. Hulled,. 6 row. 65–75. Semi erect. NW. FB. 44.25. MR. MR. MS. 7. B. HS. 169. NHZ. (RF). Kailash. ×. Briggs. Hulled,. 6 row. 92–100. Droop. W. F. B. 48.00. R. S. S. 8. S onu. HP. (RF). EB. 233. ×. Giza. 117. Hulled,. 6 row. 100–105. Non- droop. W.

  9. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SDS-PAGE was performed to separate the extracted pro- teins by using 12% separating and 5% stacking gels with a. Mini Protean System from Bio-Rad according to Laemmli modified method (Laemmli 1970). In this study, we adopted constant current electrophoresis instead of constant voltage. The loading of sample was ...

  10. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  11. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  12. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, Akbar

    2012-07-09

    Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  13. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  14. Simulation of spring barley yield variability in different climatic zones of Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rötter, R P; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the performance of nine widely used and accessible crop growth simulation models (APES-ACE, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT-CERES, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) was compared during 44 growing seasons of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at seven sites in Northern and Central...

  15. Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volis, S.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Mendlinger, S.; Ward, D.

    2004-01-01

    Plasticity of the phenotypic architecture of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, was studied in response to water and nutrient stress. Direct and indirect selection on several vegetative and reproductive traits was estimated and path analysis used to reveal how regulating pathways via maternal

  16. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  17. Monitoring intra- and extracellular redox capacity of intact barley aleurone layers responding to phytohormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Himalaya) grains, which respond...

  18. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Plant Mineral Content And Yield Of Barley Grown Under Saline Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charabaji, T.; Khalifa, K.; Al-Ain, F.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Al-Hijanah, an area located at about 35 km south east of Damascus. Seeds of two barley varieties [Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK)] were irradiated with 2 doses 0 and 15 Gy of gamma irradiation. They were sown on saline soil (16.4-18.7 dS/m) and irrigated with saline water ( 7-8 dS/m) A dose of 15 Gy of gamma irradiation was shown to positively effect the percent germination of PK but had no similar effect on AA. -Physiological Maturity Stage: The same dose (15 Gy) increased shoot dry weight, but had a negative effect on K + and Na + contents in the PK variety. As for the AA variety, Mg ++ and P contents were increased, whereas Na + and Cl- were slightly decreased. -Harvest Stage: Gamma irradiation had a positive effect on total yield, grain yield, nitrogen yield and harvest index of the PK variety. A positive effect was produced on straw yield, 1000-grain weight and N% of a Avariety. (Authors)

  19. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  20. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  1. Regulation of basal resistance by a powdery mildew-induced cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Maiser, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    , followed by a rather short 17-amino-acid transmembrane domain, which includes an AAA motif, two features characteristic of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted proteins and, finally, a characteristic putative protein kinase domain in the C-terminus. The HvCRK1 transcript was isolated from leaves inoculated......The receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) constitute a large and diverse group of proteins controlling numerous plant physiological processes, including development, hormone perception and stress responses. The cysteine-rich RLKs (CRKs) represent a prominent subfamily of transmembrane-anchored RLKs....... We have identified a putative barley (Hordeum vulgare) CRK gene family member, designated HvCRK1. The mature putative protein comprises 645 amino acids, and includes a putative receptor domain containing two characteristic ‘domain 26 of unknown function’ (duf26) domains in the N-terminal region...

  2. Proteome analysis of barley seeds: Identification of major proteins from two-dimensional gels (pl 4-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, O.; Finnie, Christine; Laugesen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Germination of monocotyledonous plants involves activation and de novo synthesis of enzymes that degrade cell walls and starch and mobilize stored endosperm reserves for embryo growth. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied to identify major water......-soluble proteins in extracts of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds and to follow their fate during germination. About 1200 and 600 spots of p/ 4-7 were detected on 2-D gels by silver staining and colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, respectively. About 300 spots were selected for in-gel digestion...... followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry-peptide map fingerprint analysis. Database searches using measured peptide masses resulted in 198 identifications of 103 proteins in 177 spots. These include housekeeping enzymes, chaperones, defence proteins (including enzyme...

  3. Characterization of a multifunctional inositol phosphate kinase from rice and barley belonging to the ATP-grasp superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, L.; Bohn, L.; Sørensen, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    OsIpk and HvIk, inositol phosphate kinases, were cloned from rice (Oryza sativa L. var. indica, IR64) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) respectively.. IP Sequence alignment showed that they belong to the ATP-grasp family, which includes inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase from humans and Arabidopsis....... Residues that are binding sites for ATP and coordinate magnesium in absence or presence of inositol phosphate are conserved and in total 23 residues are invariant among the twelve aligned inositol phosphate kinases. The genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and kinase activity assays...... with 17 different isomers of inositol mono-/di-/tri-/tetra-/pentaphosphate as well as phytate were performed. The strongest activity for both kinases was observed with Ins(3,4,5,6)P-4, which candidates as the primary substrate for these kinases in plants. Several species-specific differences between...

  4. Acceleration of leaf senescence is slowed down in transgenic barley plants deficient in the DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharewicz, Weronika; Distelfeld, Assaf; Bilger, Wolfgang; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Hensel, Götz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract WHIRLY1 in barley was isolated as a potential regulator of the senescence-associated gene HvS40. In order to investigate whether the plastid–nucleus-located DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1 plays a role in regulation of leaf senescence, primary foliage leaves from transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the WHIRLY1 gene were characterized by typical senescence parameters, namely pigment contents, function and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as expression of selected genes known to be either down- or up-regulated during leaf senescence. When the plants were grown at low light intensity, senescence progression was similar between wild-type and RNAi-W1 plants. Likewise, dark-induced senescence of detached leaves was not affected by reduction of WHIRLY1. When plants were grown at high light intensity, however, senescence was induced prematurely in wild-type plants but was delayed in RNAi-W1 plants. This result suggests that WHIRLY1 plays a role in light sensing and/or stress communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus. PMID:28338757

  5. Acceleration of leaf senescence is slowed down in transgenic barley plants deficient in the DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharewicz, Weronika; Distelfeld, Assaf; Bilger, Wolfgang; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Hensel, Götz; Krupinska, Karin

    2017-02-01

    WHIRLY1 in barley was isolated as a potential regulator of the senescence-associated gene HvS40. In order to investigate whether the plastid-nucleus-located DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1 plays a role in regulation of leaf senescence, primary foliage leaves from transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the WHIRLY1 gene were characterized by typical senescence parameters, namely pigment contents, function and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as expression of selected genes known to be either down- or up-regulated during leaf senescence. When the plants were grown at low light intensity, senescence progression was similar between wild-type and RNAi-W1 plants. Likewise, dark-induced senescence of detached leaves was not affected by reduction of WHIRLY1. When plants were grown at high light intensity, however, senescence was induced prematurely in wild-type plants but was delayed in RNAi-W1 plants. This result suggests that WHIRLY1 plays a role in light sensing and/or stress communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides (/sup 32/P, /sup 14/C), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and /sup 14/C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of /sup 14/C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant.

  7. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides ( 32 P, 14 C), 14 CO 2 assimilation and 14 C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to 14 CO 2 assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of 14 C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant. (author)

  8. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Barmeier, Gero;Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat w...

  9. A Metabolic Gene Cluster in the Wheat W1 and the Barley Cer-cqu Loci Determines β-Diketone Biosynthesis and Glaucousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Savin, Orna; Racovita, Radu C; Lee, Wing-Sham; Adamski, Nikolai M; Malitsky, Sergey; Almekias-Siegl, Efrat; Levy, Matan; Vautrin, Sonia; Bergès, Hélène; Friedlander, Gilgi; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Alkan, Noam; Uauy, Cristobal; Kanyuka, Kostya; Jetter, Reinhard; Distelfeld, Assaf; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-06-01

    The glaucous appearance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants, that is the light bluish-gray look of flag leaf, stem, and spike surfaces, results from deposition of cuticular β-diketone wax on their surfaces; this phenotype is associated with high yield, especially under drought conditions. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical characterization, the molecular genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of β-diketones remains unclear. Here, we discovered that the wheat W1 locus contains a metabolic gene cluster mediating β-diketone biosynthesis. The cluster comprises genes encoding proteins of several families including type-III polyketide synthases, hydrolases, and cytochrome P450s related to known fatty acid hydroxylases. The cluster region was identified in both genetic and physical maps of glaucous and glossy tetraploid wheat, demonstrating entirely different haplotypes in these accessions. Complementary evidence obtained through gene silencing in planta and heterologous expression in bacteria supports a model for a β-diketone biosynthesis pathway involving members of these three protein families. Mutations in homologous genes were identified in the barley eceriferum mutants defective in β-diketone biosynthesis, demonstrating a gene cluster also in the β-diketone biosynthesis Cer-cqu locus in barley. Hence, our findings open new opportunities to breed major cereal crops for surface features that impact yield and stress response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Barley grain maturation and germination: metabolic pathway and regulatory network commonalities and differences highlighted by new MapMan/PageMan profiling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Usadel, Björn; Winter, Andreas; Radchuk, Volodymyr; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Weschke, Winfriede; Strickert, Marc; Close, Timothy J; Stitt, Mark; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-04-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm/aleurone and embryo/scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in transcription programs between late seed maturation and germination within embryo tissues, but not in the endosperm/aleurone. (2) More than 12,000 transcripts are stored in the embryo of dry barley grains, many of which are presumably activated during germination. (3) Transcriptional activation of storage reserve mobilization events occurs at an early stage of germination, well before radicle protrusion. (4) Key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis are already active during grain maturation at a time when abscisic acid peaks suggesting the formation of an endogenous store of GA in the aleurone. This GA probably acts later during germination in addition to newly synthesized GA. (5) Beside the well-known role of GA in gene activation during germination spatiotemporal expression data and cis-element searches in homologous rice promoters confirm an equally important gene-activating role of abscisic acid during this developmental period. The respective regulatory webs are linked to auxin and ethylene controlled networks. In summary, new bioinformatics PageMan and MapMan tools developed in barley have been successfully used to investigate in detail the transcriptome relationships between seed maturation and germination in an important crop plant.

  11. Meat bone meal as fertiliser for barley and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;

  12. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat.

  13. Effectiveness of rabbit manure biofertilizer in barley crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Valdez, Samira; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos A; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I; Gómez-Mercado, René; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Herrera, Juan M; Jiménez-González, Angélica

    2017-11-01

    The quality of biofertilizers is usually assessed only in terms of the amount of nutrients that they supply to the crops and their lack of viable pathogens and phytotoxicity. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a liquid biofertilizer obtained from rabbit manure in terms of presence of pathogens, phytotoxicity, and its effect on the grain yield and other agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environmental effects of the biofertilizer were also evaluated by following its influence on selected soil parameters. We applied the biofertilizer at five combinations of doses and timings each and in two application modes (foliar or direct soil application) within a randomized complete block design with three replicates and using a chemical fertilizer as control. The agronomic traits evaluated were plant height, root length, dry weight, and number of leaves and stems at three growth stages: tillering, jointing, and flowering. The effectiveness of the biofertilizer was significantly modified by the mode of application, the growth stage of the crop, and the dose of biofertilizer applied. The results showed that the foliar application of the biofertilizer at the tillering stage produced the highest increase in grain yield (59.7 %, p biofertilizer caused significant changes in soil, particularly concerning pH, EC, Ca, Zn, Mg, and Mn. It is our view that the production and use of biofertilizers are a reliable alternative to deal with a solid waste problem while food security is increased.

  14. Photoassimilate partitioning of main shoot leaves in field-grown spring barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, J.G.; Simmons, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Premature tiller mortality could conceivably limit grain yield production in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Knowing photoassimilate partitioning patterns during the vegetative development phase of growth is important for understanding the causes of tiller mortality. A field experiment was conducted to ascertain the 14 C translocation patterns of individual main shoot leaf blades during the pre-anthesis period for three spring barley genotypes differing in tiller production and survival. One of the top three to five leaves was labelled with 14 CO 2 on each date and above ground plant parts were harvested for determining the distribution of 14 C after a 24 h translocation period. Also, for two of the leaves, labelled plants were allowed to translocate until anthesis or maturity before the distribution of radioactivity was measured. Most 14 C fixed by the first developed leaves on the main shoot was translocated to newly emerging main shoot leaves or to young tillers. The leaf subtending and the leaf above a particular tiller preferentially exported carbon to that tiller. During the early tiller production phase of growth, proportionately more 14 C was translocated to tiller of the higher tillering genotypes than for the lower tillering one. During the time when tiller mortality became evident, no differences in partitioning patterns were found between the high or low tiller mortality genotypes. Later formed leaves in all genotypes provided relatively large proportions of labelled photoassimilate to the main shoot stem and inflorescence. A sharp decline in the percentage of 14 C translocated to all tillers occurred when the main stem began rapid growth. The authors conclude that the shift in main shoot photoassimilate translocation away from tillers and to the main shoot stem contributes to the premature abortion of tillers in barley

  15. Interchromosomal Transfer of Immune Regulation During Infection of Barley with the Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Surana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes (Chr 2HL and 1HS. Within these regions reside diverse resistance loci derived from barley landrace H. laevigatum (MlLa and H. vulgare cv. Algerian (Mla1, which associate with the altered expression of 961 and 3296 genes during fungal penetration of the host and haustorial development, respectively. Regulatory control of transcript levels for 299 of the 961 genes is reprioritized from MlLa on 2HL to Mla1 on 1HS as infection progresses, with 292 of the 299 alternating the allele responsible for higher expression, including Adaptin Protein-2 subunit μ AP2M and Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein VAMP72 subfamily members VAMP721/722. AP2M mediates effector-triggered immunity (ETI via endocytosis of plasma membrane receptor components. VAMP721/722 and SNAP33 form a Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein REceptor (SNARE complex with SYP121 (PEN1, which is engaged in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity via exocytosis. We postulate that genes regulated by alternate chromosomal positions are repurposed as part of a conserved immune complex to respond to different pathogen attack scenarios.

  16. Effects of UV-B on activities of enzymes of secondary phenolic metabolism in barley primary leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. [Ohio State Univ., Dept of Horticulture, Columbus, OH (United States); McClure, J.W. [Miami Univ., Dept of Botany, Oxford, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in a glasshouse with 13.56 or 8.84 kJ m{sup -2} biologically effective UV-B (280-320 nm; UV-B-{sub BE}) simulating levels predicted to occur with 25 or 5% ozone depletion at 40 deg. N latitude, with UV-A (320-400 nm), or with no supplemental irradiation. Activities of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone-flavonone isomerase (CFI, EC 5.5.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) were determined from the 5th through the 30th day after planting. PAL regulates diversion of L-phenylalanine into precursors for secondary phenolics, CFI regulates an early step of flavonoid biosynthesis, and peroxidase activates phenolic precursors for cross-linking and rigidifying cell walls. At all ages UV-B decreased soluble protein leaf{sup -1} but had little effect on fresh weight or CFI activity. Exposure to UV-B decreased peroxidase activity only slightly in early growth stages but decreased it about 40% by day 30, PAL activity was highest 5 days after planting under all treatments, decreased thereafter, and was not detectable in control plants after day 10. UV-B prolonged PAL activity through day 15 in plants given the highest level of UV-B. This UV-B prolongation of PAL activity is correlated with, and is a likely underlying mechanism to explain, the UV-B-enhanced accumulation of flavonoids and ferulic acid in barley primary leaves. The results are discussed in terms of barley leaf adaptation to UV-B as a developmental response dependent on conditions of plant growth. (au) (25 refs.)

  17. A role for barley calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK2a in the response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Cieśla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the drought tolerance of crops is one of the most challenging goals in plant breeding. To improve crop productivity during periods of water deficit, it is essential to understand the complex regulatory pathways that adapt plant metabolism to environmental conditions. Among various plant hormones and second messengers, calcium ions are known to be involved in drought stress perception and signaling. Plants have developed specific calcium-dependent protein kinases that convert calcium signals into phosphorylation events. In this study we attempted to elucidate the role of a calcium-dependent protein kinase in the drought stress response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., one of the most economically important crops worldwide. The ongoing barley genome project has provided useful information about genes potentially involved in the drought stress response, but information on the role of calcium-dependent kinases is still limited. We found that the gene encoding the calcium-dependent protein kinase HvCPK2a was significantly upregulated in response to drought. To better understand the role of HvCPK2a in drought stress signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed the corresponding coding sequence. Overexpressing lines displayed drought sensitivity, reduced nitrogen balance index, an increase in total chlorophyll content and decreased relative water content. In addition, in vitro kinase assay experiments combined with mass spectrometry allowed HvCPK2a autophosphorylation sites to be identified. Our results suggest that HvCPK2a is a dual-specificity calcium-dependent protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response in barley.

  18. Effects of salt on the pattern of protein synthesis in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of salt stress on the incorporation of [ 3 5 S]methionine into protein was examined in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv California Mariout 72). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with or without 200 millimolar NaCl. Roots of intact plants were labeled in vivo and proteins were extracted and analyzed by fluorography of two-dimensional gels. Although the protein patterns for control and salt-stressed plants were qualitatively similar, the net synthesis of a number of proteins was quantitatively changed. The most striking change was a significant increase of label in two protein pairs that had pls of approximately 6.3 and 6.5. Each pair consisted of proteins of approximately 26 and 27 kilodaltons (kD). In roots of control plants, the 27-kD proteins were more heavily labeled in the microsomal fraction relative to the 26-kD proteins, whereas the 26-kD proteins were enriched in the post 178,000g supernatant fraction; in roots of salt treated plants, the 26- and 27-kD proteins were more intensely labeled in both fractions. Labeling of the 26- and 27-kD proteins returned to control levels when salt-stressed plants were transferred to nutrient solution without NaCl. No cross-reaction was detected between the antibody to the 26-kD protein from salt-adapted tobacco cells and the 26- and 27-kD proteins of barley

  19. 78 FR 37327 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... species of grasses such as bluegrass (Poa spp.), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), brome (Bromus spp.), foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum), or Japanese brome (Bromus japonicas), and forbs such as water...

  20. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Arabi, M.I.; Jawhar, M.

    2000-02-01

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca ++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg ++ and K ++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na + and Cl - contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4 -- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO -- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4 -- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl - content was higher than Na + content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  1. Alkaloids from marine sponges as stimulators of initial stages of development of agricultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Mikhail M; Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K

    2014-04-01

    Damirone A (1), damirone B (2), makaluvamine G (3), debromohymenialdisine (4), and dibromoagelaspongin (5) were examined for their ability to stimulate growth of seedling roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), corn (Zea mays L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It was shown that the stimulatory effects depend on the chemical structure of the alkaloids and on the plant species. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 are efficient for growth of seedling roots of barley, compounds 2-5, at different concentrations, stimulate growth of buckwheat roots, and compound 5 stimulates growth of wheat roots. These compounds can be recommended for field study as plant growth stimulators.

  2. Importance of the secondary genepool in barley genetics and breeding. II. Disease resistance, agronomic performance and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, R.; Niks, R.E.; Johnston, P.A.; Butler, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this second paper on the use of secondary genepools in barley improvement, we describe the characterisation of leaf rust resistant recombinant lines (RLs) derived from Hordeum vulgare × H. bulbosum crosses. Twelve RLs were inoculated with leaf rust and the early stages of disease development were

  3. Can a genetic correlation with seed mass constrain adaptive evolution of seedling desiccation tolerance in wild barley?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Very young seedlings of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum have the ability to survive extended periods of severe drought. This desiccation tolerance is considered an adaptation to the rain-limited and unpredictable habitats that the species occupies. Genetic variation has been observed for this trait,

  4. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe c...

  5. A redox-dependent dimerization switch regulates activity and tolerance for reactive oxygen species of barley seed glutathione peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric and dimeric forms of recombinant barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) glutathione peroxidase 2 (HvGpx2) are demonstrated to display distinctly different functional properties in vitro. Monomeric HvGpx2 thus has five fold higher catalytic efficiency than the dimer towards tert-butyl h...

  6. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots...

  7. Sequencing of 15622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munoz-Amatriain, M.; Lonardi, S.; Luo, M.C.; Madishetty, K.; Svensson, J.T.; Moscou, M. J.; Wanamaker, S.; Kudrna, D.; Zheng, J.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, J.; Mammadov, J.; Close, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2015), s. 216-227 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Barley * Hordeum vulgare L * BAC sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.468, year: 2015

  8. Bacterial distribution in the rhizosphere of wild barley under contrasting microclimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salme Timmusk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of rhizosphere bacteria which can affect the plant growth. Our samples are isolated from the rhizosphere of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum at the Evolution Canyon ('EC', Israel. The bacteria which have been living in close relationship with the plant root under the stressful conditions over millennia are likely to have developed strategies to alleviate plant stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied distribution of culturable bacteria in the rhizosphere of H. spontaneum and characterized the bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCd production, biofilm production, phosphorus solubilization and halophilic behavior. We have shown that the H. spontaneum rhizosphere at the stressful South Facing Slope (SFS harbors significantly higher population of ACCd producing biofilm forming phosphorus solubilizing osmotic stress tolerant bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The long-lived natural laboratory 'EC' facilitates the generation of theoretical testable and predictable models of biodiversity and genome evolution on the area of plant microbe interactions. It is likely that the bacteria isolated at the stressful SFS offer new opportunities for the biotechnological applications in our agro-ecological systems.

  9. Bacterial distribution in the rhizosphere of wild barley under contrasting microclimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmusk, Salme; Paalme, Viiu; Pavlicek, Tomas; Bergquist, Jonas; Vangala, Ameraswar; Danilas, Triin; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-03-23

    All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of rhizosphere bacteria which can affect the plant growth. Our samples are isolated from the rhizosphere of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum at the Evolution Canyon ('EC'), Israel. The bacteria which have been living in close relationship with the plant root under the stressful conditions over millennia are likely to have developed strategies to alleviate plant stress. We studied distribution of culturable bacteria in the rhizosphere of H. spontaneum and characterized the bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCd) production, biofilm production, phosphorus solubilization and halophilic behavior. We have shown that the H. spontaneum rhizosphere at the stressful South Facing Slope (SFS) harbors significantly higher population of ACCd producing biofilm forming phosphorus solubilizing osmotic stress tolerant bacteria. The long-lived natural laboratory 'EC' facilitates the generation of theoretical testable and predictable models of biodiversity and genome evolution on the area of plant microbe interactions. It is likely that the bacteria isolated at the stressful SFS offer new opportunities for the biotechnological applications in our agro-ecological systems.

  10. Physiological and biochemical reactions of Hordeum vulgare seedlings to the action of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Khromykh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical indexes, and spectrophotometrically measured protein and glutathione (GSH, GSSG contents and activity of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, glutathione-reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EС 2.5.1.18 were examined in Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings after 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l AgNPs treatment during 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that the action of nanoparticles has a stressful effect on the physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings. Growth of roots was inhibited and fresh weight decreased by 29% and 21% under low and high concentrations respectively. Conversely, leaf growth was intensified, and leaf length (16% and 18% and fresh weight (35% and 44% increased at low and high concentrations respectively. POD activity in roots increased by 26% and 7%, and decreased in leaves to 57% and 81% of control at low and high concentrations respectively. GSH content changed insignificantly, but GSSG content increased in roots (2 and 2.5-fold and in leaves (13% and 30% at both AgNPs concentrations. GSH/GSSG-ratio decreased in roots (1.9 and 2.6-fold and in leaves (1.1 and 1.3-fold at low and high concentrations respectively. GR activity decreased at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (7% in roots and 17% in leaves respectively and increased at 0.1 mg/l (52% in roots and 6% in leaves. GST activity increased in leaves (52% and 78% at low and high concentrations but decreased by 17% in roots under high concentration of nanosilver. Thus, the action of AgNPs on barley seedlings had a dose-dependent and organ-specific character. The various directions of changes in growth, metabolic processes and activity of antioxidant defense systems appear to be a stress response of barley seedlings to the impact of AgNPs, which underlines the necessity of detailed study of plant intracellular processes exposed to the action of nanomaterial.

  11. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserinelactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eGoetz-Roesch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs are the QS signalling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signalling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance towards radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters.We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL, N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L. as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers towards AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different

  12. Kinetics of the absorbed dose formation and the effect of chronic β-irradiation on the cytogenetic characteristics and harvest of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyablitskaya, E.Ya.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Aleksakhin, R.M.; Zuev, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of the absorbed dose formation, of the cytogenetic effects and the yield of barley plants growing in the experimental fields artificially contaminated with 90 Sr- 90 Y. It was shown that 70% of the dose absorbed during the vegetation period fall on the 1st and the and stages of organogenesis. The dose absorbed was shown to increase the cytogenetic effects. As calculated per 1 Gy the cytogenetic effects had an inverse relation to the dose rate

  13. De novo 454 sequencing of barcoded BAC pools for comprehensive gene survey and genome analysis in the complex genome of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Uwe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De novo sequencing the entire genome of a large complex plant genome like the one of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a major challenge both in terms of experimental feasibility and costs. The emergence and breathtaking progress of next generation sequencing technologies has put this goal into focus and a clone based strategy combined with the 454/Roche technology is conceivable. Results To test the feasibility, we sequenced 91 barcoded, pooled, gene containing barley BACs using the GS FLX platform and assembled the sequences under iterative change of parameters. The BAC assemblies were characterized by N50 of ~50 kb (N80 ~31 kb, N90 ~21 kb and a Q40 of 94%. For ~80% of the clones, the best assemblies consisted of less than 10 contigs at 24-fold mean sequence coverage. Moreover we show that gene containing regions seem to assemble completely and uninterrupted thus making the approach suitable for detecting complete and positionally anchored genes. By comparing the assemblies of four clones to their complete reference sequences generated by the Sanger method, we evaluated the distribution, quality and representativeness of the 454 sequences as well as the consistency and reliability of the assemblies. Conclusion The described multiplex 454 sequencing of barcoded BACs leads to sequence consensi highly representative for the clones. Assemblies are correct for the majority of contigs. Though the resolution of complex repetitive structures requires additional experimental efforts, our approach paves the way for a clone based strategy of sequencing the barley genome.

  14. In silico analysis of the core signaling proteome from the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stefan; Ahmadinejad, Nahal; Panstruga, Ralph; Kuhn, Hannah

    2014-10-02

    Compared to other ascomycetes, the barley powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) has a large genome (ca. 120 Mbp) that harbors a relatively small number of protein-coding genes (ca. 6500). This genomic assemblage is thought to be the result of numerous gene losses, which likely represent an evolutionary adaptation to a parasitic lifestyle in close association with its host plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). Approximately 8% of the Bgh genes are predicted to encode virulence effectors that are secreted into host tissue and/or cells to promote pathogenesis; the remaining proteome is largely uncharacterized at present. We provide a comparative analysis of the conceptual Bgh proteome, with an emphasis on proteins with known roles in fungal development and pathogenicity, for example heterotrimeric G proteins and G protein coupled receptors; components of calcium and cAMP signaling; small monomeric GTPases; mitogen-activated protein cascades and transcription factors. The predicted Bgh proteome lacks a number of proteins that are otherwise conserved in filamentous fungi, including two proteins that are required for the formation of anastomoses (somatic hyphal connections). By contrast, apart from minor modifications, all major canonical signaling pathways are retained in Bgh. A family of kinases that preferentially occur in pathogenic species of the fungal clade Leotiomyceta is unusually expanded in Bgh and its close relative, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Our analysis reveals characteristic features of the proteome of a fungal phytopathogen that occupies an extreme habitat: the living plant cell.

  15. Characterization of the Entire Cystatin Gene Family in Barley and Their Target Cathepsin L-Like Cysteine-Proteases, Partners in the Hordein Mobilization during Seed Germination1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds. PMID:19759340

  16. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Angelino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  17. Effects of Amended Sewage Sludge Application on Yield and Heavy Metal Uptake of Barley: A Case Study of Ahvaz Sewage Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Chorom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of sewage sludge application as an organic fertilizer on agricultural farms is environmental pollution concerns such as heavy metals uptake by plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of amended sewage sludge application on yield and heavy metal uptake of Barley. This study was carried out over a period of barley growth with two treatments of sewage sludge (50 and 100 ton/ha and control treatment with four replicates arranged in a randomized complete block design. Plant samples were taken at three intervals (50, 90, and 180 days after sowing. The samples were prepared for measuring nutrients and heavy metals in stem, leaf, straw, and grain. Results of plant analysis showed that application of sewage sludge increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and cadmium in vegetative parts compared to control. Grain analysis showed that application of sewage sludge significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, iron, and zinc. Grass yield significantly increased in the plot treated with 100 ton/ha sewage sludge. Grain yield in the two treatments significantly increased. The results revealed that the sewage sludge increased heavy metals uptake by plants but still below standard levels. It is, therefore, necessary to use the quantities of the elements introduced into soil and absorbed by plants in order to determine the toxicity level for each metal taking into account factors such as plant and soil types as well as environmental conditions. This information can then be used to determine sludge application quantities in each case. Meanwhile, sludge application may only be recommended for irrigated crops receiving adequate irrigation water due to its salinity. Moreover, it cannot be recommended for irrigated crops directly consumed by man.

  18. Spectral Patterns Reveal Early Resistance Reactions of Barley Against Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuska, Matheus Thomas; Brugger, Anna; Thomas, Stefan; Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Kersting, Kristian; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin

    2017-11-01

    Differences in early plant-pathogen interactions are mainly characterized by using destructive methods. Optical sensors are advanced techniques for phenotyping host-pathogen interactions on different scales and for detecting subtle plant resistance responses against pathogens. A microscope with a hyperspectral camera was used to study interactions between Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes with high susceptibility or resistance due to hypersensitive response (HR) and papilla formation. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pathogen development was used to explain changes in hyperspectral signatures. Within 48 h after inoculation, genotype-specific changes in the green and red range (500 to 690 nm) and a blue shift of the red-edge inflection point were observed. Manual analysis indicated resistance-specific reflectance patterns from 1 to 3 days after inoculation. These changes could be linked to host plant modifications depending on individual host-pathogen interactions. Retrospective analysis of hyperspectral images revealed spectral characteristics of HR against B. graminis f. sp. hordei. For early HR detection, an advanced data mining approach localized HR spots before they became visible on the RGB images derived from hyperspectral imaging. The link among processes during pathogenesis and host resistance to changes in hyperspectral signatures provide evidence that sensor-based phenotyping is suitable to advance time-consuming and cost-expensive visual rating of plant disease resistances.

  19. Ability of leaf mesophyll to retain potassium correlates with salinity tolerance in wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Barry, Karen; Zhou, Meixue; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-12-01

    This work investigated the importance of the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to control K(+) flux across the plasma membrane as a trait conferring tissue tolerance mechanism in plants grown under saline conditions. Four wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum) and four barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance were grown under glasshouse conditions. Seven to 10-day-old leaves were excised, and net K(+) and H(+) fluxes were measured from either epidermal or mesophyll cells upon acute 100 mM treatment (mimicking plant failure to restrict Na(+) delivery to the shoot) using non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation (the MIFE) system. To enable net ion flux measurements from leaf epidermal cells, removal of epicuticular waxes was trialed with organic solvents. A series of methodological experiments was conducted to test the efficiency of different methods of wax removal, and the impact of experimental procedures on cell viability, in order to optimize the method. A strong positive correlation was found between plants' ability to retain K(+) in salt-treated leaves and their salinity tolerance, in both wheat and especially barley. The observed effects were related to the ionic but not osmotic component of salt stress. Pharmacological experiments have suggested that voltage-gated K(+) -permeable channels mediate K(+) retention in leaf mesophyll upon elevated NaCl levels in the apoplast. It is concluded that MIFE measurements of NaCl-induced K(+) fluxes from leaf mesophyll may be used as an efficient screening tool for breeding in cereals for salinity tissue tolerance. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99 pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt and one isolate (92-MN-90 of the rye stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs. Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley.

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmad H; Tyagi, Priyanka; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Hulse, Alex; Steffenson, Brian J

    2017-10-05

    Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1 , losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum ) for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC) of the wheat stem rust pathogen ( Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , Pgt ) and one isolate (92-MN-90) of the rye stem rust pathogen ( P. graminis f. sp. secalis , Pgs ). Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley. Copyright © 2017 Sallam et al.

  2. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  3. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  4. Barley metallothioneins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn...... storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations....

  5. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  6. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E.

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using 14 C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors

  7. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, Agnes Y. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., 1471 Lionel-Boulet Boulevard, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1P7 (Canada)]. E-mail: arenoux@sanexen.com; Rocheleau, Sylvie [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sarrazin, Manon [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada); Sunahara, Geoffrey I. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2R2 (Canada)]. E-mail: geoffrey.sunahara@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca; Blais, Jean-Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS-ETE), Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne street, Quebec, Quebec G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca

    2007-01-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 {+-} 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 {+-} 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 {+-} 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation.

  8. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Agnès Y; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Blais, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45+/-0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79+/-0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82+/-1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls.

  9. Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on cadmium, copper and zinc bioavailability in barley, ryegrass and earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, Agnes Y.; Rocheleau, Sylvie; Sarrazin, Manon; Sunahara, Geoffrey I.; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity and bioavailability of metals were assessed to verify the efficiency of a new chemical leaching process (METIX-AC) to minimize the risk of metals found in municipal sewage sludge. For this purpose, sludge samples were spiked with cadmium, copper and/or zinc before being treated using METIX-AC. The sludge decontamination resulted in a removal of spiked metals (79-89%), in a decrease of the more labile fractions, and in a corresponding increase of the residual fraction. The toxicity observed after exposure of two plant species, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and a terrestrial invertebrate, Eisenia andrei, to sludge-soil mixtures, disappeared after treatment, although the adverse effects were minor before treatment. The sludge treatment also significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the exposed species. For cadmium, maximum tissue concentrations of 0.45 ± 0.08 mg/kg in barley, 0.79 ± 0.27 mg/kg in ryegrass, and 21.82 ± 1.85 mg/kg in earthworm exposed to sludge before treatment decreased after treatment to values similar to those observed with negative controls. - Assessment of a sewage sludge treatment on metal bioavailability as measured by metal speciation, toxicity and bioaccumulation

  10. Androgenic switch in barley microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria Maraschin, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Barley androgenesis represents an attractive system to study stress-induced cell differentiation and is a valuable tool for efficient plant breeding. The switch from the pollen developmental pathway towards an androgenic route involves several well-described morphological changes. However, little is

  11. HvPap-1 C1A Protease and HvCPI-2 Cystatin Contribute to Barley Grain Filling and Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Cambra, Ines; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles; Garcia, Antonia; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Proteolysis is an essential process throughout the mobilization of storage proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains during germination. It involves numerous types of enzymes, with C1A Cys proteases the most abundant key players. Manipulation of the proteolytic machinery is a potential way to enhance grain yield and quality, and it could influence the mobilization of storage compounds along germination. Transgenic barley plants silencing or over-expressing the cathepsin F-like HvPap-1 Cys protease show differential accumulation of storage molecules such as starch, proteins, and free amino acids in the grain. It is particularly striking that the HvPap-1 artificial microRNA lines phenotype show a drastic delay in the grain germination process. Alterations to the proteolytic activities in the over-expressing and knock-down grains associated with changes in the level of expression of several C1A peptidases were also detected. Similarly, down-regulating cystatin Icy-2, one of the proteinaceous inhibitors of the cathepsin F-like protease, also has important effects on grain filling. However, the ultimate physiological influence of manipulating a peptidase or an inhibitor cannot be always predicted, since the plant tries to compensate the modified proteolytic effects by modulating the expression of some other peptidases or their inhibitors. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY IN SPRING BARLEY UNDER DROUGHT: A CROSSTALK BETWEEN SURVIVAL STRATEGY AND CANOPY STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FERUS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate effects of different survival strategy and canopy structure on cereal radiation use efficiency (RUE under drought during grain filling, a pot experiment in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. of cultivar Dobla (able for escape, no productive tiller and Kompakt (one productive tiller was conducted. There was no difference in current RUE for leaf dry mass (RUEL between main stems of tested cultivars, observed. However, in productive tillers of cultivar Kompakt it was approximately double. Taking together, RUEL for whole plants was significantly higher in cultivar Kompakt than in cultivar Dobla. Current RUE for spike dry mass (RUES in hydrated plants was markedly higher than RUEL, in main stems of cultivar Kompakt with round double values of cultivar Dobla. Productive tillers of cultivar Kompakt were the most efficient PAR (photosynthetic active radiation utilizator for spike growth. Drought decreased RUES in cultivar Kompakt (in main stems as well as productive tillers to a half but in cultivar Dobla 20 %, only. Evaluating final RUE for spikes, almost fivefold higher values in hydrated plants of cultivar Kompakt fell to double ones under drought. In this context, important role played the productive tiller. Thus, model of more intensively tillering cereal crop seems to be more efficient in radiation use.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Cold Acclimation in Barley Albina and Xantha Mutants1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jan T.; Crosatti, Cristina; Campoli, Chiara; Bassi, Roberto; Stanca, Antonio Michele; Close, Timothy J.; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants carrying a mutation preventing chloroplast development are completely frost susceptible as well as impaired in the expression of several cold-regulated genes. Here we investigated the transcriptome of barley albina and xantha mutants and the corresponding wild type to assess the effect of the chloroplast on expression of cold-regulated genes. First, by comparing control wild type against cold-hardened wild-type plants 2,735 probe sets with statistically significant changes (P = 0.05; ≥2-fold change) were identified. Expression of these wild-type cold-regulated genes was then analyzed in control and cold-hardened mutants. Only about 11% of the genes cold regulated in wild type were regulated to a similar extent in all genotypes (chloroplast-independent cold-regulated genes); this class includes many genes known to be under C-repeat binding factor control. C-repeat binding factor genes were also equally induced in mutants and wild-type plants. About 67% of wild-type cold-regulated genes were not regulated by cold in any mutant (chloroplast-dependent cold-regulated genes). We found that the lack of cold regulation in the mutants is due to the presence of signaling pathway(s) normally cold activated in wild type but constitutively active in the mutants, as well as to the disruption of low-temperature signaling pathway(s) due to the absence of active chloroplasts. We also found that photooxidative stress signaling pathway is constitutively active in the mutants. These results demonstrate the major role of the chloroplast in the control of the molecular adaptation to cold. PMID:16603669

  14. Transcriptome analysis of cold acclimation in barley albina and xantha mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jan T; Crosatti, Cristina; Campoli, Chiara; Bassi, Roberto; Stanca, Antonio Michele; Close, Timothy J; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2006-05-01

    Previously, we have shown that barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants carrying a mutation preventing chloroplast development are completely frost susceptible as well as impaired in the expression of several cold-regulated genes. Here we investigated the transcriptome of barley albina and xantha mutants and the corresponding wild type to assess the effect of the chloroplast on expression of cold-regulated genes. First, by comparing control wild type against cold-hardened wild-type plants 2,735 probe sets with statistically significant changes (P = 0.05; > or = 2-fold change) were identified. Expression of these wild-type cold-regulated genes was then analyzed in control and cold-hardened mutants. Only about 11% of the genes cold regulated in wild type were regulated to a similar extent in all genotypes (chloroplast-independent cold-regulated genes); this class includes many genes known to be under C-repeat binding factor control. C-repeat binding factor genes were also equally induced in mutants and wild-type plants. About 67% of wild-type cold-regulated genes were not regulated by cold in any mutant (chloroplast-dependent cold-regulated genes). We found that the lack of cold regulation in the mutants is due to the presence of signaling pathway(s) normally cold activated in wild type but constitutively active in the mutants, as well as to the disruption of low-temperature signaling pathway(s) due to the absence of active chloroplasts. We also found that photooxidative stress signaling pathway is constitutively active in the mutants. These results demonstrate the major role of the chloroplast in the control of the molecular adaptation to cold.

  15. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  16. Barley yellow dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Maria K; Kunert, Grit; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Theis, Nina; Ludwig, Anatoli; Meichsner, Doreen; Oelmüller, Ralf; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Habekuss, Antje; Ordon, Frank; Furch, Alexandra C U; Will, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait. Therefore, we compared the anatomy and early defense responses of a virus susceptible to those of a virus-tolerant cultivar. One of the very early defense responses is the transmission of electrophysiological reactions. Electrophysiological reactions to BYDV infection might differ between susceptible and tolerant cultivars, since BYDV causes disintegration of sieve elements in susceptible cultivars. The structure of vascular bundles, xylem vessels and sieve elements was examined using microscopy. All three were significantly decreased in size in infected susceptible plants where the virus causes disintegration of sieve elements. This could be associated with an uncontrolled ion exchange between the sieve-element lumen and apoplast. Further, a reduced electrophysiological isolation would negatively affect the propagation of electrophysiological reactions. To test the influence of BYDV infection on electrophysiological reactions, electropotential waves (EPWs) induced by leaf-tip burning were recorded using aphids as bioelectrodes. EPWs in infected susceptible plants disappeared already after 10 cm in contrast to those in healthy susceptible or infected tolerant or healthy tolerant plants. Another early plant defense reaction is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a fluorescent dye, we found a significant increase in ROS content in infected susceptible plants but not in infected tolerant plants. Similar results were found for the

  17. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment...... with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1% straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and a coarse sandy subsoil. In the sandy loam......, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17–42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led...

  18. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    , the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17–42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led......Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment...... with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1% straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and a coarse sandy subsoil. In the sandy loam...

  19. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    Plants produce an impressive variety of bioactive natural products involved in defense, insect attraction and signaling. These compounds enable the plant to defend itself, communicate with the surroundings and survive in an environment with constant challenges and attackers. This study has focused...... that hydroxynitrile glucosides can act as carbohydrate and nitrogen storage compounds and as reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching compounds. A positive correlation between the hydroxynitrile glucoside content in barley and susceptibility toward the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh...... to regulate defense related genes in maize. Barley plants that are gene-silenced in the first step of hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis have been generated to further investigate these results. It appears that hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley have a dual role; up to a certain level Bgh profits from...

  20. Barley callus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties...... genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4 % (w/w dw) starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully...... suggest that this method can be used as a time-efficient model system for fast screening of candidate genes for the generation of modified starch or new types of carbohydrate polymers....

  1. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina....... Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  2. Vulnerability of Barley to African Pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and Sources of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenson, B J; Case, A J; Pretorius, Z A; Coetzee, V; Kloppers, F J; Zhou, H; Chai, Y; Wanyera, R; Macharia, G; Bhavani, S; Grando, S

    2017-08-01

    The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g., TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threatens wheat production on a global scale. Although intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley, even though pathotypes such as TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance. From seedling evaluations of more than 1,924 diverse cultivated barley accessions to pathotype TTKSK, more than 95% (1,844) were found susceptible. A similar high frequency (910 of 934 = 97.4%) of susceptibility was found for the wild progenitor (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) of cultivated barley. Additionally, 55 barley lines with characterized or putative introgressions from various wild Hordeum spp. were also tested against pathotype TTKSK but none was found resistant. In total, more than 96% of the 2,913 Hordeum accessions tested were susceptible as seedlings, indicating the extreme vulnerability of the crop to the African pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. In total, 32 (1.7% of accessions evaluated) and 13 (1.4%) cultivated and wild barley accessions, respectively, exhibited consistently highly resistant to moderately resistant reactions across all experiments. Molecular assays were conducted on these resistant accessions to determine whether they carried rpg4/Rpg5, the only gene complex known to be highly effective against pathotype TTKSK in barley. Twelve of the 32 (37.5%) resistant cultivated accessions and 11 of the 13 (84.6%) resistant wild barley accessions tested positive for a functional Rpg5 gene, highlighting the narrow genetic base of resistance in Hordeum spp. Other resistant accessions lacking the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were discovered in the evaluated germplasm and may possess useful resistance genes. Combining

  3. Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. The formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. By the Sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.

  4. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  5. Salt Stress and Homobrassinosteroid Interactions during Germination in Barley Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi MARAKLI; Aslihan TEMEL; Nermin GOZUKIRMIZI

    2014-01-01

    Potential alleviation effects of Homobrassinosteroid (HBR) (0.5 and 1 µM HBR) on root germination, cell division and antioxidant system enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. ‘Hilal’) roots grown under different salt concentrations (150 mM and 250 mM) were investigated during 48 and 72 h at dark with their controls. Salt applications decreased primary root lengths, seminal root lengths, number of roots from one seed, mitotic activity and induced mitotic ...

  6. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. I: Banding Pattern Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines studied had a common basic chromosome banding pattern. Most bands ranged from medium to very small in size. The most conspicuous banding occurred at or near the centromeres, in the proximal, intercalary parts of most chromosome arms and beside the secondary c...... 7. Seventeen differently banded karyotypes were found. Some banding pattern polymorphisms can be used in cytological and cytogenetic studies....

  7. Determination of size distribution of barley starch granules using low angle laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psota, V.; Bohacenko, I.; Pytela, J.; Vydrova, H.; Chmelik, J.

    2000-01-01

    LALLS method (Low Angle Laser Light Scattering) was used to determine the size distribution of starch granules in caryopses of two varieties of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare). Two size fractions of granules were proved similarly to results obtained by other methods. The variety Kompakt contained significantly more large starch granules than the variety Novum. The LALLS method could be used as an accurate, reproducible and quick method for determination of starch granule size distribution

  8. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mar, Talita Bernardon; Lau, Douglas; Schons, Jurema; Yamazaki-Lau, Elene; Nhani Jr., Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat...

  9. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    . This is the 1st case where the effect of callose refers to the action of a specific gene. Six susceptible Japanese varieties formed large appositions but they were initiated as late as in other susceptible varieties, and their color was paler than in other barleys. Nine Hordeum spp. [H. capense, H. chilense, H......, rye with haloes with a somewhat diffuse margin, and oats with large, central spots (papillae) nearly without any halo....

  10. Mechanisms involved in control of ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ in barley treated with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, H.; Collinge, D.B.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2002-01-01

    Treatment with mycelial extracts, prepared from liquid cultures of Bipolaris oryzae , Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer , protected barley (Hordeum vulgare ) against powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei . The mechanisms of this protection were studied u...

  11. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the

  12. Overexpression and Down-Regulation of Barley Lipoxygenase LOX2.2 Affects Jasmonate-Regulated Genes and Aphid Fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Losvik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are pests on many crops and depend on plant phloem sap as their food source. In an attempt to find factors improving plant resistance against aphids, we studied the effects of overexpression and down-regulation of the lipoxygenase gene LOX2.2 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. on the performance of two aphid species. A specialist, bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. and a generalist, green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer were studied. LOX2.2 overexpressing lines showed up-regulation of some other jasmonic acid (JA-regulated genes, and antisense lines showed down-regulation of such genes. Overexpression or suppression of LOX2.2 did not affect aphid settling or the life span on the plants, but in short term fecundity tests, overexpressing plants supported lower aphid numbers and antisense plants higher aphid numbers. The amounts and composition of released volatile organic compounds did not differ between control and LOX2.2 overexpressing lines. Up-regulation of genes was similar for both aphid species. The results suggest that LOX2.2 plays a role in the activation of JA-mediated responses and indicates the involvement of LOX2.2 in basic defense responses.

  13. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Wynse S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  14. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Prieto, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14 C O 2 assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs

  15. Differential accumulation of callose, arabinoxylan and cellulose in nonpenetrated versus penetrated papillae on leaves of barley infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Jamil; Henderson, Marilyn; Schweizer, Patrick; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Little, Alan

    2014-11-01

    In plants, cell walls are one of the first lines of defence for protecting cells from successful invasion by fungal pathogens and are a major factor in basal host resistance. For the plant cell to block penetration attempts, it must adapt its cell wall to withstand the physical and chemical forces applied by the fungus. Papillae that have been effective in preventing penetration by pathogens are traditionally believed to contain callose as the main polysaccharide component. Here, we have re-examined the composition of papillae of barley (Hordeum vulgare) attacked by the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) using a range of antibodies and carbohydrate-binding modules that are targeted to cell wall polysaccharides. The data show that barley papillae induced during infection with Bgh contain, in addition to callose, significant concentrations of cellulose and arabinoxylan. Higher concentrations of callose, arabinoxylan and cellulose are found in effective papillae, compared with ineffective papillae. The papillae have a layered structure, with the inner core consisting of callose and arabinoxylan and the outer layer containing arabinoxylan and cellulose. The association of arabinoxylan and cellulose with penetration resistance suggests new targets for the improvement of papilla composition and enhanced disease resistance. © 2014 University of Adelaide. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. HvPap-1 C1A Protease and HvCPI-2 Cystatin Contribute to Barley Grain Filling and Germination1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Cambra, Ines; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles; Garcia, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Proteolysis is an essential process throughout the mobilization of storage proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains during germination. It involves numerous types of enzymes, with C1A Cys proteases the most abundant key players. Manipulation of the proteolytic machinery is a potential way to enhance grain yield and quality, and it could influence the mobilization of storage compounds along germination. Transgenic barley plants silencing or over-expressing the cathepsin F-like HvPap-1 Cys protease show differential accumulation of storage molecules such as starch, proteins, and free amino acids in the grain. It is particularly striking that the HvPap-1 artificial microRNA lines phenotype show a drastic delay in the grain germination process. Alterations to the proteolytic activities in the over-expressing and knock-down grains associated with changes in the level of expression of several C1A peptidases were also detected. Similarly, down-regulating cystatin Icy-2, one of the proteinaceous inhibitors of the cathepsin F-like protease, also has important effects on grain filling. However, the ultimate physiological influence of manipulating a peptidase or an inhibitor cannot be always predicted, since the plant tries to compensate the modified proteolytic effects by modulating the expression of some other peptidases or their inhibitors. PMID:26912343

  17. The Effects of Levulinic Acid and 4,6-Dioxoheptanoic Acid on the Metabolism of Etiolated and Greening Barley Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Erna; Gassman, Merrill L.

    1981-01-01

    Application of levulinic acid (LA), a competitive inhibitor of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase, to greening plant tissues causes ALA to accumulate at the expense of chlorophyll. 4,6-Dioxoheptanoic acid (DA), which has been reported to be an effective inhibitor of this enzyme in animal systems, has a similar but more powerful effect on ALA and chlorophyll metabolism in greening leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. var. Larker. Both LA and DA also inhibit the uptake of [14C]amino acids into etiolated and greening barley leaves and reduce their incorporation into protein. Treatment of etiolated and greening leaves with these compounds results in the inhibition of 14CO2 evolution from labeled precursors, including amino and organic acids. Inhibition of 14CO2 evolution by these compounds is more effective in greening leaves than in etiolated leaves when [4-14C]ALA or [1-14C]glutamate are employed as precursors. Both LA and DA also inhibit the uptake and increase the incorporation of 32Pi into organophosphorus by etiolated barley leaves. These results indicate that LA and DA have more far-reaching effects upon plant metabolism than was previously believed. PMID:16661744

  18. The crystal structure of oxylipin-conjugated barley LTP1 highlights the unique plasticity of the hydrophobic cavity of these plant lipid-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, B; Hamberg, M; Larue, V; Prangé, T; Marion, D; Lascombe, M-B

    2009-12-18

    The barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1) adducted by an alpha-ketol, (9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid) exhibits an unexpected high lipid transfer activity. The crystal structure of this oxylipin-adducted LTP1, (LTP1b) was determined at 1.8A resolution. The covalently bound oxylipin was partly exposed at the surface of the protein and partly buried within the hydrophobic cavity. The structure of the oxylipidated LTP1 emphasizes the unique plasticity of the hydrophobic cavity of these plant lipid-binding proteins when compared to the other members of the family. The plasticity of the hydrophobic cavity and increase of its surface hydrophobicity induced by the oxylipin account for the improvement of the lipid transfer activity of LTP1b. These observations open new perspectives to explore the different biological functions of LTPs, including their allergenic properties.

  19. Population genetic structure analysis in endangered Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lower correlation between the Euclidean distance matrices based on morphological and molecular data suggests that both data are comparably important to generate an unbiased picture of differentiation trends. Our findings support the required setting up of conservation strategies for Hordeum vulgare L. landraces ...

  20. Endophytic Fungi in a Hordeum Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in a Hordeum spp. germplasm collection is reported. The potential application of endophytes as biocontrol agents against pests of cereal crops is recognized. Suggestions are proposed to modify existing germplasm maintenance procedures to ensure that both seed viability and endophyte viability...

  1. Critical yield-point model to estimate damage caused by brown spot and powdery mildew in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Agostinetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgaris L. is the second most important winter crop in Southern Brazil. The excessive rainfall in this region during the crop-growing season increases the frequency and intensity of foliar fungal diseases. The research aimed to determine the damage function equations (DFE for the multiple pathosystem of barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on the relationship between grain yield and diseases intensity at different 'BRS Cauê' cultivar growth stages (GS during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons in Southern Brazil. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates. The disease gradients were generated by strobilurins and triazols fungicides rates and number of applications on barley cv. Cauê. The fungicide applications and disease incidence and severity assessments were performed at the 22, 31, 39, 45 and 56 plant GS. The DFE were obtained by variance analysis and linear regression between grain yield and diseases intensity. Significant and negative DFE were obtained and the damage coefficients (DC varied from 29.48 to 100.08 (2009 and from 36.08 to 113.57kg ha-1 (2010 for incidence, and from 219.5 to 6,276.6 (2009 and 102.3 to 5,292.5kg ha-1 (2010 for severity. The largest damage coefficients were obtained when diseases assessments were made on GS 22 and 31 on both growing seasons evaluated. DFE were used to calculate the economic damage threshold (EDT as a criterion to indicate the fungicide application moment to control the diseases in cultivars similar to 'BRS Cauê' in Southern Brazil.

  2. QTL underlying some agronomic traits in barley detected by SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jibin; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Lipan; Wang, Qifei; Du, Binbin; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-07-07

    Increasing the yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a main breeding goal in developing barley cultivars. A high density genetic linkage map containing 1894 SNP and 68 SSR markers covering 1375.8 cM was constructed and used for mapping quantitative traits. A late-generation double haploid population (DH) derived from the Huaai 11 × Huadamai 6 cross was used to identify QTLs and QTL × environment interactions for ten traits affecting grain yield including length of main spike (MSL), spikelet number on main spike (SMS), spikelet number per plant (SLP), grain number per plant (GP), grain weight per plant (GWP), grain number per spike (GS), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain weight per spike (GWS), spike density (SPD) and spike number per plant (SP). In single environment analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 221 QTLs underlying the ten traits were detected in five consecutive years (2009-2013). The QTLs detected in each year were 50, 48, 41, 41 and 41 for the year 2009 to 2013. The QTLs associated with these traits were generally clustered on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H. In multi-environment analysis, a total of 111 significant QTLs including 18 for MSL, 16 for SMS, 15 for SPD, 5 for SP, 4 for SLP, 14 for TGW, 5 for GP, 11 for GS, 8 for GWP, and 15 for GWS were detected in the five years. Most QTLs showed significant QTL × environment interactions (QEI), nine QTLs (qIMSL3-1, qIMSL4-1, qIMSL4-2, qIMSL6-1, qISMS7-1, qISPD2-7, qISPD7-1, qITGW3-1 and qIGWS4-3) were detected with minimal QEI effects and stable in different years. Among 111 QTLs,71 (63.40 %) QTLs were detected in both single and multiple environments. Three main QTL cluster regions associated with the 10 agronomic traits on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H were detected. The QTLs for SMS, SLP, GP and GWP were located in the region near Vrs1 on chromosome 2H. The QTLs underlying SMS, SPD and SLP were clustered on chromosome 4H. On the terminal of chromosome 7H, there was a QTL

  3. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio...... in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition...

  4. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  5. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  6. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution.

  7. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  8. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Hazzouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium (Na+ accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare. A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These

  9. Mapping ofHKT1;5Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzouri, Khaled M; Khraiwesh, Basel; Amiri, Khaled M A; Pauli, Duke; Blake, Tom; Shahid, Mohammad; Mullath, Sangeeta K; Nelson, David; Mansour, Alain L; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Purugganan, Michael; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Sodium (Na + ) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5 -like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2 . In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na + and K + were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These results

  10. Economic evaluation of the effects of planting date and application rate of imidacloprid for management of cereal aphids and barley yellow dwarf in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, T A; Giles, K L; Nyamanzi, T; Hunger, R M; Krenzer, E G; Elliot, N C; Kindler, S D; Payton, M

    2005-02-01

    The effects of planting date and application rate of imidacloprid for control of Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae), and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in hard red winter wheat were studied. The first experiment was conducted from 1997 to 1999 at two locations and consisted of three planting dates and four rates of imidacloprid-treated seed. The second experiment was conducted from 2001 to 2002 in Stillwater, OK, and consisted of two varieties of hard red winter wheat seed and four rates of imidacloprid. Aphid densities, occurrence of BYDV, yield components, and final grain yield were measured, and yield differences were used to estimate the economic return obtained from using imidacloprid. In the first study, aphid populations responded to insecticide rate in the early and middle plantings, but the response was reduced in the late planting. Yields increased as insecticide rate increased but did not always result in a positive economic return. In the second study, imidacloprid seed treatments reduced aphid numbers and BYD occurrence, protected yield, and resulted in a positive economic return. The presence of aphids and BYDV lowered yield by reducing fertile head density, total kernel weight, and test weight. Whereas the application of imidacloprid seed treatments often provided positive yield protection, it did not did not consistently provide a positive economic return. A positive economic return was consistently obtained if the cereal aphid was carrying and transmitting BYDV and was more likely to occur if wheat was treated with a low rate if imidacloprid and planted in a "dual purpose" planting date window.

  11. The receptor-like MLO protein and the RAC/ROP family G-protein RACB modulate actin reorganization in barley attacked by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalski, Krystina S; Schultheiss, Holger; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Cytoskeleton remodelling is a crucial process in determining the polarity of dividing and growing plant cells, as well as during interactions with the environment. Nothing is currently known about the proteins, which regulate actin remodelling during interactions with invading pathogens. The biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) invades susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by penetrating epidermal cells, which remain intact during fungal development. In contrast, resistant host plants prevent infection by inhibiting penetration through apoplastic mechanisms, which require focusing defence reactions on the site of attack. We stained actin filaments in a susceptible Mlo-genotype and a near-isogenic race-non-specifically resistant barley mlo5-mutant genotype using fluorescence-labelled phalloidin after chemical fixation. This revealed that the actin cytoskeleton is differentially reorganized in susceptible and resistant hosts challenged by Bgh. Actin filaments were polarized towards the sites of attempted penetration in the resistant host, whereas when susceptible hosts were penetrated, a more subtle reorganization took place around fungal haustoria. Strong actin filament focusing towards sites of fungal attack was closely associated with successful prevention of penetration. Actin focusing was less frequent and seemingly delayed in susceptible wild-type barley expressing the susceptibility factor MLO. Additionally, single cell overexpression of a constitutively activated RAC/ROP G-protein, CA RACB, another potential host susceptibility factor and hypothetical actin cytoskeleton regulator, partly inhibited actin reorganization when under attack from Bgh, whereas knockdown of RACB promoted actin focusing. We conclude that RACB and, potentially, MLO are host proteins involved in the modulation of actin reorganization and cell polarity in the interaction of barley with Bgh.

  12. The family of DOF transcription factors in Brachypodium distachyon: phylogenetic comparison with rice and barley DOFs and expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando-Amado Sara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs are proteins that have played a central role both in evolution and in domestication, and are major regulators of development in living organisms. Plant genome sequences reveal that approximately 7% of all genes encode putative TFs. The DOF (DNA binding with One Finger TF family has been associated with vital processes exclusive to higher plants and to their close ancestors (algae, mosses and ferns. These are seed maturation and germination, light-mediated regulation, phytohormone and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. In Hordeum vulgare and Oryza sativa, 26 and 30 different Dof genes, respectively, have been annotated. Brachypodium distachyon has been the first Pooideae grass to be sequenced and, due to its genomic, morphological and physiological characteristics, has emerged as the model system for temperate cereals, such as wheat and barley. Results Through searches in the B. distachyon genome, 27 Dof genes have been identified and a phylogenetic comparison with the Oryza sativa and the Hordeum vulgare DOFs has been performed. To explore the evolutionary relationship among these DOF proteins, a combined phylogenetic tree has been constructed with the Brachypodium DOFs and those from rice and barley. This phylogenetic analysis has classified the DOF proteins into four Major Cluster of Orthologous Groups (MCOGs. Using RT-qPCR analysis the expression profiles of the annotated BdDof genes across four organs (leaves, roots, spikes and seeds has been investigated. These results have led to a classification of the BdDof genes into two groups, according to their expression levels. The genes highly or preferentially expressed in seeds have been subjected to a more detailed expression analysis (maturation, dry stage and germination. Conclusions Comparison of the expression profiles of the Brachypodium Dof genes with the published functions of closely related DOF sequences from the cereal

  13. The family of DOF transcription factors in Brachypodium distachyon: phylogenetic comparison with rice and barley DOFs and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Amado, Sara; González-Calle, Virginia; Carbonero, Pilar; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina

    2012-11-05

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that have played a central role both in evolution and in domestication, and are major regulators of development in living organisms. Plant genome sequences reveal that approximately 7% of all genes encode putative TFs. The DOF (DNA binding with One Finger) TF family has been associated with vital processes exclusive to higher plants and to their close ancestors (algae, mosses and ferns). These are seed maturation and germination, light-mediated regulation, phytohormone and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. In Hordeum vulgare and Oryza sativa, 26 and 30 different Dof genes, respectively, have been annotated. Brachypodium distachyon has been the first Pooideae grass to be sequenced and, due to its genomic, morphological and physiological characteristics, has emerged as the model system for temperate cereals, such as wheat and barley. Through searches in the B. distachyon genome, 27 Dof genes have been identified and a phylogenetic comparison with the Oryza sativa and the Hordeum vulgare DOFs has been performed. To explore the evolutionary relationship among these DOF proteins, a combined phylogenetic tree has been constructed with the Brachypodium DOFs and those from rice and barley. This phylogenetic analysis has classified the DOF proteins into four Major Cluster of Orthologous Groups (MCOGs). Using RT-qPCR analysis the expression profiles of the annotated BdDof genes across four organs (leaves, roots, spikes and seeds) has been investigated. These results have led to a classification of the BdDof genes into two groups, according to their expression levels. The genes highly or preferentially expressed in seeds have been subjected to a more detailed expression analysis (maturation, dry stage and germination). Comparison of the expression profiles of the Brachypodium Dof genes with the published functions of closely related DOF sequences from the cereal species considered here, deduced from the phylogenetic

  14. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idehen, Emmanuel; Tang, Yao; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate. These phytochemicals exhibit strong antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cholesterol lowering abilities, which are potentially useful in lowering the risk of certain diseases. Therefore, the high concentration of phytochemicals in barley may be largely responsible for its health benefits. This paper reviews available information regarding barley phytochemicals and their potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Uptake of plutonium and americium by barley from two contaminated Nevada Test Site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Tompkins, G.A.; Leventhal, L.; Babcock, K.L.

    1976-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare, Var. Atlas 68) plant uptake of Pu 239 , Pu 240 , and Am 241 was studied using two soil samples collected from widely separated areas of the Nevada Test Site. Each area had been previously contaminated with plutonium and americium as a result of a separate high explosive (nonnuclear) detonation of a device containing plutonium. The plants were grown on 3-kg soil samples in a controlled environment chamber. The plutonium concentration ratio (plutonium concentration in dry plant tissue/plutonium concentration in dry soil) was in the order of 10 -5 for plant vegetative material. The plutonium concentration ratio for the grain was 20 to 100 times lower than that in the vegetative material. Concentration ratios for americium were in the order of 10 -4 for vegetative growth and 25 to 75 times lower for the grain. These results imply that americium is more available to plants than plutonium. Plutonium-bearing particles were identified in a soil sample using an autoradiographic technique and then separated from the soil samples. The Pu 239 oxide equivalent diameters of plutonium-bearing particles could be described by a log-normal distribution function in the range of 0.2 to 0.7 μm. The actual diameters of the particles were 2 to 3 times the PuO 2 equivalent diameter. Microprobe analyses of the surface region of particles greater than 2 μm showed the following order of abundance: U, Pu is greater than O is greater than Al is greater than Si is greater than Fe is greater than Mg. Photographs obtained with a scanning electron microscope revealed that some of the particles are quite irregular and have large specific surface areas which might enhance solubility and plant uptake

  16. Pathogen-Induced Changes in the Antioxidant Status of the Apoplast in Barley Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Hélène; Carver, Tim L.W.; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) isolines, Alg-R, which has the dominant Mla1 allele conferring hypersensitive race-specific resistance to avirulent races of Blumeria graminis, and Alg-S, which has the recessive mla1 allele for susceptibility to attack, were inoculated with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. Total leaf and apoplastic antioxidants were measured 24 h after inoculation when maximum numbers of attacked cells showed hypersensitive death in Alg-R. Cytoplasmic contamination of the apoplastic extracts, judged by the marker enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was very low (less than 2%) even in inoculated plants. Dehydroascorbate, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were present in the apoplast. Inoculation had no effect on the total foliar ascorbate pool size or the redox state. The glutathione content of Alg-S leaves and apoplast decreased, whereas that of Alg-R leaves and apoplast increased after pathogen attack, but the redox state was unchanged in both cases. Large increases in foliar catalase activity were observed in Alg-S but not in Alg-R leaves. Pathogen-induced increases in the apoplastic antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. We conclude that sustained oxidation does not occur and that differential strategies of antioxidant response in Alg-S and Alg-R may contribute to pathogen sensitivity. PMID:9662553

  17. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [ 14 C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U- 14 C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  18. The Red Queen and the seed bank: pathogen resistance of ex situ and in situ conserved barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen R; Dreiseitl, Antonín; Sadiki, Mohammed; Schoen, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    Plant geneticists have proposed that the dynamic conservation of crop plants in farm environments (in situ conservation) is complementary to static conservation in seed banks (ex situ conservation) because it may help to ensure adaptation to changing conditions. Here, we test whether collections of a traditional variety of Moroccan barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) conserved ex situ showed differences in qualitative and quantitative resistance to the endemic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, compared to collections that were continuously cultivated in situ. In detached-leaf assays for qualitative resistance, there were some significant differences between in situ and ex situ conserved collections from the same localities. Some ex situ conserved collections showed lower resistance levels, while others showed higher resistance levels than their in situ conserved counterparts. In field trials for quantitative resistance, similar results were observed, with the highest resistance observed in situ. Overall, this study identifies some cases where the Red Queen appears to drive the evolution of increased resistance in situ. However, in situ conservation does not always result in improved adaptation to pathogen virulence, suggesting a more complex evolutionary scenario, consistent with several published examples of plant-pathogen co-evolution in wild systems.

  19. Cell-Based Phenotyping Reveals QTL for Membrane Potential Maintenance Associated with Hypoxia and Salinity Stress Tolerance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Gill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging and salinity are two major abiotic stresses that hamper crop production world-wide resulting in multibillion losses. Plant abiotic stress tolerance is conferred by many interrelated mechanisms. Amongst these, the cell’s ability to maintain membrane potential (MP is considered to be amongst the most crucial traits, a positive relationship between the ability of plants to maintain highly negative MP and its tolerance to both salinity and waterlogging stress. However, no attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring this trait. In this study, the microelectrode MIFE technique was used to measure the plasma membrane potential of epidermal root cells of 150 double haploid (DH lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. from a cross between a Chinese landrace TX9425 and Japanese malting cultivar Naso Nijo under hypoxic conditions. A major QTL for the MP in the epidermal root cells in hypoxia-exposed plants was identified. This QTL was located on 2H, at a similar position to the QTL for waterlogging and salinity tolerance reported in previous studies. Further analysis confirmed that MP showed a significant contribution to both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. The fact that the QTL for MP was controlled by a single major QTL illustrates the power of the single-cell phenotyping approach and opens prospects for fine mapping this QTL and thus being more effective in marker assisted selection.

  20. Barley: a translational model for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Powell, Wayne; Steffenson, Brian; Thomas, William T B; Waugh, Robbie

    2015-05-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) is an excellent model for understanding agricultural responses to climate change. Its initial domestication over 10 millennia ago and subsequent wide migration provide striking evidence of adaptation to different environments, agro-ecologies and uses. A bottleneck in the selection of modern varieties has resulted in a reduction in total genetic diversity and a loss of specific alleles relevant to climate-smart agriculture. However, extensive and well-curated collections of landraces, wild barley accessions (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and other Hordeum species exist and are important new allele sources. A wide range of genomic and analytical tools have entered the public domain for exploring and capturing this variation, and specialized populations, mutant stocks and transgenics facilitate the connection between genetic diversity and heritable phenotypes. These lay the biological, technological and informational foundations for developing climate-resilient crops tailored to specific environments that are supported by extensive environmental and geographical databases, new methods for climate modelling and trait/environment association analyses, and decentralized participatory improvement methods. Case studies of important climate-related traits and their constituent genes - including examples that are indicative of the complexities involved in designing appropriate responses - are presented, and key developments for the future highlighted. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  2. Effectors involved in fungal-fungal interaction lead to a rare phenomenon of hyperbiotrophy in the tritrophic system biocontrol agent-powdery mildew-plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Joan; Ramakrishnan, Gowsica Bojarajan; Labbé, Caroline; Lefebvre, François; Spanu, Pietro D; Bélanger, Richard R

    2018-01-01

    Tritrophic interactions involving a biocontrol agent, a pathogen and a plant have been analyzed predominantly from the perspective of the biocontrol agent. We have conducted the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of all three organisms in an effort to understand the elusive properties of Pseudozyma flocculosa in the context of its biocontrol activity against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei as it parasitizes Hordeum vulgare. After inoculation of P. flocculosa, the tripartite interaction was monitored over time and samples collected for scanning electron microscopy and RNA sequencing. Based on our observations, P. flocculosa indirectly parasitizes barley, albeit transiently, by diverting nutrients extracted by B. graminis from barley leaves through a process involving unique effectors. This brings novel evidence that such molecules can also influence fungal-fungal interactions. Their release is synchronized with a higher expression of powdery mildew haustorial effectors, a sharp decline in the photosynthetic machinery of barley and a developmental peak in P. flocculosa. The interaction culminates with a collapse of B. graminis haustoria, thereby stopping P. flocculosa growth, as barley plants show higher metabolic activity. To conclude, our study has uncovered a complex and intricate phenomenon, described here as hyperbiotrophy, only achievable through the conjugated action of the three protagonists. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Productivity losses in barley attributable to ambient atmospheric pollutants in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.

    The productivity responses of four barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars (Haider-93, Haider-91, Jou-87, Jou-85) to air pollution were investigated during 2004-2005 season using open-top chambers with charcoal-filtered air (FA), unfiltered air (UFA) and unchambered field plots (AA) at a semi-urban site in Lahore, Pakistan. The 8 h daily mean O 3, NO 2 and SO 2 in UFA remained 71, 30 and 16 ppb, respectively. In UFA, seed yield was drastically reduced in all the cultivars, 13% for Haider-93, 30% for Haider-91, 34% for Jou-87 and 44% for Jou-85 compared with FA plants. This impact in UFA was due to combined effects of reductions in number of ears per plant, seeds per ear and 1000-seed weight. A mid-season harvest of 9-weeks-old plants has revealed 16-25% and 7-15% reductions in plant fresh and dry weights, respectively, in UFA compared with counterparts grown in FA. Plants grown in UFA also showed significant reductions in stomatal conductance (6-12%), transpiration rate (20-27%), net photosynthetic rate (13-21%) and photosynthetic efficiency (8-9%). Nutritional quality of seeds was, however, not altered with respect to some minerals (Ca, Mg, K, P), and protein in all treatments, except for higher starch contents found in FA than both UFA and AA treatments. The yield losses attributable to the mix of pollutants and experienced in the urban fringe of Lahore are appreciably larger than expected. Their significance more widely in Pakistan needs to be assessed as a matter of priority, as population growth rates and emission levels are both rapidly increasing in the country.

  4. Influence of soil properties and soil leaching on the toxicity of ionic silver to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kate A; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Merrington, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Silver (Ag) has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties; as a result, it is being used increasingly in a wide range of consumer products. With these uses, the likelihood that Ag may enter the environment has increased, predominately via land application of biosolids or irrigation with treated wastewater effluent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of Ag to 2 plant species: barley (Hordeum vulgare L. CV Triumph) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in a range of soils under both leached and unleached conditions. The concentrations that resulted in a 50% reduction of plant growth (EC50) were found to vary up to 20-fold across the soils, indicating a large influence of soil type on Ag toxicity. Overall, barley root elongation was found to be the least sensitive to added Ag, with EC50 values ranging from 51 mg/kg to 1030 mg/kg, whereas the tomato plant height showed higher sensitivity with EC50 values ranging from 46 mg/kg to 486 mg/kg. The effect of leaching was more evident in the barley toxicity results, where higher concentrations of Ag were required to induce toxicity. Variations in soil organic carbon and pH were found to be primarily responsible for mitigating Ag toxicity; therefore, these properties may be used in future risk assessments for Ag to predict toxicity in a wide range of soil types. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Bacterial Root Microbiome of Plants Growing in Oil Sands Reclamation Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K. Mitter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil sands mining in northern Alberta impacts a large footprint, but the industry is committed to reclaim all disturbed land to an ecologically healthy state in response to environmental regulations. However, these newly reconstructed landscapes may be limited by several factors that include low soil nutrient levels and reduced microbial activity. Rhizosphere microorganisms colonize plant roots providing hosts with nutrients, stimulating growth, suppressing disease and increasing tolerance to abiotic stress. High-throughput sequencing techniques can be used to provide a detailed characterization of microbial community structure. This study used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the bacterial root microbiome associated with annual barley (Hordeum vulgare and sweet clover (Melilotus albus growing in an oil sands reclamation area. Our results indicate that Proteobacteria dominated the endosphere, whereas other phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were restricted to the rhizosphere, suggesting that plants have the ability to select for certain soil bacterial consortia. The bacterial community in the endosphere compartments were less rich and diverse compared to the rhizosphere. Furthermore, it was apparent that sweet clover plants were more selective, as the community exhibited a lower richness and diversity compared to barley. Members of the family Rhizobiaceae, such as Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium were mainly associated with clover, whereas Acholeplasma (wall-less bacteria transmitted by insects was unique to barley. Genera from the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Yersinia and Lentzea were also mostly detected in barley, while other genera such Pseudomonas and Pantoea were able to successfully colonize both plants. Endophytic bacterial profiles varied within the same plant species at different sampling locations; however, these differences were driven by factors other than slope positions or cover management. Our results

  6. Analysis of plastid DNA-like sequences within the nuclear genomes of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, M A; Scott, N S; Timmis, J N

    1998-06-01

    A wide-ranging examination of plastid (pt)DNA sequence homologies within higher plant nuclear genomes (promiscuous DNA) was undertaken. Digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and Southern analysis was used to distinguish plastid and nuclear DNA in order to assess the extent of variability of promiscuous sequences within and between plant species. Some species, such as Gossypium hirsutum (cotton), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), and Chenopodium quinoa, showed homogenity of these sequences, while intraspecific sequence variation was observed among different cultivars of Pisum sativum (pea), Hordeum vulgare (barley), and Triticum aestivum (wheat). Hypervariability of plastid sequence homologies was identified in the nuclear genomes of Spinacea oleracea (spinach) and Beta vulgaris (beet), in which individual plants were shown to possess a unique spectrum of nuclear sequences with ptDNA homology. This hypervariability apparently extended to somatic variation in B. vulgaris. No sequences with ptDNA homology were identified by this method in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Identification Of Barley Grain Mycoflora By Next Generation Sequencing And Videometer Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Søren, Knudsen

    Seeds of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) are infected by a high number of fungi, including pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Pyrenophora teres. Fusarium spp. is a widely distributed fungus causing yield reduction in a range of agricultural crops and many...... species in the genus produce mycotoxins responsible for serious quality deterioration. In malting barley, Fusarium also has a negative effect by causing gushing in beer. A number of barley seeds (app. 200) assumed to be infected by fungal from different origins and years of cultivation were tested by NGS...... sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region from total DNA. Approximately 2-4000 sequences were obtained from each seed and these were subsequently identified to species level in order to give an exact identification of fungal genera on each seed. The main fungal genera identified were Fusarium...

  8. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  9. Starch and Free Sugars during Kernel Development of Bomi Barley and its High-Lysine Mutant 1508

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael

    1978-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...... on the additive effect of the individual high-lysine genes in the double mutants, it is concluded that the influences of these genes on prolamin and starch synthesis are independent....

  10. Crystal structure of an essential enzyme in seed starch degradation - barley limit dextrinase in complex with cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of Hv...... provide new insight into cation sites and the concerted action of the battery of hydrolytic enzymes in starch degradation....

  11. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of polypeptides in plasma membrane and tonoplast-enriched fractions from barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.E.; Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.; DuPont, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphorylation of polypeptides in membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots was compared in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the potential role of protein kinases in modification of membrane transport. Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, and plasma membrane were isolated using sucrose gradients and the membrane polypeptides separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the membrane fractions were incubated with γ[p 32 P]ATP, phosphorylation occurred almost exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction. Phosphorylation of a band at 38 kilodaltons increased as the concentration of Mg 2+ was decreased from millimolar to micromolar levels. Phosphorylation of bands at 125, 86, 58, 46 and 28 kilodaltons required millimolar Mg 2+ concentrations and was greatly enhanced by Ca 2+ . When roots of intact plants were labeled with [ 32 P]orthophosphate, polypeptides at approximately 135, 166, 90, 46 to 53, 32, 28, and 19 kilodaltons were labeled in the plasma membrane fraction and polypeptides at approximately 73, 66, and 48 kilodaltons were labeled in the tonoplast fraction. Treatment of the roots of intact plants with 150 millimolar NaCl resulted in increased phosphorylation of some polypeptides while treatment with 100 mM NaCl had no effect

  12. Characterization and genetic mapping of eceriferum-ym (cer-ym), a cutin deficient barley mutant with impaired leaf water retention capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Cheng; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Duan, Ruijun; Nawrath, Christiane; Komatsuda, Takao; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-09-01

    The cuticle covers the aerial parts of land plants, where it serves many important functions, including water retention. Here, a recessive cuticle mutant, eceriferum-ym (cer-ym), of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) showed abnormally glossy spikes, sheaths, and leaves. The cer-ym mutant plant detached from its root system was hypersensitive to desiccation treatment compared with wild type plants, and detached leaves of mutant lost 41.8% of their initial weight after 1 h of dehydration under laboratory conditions, while that of the wild type plants lost only 7.1%. Stomata function was not affected by the mutation, but the mutant leaves showed increased cuticular permeability to water, suggesting a defective leaf cuticle, which was confirmed by toluidine blue staining. The mutant leaves showed a substantial reduction in the amounts of the major cutin monomers and a slight increase in the main wax component, suggesting that the enhanced cuticle permeability was a consequence of cutin deficiency. cer-ym was mapped within a 0.8 cM interval between EST marker AK370363 and AK251484, a pericentromeric region on chromosome 4H. The results indicate that the desiccation sensitivity of cer-ym is caused by a defect in leaf cutin, and that cer-ym is located in a chromosome 4H pericentromeric region.

  13. Genetic variability in elite barley genotypes based on the agro-morphological characteristics evaluated under irrigated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, researches have shown that the Brazilian savannah has a great potential to supply the demand for barley grains. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic variability in 39 elite barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes based on the agro-morphological traits of a crop irrigated in the savannah system. An irrigation experiment in the design of complete randomized block with four replicates was conducted at Federal District - Brazil. The evaluated traits were: distance from the last knot to the rachis, distance from the flag leaf to rachis, spike length, number of grains by ear, flag leaf area, plant height, silking, lodging, grain yield, thousand-seed weight, protein content and grain commercial classification. After using analysis of variance the means were used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among all genotypes pairs based on the Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis using genetic distance matrix was performed having Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic Means method (UPGMA as the criteria. Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes for all traits evaluated. The high coefficient of genetic variation indicates the possibility of having genetic gains for all traits. The traits that most contributed to the variability were the flag leaf area and silking, while the protein content and lodging were the traits that contributed the least. Based on the cluster analysis, at least three major groups of similarity were found. There was a clustering trend of two and six-rowed materials. The most divergent genotypes were PFC 2005123, Antártica-1, Nandi and FM 404.

  14. Interactions between fungal plant pathogens on leaves. Especially simultaneous development of Rhynchosporium secalis and Drechslera teres on barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Jeanette Hyldal

    Plant diseases caused by fungi are major potential threats to yield in both organic and conventional cereal production, and generally several species of pathogenic fungi are found together on the same plants in the field. This PhD thesis concludes, thatinteraction between different foliar fungal...... species may influence total disease levels and often via negative effects. This implies that less disease is observed where several diseases occur together, relative to where they occur individually. Suchinteraction effects have often been ignored in the past, as plant diseases are traditionally studied...... as independent events. The thesis provides an important review of available literature, considering the theoretical background for analyzing foliardisease interactions as well as previously published data studies. Difficulties in istinguishing different types of competition are emphasized. The thesis considers...

  15. Soil to plant transfer of 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am, 137Cs and 90Sr from global fallout in flour and bran from wheat, rye, barley and oats, as obtained by field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1987-01-01

    Crops of wheat, rye, barley and oats were grown on fields where the contamination of the soil with radionuclides resulted exclusively from global fallout debris. After machine harvesting and milling, the concentrations of 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs and 90 Sr were determined separately in bran and flour, as well as in the soils. The concentrations of 239+240 Pu in wheat, rye and barley flour were between 59 and 180 μBq kg -1 , and in oat flour 1100 μBq kg -1 . The range of concentrations of the other radionuclides for the four flours were: 241 Am, 5-70 μBq kg -1 ; 137 Cs, 260-380 mBq kg -1 ; 90 Sr, 310-1300 mBq kg -1 . The corresponding concentrations of the radionuclides were always considerably higher in the bran than in the flour, with the exception of oats. The soil-to-plant transfer factors of 239+240 Pu for wheat, rye and barley flour were between 0.00026 and 0.00078 (oats 0.017) and for bran between 0.0048 and 0.02 (oats 0.014). For 241 Am the corresponding values were somewhat lower. For the wheat, rye and barley flour the transfer factors of 137 Cs were between 0.013 and 0.018 (oats 0.069) and, for the bran, between 0.08 and 0.10 (oats 0.16). The corresponding values for 90 Sr were significantly higher: for flour between 0.08 and 0.14 (oats 1.2) and for bran between 0.62 and 0.93 (oats 1.5). (Auth.)

  16. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...... plants (from 1.7 to 3 times) in three low-responding cultivars: Albacete, Astoria and Majestic. No significant differences on microspore embryogenesis efficiency were observed in medium and high responding cultivars. The application of n-butanol treatment to isolated microspores from cold treated spikes...

  17. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  18. Yield improvement in barley by using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, Ibrahim Mohammed

    1990-01-01

    Breeding work for barley improvement in Libya is very rare. All varieties grown here are foreign varieties. Yield per hectare is low compared with other countries having similar climatic conditions. Productivity, lodging, disease resistance, drought and salt tolerance are the main characteristics that need to be improved. A mutation breeding programme for barley improvement was initiated at the Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre in 1983-1984. The objectives of this programme are the development of new lines that could be used directly or indirectly in the development of new varieties. The locally adapted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety ''California Mariout'' was used as a parent material. Grains with 14% moisture were exposed to 200 Gy gamma-ray from 60 Co source at the Centre. Three experiments were conducted during 1986-1989. From the first experiment (1986-1987), 62 mutant lines were evaluated. From the second and third experiments (1987-1989), only seven mutant lines were evaluated. In the 1988-1989 experiment, the crop was irrigated and fertilised with 0, 100 and 200 kgN/ha. Lodging score was low in 0 kgN/ha and increased significantly by the increase in N level. None of the mutant lines more lodging resistant than the parent or the control. However, yield differences were significant and the application of 100 kgN/ha increased the grain yield

  19. Barley Mla and Rar mutants compromised in the hypersensitive cell death response against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei are modified in their ability to accumulate reactive oxygen intermediates at sites of fungal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückelhoven, R; Fodor, J; Trujillo, M; Kogel, K H

    2000-12-01

    The pathogenesis-related accumulation of superoxide radical anions (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was comparatively analyzed in a barley line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Sultan-5) carrying the powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Speer, Bgh) resistance gene Mla12, and in susceptible mutants defective in Mla12 or in genes "required for Mla12-specified disease resistance" (Rar1 and Rar2). In-situ localization of reactive oxygen intermediates was performed both by microscopic detection of azide-insensitive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction or diaminobenzidine (DAB) polymerization, and by an NBT-DAB double-staining procedure. The Mla12-mediated hypersensitive cell death occurred either in attacked epidermal cells or adjacent mesophyll cells of wild-type plants. Whole-cell H2O2 accumulation was detected in dying cells, while O2*- emerged in adjacent cells. Importantly, all susceptible mutants lacked these reactions. An oxalate oxidase, which is known to generate H2O2 and has been implicated in barley resistance against the powdery mildew fungus, was not differentially expressed between the wild type and all mutants. The results demonstrate that the Rar1 and Rar2 gene products, which are control elements of R-gene-mediated programmed cell death, also control accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates but not the pathogenesis-related expression of oxalate oxidase.

  20. [Effect of melafen on expression of Elip1 and Elip2 genes encoding chloroplast light-induced stress proteins in barley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenkova, O V; Ermokhina, O V; Belkina, G G; Oleskina, Iu P; Fattakhov, S G; Iurina, N P

    2008-01-01

    The effect of melafen, a plant growth regulator of a new generation, on the growth, pigment composition, and expression of nuclear genes Elip1 and Elip2 encoding chloroplast light-stress proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare L) seedlings was studied. It is shown that the height of seedlings treated with melafen at concentrations of 0.5 x 10(-10) and 0.5 x 10(-8) M increased by approximately 10 and 20%, respectively, as compared to the control. At high concentrations (10(-5) and 10(-3) M), melafen had no effect on the growth of seedlings. The content of chlorophylls and carotenoids in chloroplasts barely differed from the control at all melafen concentrations tested. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that melafen did not influence the expression of the nuclear gene encoding the low-molecular-weight plastid stress protein ELIP1. At the same time, the expression of the nuclear gene encoding the high-molecular-weight light-inducible stress protein ELIP2 in the plants treated with melafen at a concentration of 0.5 x 10(-8) M, increased by approximately 70 %. At higher concentrations, melafen suppressed the Elip2 gene expression. Thus, melafen affects the expression of the Elip2 gene, which is involved in the regulation of chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast biogenesis, which, in turn, may lead to changes in the resistance of plants to light-induced stress.

  1. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  2. Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina; Dandler, Jörg; Zoller, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Background The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in...

  3. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.

    1995-01-01

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  4. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  5. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    that i) spots increasing in intensity in the infected plants included fungal proteins and proteolytic fragments of plant proteins, ii) spots decreasing in intensity contained plant proteins possibly degraded by fungal proteases, iii) greater spot volume changes in response to the fungus were observed......-wall-degrading enzymes and proteases. Besides Tri5 gene, ten selected genes encoding protein expressed in vitro were also expressed in the F. graminearum-infected wheat and barley from 2-6 day after inoculation (dai), suggesting the in vitro proteome approach may be an ideal strategy to discover pathogenicity factors....... In addition, sharper increase in fungal biomass was observed in barley than in wheat and fungal induced proteolytic fragments of - amylases were only observed in barley not in wheat. Furthermore, a barley PR17 protein and a fungal hypothetical protein were expressed in E. coli and purified in Chapter 5...

  6. Structural and temporal variation in the genetic diversity of a European collection of spring two-row barley cultivars and utility for association mapping of quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Moragues, Marc

    2013-01-01

    the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best......Two hundred sixteen barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars were selected to represent the diversity and history of European spring two-row barley breeding and to search for alleles controlling agronomic traits by association genetics. The germplasm was genotyped with 7864 gene-based single...... barley, namely, i) directional selection for approximately 14% of total genetic variation of the population in the last approximately 50 yr and ii) highly uneven genomic distribution of genetic diversity. Association analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic data identified multiple loci affecting...

  7. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  8. Structural comparison of arabinoxylans from two barley side-stream fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Leena; Tuomainen, Päivi; Virkki, Liisa; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenkanen, Maija

    2008-07-09

    The structures of barley ( Hordeum vulgare) arabinoxylans isolated from two industrial side fractions, barley husks (BH) and barley fiber (BF), were characterized. Arabinoxylans were extracted with saturated barium hydroxide after enzymatic pretreatment. Barium hydroxide was selective toward arabinoxylans, and only a minor amount of glucose-containing material was coextracted. Acid methanolysis followed by gas chromatography, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and specific enzymatic treatments followed by anion exchange chromatography with pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) revealed that the chemical structure of barley husk arabinoxylan (BHAX) clearly differed from that of barley fiber arabinoxylan (BFAX). BFAX was more branched, containing more beta-D-xylopyranosyl (beta-D-Xylp) residues carrying alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl (alpha-L-Araf) units at both O-2 and O-3 positions. BHAX, on the other hand, contained more 2-O-beta-D-Xyl p-alpha-L-Ara f substituents than BFAX. BHAX and BFAX also differed with respect to the hydrodynamic properties investigated with multidetector size exclusion chromatography. BFAX had a higher weight-average molar mass and larger hydrodynamic volume, the latter indicating less dense conformation than BHAX. Mn, Mw /Mn, Rh, and the Mark-Houwink a value were also determined for both arabinoxylans.

  9. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  10. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, G.; Madsen, C. K.; Holm, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here...... development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed...

  11. Rapid gene isolation in barley and wheat by mutant chromosome sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanchez-Martin, J.; Steuernagel, B.; Ghosh, S.; Herren, G.; Hurni, S.; Adamski, N.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Krattinger, S.G.; Wicker, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, B.; Wulff, B. B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, OCT 31 (2016), č. článku 221. ISSN 1465-6906 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : induced mutations * mitotic chromosomes * confers resistance * exome capture * genome * identification * evolution * pathogens * hordeum * MutChromSeq * Gene cloning * Mutational genomics * Chromosome flow sorting * Triticeae * Wheat * Barley Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.313, year: 2015

  12. Phosphoinositides in barley aleurone layers and gibberellic acid-induced changes in metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, P.P.N.; Renders, J.M.; Keranen, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Phospholipids of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) aleurone layers were labeled with myo-[2- 3 H]inositol or [ 32 Pi], extracted, and analyzed by physical (chromatography) and chemical (deacylation) techniques. Three phospholipids were found to incorporate both myo-[2- 3 H]inositol and [ 32 Pi]-phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-monophosphate, and phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate. Stimulation of [ 3 H]inositol prelabeled aleurone layers with GA 3 showed enhanced incorporation of label into phosphatidylinositol within 30 seconds and subsequent rapid breakdown. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol labeling observed in these studies is the earliest response of aleurone cells to gibberellic acid reported

  13. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke Silke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL, validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding of gene functions involved in the control of these traits. We focused on the four loci BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF and HvGAMYB that play a role in the regulation of B-hordein expression, the major fraction of the barley storage protein. The association was tested in a collection of 224 spring barley accessions using a two-stage mixed model approach. Results Within the sequenced fragments of four candidate genes we observed different levels of nucleotide diversity. The effect of selection on the candidate genes was tested by Tajima's D which revealed significant values for BLZ1, BLZ2, and BPBF in the subset of two-rowed barleys. Pair-wise LD estimates between the detected SNPs within each candidate gene revealed different intra-genic linkage patterns. On the basis of a more extensive examination of genomic regions surrounding the four candidate genes we found a sharp decrease of LD (r2 Significant marker-trait associations between SNP sites within BLZ1 and flowering time, BPBF and crude protein content and BPBF and starch content were detected. Most haplotypes occurred at frequencies BPBF was associated to crude protein content and starch content, BLZ2 showed association to thousand-grain weight and BLZ1 was found to be associated with flowering time and plant height. Conclusions Differences in nucleotide diversity and LD pattern within the candidate genes BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF, and HvGAMYB reflect the impact of selection on the nucleotide sequence of the four candidate loci. Despite significant associations, the analysed candidate

  14. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch (Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... mixture rates of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and narbonne vetch. (Vicia narbonensis L.) seeded with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi. 8(1): 45-50. Bakir Ö (1981). Nadas alanlarında yembitkisi yetiştirme olanakları. Kuru. Tarım Bölgelerinde Nadas Alanlarından Yararlanma Simpozyumu.

  15. Homology Modeling and Functional Characterization of PR-1a Protein of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Vulgare

    OpenAIRE

    Aslanzadeh, Vahid; Ghaderian, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein 1a of Hordeum vulgare subsp. Vulgare (HvPR-1a) is induced by various pathogens and stress related factors. It plays important roles in plant defense system. Since the discovery of HvPR-1a a great deal of research has been focused on its isolation and characterization. However, three dimensional structure of HvPR-1a is still unknown. 3D structure can be used for determining protein function, and identifying novel protein folds and potential targets for regulation. ...

  16. WHIRLY1 Functions in the Control of Responses to Nitrogen Deficiency But Not Aphid Infestation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Kaprinska, Barbara; García, Belén Márquez; Morris, Jennifer; Verrall, Susan R; Bayer, Micha; Hedley, Peter E; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-07-01

    WHIRLY1 is largely targeted to plastids, where it is a major constituent of the nucleoids. To explore WHIRLY1 functions in barley (Hordeum vulgare), RNA interference-knockdown lines (W1-1, W1-7, and W1-9) that have very low levels of HvWHIRLY1 transcripts were characterized in plants grown under optimal and stress conditions. The WHIRLY1-1 (W1-1), W1-7, and W1-9 plants were phenotypically similar to the wild type but produced fewer tillers and seeds. Photosynthesis rates were similar in all lines, but W1-1, W1-7, and W1-9 leaves had significantly more chlorophyll and less sucrose than the wild type. Transcripts encoding specific subsets of chloroplast-localized proteins, such as ribosomal proteins, subunits of the RNA polymerase, and thylakoid nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) and cytochrome b6/f complexes, were much more abundant in the W1-7 leaves than the wild type. Although susceptibility of aphid (Myzus persicae) infestation was similar in all lines, the WHIRLY1-deficient plants showed altered responses to nitrogen deficiency, maintaining higher photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rates than the wild type under limiting nitrogen. Although all lines showed globally similar low nitrogen-dependent changes in transcripts and metabolites, the increased abundance of FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1-like transcripts in nitrogen-deficient W1-7 leaves infers that WHIRLY1 has a role in communication between plastid and nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins during abiotic stress. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  18. Variability of barley aleurone layer induced by X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of Hordeum vulgare cultivars was irradiated by X-rays to induce mutations in endosperm. Many structural defects of endosperm were revealed in plants irradiated 8 DAF. Change of a cell cycle was especially frequent and this was visible in the form of clones of small or large cells in the aleurone layer. X-irradiation appeared as a successful tool in the study of development.

  19. Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    .) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown in a pot experiment as sole crops and intercrops with or without the addition of S in the form of gypsum. At three consecutive harvests total aboveground biomass and corresponding soil samples were taken for analysis. Harvested biomass was analysed for total S and N...... gave barley a growth and nutrient use advantage compared to pea (REIc values ... the pea component came to dominate the intercrop both with respect to yield and nutrient accumulation, accounting for 77% of total dry matter production, 90% of N uptake and 85% of S uptake, averaged across S treatments. LER values calculated on the basis of total aboveground dry matter, and N and S...

  20. From Accumulation to Degradation: Reprogramming Polyamine Metabolism Facilitates Dark-Induced Senescence in Barley Leaf Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Ewa; Kubala, Szymon; Zmienko, Agnieszka; Małecka, Arleta; Legocka, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether polyamine (PA) metabolism is involved in dark-induced Hordeum vulgare L. 'Nagrad' leaf senescence. In the cell, the titer of PAs is relatively constant and is carefully controlled. Senescence-dependent increases in the titer of the free PAs putrescine, spermidine, and spermine occurred when the process was induced, accompanied by the formation of putrescine conjugates. The addition of the anti-senescing agent cytokinin, which delays senescence, to dark-incubated leaves slowed the senescence-dependent PA accumulation. A feature of the senescence process was initial accumulation of PAs at the beginning of the process and their subsequent decrease during the later stages. Indeed, the process was accompanied by both enhanced expression of PA biosynthesis and catabolism genes and an increase in the activity of enzymes involved in the two metabolic pathways. To confirm whether the capacity of the plant to control senescence might be linked to PA, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and leaf nitrogen status in senescing barley leaves were measured after PA catabolism inhibition and exogenously applied γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The results obtained by blocking putrescine oxidation showed that the senescence process was accelerated. However, when the inhibitor was applied together with GABA, senescence continued without disruption. On the other hand, inhibition of spermidine and spermine oxidation delayed the process. It could be concluded that in dark-induced leaf senescence, the initial accumulation of PAs leads to facilitating their catabolism. Putrescine supports senescence through GABA production and spermidine/spermine supports senescence-dependent degradation processes, is verified by H2O2 generation.

  1. Isolation of tissues and preservation of RNA from intact, germinated barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Natalie S; Berkowitz, Oliver; Liu, Ruijie; Collins, Helen M; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Dockter, Christoph; Burton, Rachel A; Whelan, James; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2017-08-01

    Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues. Here we have developed methods for isolating fragments of aleurone, starchy endosperm, embryo, scutellum, pericarp-testa, husk and crushed cell layers from germinated grain. An important step in the procedure involves the rapid fixation of the intact grain to freeze the transcriptional activity of individual tissues while dissection is effected for subsequent transcriptomic analyses. The developmental profiles of 19 611 gene transcripts were precisely defined in the purified tissues and in whole grain during the first 24 h of germination by RNA sequencing. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription were validated against well-defined data on enzyme activities in both whole grain and isolated tissues. Transcript profiles of genes involved in mitochondrial assembly and function were used to validate the very early stages of germination, while the profiles of genes involved in starch and cell wall mobilisation matched existing data on activities of corresponding enzymes. The data will be broadly applicable for the interrogation of co-expression and differential expression patterns and for the identification of transcription factors that are important in the early stages of grain and seed germination. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly

    2008-01-01

    Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received waste...

  3. Experimental studies on the resorption and translocation of 14C-aldimorph in selected plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobe, H.; Sieber, K.; Neumann, S.; Jacob, F.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed with 14 C-labelled 4-n-dodecyl-trans-2,6-dimethyl morpholine and both isolated plant segments and intact seedlings of Hordeum distichon L. and Sinapis alba L. to elucidate resorption and transportation of the fungicidal substance aldimorph. The compound is quickly resorbed by isolated roots and leaves during the initial phase, and accumulated in plant tissue. In the steady state of influx/efflux equilibrium, the root concentration factor amounts to 10 with barley roots and the tissue concentration factor is 3 with mustard cotyledons. The relationship between the resorption of active substance and the concentration of ambient solution was found to be linear, thus corroborating a postulated resorption by diffusion. The morpholine derivative also penetrates into the leaf tissue of intact barley seedlings within few hours and at rather high rates. Nevertheless, according to translocation studies aldimorph has to be considered only moderately mobile. However, metabolites originated in the plant, especially during longer trial periods, show markedly improved translocation properties compared with the mother compound. (author)

  4. A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley (Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    weed control and interference conditions on their qualitative and quantitative traits, this experiment was conducted with 5 ... Complete Blocked Design (RCBD) in 3 replications in the College of Agriculture, Lorestan University, from 2006 - 2007. .... 2006 at the research farm of College of Agriculture, University of. Lorestan ...

  5. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced [it

  6. Cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality results from the different steps of the malting process. Malting uses internal changes of the seed occurring during germination, such as enzymes synthesis, to obtain a good hydrolysis process and the components required. Among the three main hydrolytic events observed, that are namely starch degradation, cell wall breakdown and protein hydrolysis, an efficient cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is an essential condition for a final product of quality. Indeed, because of the physical barrier of the cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is one of the first steps expected from the process to gain access to the cell components. Moreover, viscosity problem and haze formation in malting industry are related to their presence during the process when inefficient degradation occurs, leading to increased production time and cost. Understanding the key elements in cell wall degradation is important for a better control. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans and arabinoxylans are the main constituents of cell wall. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans are unbranched chains of β-D-glucopyranose residues with β-(1,3 linkages and β-(1,4 linkages. Arabinoxylan consists in a backbone of D-xylanopyranosyl units linked by β-(1-4 bonds connected to single L-arabinofuranose by α-(1→2 or α-(1→3-linkages. Degradation of (1-3,1-4-β-glucans is processed by the (1-3,1-4-β-glucanases, the β-glucosidases and the β-glucane exohydrolases. It seems that the (1-3-β-glucanases are also involved. Arabinoxylans are mainly decomposed by (1-4-β-xylan endohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

  7. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  8. Effect of herbicide clomazone on photosynthetic processes in primary barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, R.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.; Lazár, D.; Klem, K.; Tomek, P.; Nauš, J.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 161-170 ISSN 0048-3575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/00/1274; GA ČR GP522/01/P098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clomazone * herbicide * photosynthesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2004

  9. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles.

  10. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  11. Metro Maps of Plant Disease Dynamics—Automated Mining of Differences Using Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response dynamics of plants to biotic stress is essential to improve management practices and breeding strategies of crops and thus to proceed towards a more sustainable agriculture in the coming decades. In this context, hyperspectral imaging offers a particularly promising approach since it provides non-destructive measurements of plants correlated with internal structure and biochemical compounds. In this paper, we present a cascade of data mining techniques for fast and reliable data-driven sketching of complex hyperspectral dynamics in plant science and plant phenotyping. To achieve this, we build on top of a recent linear time matrix factorization technique, called Simplex Volume Maximization, in order to automatically discover archetypal hyperspectral signatures that are characteristic for particular diseases. The methods were applied on a data set of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare) diseased with foliar plant pathogens Pyrenophora teres, Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis hordei. Towards more intuitive visualizations of plant disease dynamics, we use the archetypal signatures to create structured summaries that are inspired by metro maps, i.e. schematic diagrams of public transport networks. Metro maps of plant disease dynamics produced on several real-world data sets conform to plant physiological knowledge and explicitly illustrate the interaction between diseases and plants. Most importantly, they provide an abstract and interpretable view on plant disease progression. PMID:25621489

  12. Metro maps of plant disease dynamics--automated mining of differences using hyperspectral images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirwaes Wahabzada

    Full Text Available Understanding the response dynamics of plants to biotic stress is essential to improve management practices and breeding strategies of crops and thus to proceed towards a more sustainable agriculture in the coming decades. In this context, hyperspectral imaging offers a particularly promising approach since it provides non-destructive measurements of plants correlated with internal structure and biochemical compounds. In this paper, we present a cascade of data mining techniques for fast and reliable data-driven sketching of complex hyperspectral dynamics in plant science and plant phenotyping. To achieve this, we build on top of a recent linear time matrix factorization technique, called Simplex Volume Maximization, in order to automatically discover archetypal hyperspectral signatures that are characteristic for particular diseases. The methods were applied on a data set of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare diseased with foliar plant pathogens Pyrenophora teres, Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis hordei. Towards more intuitive visualizations of plant disease dynamics, we use the archetypal signatures to create structured summaries that are inspired by metro maps, i.e. schematic diagrams of public transport networks. Metro maps of plant disease dynamics produced on several real-world data sets conform to plant physiological knowledge and explicitly illustrate the interaction between diseases and plants. Most importantly, they provide an abstract and interpretable view on plant disease progression.

  13. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis and susceptibil......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis...... and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum...... efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin...

  14. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  15. Enhancement of methane production from barley waste

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)/ kgVSinitial), and low reductions in total solids (31%) and in volatile solids (40%). Wh...

  16. Barley: From Brittle to Stable Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2015-07-30

    Selection and domestication of plants with genes that prevent grains from shattering in cereals was essential for human civilization's transition to agriculture-based societies. In this issue, Pourkheirandish et al. show that domestication of barley required evolution of a molecular system distinct from other grains, such as rice and maize, and reveal that present-day cultivars derive from two ancient domestication centers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Primer Dependent and Independent Forms of Soluble Starch Synthetase from Developing Barley Endosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.

    1980-01-01

    The activity of soluble starch synthetase (ADP-glucose: agr-1,4-glucan agr-4-glucosyltransferase) in the non-purified extract from 16 day-old Bomi barley endosperms (Hordeum vulgare L.) was low and the reaction was non-linear when plotted against protein concentration. Starch synthetase was purif......The activity of soluble starch synthetase (ADP-glucose: agr-1,4-glucan agr-4-glucosyltransferase) in the non-purified extract from 16 day-old Bomi barley endosperms (Hordeum vulgare L.) was low and the reaction was non-linear when plotted against protein concentration. Starch synthetase...... was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography and separated into four fractions. In the absence of an added carbohydrate primer two of the four fractions catalized the synthesis of a methanol-precipitable agr-glucan when high concentrations of sodium citrate and bovine serum...... albumim were added. The rate of agr-glucan synthesis by the unprimed reaction was higher than for the primed reaction. The four enzyme fractions were active with ADP-Glc, but not with UDP-Glc, both in the primed and in the unprimed reaction....

  18. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  19. Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar; Chen, Guoxiong

    2010-04-01

    Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the food supply in the world. Tribe Triticeae, including wheat and barley, possesses tremendous potential for drought and salt tolerance that has been extensively and practically identified, tested, and transferred to wheat cultivars with proven expression of tolerance in experimental trials. Triticum dicoccoides and Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitors of cultivated wheat and barley, have adapted to a broad range of environments and developed rich genetic diversities for drought and salt tolerances. Drought- and salt-tolerant genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in T. dicoccoides and H. spontaneum and have great potential in wheat and barley improvement. Advanced backcross QTL analysis, the introgression libraries based on wild wheat and wild barley as donors, and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles in elucidating the molecular control of drought and salt tolerance. Combining tolerant genes and QTLs in crop breeding programs aimed at improving tolerance to drought and salinity will be achieved within a multidisciplinary context. Wild genetic resistances to drought and salinity will be shifted in the future from field experiments to the farmer.

  20. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06 and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17. Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06 and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17. Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group.